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  • 1.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Department of Political Science Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mancheva, Irina
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Collaboration as a policy instrument in public administration: Evidence from forest policy and governance2024Inngår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, collaboration has become a common policy instrument in public administration, both internationally and in Sweden. Inspired by scholarly literature on collaborative governance, the aim of this study is to analyze the crucial role of public administration in the design and implementation of collaborative governance. Drawing on several years of research on Swedish forest policy and governance, our work is based on extensive empirical material, including 88 semi-structured interviews, observations, written comments from open public consultations and actors, enacted policy documents, open public hearings and a survey. Our results confirm that factors related to process design strongly affect the outputs and outcomes of collaboration in public administration. We assert that public officials should meticulously design and adapt the collaborative process during its initiation and progress, according to the policy problem and actors' incentives and motivations to participate. However, despite good intentions by public officials, the overarching priorities and contextual factors governing the policy area must be set by elected decision makers at an early stage to establish democratic accountability and high levels of policy legitimacy and acceptance. A major implication for public administration is that the increasing use of collaborative governance may be highly inefficient if it is difficult for participants to draft shared objectives and provide intended outputs because of low levels of trust, and different interpretations of knowledge and norms. Finally, in contentious policy areas, such as forest policy, political priorities must sometimes be set by elected decision makers rather than through collaborative processes.

  • 2.
    Löfroth, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Merinero, Sonia
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sahlström, Emma
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Land-sparing benefits biodiversity while land-sharing benefits ecosystem services: Stakeholders’ perspectives on biodiversity conservation strategies in boreal forests2024Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 20-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity conservation and economic profit from forests can be combined by various land-sparing and land-sharing approaches. Using a semi-structured survey, we evaluated support for scenarios representing contrasting conservation strategies in a managed boreal forest landscape. Land-sparing approaches were supported by the conservation organisation, regional administrations and the forest company, mainly motivated by the benefit for biodiversity based on ecological theory. Land-sharing approaches were supported by one recreational organisation, some municipalities and the forest owners’ association, mainly motivated by the delivery of ecosystem services. Stakeholder groups using certain ecosystem services had motivations that we related to an anthropocentric mindset, while others focused more on species conservation, which can be related both to an anthropocentric or an ecocentric mindsets. Forest conservation planning should consider stakeholders’ preferences to handle land-use conflicts. Since reaching consensus among multiple stakeholders seems unfeasible, a combination of land-sparing and land-sharing approaches is probably the best compromise.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    The stick, the carrot or the sermon: on the conditions to steer for change2024Inngår i: Route to Paris: Unlocking climate change mitigation potential of Swedish forests / [ed] Malin von Essen; Lotta Möller, 2024, s. 15-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The forest is attributed a key role in a green societal transition. Even though the climate benefits of the forest are already significant, the forest's contribution must further increase according to the Paris Agreement. In the interdisciplinary project Route to Paris, we investigate the potential of Swedish forests to contribute to a climate-neutral society. The research program is based on close collaboration with stakeholders who want to participate in developing innovative concepts that can stimulate climate-smart forestry. This work is intended to provide an initial overview of the research that the project will encompass and lay the groundwork for dialogue among stakeholders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    What is at stake and what does it take? Collaborative governance and policy (in)action in the adoption of a National Forest Programme2024Inngår i: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by collaborative governance theory, this study analyzes the process dynamics, outputs, and perceived impacts of a collaborative initiative launched by the Swedish government in 2014. It draws on extensive empirical sources related to the Swedish government's efforts to develop and implement a National Forest Programme (NFP) from 2014 to 2021. These sources include semistructured interviews, observations, public consultation comments, records of meetings and public hearings, reports from dialogues, and enacted policy documents. The results show that the collaboration initially provided a space for joint deliberation and capacity building on complex and contentious issues related to current land use. However, the final programme endorsed by the government in 2018 failed to initiate ambitious proposals on several key issues raised by participating actors, offering little indication of priorities and policy instruments to address fundamental gaps in current policy goals and their implementation. Consequently, the case reveals that it was not sufficient, and perhaps not even desirable, to address existing conflicts and policy problems in a comprehensive collaborative setting run by the Government Offices. The paper concludes with key insights for research on collaboration and suggests ways to move forward with policy designs that integrate multiple and competing policy goals in contested areas.

  • 5.
    Gerhardt, Karin
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Sverige.
    Wolrath Söderberg, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Retorik.
    Lindblad, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Diderichsen, Öjvind
    Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen, Lärarutbildning och Estetiska lärprocesser.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dahlin, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Retorik.
    Köping Olsson, Ann-Sofie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Rasoal, Chato
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för polisiärt arbete.
    Dobers, Peter
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen, Matematikämnets didaktik.
    Karlholm, Dan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Konstvetenskap.
    Kjellqvist, Tomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vallström, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi.
    Alvarsson-Hjort, Jesper
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Psykologi.
    Sjöholm, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Estetik.
    Lönngren, Ann-Sofie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Litteraturvetenskap.
    Bydler, Charlotte
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Konstvetenskap.
    Färjsjö, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen, Matematikämnets didaktik.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sio, Miriam
    Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen, Lärarutbildning och Estetiska lärprocesser.
    Yazdanpanah, Soheyla
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Genusvetenskap.
    Pihl Skoog, Emma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Arkivvetenskap.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Wadstein MacLeod, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Konstvetenskap.
    Garrison, Julie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Hajighasemi, Ali
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Spånberger Weitz, Ylva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Persson, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Borevi, Karin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Nina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Löfgren, Isabel
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ghose, Sheila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Engelska.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bornemark, Jonna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Centrum för praktisk kunskap.
    Podolian, Olena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Faber, Hugo
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Cederberg, Carl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Centrum för praktisk kunskap.
    Gradén, Mattias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Nog nu, politiker – ta klimatkrisen på allvar2022Inngår i: Aftonbladet, nr 2022-08-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Piskan, moroten eller predikaren: Om förutsättningar att styra för omställning2022Inngår i: Route to Paris: Forskning om skogens klimatnytta / [ed] Malin von Essen; Lotta Möller, 2022, s. 15-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Samverkan om skogen förutsätter ledarskap för långsiktig hållbarhetsomställning2022Inngår i: Skogens värden: forskares reflektioner / [ed] Catrin Johansson; Hans-Erik Nilsson; Peter Öhman; Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson; Birgitta A. Engberg; Oskar Englund; Per Simonsson; Inger Axbrink, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2022, s. 106-107Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikter, meningsskiljaktigheter och motstånd. Ofta framträder debatten om skogen som en svårlöst kamp med skilda värderingar om vad som är ett långsiktigt hållbart skogsbruk, vem som har tolkningsföreträde över nyttjandet, samt vilken kunskapssyn som ligger till grund för skogspolitiska beslut och praxis. Ibland är debatten även ett uttryck för skilda erfarenheter av att leva och bo på landsbygden respektive i urbana stadsmiljöer. De senaste åren har förhandlingar om nya strategier och lagförslag om skogen arbetats fram, inte bara i Sverige utan även i Europeiska unionen inom ramen för klimat- och miljöpolitiken. Förväntningarna på hur skogen bör brukas och vad den ska leverera till samhället, vilken roll skogen har i klimatomställningen och vem som ska bestämma vilken skog som är mest skyddsvärd, är frågor som i allt större utsträckning tycks avgöras utanför Sveriges gränser. Samtidigt fortsätter den skogspolitiska debatten i Sverige. Allt oftare hörs röster som kräver att politiken ska dra en tydlig gräns för när skogen är en privat eller en gemensam resurs; Stärk äganderätten! eller Låt skogen stå! Det pågår en intensiv diskussion gällande skogspolitikens jämställda mål om produktion och miljö, inte minst om målen uppnås främst genom frivillighet eller lagstiftning, eller om målen ens är möjliga att uppnå på samma mark. Vem eller vilka bestämmer egentligen om och hur skogen ska brukas och bevaras? Hur går det till när olika aktörer samverkar om mål, medel och framtiden för skogens nyttjande? Och varför är det så svårt att komma överens, ibland till och med om vad som är en skog?

  • 8.
    Holmgren, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Giurca, Alexandru
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Söderlund Kanarp, Christoffer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenius, Tove
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fischer, Klara
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Whose transformation is this? Unpacking the ‘apparatus of capture’ in Sweden's bioeconomy2022Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 42, s. 44-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how and by whom the Swedish (forest) bioeconomy has been shaped so far. We unpack emerging bioeconomies as discursive constructs and use the ‘apparatus of capture’ as a conceptual framework to understand and rethink the Swedish bioeconomy. Based on analysis of empirical data from multiple sources (e.g., online surveys, in-depth interviews, participatory observations), we identify a closed bioeconomy network structure that includes forest industries, major forest owner associations, regional councils and research institutes/universities. The network (re)produces three key storylines that appeal to the majority of parties in the national parliament, defines the boundaries of relevant expertise, and discredits environmental regulation and expertise. Through these storylines the Swedish bioeconomy is turned into an issue of innovation governance, which blurs the boundaries between public and private interests in forests. To counteract future capture, different types of knowledges and forest perspectives need further exploration in Swedish bioeconomy and forest governance.

  • 9.
    Stalmokaitė, Ignė
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sustainability transformations – research in the Baltic and beyond2021Inngår i: Baltic Rim Economies review, Vol. 5, s. 2s. 20-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and promoting sustainability is one of the key concerns across research, policy-making and everyday lifestyle choices. At the same time, there is growing acknowledgement that responding to sustainability challenges such as biodiversity loss, climate justice and decarbonisation, among others, is rife with differences about what sustainability transformation means and implies across different settings, including the Baltic. The multifaceted character of the sustainability conundrum highlights a range of interrelated questions. For example, what repercussions the promotion of local solutions may have for long-term sustainability paths at national, regional and global levels? How to value ethical, political, social and scientific views on which problems to prioritise and whose knowledge counts? In response, universities are increasingly partnering with stakeholders in solution-oriented sustainability research projects. We understand sustainability transformations as fundamental to how societal, institutional, and technological domains interact towards just, legitimate and enduring arrangements. This perspective provides opportunities to reflect on the complexities of societal change towards sustainability, including who should be involved in partnering for change, what constitutes positive change in particular contexts, how change could come about as well as who benefits and who loses. We relate to these questions with illustrations from research projects undertaken in the Baltic and beyond.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Att samsas om samma skog: effektiva samverkansprocesser2020Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Policy brief: Samverkan kan leda till högre tillit mellan myndigheter och medborgare, ökad legitimitet för politiska beslut samt bättre förutsättningar för att nå gemensamma mål i förvaltningen. Men det finns flera fallgropar som bör undvikas om processerna ska bli effektiva. Det visar en rapport om samverkan utifrån ett skogligt perspektiv.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University.
    Constructing and justifying risk and accountability after extreme events: public administration and stakeholders’ responses to a wildfire disaster2020Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 353-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of extreme weather events, causing severe storms and wildfires, cascade across administrative borders within a country, challenging the steering capacity of governance networks at different political scales. This paper examines how accountability and risk were constructed and negotiated in the aftermath of Sweden’s largest wildfire. It draws on results from an interview study with executives of organizations and landowners involved, and an analysis of government reports about the wildfire’s cause and consequences. Although the fire was human-caused, public administrative bodies paid considerable attention to the local emergency services and their poor handling of the wildfire, caused by lack of knowledge of forest fire behavior. The study confirms many of the challenges associated with governance networks. It finds that issues about who to hold accountable, in what forum and for what issue are not fully addressed, being overwhelmed by demands for better knowledge of forest fire prevention and improved coordination and collaboration. To conclude, the paper calls for a better-informed public administration, forest sector and interrelated networks that take responsibility for their actions or lack thereof.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Vägar till effektiva samverkansprocesser: styrning, deltagande och dialog inom skogspolitikens ramar2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten belyses olika perspektiv på samverkan med utgångspunkt i befintlig kunskap om samverkansprocesser främst utifrån ett skogligt perspektiv. Forskning inom ramen för Future Forests, men även andra forskningsmiljöer, har visat att samverkansprocesser har en rad fördelar men att de också är förknippade med ett antal fallgropar. Rapporten pekar på såväl bakgrunden till varför samverkan blir allt vanligare inom politik och förvaltning, vad som egentligen avses med samverkan samt hur man skapar så goda förutsättningar som möjligt för samverkansprocesser.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Biomass outtake and bioenergy development in Sweden: the role of policy and economic presumptions2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 771-778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we review and analyse the policy design of biomass residue outtake in Sweden, focusing in particular on how public authorities specify and motivate rules and guidelines for the extraction of slash and stumps. The results show that the Swedish regulations are built on a mixed approach, including both voluntary, procedural and substantive requirements. The recommendations emphasize many merits of residue extraction, particularly climate change mitigation, new employment opportunities and reduced dependency on energy supplies from abroad. We identify a strong focus on precaution, evident in the risks for undesirable effects on nutritional balance and heavy metals in the soil, on biological diversity and on water quality in lakes and watercourses. The recommendations have remained relatively stable during the last 10 years, but the harvest of forest biomass for energy has varied. The annual harvest rate was positively related with energy prices. Harvest was much more extensive in the south, which is closer to the market. We conclude that economic presumptions have influenced the extent of slash harvest while environmental concerns seem to have limited the extraction of whole stumps. We expect that current levels of residue outtake can quickly change if the energy prices change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Forest Agency, Umeå; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University.
    Beland-Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Rist, Lucy
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden2019Inngår i: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, nr 13, s. 3547-3574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

  • 15.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 319-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Acar, Sevil
    Adeishvili, Malkhaz
    Albert, Christian
    Allard, Christina
    Anker, Yaakov
    Arlettaz, Raphaël
    Bela, Györgyi
    ten Brink, Ben
    Fischer, Anke
    Fürst, Christine
    Galil, Bella
    Hynes, Stephen
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Marta- Pedroso, Cristina
    Mendes, Ana
    Molau, Ulf
    Olschewski, Roland
    Pergl, Jan
    Simoncin, Riccardo
    Adem, Çiğdem ()
    Blackstock, Kirsty ()
    Hauck, Jennifer ()
    Johansson, Johanna ()
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lasson, Caroline ()
    Minchenko, Natalya ()
    Reimerson, Elsa ()
    Schläpfer, Martin ()
    Simonov, Eugene A. ()
    Snethlage, Mark ()
    Söderasp, Johanna ()
    Chapter 6: Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors2018Inngår i: IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A., Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services , 2018, s. 661-802Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the generic scope of the Regional Assessments of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, the key policy‑relevant questions of the Europe and Central Asia Assessment concern options and opportunities with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services and their role for human well-being. The assessment examines the opportunities for sectoral policies and policy instruments; managing production, consumption and economic development; and ecological infrastructures and ecological technologies. It explores opportunities to promote food security, economic development and equality while avoiding land and aquatic degradation and conserving cultural landscapes.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe2018Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 32, s. 9-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a common theme in social science research, natural resource policies and practical management has been the increasing emphasis on partnerships and other forms of collaborative efforts as effective means to reach tangible and sustainable outcomes. Another significant trend is the increasing focus on the role of the forestry sector in managing the challenges of climate change, and the push towards a bio-based, low-carbon economy is at the epicenter of the public debate in several EU countries. Drawing on research on collaborative processes as well as research on policy design, this paper reviews the current trend to rely increasingly on collaborative efforts to improve sustainability, using forest governance in northern Europe as an illustrative case. It pays particular attention to efforts to balance concerned stakeholders through National Forest Programmes (NFPs), and considers these efforts in an international context. It concludes by elaborating on future research directions and policy recommendations that are critical to achieve intended outcomes in forest governance systems characterized by state-initiated collaborative processes as well as various forms of voluntary initiatives.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018Inngår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 4, artikkel-id 16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values
  • 19.
    Olschewski, Roland
    et al.
    WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Fürst, Christine
    Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg.
    Ring, Irene
    TU Dresden.
    Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2018Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, s. 175-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop new governance systems in environmental policy at the international, national and subnational level face multiple challenges. In the context of these challenges, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established by the United Nations in 2012 to become the leading intergovernmental body for assessing the state of the planet’s biodiversity, its ecosystems, and the essential contributions they provide to society. In this note, we refer to the Regional Assessment for Europe and Central Asia. As co-authors of the report, we present the results of our assessment focusing on the forest sector due to its high potential for conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services. Notwithstanding several knowledge gaps, the IPBES regional assessment provides a valuable basis to make better-informed decisions. It identifies promising governance options by mainstreaming the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the sustained provision of ecosystem services into public and private decision making, emphasising a more pro-active and goal-oriented policy approach. To which degree these options can be realized and which pathways will be taken towards a sustainable transition is a matter of societal choice, including policy, economy and citizens.

  • 20.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 21.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 878-893Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 22.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    The Swedish forestry model: More of everything?2017Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 44-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Swedish forestry model” refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 23.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 87-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, s. 137-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden2014Inngår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 117-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of multi-level governance is well illustrated by forest management in one of Europe’s large forested states, Sweden. Deregulated government policies emphasise “freedom with responsibility,” largely expecting the forest sector to determine ways in which policy goals and legal requirements are reached. In relation to this, Sweden has become one of the countries with the largest share of forests certified by third-party organisations, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), in accordance with specific environmental and social criteria. This multi-level case study draws on official documents and semi-structured interviews to analyse Swedish forest governance; specifically, the impact of multiplicity and complexity of environmental considerations on agreement over goal coordination, implementation, and evaluation for feedback and accountability. This contributes to previous research by analysing interactions between state regulation and certification at multiple levels.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Towards democratic and effective forest governance?: The discursive legitimation of forest certification in northern Sweden2014Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 803-819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, particularly that of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), is frequently claimed to constitute an effective and democratic private governance arrangement for responsible forestry. It has, however, recently been questioned whether this view holds true for the northernmost countries, which have traditionally been presented as successful examples of forest certification. Yet there is little research on the perceived legitimacy of forest certification at the local level, which is where the standard implementation takes place. This paper examines how the perceived legitimacy of forest certification is created as well as challenged at the local level in Sweden, drawing on Steffek's [2009. Discursive legitimation in environmental governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 11, 313–318] conceptualisation of discursive legitimation and Bernstein's [2011. Legitimacy in intergovernmental and non-state global governance. Review of International Political Economy, 18 (1), 17–51] definition of legitimacy as well as semi-structured interviews with forest companies, reindeer husbandry (indigenous Sámi) and environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs). The results reveal that local ENGOs question the FSC's decision-making process and results, while both the ENGOs and reindeer husbandry see few opportunities to influence long-term forest management. These findings highlight the difficulties of managing power asymmetries in certification and the challenges involved when certification standards are translated from policy to practice.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Why do forest companies change their CSR strategies? Responses to market demands and public regulation through dual-certification2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 349-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification represents a comparatively new means of CSR, which is important in the forest industry. Forest companies and industries have previously certified their management and products in accordance with one of the competing systems (FSC: Forest Stewardship Council and PEFC: Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes), but recently, important large-scale companies in several countries have started to certify under both schemes. This study explores the causes and effects of this change in strategies, drawing on semi-structured interviews with Swedish forest companies and industries and European retailers. The results show that public bodies, not the least in the EU, as well as ENGOs, have transformed customer demands, resulting in dual-certification. This change in strategies has the potential to alter corporate environmental practices throughout the supply chains. These results call for further research on the under-studied issue of the interaction between public regulation and private forest governance.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Constructing and contesting the legitimacy of private forest governance: The case of forest certification in Sweden2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, political scientists have devoted substantial attention to the changing role of the state towards more inclusion of non-state actors in policymaking. This deliberative turn, or move towards governance, may signal inability to handle complex problems without cooperation with nonstate actors. On the other hand, governance is frequently credited with generating legitimate decision-making processes and results. In some instances, non-governmental actors have even taken the lead in policymaking. One archetype of such private governance, which has received significant scholarly attention, is forest certification. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is frequently described as the most democratic and therefore legitimate forest certification organization since it grants equal voting rights to three stakeholder groups in the formulation of criteria for responsible forestry: environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), social groups (indigenous peoples and labor organizations) and forest owners. However, in Sweden, a country often described as a role model in forest certification, the FSC has increasingly received critique for failing to generate legitimate processes and results, and recently three of five ENGOs have chosen to exit the FSC organization. Such processes of de-legitimation have received little attention in the forest certification literature.

    This thesis therefore provides a critical assessment of the legitimacy of forest certification in Sweden. Legitimacy is analyzed through concerned stakeholders’ perceptions of both procedural qualities (input legitimacy) and problem-solving capacity (output legitimacy). This study of legitimacy is combined with an assessment of the ability of certification to enhance environmental protection, defined as changes in both forest management practices and biophysical conditions. The thesis focuses not the least on legitimacy on the local level, which is where the actual implementation takes place. Today local studies of the legitimacy of forest certification are rare.

    Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are applied and a number of sources are analyzed: forest monitoring data, survey data, interviews with and documents produced by the participating stakeholders. Papers I and IV analyze the perceived legitimacy of forest certification, while Papers II and III analyze forest certification schemes’ ability to enhance environmental protection.

    The results show that a process of de-legitimation is occurring in Swedish forest certification. In particular, certification has lost legitimacy with ENGOs, which increasingly consider Swedish forest certification to lack both input legitimacy and output legitimacy. Moreover, although the Swedish FSC standard pays attention to reindeer husbandry, the results show that reindeer herders consider themselves to have limited power to influence long-term forest planning and management (low output legitimacy). The forest industry, on the other hand, increasingly grants legitimacy to forest certification due to customer demands, which are created not the least by pressures from international ENGOs and by EU regulation. The results also show that Swedish forest companies have paid more attention to their environmental practices after obtaining certification. However, to what extent these changes result in positive environmental impacts remains uncertain, especially since forests in Sweden grow slowly, which requires analyses over time. There are also measurement problems resulting from the low certification rate among small-scale forest owners and from the fact that certified small-scale owners tend to be more active in their management.

    These findings highlight that research on private forest governance should not neglect the role of the state, neither as a buyer nor as a regulator. These findings also suggest that further research should pay attention to power asymmetries in private governance and develop methods for better understanding and evaluating the certification schemes’ environmental and social impacts.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Challenges to the Legitimacy of Private Forest Governance: the Development of Forest Certification in Sweden2012Inngår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 424-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial scholarly attention has been given to the effectiveness and legitimacy of private forest governance, especially the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Research has suggested that such cooperation between forest corporations and ENGOs may develop shared norms for responsible forestry. At least initially, however, conflicts are likely to occur since these stakeholders are accountable to different constituencies.Yet there are comparatively few studies on how such conflicts have affected the development and legitimacy of forest certification on the national level, which is where conflicts must be managed. This study explores how stakeholders’ search for accountability has influenced the legitimacy of forest certification schemes, drawing on developments in Sweden. The study relies on the theoretical foundations of governance, legitimacy and accountability, and on reports from forest corporations and ENGOs. The results show that these stakeholders have continuously disagreed on the input and output legitimacy of forest certification, though the positions have changed over time, eventually making ENGOs reject forest certification schemes. These repeated conflicts have been fuelled by the stakeholders’ search for public reputational accountability and market accountability. In effect, the very meaning of the FSC label is today being questioned. Thereby forest certification in Sweden has, at least temporarily, left the suggested path to the evolution of shared norms. These results call for related studies on how to manage accountability issues and power relations in forest certification.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 191-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 31.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tysiachniouk, Maria
    Centre for Independent Social Research, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local consequences of applying international norms: differences in the application of forest certification in northern Sweden, northern Finland, and northwest Russia2009Inngår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 1-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, developed in the early 1990s, is a process in which independent assessors grant use of the certification label to producers who meet certain environmental and social criteria set for their forest products. This label was quickly seen to offer a market advantage and to signal corporate social and environmental responsibility. This paper focuses on international norms pertaining to environmental and indigenous rights, as manifested in cases of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)- and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)-compatible certification, and how these norms have been applied domestically and perceived locally in different states. Case studies are drawn from northern Sweden, northern Finland, and three regions in northwest Russia. The studies illustrate that the choice and implementation of certification type depend considerably on national infrastructure and market characteristics and result in substantial differences in the impact that international norms have at the local level.

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