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  • 51. Kulawik, Teresa
    Gender, Institutions, and Solidarity: The Struggle for a Motherhood Insurance in Sweden and Germany2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the paradoxes of maternalist politics in Sweden and Germany at the turn of the century. Feminist scholarship on maternalism has convincingly demonstrated the importance of policy measures directed to women and children as well as women’s political agency for the early welfarestate formation. It has also provided us with insights into the limitations and failures of maternalist strategies due to different political opportunity structures as well as conflicting concepts of maternalism within women’s movments itself.

    In comparative historical perspective Sweden and Germany are usually portrayed as similair cases of well developed welfare states, with weak women’s movements however, and therefore strong paternalist policies, directed to women as dependents rather than in their own right as women and mothers. The difference between the two countries with regard to gender policies is considered to be a later phenomenon, due to the divergent paths of conservative and socialdemocratic welfarestate formation. This paper challanges such a view in several respects. The similairity of both countries refers to similair – as compared to the United States and Great Britain - trajectories of social development: the tradition of a strong bureaucratic state, a weak liberal bourgeoisie, and an early political mobilization of the labour movement. With regard to the early welfare state Sweden and Germany have produced quite divergend institutional solutions, which cannot be conflated into „paternalism“. From the outset both countries differed considerably, as will be argued in the paper, when it comes to gender. Inquiring maternalist policies and politics, no easy equatations – such as between „good“ policies and „strong“ women’s movments - can be made. The analysis of the struggle for a motherhood insurance in Sweden and Germany reveals a rather contradictory and paradox picture.

    Germany was the first country to invent a paid maternity leave. The sickness insurance law of 1883 - introducing a mandatory insurance for factory workers – included a payment for the period of three weaks after delivery. This maternity benefit was extended in the following years in correspondance with the protective labor legislation, which regulated the maternity leave for female factory workers. The campaign for a motherhood insurance, which started after the turn of the century, was carried by a variety of political forces with quite different motives. In its most radical version the concept aimed at an comprehensive insurance plan, which would give benefits to all mothers, not only to factory workers and not just for a couple of weeks after delivery but for a much longer - up to one or three years –period of time. Such an insurance was not only considered fiscally utopian. The more moderate bourgeois women’s movment opposed such a motherhood endowment on more fundamental grounds. Enableing women to become mothers without depending on men, such an institution would lead to a dissolution of the family, or even, as Alice Salomon feared, to the distruction of loving relations between men and women. She favored therefore a more „practical“ solution, e.g. the extension of the benefits to other professional groups. The principle, that the benefit should be a replacement for the loss of wages and not a payment for motherhood was central to this concept. With the reformact of 1911 (Reichsversicherungsordnung) major improvments of the paid maternity leaves within the sickness insurance were enacted. At that time the German welfare state included the best maternity benefits - when measured as coveragae rate of the female population and the duration of payments – in the industrilized world. In the long run however benefits for mothers were locked in an institutional logic based on principles of solidarity, which were rather hostile to the rights of women as mothers. Not only was motherhood treated as a sickness, the benefits were constructed according to criteria – professional status groups, replacment of the loss of wages – which were external to the social conditions of motherhood, creating different categories of mothers.

    The Swedish development took quite a different course. Compared to Germany, Sweden was a late comer with regard to regulations for mothers. A maternal leave was enacted in 1900. Because Sweden had no compulsory sickness insurance at that time, a law proposal for the introduction of an own motherhood insurance for female factory workers was elaborated in order to compensate for the loss of wages. In case the law would have been enacted in 1912, the motherhood insurance would have become the first branch of mandatory social insurance introduced in Sweden. However, the government never presented the law to the parliament. This was also due to an outspoken opposition of the different strands of the women’s movment. They rejected the plan because of its mode of finance. According to the proposal the insurance should be financed mainly with contributions from the employees and female factory workers in the age of 15 to 50. The women criticized the plan also because the benefits were restricted to women factory workers. They demanded payments for all mothers, but at least for all working women. The sharpest protests however were directed against the financing principles in which the fathers were left aside and women treated as en enforced community of solidarity. The Swedish debate on the motherhood insurance demonstrates the limitations of maternalism as a political strategy. Swedish women explicitly rejected the notion there can be solidarity among women based on the experience of maternity, which could give rise to redistributional policies. The failure of the motherhood insurance project finaly refers to structural limitations of justice within market society and social insurance institutions forged on this principles: Motherhood is simply not an insurable risk as sickness, accident or olde age. It has no „value“ and it is not a „damage“ to compensate for. The Swedish women were strong enough to prevent the institutionalization of a program which, as they percieved, was based on false solidarities. They had to wait for more than twenty years, until in 1931 a tax financed program was implemented, which - far from solving all problems of justice for mothers – laid the ground for much more mother friendlier policies, than in Germany

  • 52.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, Gender studies.
    Geschlecht und Sozialstaatsgründung in Schweden und Deutschland2000In: Leviathan - Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaft, ISSN 0340-0425, E-ISSN 1861-8588, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 513-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the relevance of gender in accounting for the formation of different welfare state regimes in Sweden and Germany. The comparative case study is focussing on the emergence of protective labour legislation. Both countries differ considerably with regard to the subject of inquiry. Germany passed numerous gendered regulations before the Great War, the Swedish development was in contrast rather modest. These differences are not just important because of the unequal treatment of men and women within social policies. Gendering processes play an important role in the very interpretation of industrial social risks and thus in the emergence of different policy patterns: Priority of individual-oriented damage limitation in Germany and preventive safety protection in Sweden

  • 53. Kulawik, Teresa
    Moderskapets politik: Mellan utestängning och inlemmande2000In: Häften för Kritiska Studier, ISSN 0345-4789, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 70-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gender, Discourses, and Institutions: The Formation of the Welfare State in Sweden and Germany1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relevance of gender in accounting for the formation of different welfare state regimes in Sweden and Germany. Recent feminist scholarship has provided us with an array of approaches to the comparative analysis of social policies. However, it has not fully succeeded in conceptualizing gender as an analytic category. Concerning the welfare state, Joan W. Scott's a critique of feminist theorizing is substantially correct today. Gender is still often used as a substitute for »woman,« as for example in Skocpols work. Gender relations - here meaning gendered welfare state institutions - are  usually explained in terms of »non-gendered« causal relations. Thus Jane Lewis claims, referring among other countries to Sweden among other countries that gender was irrelevant to the formation of different welfare regimes.

          My hypothesis, by constrast is, that gender plays a constitutive role in the creation of the early welfare state in Sweden and Germany. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: first to develop a theoretical framework which moves beyond the conceptual limitations of feminist inquiry mentioned above; and second to demonstrate its empirical usefulness in a comparative case study focusing on the emergence of protective labour legislation in both countries.

          The research strategy I pursue includes three levels of analysis: 1) processes of social and economic change; 2) political forces and institutions; 3) discourses and interpretative frameworks. My aim is to explore the mutual and complex relations among these different levels, in order to avoid a slippage into a determinist epistemology, whether conceptualized in terms of discourses, institutions or social/economic structures.

          Sweden and Germany are extremely well suited to this comparison. From the perspective of social history, they share several similarities: the tradition of a strong bureaucratic state, a weak liberal bourgeoisie, and an early political mobilization of the labour movement. With regard to the subject of inquiry, they differ considerably. Germany passed numerous gendered regulations in the field of protective legislation before 1914-- such as maternal leave in 1878 (repeatedly extended), prohibition of night work, and limitation of daily working hours for women in 1891. The Swedish development was in contrast rather modest: the first protective law in 1889 did not include any gender distinctions, a maternal leave was enacted in 1900 and women's night work was prohibited in 1909. 

          This analysis shows that the policy differences between the two countries can not be adequately explained in terms of socioeconomic structures indicated, by e.g. women's employment rates. The legal differences correspond to variations in formations of national discourses. Demands for protective legislation in Germany were formulated in a gender specific way from the outsest. This was not the case in Sweden. Characteristic of the German debate was an early enmeshment of moral with scientific discourses defining women's factory work as undesirable and harmful for the female and social body, as well as an explicitly articulated masculine political interest. The interpretative  frameworks of the Swedish dabate were quite different. This is well illustrated by the strategies of the early labour movements in both countries. The close relations between the Swedish and German labour movements led Swedish social democracy to take over the Gotha programme though with one notable exeption however: the paragraph demanding special protective legislation for women was excluded.

         

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 55.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Freien Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Maskulinism och välfärdsstatens framväxt i Sverige och Tyskland1999In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56. Kulawik, Teresa
    Wohlfahrtsstaat und Mutterschaft: Schweden und Deutschland 1870-19121999Book (Refereed)
  • 57. Kulawik, Teresa
    Arbeiterinnenschutz und soziale Staatsbürgerschaft in Schweden und Deutschland 1870 – 19121998In: Zeitschrift für Frauenforschung und Geschlechterstudien, ISSN 0946-5596, Vol. 16, no Sonderheft 1, p. 115-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58. Kulawik, Teresa
    Jenseits des - androzentrischen - Wohlfahrtsstaates ? Theorien und Entwicklungen im internationalen Vergleich1997In: Geschlechterverhältnisse im Kontext politischer Transformation / [ed] Eva Kreisky & Birgit Sauer, Opladen: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften , 1997, Vol. 28, p. 293-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Wohlfahrtsstaat erlebt zur Zeit eine unerwartete Konjunktur.1 Nachdem er in den achtziger Jahren — krisengeschüttelt, „bürokratisiert” und „verrechtlicht” — seine realpolitische und akademische Attraktivität einbüßte und höchstens noch als Angelegenheit „Marginalisierter”, d.h. Armer und Frauen, verhandelt wurde, rückt er nun wieder im auslaufenden zwanzigsten Jahrhundert ins Zentrum des akademischen Interesses. Dabei stehen nicht mehr Wachstum, Grenzen oder Krisen zur Debatte. Wissenschaftlich wird gerade das finale Stadium des Wohlfahrtsstaates eingeläutet. Neue Wortschöpfungen künden vom „Danach”, in denen entweder die „Wohlfahrt” eliminiert, so in den pessimistischen Szenarien eines künftigen Konkurrenz-, Arbeits- und Wettbewerbsstaates, oder der „Staat” ausgemustert wurde, wie in den optimistischeren Optionen hin zur Wohlfahrtsgesellschaft und zum Wohlfahrtspluralismus (vgl. Jessop 1992: 716ff.; Hirsch 1995; Schmitthenner 1995: 5; Evers/Olk 1996).

  • 59. Kulawik, Teresa
    et al.
    Sauer, Birgit
    Der halbierte Staat: Grundlagen feministischer Politikwissenschaft1996Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 60. Kulawik, Teresa
    Modern bis maternalistisch: Theorien des Wohlfahrtsstaates1996In: Der halbierte Staat: Grundlagen feministischer Politikwissenschaft / [ed] Teresa Kulawik, Birgit Sauer, Frankfurt/Main: Campus Verlag, 1996, p. 47-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 61. Kulawik, Teresa
    et al.
    Sauer, Birgit
    Staatstätigkeit und Geschlechterverhältnisse: Eine Einführung1996In: Der halbierte Staat: Grundlagen feministischer Politikwissenschaft / [ed] Teresa Kulawik, Birgit Sauer, Frankfurt/Main: Campus Verlag, 1996, p. 9-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62. Kulawik, Teresa
    Wie solidarisch ist der sozialdemokratische Universalismus?: Wohlfahrtsstaatstheorie und soziale Staatsbürgerschaft in Schweden1994In: Das Geschlecht der Europa: der europäische Einigungsprozeß aus feministischer Sicht / [ed] Biester, Elke, Frankfurt/Main: Campus Verlag, 1994, p. 62-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Berlin, Germany.
    Die Krise des produktivistischen Universalismus: Zur Zukunft wohlfahrtsstaatlicher Politik in Schweden1992In: Zeitschrift für Sozialreform, ISSN 0514-2776, Vol. 38, no 11/12, p. 746-786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64. Kulawik, Teresa
    et al.
    Riedmüller, Barbara
    Europäische Perspektiven des Sozialstaates1992Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 65. Kulawik, Teresa
    Gleichstellungspolitik in Schweden - Kritische Betrachtung eines Modells1992In: WSI-Mitteilungen, ISSN 0342-300X, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 226-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66. Kulawik, Teresa
    Välfärdsstaten: reflexioner kring en feministisk forskningsstrategi1992In: Är Habermas intressant för forskning om kvinnor och den offentliga sektorn?: rapport från seminarium /arrangerat av NORDPLAN och Centrum för kvinnoforskning vid Stockholms universitet i april 1991, Stockholm: Centrum för kvinnoforskning vid Stockholms univ. , 1992Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67. Kulawik, Teresa
    Autonomous Mothers? West German Feminism Reconsidered1991In: German Politics and Society, ISSN 1045-0300, E-ISSN 1558-5441, no 24/25, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68. Kulawik, Teresa
    Das beste Sozialsystem der Welt?: Sozialpolitik als Geschlechterpolitik in (West)Deutschland1991In: So nah beieinander und doch so fern: Frauenleben in Ost und West / [ed] Joester, Agnes ; Schöningh, Insa, Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus Verlag , 1991, p. 105-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69. Kulawik, Teresa
    Institutionelle Arrangements und die Lebenssituation der alleinstehenden Frauen1991In: Die Lebenssituation alleinstehender Frauen / [ed] Riedmüller, Barbara ; Glatzer, Wolfgang ; Infratest, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer GmbH, 1991, p. 195-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70. Kulawik, Teresa
    Unbeschreiblich weiblich? Die Unsichtbarkeit der Armut von Frauen1990In: Neue Praxis : Zeitschrift für Sozialarbeit, Sozialpädagogik und Sozialpolitik, ISSN 0342-9857, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71. Kulawik, Teresa
    Auf unsicheren Wegen. Perspektiven der sozialen Sicherung der Frau1989In: Wie sicher ist die soziale Sicherung ? / [ed] Riedmüller, Barbara ; Rodenstein, Marianne, Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1989, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 72. Kulawik, Teresa
    Familien in Armut. Zur Kontinuität gesellschaftlicher Ausgrenzung von Frauen und Kindern1988In: Wie geht ́s der Familie?: Ein Handbuch zur Situation der Familien heute / [ed] Leube, Konrad, München: Kösel , 1988, p. 251-258Chapter in book (Refereed)
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