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  • 1.
    Strömberg, Per M.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Citizen monitoring in environmental disclosure: An economics perspective2024In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 356, article id 120567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism is mounting that market-led and state-led initiatives for environmental impact disclosure are too limited in scope and that they rest on too strong assumptions about the quality and impartiality of monitoring and enforcement, with resulting insufficient effect on environmental sustainability. It has been proposed that citizen monitoring may contribute to counteract this void. However, to our knowledge, policy analysis in general and economics in particular has not paid much attention to this role of citizen monitoring. This paper aims to bridge that gap from an economics lens, by exploring the dynamics of disclosing local environmental impact and the potential role of citizen monitoring in environmental policy. To this end, the paper addresses monopolistic versus pluralistic environmental disclosure, letting citizen monitoring represent the latter. The study uses the mining industry as an illustrative case, because of that sector's particular transparency challenges in international value chains, typically with strong negative local environmental impact. It is shown how pluralistic information provision such as citizen monitoring can contribute to incentivizing more reliable information provision, especially in countries with weak state institutions, which is particularly important in the case of high-risk environmental impact. The findings should be of use for shaping environmental policy, providing valuable insights for both policymakers and scholars.

  • 2.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    COVID-19 pandemic waves: Identification and interpretation of global data2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e25090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mention of the COVID-19 waves is as prevalent as the pandemic itself. Identifying the beginning and end of the wave is critical to evaluating the impact of various COVID-19 variants and the different pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical (including economic, health and social, etc.) interventions. We demonstrate a scientifically robust method to identify COVID-19 waves and the breaking points at which they begin and end from January 2020 to June 2021. Employing the Break Least Square method, we determine the significance of COVID-19 waves for global-, regional-, and country-level data. The results show that the method works efficiently in detecting different breaking points. Identifying these breaking points is critical for evaluating the impact of the economic, health, social and other welfare interventions implemented during the pandemic crisis. Employing our method with high frequency data effectively determines the start and end points of the COVID-19 wave(s). Identifying waves at the country level is more relevant than at the global or regional levels. Our research results evidenced that the COVID-19 wave takes about 48 days on average to subside once it begins, irrespective of the circumstances.

  • 3.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics and Economics, Sweden.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    United Nations University-World Institute Development Economics Research, Finland.
    Financial inclusion and nutrition among rural households in Rwanda2024In: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 506-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Rwandan Integrated Household Living Conditions surveys (2013/2014 and 2016/17), we investigate whether financial inclusion leads to improved nutrition in rural Rwanda. Our empirical evidence shows a robust positive impact of financial inclusion by formal financial institutions, although informal institutions like tontines were ineffective in improving food expenditure or nutrition. Furthermore, the heterogeneous marginal effects of financial inclusion reduce the gender gap between the food expenditure and nutrition of female- and male-headed households. The results, hence, suggest that the country should promote formal financial inclusion to provide wide-ranging welfare effects by improving food security, nutrition and food expenditure in its rural communities.

  • 4.
    Lin, Xiang
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Performance of negatively screened sustainable investments during crisis2024In: International Review of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1059-0560, E-ISSN 1873-8036, Vol. 93, p. 1226-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the market performance of negatively screened environment social and governance (ESG) portfolio or sustainable investments prior to and during crisis. A general and simple method is developed under the ESG Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) framework for the assessment. The novelty is that this method can be employed when the parent portfolio is not a market portfolio. In this situation, both coefficients, alpha and beta, in the reduced form of regression have special interpretations and are informative. This paper examines 24 negatively screened ESG indices from the S&P, DJSI and MSCI data across various regions, firm sizes, and criteria of screening, for 2017 to 2021. Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) model is adopted to identify the crisis regime. Our results show that the negatively screened ESG indices provide positive investors’ surpluses for ESG-motivated investors during the crisis, when the corresponding parent indices are the market portfolios. For ESG investments where market portfolios are not their parent indices, half of ESG indices under consideration still provide positive surplus with similar systematic risks as their parent indices during the crisis. The remaining ESG indices under-performs but has relatively lower systematic risks, implying resilience as compared to the corresponding parent indices during the crisis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity analysis of treating a parent index as a market portfolio.

  • 5. Kar, A. K.
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Does financial inclusion improve energy accessibility in Sub-Saharan Africa?2023In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the nexus between financial inclusion and energy poverty. Analysing data for 27 energy-poor countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region over 2004–2021, we employ sequential (two-stage), panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) and two-step dynamic system GMM (generalized method of moments) regression models, and control for endogeneity, CSD, slope heterogeneity as well as stationarity and cointegration patterns of the variables. Our empirical results show that financial inclusion significantly reduces energy poverty in the selected energy-poor countries. The study also finds a positive significant association between energy access and GDP per capita, while oil price and energy intensity are inversely associated with energy access. The results are robust to different control variables, estimation methods and subsamples. These findings have strong policy implications for energy-poor countries and point to the need for appropriate policies to promote financial inclusion for reducing energy poverty.

  • 6.
    Karimu, A.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa; .
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Implication of electricity taxes and levies on sustainable development goals in the European Union2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 177, article id 113553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current high electricity prices in the European Union (EU) are in part due to the high electricity taxes. United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda with its global vision of attaining sustainable development especially seeks “to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services” (SDG 7). We investigate the synergy and trade-off effects of electricity taxes on sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the EU. Using panel data and panel vector autoregressive estimation approach, we find that higher household electricity taxes reduce both carbon emission and unemployment. Higher levels of industry electricity taxes, increase responsible production and consumption (SDG12) and reduces unemployment (SDG8). Furthermore, there is evidence for a strong synergy effect between electricity taxes, unemployment and carbon emission but a trade-off between tax and SDG9 (innovation and sustainable infrastructure). The taxes contribute more to the future variation of unemployment and responsible production and consumption in the EU, but these contributions are much larger for the industry as compared to the household sector. Our results confirm the double-dividend hypothesis, which implies that the policymakers can achieve environmental goals with higher electricity taxes, especially on household electricity. In the industrial sector, our findings suggest that there is a need for tax reform, to encourage innovation and adopt production processes that are less polluting to the environment.

  • 7.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, Yongyi
    United Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Interlinkages and interactions among the sustainable development goals2023In: Interlinkages between the Sustainable Development Goals / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Yongyi Min, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, YongyiUnited Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Interlinkages between the sustainable development goals2023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interlinkages between the Sustainable Development Goals explores the complex relationships between the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by 193 United Nations Member States in 2015. The book provides an in-depth analysis of the interconnections between the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development and the five pillars of the SDGs: peace, people, planet, prosperity, and partnerships. Covering a wide range of topics and themes, this timely book examines interlinkages at the thematic, regional, and country levels. Featuring case studies from across the globe, contributors explore the synergies and trade-offs among the SDGs using a variety of methodological approaches. Chapters also include examples of best practices and applications, demonstrating how interlinkages can be leveraged to achieve multiple SDGs simultaneously. This book will be an essential resource for a diverse range of audiences, including students and scholars in the areas of climate action, gender equality, industry, innovation, and infrastructure, and sustainable cities and communities. It will also be beneficial for policymakers, practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders in both the private and public sectors and civil society. 

  • 9.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, Yongyi
    United Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Preface2023In: Interlinkages between the sustainable development goals / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Yongyi Min, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. xi-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.
    University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Introduction2022In: The Informal Sector and the Environment / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Uma Kambhampati, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The informal sector is core to the growth and livelihoods of many economies and is seen as both a highly dynamic sector and a fragile one. It provides significant amounts of employment across the world but the quality of this employment is often problematic, with employment in this sector characterised by ‘small or undefined work places, unsafe and unhealthy working conditions, low levels of skills and productivity, low or irregular incomes, long working hours and lack of access to information, markets, finance, training and technology’. As with all areas of regulatory control, there are two types of environmental regulation policies: command and control policies and economic incentives. Many studies suggest that informal economic activity should be formalised. Since pollution is an externality from production, government attempts to reduce it often take the form of taxes on pollutants and subsidies on the disposal of waste. This chapter presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.

  • 11.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.
    University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Karimu, A.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Regulation, governance and the role of the informal sector in influencing environmental quality2022In: The Informal Sector and the Environment / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Uma Kambhampati, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, p. 16-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of the informal sector and a range of governance indicators on both global and local pollutants for a panel of 58 countries during 1996–2011. The analysis employs a fixed effects-instrumental variable generalized method of moments approach. We find that the size of the informal sector has a significant impact on environmental quality, which is conditional on the level of economic development. For developing countries, the informal sector has a significant positive impact on local pollutants, whereas for the developed countries the informal sector has a significantly negative effect on global pollutants. The findings also reveal that the impact of governance depends on the type of governance measure, the level of economic development and the type of pollutant. Control of corruption emerges as the single most important factor, especially in the non-OECD countries, in improving environmental quality. We argue that the efficacy of an environmental policy for a country with a large informal sector will be low if the policy measures do not address governance, size of the informal sector and environmental policy targets.

  • 12.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Center for Sustainability Research (CSR), Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karimu, Amin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Gråd, Erik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Sustainable development, renewable energy transformation and employment impact in the EU2022In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 695-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The renewable energy transformation will impact the entire economy. We investigate the impact and interlinkages in employment and non-renewable energy with the renewable energy transition in Europe. We further assess the potential contributions of renewable energy and non-renewable energy to the variability (changes) of future employment, output, and carbon emissions within the European Union (EU). Analyzing recent data from 28 EU countries and Norway, we employ a panel vector autoregressive regression model to estimate the potential interlinkages. Our results suggest that the transition to renewable energy sources has a positive but small and significant net impact on average employment in EU. We further find that renewable energy consumption contributes substantially to the future changes in employment in the short and the medium term. The potential effect of employment on non-renewable fossil-fuel-based energy consumption is relatively lower. Moreover, future renewable energy consumption contributes significantly to variations in non-renewable energy, per capita carbon emissions and GDP per capita in the short and the medium-term. The contribution of non-renewable energy to the future variability in renewable energy consumption is low, reflecting the diminishing impact of fossil-fuel-based energy on renewable energy consumption.

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  • 13.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    The Informal Sector and the Environment2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The informal economy - broadly defined as economic activity that is not subject to government regulation or taxation - sustains a large part of the world's workforce. It is a diverse, complex and growing area of activity. However, being largely unregulated, its impact on the environment has not been closely scrutinised or analysed. This edited volume demonstrates that the informal sector is a major source of environmental pollution and a major reason behind the environmental degradation accompanying the expansion of economic activity in developing countries. Environmental regulation and economic incentive policies are difficult to implement in this sector because economic units are unregistered, geographically dispersed and difficult to identify. Moreover, given their limited capital base, they cannot afford to pay pollution fees or install pollution- abating equipment. Informal manufacturing units often operate under unscientific and unhealthy conditions, further contributing to polluting the environment. The book emphasizes and examines these challenges, and their solutions, encountered in various sectors of the informal economy, including urban waste pickers, small- scale farmers, informal workers, home- based workers, street vendors and more. If the informal sector is to "Leave no one behind" (as the Sustainable Development Goals promise) and contribute to "inclusive growth" (an objective of the green economy), then its impact on the economy as well as the environment has to be carefully considered. This book marks a significant contribution to the literature on both the informal economy and sustainable development, and will be of great interest to readers in economics, geography, politics, environment studies and public policy more broadly.

  • 14.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Garikipati, Supriya
    University of Liverpool Management School, UK.
    Group-based financial services in the global South: Evidence on social efficacy2021In: The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Economics / [ed] G. Berik; E. Kongar, Abingdon: Routledge, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s community-based savings clubs were observed as early as the late 19th century across the Global South. Microfinance promised to provide financial services to the poor (predominantly women in the Global South) that lack access to formal banking. This chapter provides a synthesis of the existing evidence on the impact credit services have had. It covers two specific issues: the impact of credit on poverty and its impact on women’s empowerment. The chapter uses an analytical framework drawn from a coalescence of basic methodological principles within feminist economics scholarship described by Power as the “social provisioning approach.” Specifically, it also uses well-being as a central measure of economic success and the notion that human agency is important. From the perspective of a “social provisioning” framework, impact on income alone would give us at best a partial picture on the social efficacy of credit.

  • 15.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    Modeling interlinkages between sustainable development goals using network analysis2021In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 138, article id 105136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal, ambitious, and arguably ambiguous, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are difficult to measure, monitor, prioritize and achieve. They are a multi-dimensional construct of economic, social and environmental indicators that work through complex interlinkages. We investigate these interlinkages at the SDG target level to identify the trade-offs and synergies between the SDGs. Second, we identify the community of interlinked SDG targets to determine if the SDGs can be benchmarked and prioritized for different regions. Employing network analysis approach the analysis is based on the IAEG-SDG data for the period 2000–2017. We find several positive and negative interlinkages (reinforcing and balancing feedbacks) between the SDG targets. The trade-offs, however, are much weaker than the synergies. Analyzing network structures for different regions, our results suggest that universal benchmarking of SDGs is counterproductive. We argue that it may be useful to identify a specific community of SDG targets, and use them as a guide to prioritize certain goals in different regions.

  • 16.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Sweet, SusanneStockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Sustainable Consumption and Production, Volume I: Challenges and Developmen2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic growth and increasing population impose long-term risks to the environment and society. Approaches to address the impact of consumption and production on bio-diversity loss, resource availability, climate change, and mounting waste problems on land and in seas have yet not proven to be successful. This calls for innovative approaches to address the complex environmental, social, and economic interrelationships that have to be addressed in transforming to sustainable development.  

    Sustainable Consumption and Production, Volume I: Challenges and Development aims to explore critical global challenges and addresses how consumers, producers, the private sector, international organizations, and governments can play an active role in innovating businesses to support a transitioning towards sustainable consumption and production. The book explores different approaches and innovations to address sustainable consumption and production. It details multiple social and economic contexts to the challenges and developments towards a sustainable consumption and production. The book is of interest to economists, students, businesses, and policymakers.

  • 17.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: Predicaments and Strategies2020In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being universal, broadly-framed, inconsistent and difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. We contribute by quantifying and prioritising the SDGs and their impact on sustainable development. We employ structural equation models (SEM) to investigate, which of the underlying pillars of SDGs (economic, social and environment) are the most effective in achieving sustainable development. Our results reveal that the developed countries, benefit most by focusing on social and environmental factors whereas the developing countries, benefit most by retaining their focus on the economic and the social factors.

  • 18.
    Westling, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics / KTH.
    Stromberg, P. M.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Can upstream ecosystems ensure safe drinking water – Insights from Sweden2020In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 169, article id 106552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clean water is not only the product of expensive treatment technology, but also of upstream ecosystems. Yet, the effect of land use on downstream water quality is poorly understood. We investigate the value of ecosystem water purification as an input to the production of drinking water in Sweden. We employ a recently modified empirical approach, complementing ex-ante modelling. We capture plant operator behaviour, rather than assuming rational individuals that value ecosystem services as a factor in the drinking water production function. The GMM technique is applied to estimate the marginal contributions of different land uses to water quality and chemical costs of treatment plants. The analysis is based on upstream land-use data, raw water quality, and chemical costs for a large share of Sweden’s municipal surface water treatment plants, for the period 2000 to 2012. Our results show that upstream forests lead to lower levels of E. coli (a pathogen associated with disease outbreaks) in downstream water and indicate the same effect on turbidity (not significant). We also find that turbidity increases treatment costs, but the effect of E. coli remains unclear. Consequently, in addition to water treatment equipment, decision-makers should consider investment in upstream ecosystems. 

  • 19.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Misum, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Garikipati, S.
    University of Liverpool Management School, Liverpool, UK.
    Wallentin, F. Y.
    Department of Statistics, Uppsala University.
    Does Foreign Aid Improve Gender Performance in Recipient Countries?2020In: Journal of International Development, ISSN 0954-1748, E-ISSN 1099-1328, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 1171-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An explicit goal of foreign aid is to promote female empowerment and gender equality in developing countries. We investigate if foreign aid achieves this intended goal by examining its impact on gender performance of recipient countries at the country level. Employing structural equation models, our results suggest that aid alone, even when targeted to directly improve gender outcomes, is unlikely to shift systemic inequalities. Aid will need to bolster civil society efforts that challenge institutional structures and norms in order to impact gender outcomes at country level.

  • 20.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    et al.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Surry, Yves
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ngabitsinze, Jean C.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Income and food Engel curves in Rwanda: A household microdata analysis2020In: Agricultural and Food Economics, E-ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are still major challenges for large proportions of households in Sab-Saharan Africa. The empirical literature on food demand, however, suggest mixed evidence on the roles of income and other socio-economic attributes on food demand. This study analyses the food demand amongst households in Rwanda, based on nationally representative household expenditure and demographic (EICV4, 2013/14) survey data. The results show that poor households consume food containing higher carbohydrates and starches. Further, the study finds that majority of rural households spend sparingly on micronutrients from animal products, suggesting that effective targeted food policy interventions for poor and rural households may play important role in reducing incidence of malnutrition through improving food diets.… Read more

  • 21.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Mistra Center for Sustainable Markets.
    Blomqvist, Björn R. H.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    Last Night in Sweden? Using Gaussian Processes to Study Changing Demographics at the Level of Municipalities2020In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, ISSN 0928-9569, E-ISSN 1571-8174, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 46-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased immigration in Western Europe has been linked by some political parties to increased criminality rates. We study the statistical relationship between the proportion of foreign-born to three types of reported criminality - rapes, burglary, and assault. The analysis is based on Swedish municipality level data for 2002-2014, years with signicant immigration. Using non-parametric Gaussian processes models, we find that while reported rape rates have increased, they are likely best explained by changes in reporting. The reported burglary rates have decreased, while reported assault rates are positively correlated to the proportion of foreign-born residents in the municipality.

  • 22.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Khambampati, Uma
    University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Karimu, Amin
    University of Ghana Business School, Madina, Ghana.
    Regulation, governance and the role of the informal sector in influencing environmental quality?2020In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 173, article id 106649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of the informal sector and a range of governance indicators on both global and local pollutants for a panel of 58 countries during 1996-2011. The analysis employs a fixed effects-instrumental variable generalized method of moments approach. We find that the size of the informal sector has a significant impact on environmental quality, which is conditional on the level of economic development. For developing countries, the informal sector has a significant positive impact on local pollutants, whereas for the developed countries the informal sector has a significantly negative effect on global pollutants. The findings also reveal that the impact of governance depends on the type of governance measure, the level of economic development and type of pollutant. Control of corruption emerges as the single most important factor especially in the non-OECD countries in improving environmental quality. We argue that the efficacy of an environmental policy for a country with a large informal sector will be low if the policy measures do not address governance, size of the informal sector and environmental policy targets.

  • 23.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Karimu, A.
    University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Ghana.
    Renewable Electricity and Sustainable Development Goals in the EU2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 125, article id 104693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy (RE) has a strong synergy with some of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), thus its successful deployment can potentially result in an impact on these SDGs. In this study, we examine the synergy effect of renewable electricity on selected SDGs via the electricity prices for the European Union (EU) countries. Using panel data and a two-step estimation approach, our findings indicate a strong synergy effect between renewable electricity prices, SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth). The results further reveal that SDG 12 (responsible production and consumption) accounts for most of the future renewable electricity price variation (excluding self-effect), whereas future variation in SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG 13 (climate action) are explained mostly by SDG 8 and SDG 12, respectively.

  • 24.
    Rampal, Priya
    et al.
    M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, India.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppsala University.
    Food Security, agriculture and malnutrition in India2019In: Hunger and Malnutrition as major challenges of the 21st Century / [ed] R. Jha, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that combating malnutrition for women is central not only for their own health but also for the attainment of nutritional adequacy for future generations, including infants, children and adolescents. Attaining adequate nutrition for women is necessary throughout their life, but particularly so before, during and after pregnancy, if intergenerational nutritional adequacy is to be attained. Adequacy of nutrition also helps an individual become more productive and saves medical treatment costs that may otherwise have occurred. However, India’s less than satisfactory record of female, infant and child nutrition underscores the need to take urgent steps, particularly if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be attained. With this as the background the present chapter focuses on the role of agriculture in providing adequate nutrition for women and the methods through which women in the rural sector can leverage existing institutions and programs to ameliorate nutritional inadequacy. This would require the design of informative indices of nutritional attainment and close cooperation in policy between governments, civil society organizations and international advisory groups. The chapter reviews some ways in which these can be attained.

  • 25.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A Critical Analysis of the Sustainable Development Goals2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Leal Filho, Walter, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 341-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious UN-adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being inconsistent, difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. Disparaging analysis suggests that there exists a potential inconsistency in the SDGs, particularly between the socio-economic development and the environmental sustainability goals. Critiques also raise questions on the measurability and monitoring of the broadly framed SDGs. The goals are non-binding, with each country being expected to create their own national or regional plans. Moreover, the source(s) and the extent of the financial resources and investments for the SDGs are ambiguous. This chapter quantifies and examines the inconsistencies of the SDGs. It further inspects which of the underlying social, economic or environmental pillars are that most effective for achieving sustainable development. Analyses of the data reveal that the developed countries need to remain focused on their social and environmental policies. The developing countries, on the other hand, are better off being focused on their economics and social policies in the short run, even though environmental policies remain significant for sustainable development.

  • 26.
    Kar, Ashim Kumar
    et al.
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Are microfinance markets monopolistic?2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.

  • 27.
    Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economic.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2018In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 842-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition in microfinance has been blamed for multiple borrowing, over-indebtedness and loan repayment crisis in recent times. Using the Boone indicator as a proxy for competition, we investigate how competition impacts microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio in this paper. The analysis is based on data from 568 MFIs in 10 vibrant microfinance markets (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru and Philippines) for the period 2003-2014. We control for potential endogeneity of MFI performance, competition and other covariates by employing the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. We find that increased competition leads to higher profitability and better loan portfolio quality of the sampled MFIs, but worsens depth of outreach to the poor, which is an indication of mission drift.   

  • 28.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sustainable Development and global emission targets: A dynamical systems approach to aid evidence-based policy making2018In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 812-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad scientific consensus that increasing global emissions at current rates will result irreversible climate change. The global commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement tries to address this concern with policy changes. But top-down approaches including voluntary emission cuts do not seem politically feasible in all countries. In this paper, we show that moderate voluntary emission cuts (policy) supplemented by technological developments and changes in consumption tastes and preferences induced by educating individuals (stakeholder engagement) could help achieve emission targets. We use a novel dynamical systems modeling approach based on economic theory to show the quantitative tradeoffs between these different approaches. Using this model, we also show how economic development may be balanced by global emissions reductions so that, initially, developing economies can continue along their current growth trajectories and eliminate poverty, and eventually bear more of the emissions reduction burden.

  • 29.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Attitudes Towards Paying for Environmental Protection in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, p. 201-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

  • 30.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppala University / Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management.
    Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: An Introduction2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 1-3Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA .
    Nicolis, Stamatios C
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Uppsala University.
    Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  • 33.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme2017In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 684-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 34.
    Spaiser, V.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Ranganathan, S.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The sustainable development oxymoron: quantifying and modelling the incompatibility of sustainable development goals2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 457-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 35.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences / Ningbo University, China.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2016In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 1650022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for di¤erent parameter con…gurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We fi…nd that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the e¤ect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained

  • 36.
    Ranganathan, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The demographic transition and economic growth: Implications for development policy2015In: Palgrave Communications, E-ISSN 2055-1045, Vol. 1, article id 15033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important transition in the economic history of countries occurs when they move from a regime of low prosperity, high child mortality and high fertility to a state of high prosperity, low child mortality and low fertility. Researchers have proposed various theories to explain this demographic transition and its relation to economic growth. In this article, we test the validity of some of these theories by fitting a non-linear dynamic model for the available cross-country data. Our approach fills the gap between the micro-level models that discuss causative mechanisms but do not consider if alternative models may fit the data well, and models from growth econometrics that show the impact of different factors on economic growth but do not include non-linearities and complex interactions. In our model, mortality and fertility decline and economic growth are endogenized by considering a simultaneous system of equations in the change variables. The model shows that the transition is best described in terms of a development cycle involving child mortality, fertility and GDP per capita. Fertility rate decreases when child mortality is low, and is weakly dependent on GDP. As fertility rates fall, GDP increases, and as GDP increases, child mortality falls. We further test the hypothesis that female education drives down fertility rates rather than child mortality, but find only weak evidence for it. The Bayesian methodology we use ensures robust models and we identify non-linear interactions between indicators to capture real-world non-linearities. Hence, our models can be used in policymaking to predict short-term evolutions in the indicator variables. We also discuss how our approach can be used to evaluate policy initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals or the Sustainable Development Goals and set more accurate, country-specific development targets. 

  • 37. Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Sumpter, David J.T
    A Dynamical Systems Approach to Modeling Human Development2014Report (Other academic)
  • 38. Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Analysing Mechanisms for Meeting Global Emissions Target: A Dynamical Systems Approach2014Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Kar, Ashim
    Competition in Microfinance: Does it affect Performance, Portfolio quality and Capitalization?2014In: Microfinance Institutions: Financial and Social Performance / [ed] Roy Mersland, R. Øystein Strøm, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Kumar Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2014Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Varghese, Adel
    Evaluating the Impact of Training in Self Help Groups in India2014In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 870-885Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Growth. Water Resilience and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2014Report (Other academic)
  • 43. Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Interest Rates and Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions: Recent Global Evidence2014In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 87-106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Floro, Maria
    American University, NW Washington, DC, United States .
    Microfinance, Vulnerability and Risk in Low Income Households2014In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 539-561Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Setting Sustainable Development Goals: A Dynamical Systems approach2014Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India's SHG programme2014Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Regional and Delivery Mechanisms in India's SHG Programme2014Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Varghese, A.
    Delivery mechanisms and impact of microfinance training in indian self-help groups2013In: Journal of International Development, ISSN 0954-1748, E-ISSN 1099-1328, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Floro, Maria Sagrario
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Food Security, Gender, and Occupational Choice among Urban Low-Income Households2013In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 42, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Sepahvand, Mohammad
    et al.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Time Investment by Parents in Cognitive and Non-cognitive Childcare Activities2013Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 95
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