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  • 1.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Av ynnest och nåd: Vasakvinnors brevskrivande under äldre Vasatid2023In: Från Skånske lov till Vasabrev: Stockholmstudier i östnordisk filologi / [ed] Ingela Hedström; Jonatan Pettersson, Selskab for Østnordisk Filologi , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    1500-talet är på många sätt en omvälvande period i Sverige, som kanske bäst karaktäriseras som en tid av brytning. Samtidigt som perioden av eftervärlden har kommit att definieras som en tid av kulturell nedgång och nedläggning av universitet, är det tydligt att vissa miljöer blir allt mer beroende av skrift och skriftkompetens. En sådan miljö är hovet. 

    I föredraget presenterar jag en avslutat postdokstudie i vilken jag undersökt brev skrivna, alt. utfärdade, av Vasakvinnorna. Syftet med studien är att lyfta fram och beskriva dessa aristokratiska kvinnors skrift- och språkbruk under 1500-talet, med fokus på dels funktion: vad skrev de? Till vem? I vilket syfte? Dels skriftförtrogenhet och språklig variation: när skrev de själva och när användes skrivare? Hur ser de språkliga mönstren ut och utvecklar de sig åt något håll under århundradet? 

    Teoretiskt utgår studien från historisk sociolingvistik, med avstamp i den inriktning som har kommit att benämnas ”sprachgeschichte von unten” (Elspass 2005). 

    Litteratur

    Elspaß, Stephan, 2005. Sprachgeschichte von unten. Untersuchungen zum geschriebenen Alltagsdeutsch im 19. Jahrhundert. Tübingen: Niemeyer. (Reihe Germanistische Linguistik, 263).

    Elspass, Stephan, 2012. “The Use of Private Letters and Diaries in Sociolinguistic Investigations”. I:  Hernández-Campoy, J. & Conde-Silvestre, J. C. (red.), The handbook of historical sociolinguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. S. 156–169.

  • 2.
    Impola, Petteri
    et al.
    Jyväskylä universitet, Finland.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Lönnroth, Harry
    Jyväskylä universitet, Finland.
    Karonen, Petri
    Jyväskylä universitet, Finland.
    Med domboken som (språk)historisk källa: En tvärvetenskaplig syntes av domboksforskning i Finland och Sverige, ca 1950–20202023In: Historisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0018-263X, E-ISSN 1504-2944, Vol. 143, no 2, p. 197-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Court records and the history of the early modern period go hand in hand. Court records are crucial for our knowledge of the period and the most important set of data for several fields of scholarship. In this article we study how Scandinavian historians and language historians have used court records in their research. In this multidisciplinary synthesis of such historical and language historical research in court records in Finland and Sweden, the focus is research mainly in Finnish and Swedish but also in English, published between 1950 and 2020, but weighted towards the twent-first century. We show that historians have often been interested in source criticism whereas language historians concentrate on the question of linguistic variation and change. We identify three major themes that are fruitful for multidisciplinary collaboration between historians and linguists who relay on court records as a source: the records (their accuracy and reliability), the discourse levels (the records' textual structures and  patterns), and the scribes (the common denominator). The study emphasises the multidisciplinary dimensions of court record research; the researcher should preferably be alert to the theoretical and analytical discussions in both disciplines and draw on one another's expertise. The article is an outcome of "City scribes in the kingdom of Sweden in the early modern period (1614–1714): Their profession, agency and use of language", a multidisciplinary research project at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, financed by the Kone Foundation for the period 2020–2024. 

  • 3.
    Lönnroth, Harry
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Tänkeboken som texthistoriskt vittne: Skrivarstrategier och textprocesseri 1630-talets Stockholm2023In: Arkiv för nordisk filologi, ISSN 0066-7668, Vol. 138, p. 129-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries, municipal courts experienced a vast increase in the production and use of administrative and juridical records during the Early Modern period.Among other external factors, in Sweden, this intensification can be linked to the steadilyincreasing use since the fourteenth century of the vernacular as the written language inlegal contexts. With the establishment of the Svea Court of Appeal in Stockholm (1614),it was decided that all lower courts would send their records there. In consequence, townscribes, in addition to writing a draft (in Swedish koncept) and a transcript (renskrift), hadto formulate yet another version of the court record for the higher court (renovation).This led to a dynamic writing process: differing versions of the court record were created,each one written at a different time for a somewhat different purpose and with differentrequirements in terms of content and linguistic style, but all of them legally valid. Empirical comparisons show there may be vast differences between the first draft and the editedtranscript, both in style and content, with the second text a modified version, with greateruse of legal linguistic markers. In this article, we discuss the empirical and theoreticalaspects of the textual transmission of court records in Early Modern Sweden. We focuson Stockholm municipal court records 1634 in draft and transcript and analyse the scribalstrategies in the two versions. First, we present a comparative analysis of the versions anddescribe how the draft and transcript were rephrased and stylized. Second, we present amaterial-philological analysis of the manuscripts in order to enhance the discussion ofthe function and use of the versions. The study shows that the town scribe Eggert Matsson Aurelius has made use of the following strategies when transforming the draft into atranscript: copying, rephrasing, expanding, summarising, and omitting.

  • 4.
    Lönnroth, Harry
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    From Spoken Utterance to Written Transcript: The Text Process of Court Records in Early Modern Swedish2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries, as in many other parts of Europe, municipal courts experienced avast increase in the production and use of administrative and juridical records during theEarly Modern period. Among other external factors, in Sweden, this intensification can belinked to the steadily increasing use since the fourteenth century of the vernacular as thewritten language in legal contexts. With the establishment of the Svea Court of Appeal (1614), it was decided that all lower courts in Sweden would send their records there. Inconsequence, scribes, in addition to writing a draft and a transcript, had to formulate yetanother version of the court record for the higher court. This led to a three-phase writingprocess: three versions of the court record were created, each one written at different timeswith a somewhat different purpose and with different requirements in terms of content andlinguistic style, but all of them legally valid. Empirical comparisons show there may be vastdifferences between the first draft and the edited transcription, both in style and content, withthe second text a modified version, with greater use of legal linguistic markers. Anyonestudying these historical texts needs to know where they fit into the cycle and in whatcircumstances they were produced.

    The aim of this poster presentation is to discuss empirical and theoretical aspects of thetextual process of court records in Early Modern Sweden. Drawing on social semiotics, wefocus on court records in terms of ‘social practice’ (van Leeuwen 2008), making use oftheoretical concepts such as ‘intertextuality’ (Bakhtin 1986), ‘recontextualisation’ (Linell1998) and ‘entextualisation’ (Park and Bucholtz 2009). We will present a theoretical modelthat captures the text-making process from spoken utterance in court to written legaldocument. In addition, we will examine the question of written discourse as verbatim,proposing a functional stance, where the scribes’ use of reported speech must be seen as aprocess of recontextualisation of the speakers’ utterance into an institutionally relevantwritten account.

    The presentation is given as part of the multidisciplinary research project Town scribes in thekingdom of Sweden in the Early Modern period (1614–1714): Their profession, agency anduse of language, financed by the Kone Foundation (2020–2024). The project focuses on theperiod from the foundation of the Svea Court of Appeal in Stockholm (1614) to the GreatNorthern War (1714) from the point of view of historical linguistics and history. The focus inthe presentation is the people who drew up the magistrate’s court records, a most importantsource for historians of Sweden and Finland. The century was an important period in thehistory of Swedish and Swedish state-building. The growing superpower needed a languageand scribes; the vernacular enabled more complex government. In our study, the magistrate’scourt records are being utilised for the first time from an interdisciplinary perspective bybringing together theoretical and methodological expertise in historical linguistics andhistory. The project has three major goals: 1) a prosopographic scribe database, containinginformation on the social and professional backgrounds and lifetime of the scribes, 2)analysis of town scribes as professionals and language experts, developers of language andproducers of texts, and 3) case studies on town scribes as government servants and privatecitizens in their local community. The result will be an overall picture of professional townscribes as the most pivotal, but often invisible, agents in history: as experts in language andrecorders of the past.

  • 5.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Eodem die sagdes fore retto: Om tänkeboken som minnespraktik och minnespolitik2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lönnroth, Harry
    et al.
    University of Jyväslylä, Finland.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    I språkets och kronans tjänst: skrivare i tidigmoderna Sverige i ett literacyperspektiv2021In: Abstractsamling: SSH16 Lund 11–12 november 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tidigmoderna tiden utgör en dynamisk period i den svenska (språk)historien bådespråkligt och kulturellt. Gustav Vasas och Vasasönernas regeringstid och den strukturellauppbyggnaden av det svenska riket spelar en viktig roll också för utvecklingen av språket,inte minst när det gäller bruket av skrift i olika administrativa kontexter i olika delar avriket. De aktörer och den yrkeskår som intar en nyckelposition i denna skriftproduktionär skrivarna från stad och land, t.ex. stadsskrivarna på båda sidorna om Bottniska viken.Skrivarna låg bakom många centrala dokument (t.ex. underrätternas protokoll) som vårkännedom om historien i dag baserar sig på. Vår kunskap om denna yrkeskår, om derasspråkliga bakgrund, formella utbildning och arbetssätt, är dock mycket begränsad. I vårtföredrag kommer vi att anlägga ett literacyperspektiv på skrivarna. Vilka teoretiska ochmetodiska utgångspunkter och/eller begrepp är speciellt relevanta och givande? Hur harman forskat i skrivare hittills inom olika områden? Hur kan vi som språkforskare bidratill forskningen?Föredraget anknyter till projektet City scribes in the kingdom of Sweden in the early modernperiod (1614–1714): Their profession, agency and use of language som finansieras avKonestiftelsen 2020–2023.

    Litteratur

    Thylin-Klaus, Jennica (2019), Stadsskrivare på 1600-talet. I: Tandefelt, Marika (red.),Finländsk svenska från medeltid till 1860. Helsingfors: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland,127–145.

  • 7.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Svenskan och Vasarna: Hovet som socialt nätverk under äldre nysvensk tid2021In: Abstractsamling: SSH16 Lund 11–12 november 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framväxten av ett standardiserat nationalspråk är en betydelsefull händelse i en nations historia (Teleman 2002). I Sverige kan detta förlopp knytas till tiden för reformationen fram till slutet av 1700-talet. Samtidigt som vi vet en del om svenskans utveckling under nämnda period är vår kunskap om processerna bakom framväxten av ett överregionalt standardspråk relativt begränsad. Sociala faktorer som verksamhet, miljö eller personer tycks dock spela en avgörande roll för ett mer normerat språkbruk (se t.ex. Pettersson 2017, Wendt 2010, Želtuchin 1996). Kopplat till 1500-/1600-talet pekar både svensk och engelsk forskning mot aristokratin och hovet som en central normgivande miljö, både när det gäller införandet av en överregional talspråklig standard (Widmark 1991) och skriftspråklig standard (Evens 2015). Hovet som språkbruksmiljö är dock sparsamt utforskad.   

    Metodiskt har social nätverksanalys (Milroy 1980, Bergs 2000, 2005) visat sig vara användbar även på historiskt material för att beskriva och förstå framväxten av överregionala varieteter. I Evens (2015) visas exempelvis hur en djupanalys av Tudorfamiljens språkbruk kan ge ökad kunskap om mer generella språkförändringsprocesser i engelskan under 1500-talets mitt. 

    Med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning presenterar jag en social nätverksanalys av Vasafamiljens språkbruk under äldre nysvensk tid, med fokus på lexikogrammatisk och syntaktisk variation. Syftet är delvis metodiskt – att undersöka bäringen i denna form av analys på detta specifika material, delvis empiriskt – att ge nya perspektiv på hovspråkets ställning som katalysator i skapandet av en överregional svensk standard. 

     

    Referenser

    Bergs, Alexander 2000. Social networks in pre-1500 Britain: Problems, prospects, examples. European Journal of English Studies 4(3). S. 239-251.

    Bergs, Alexander 2005. Social networks and historical sociolinguistics. Studies in morphosyntactic variation in de Paston Letters. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter

    Evens, Mel 2015. ‘The vsuall speach of the Court’? Investigating language change in Tudor family network (1544-1556). Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1 (2). S. 153-18. 

    Milroy, Lesley 1980. Language and Social Networks. Oxford: Blackwell

    Pettersson, Theresia 2017. Stockholms stads tänkeböcker: funktionell texthistoria 1476-1626. Diss. Stockholm: Stockholms universitet

    Teleman, Ulf 2002. Ära, rikedom och reda: svensk språkvård och språkpolitik under äldre nyare tid. Lund: Studentlitteratur

    Wendt, Bo-A. 2010. Peder Månsson i fornsvenskans elfte timme. I: M. Reinhammar m.fl. (red.), Studier i svensk språkhistoria 11. (Acta Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi. 113.) Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur. S. 213–221.

    Widmark, Gun 1991. Boksvenska och talsvenska. Om språkarter i nysvenskt talspråk. I: Språk och stil 1 (ny följd). S. 157-198. 

    Želtuchin, Aleksandr 1996. Orthographic codes and code-switching: a study in 16th century Swedish ortography. Diss. Stockholm: Univ.

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Variance and Change in Civic Literacy in Late-Medieval Stockholm: The Liber Memorialis2021In: Urban Literacy in the Nordic Middle Ages / [ed] K. H. Andersen; J. Büchert Netterstrøm; L. Imer; B. Poulsen; R. Steenholt Olesen, Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2021, p. 343-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
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