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  • 1.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Engelska.
    The Varying Relationship between Perceived Oral and Written Mother Tongue Proficiency and Academic Performance in Native Multilingual Students at their Secondary School and University2023Ingår i: 13th International Conference The Future of Education, Bologna: Pixel International Conferences , 2023, s. 24-27Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a study involving 53 Swedish native multilingual students the objective of which was to investigate the relationship between their mother tongue oral and written proficiency as they themselves perceive it and their academic performance at two educational levels, i.e. secondary and tertiary. The study compares the students’ grade averages with the data obtained through questionnaires targeting their language proficiency and mother tongue use. The results show that while there is a positive correlation between the students’ degree of perceived proficiency (both written and oral) in the language originally spoken with their mother and their academic performance at their secondary school, this correlation seems to disappear once they enroll in their university studies. The paper discusses two of the possible reasons for this phenomenon on the background of threshold hypothesis and transitional perspective. According to these, native multilinguals benefit from their multilingual condition academically only when they reach a certain level of proficiency in the language(s) they use and only until their parents complete their linguistic assimilation in the country they have immigrated into.

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  • 2.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Engelska.
    Native Multilingualism and Stroop Effect: a Pilot Study Examining the Relationships Between the Two Variables2020Ingår i: INTED2020 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, s. 8533-8541Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple studies point out a positive relationship between bilingualism (multilingualism), cognitive development of children and their academic performance at the early age. The Stroop Test is often used as one of the methods of assessing subjects’ executive function of inhibition (the ability to suppress dominant responses), which appears to be enhanced in bilingual/multilingual individuals compared to their monolingual counterparts. The better executive control in bilinguals/multilinguals that the function of inhibition represents only a part of (besides shifting, i.e. the ability to switch over between tasks, and monitoring, i.e. the ability to update information in the working memory) is believed to stem from these individuals switching over between their languages as well as their need to suppress the other language-related information irrelevant in the given language context.This paper describes a pilot experiment preceding a study of a larger scale whose main objective is to obtain data to be used to assess a possible relationship between the number of mother tongues Swedish university students have a command of and their performance at the Stroop Test.

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  • 3.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Engelska.
    I Have Read the Chapters, But I Do Not Remember: Factors Affecting Intake, Retention and Recall of New Information Among Swedish University Students2016Ingår i: INTED2016 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia, Spain: International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2016, s. 504-509Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The affluence of information sources we currently experience due to economic prosperity of western cultures and modern information technologies seems to have, apart from its positive effects associated with the ready availability of information, some negative ones as well. These seem to be related to the counterproductive way students utilize these sources, which, in some cases, may hinder their progress, reduce the efficiency of the overall educational process, and render teachers frustrated due to their students not coming prepared to their seminars.

    Besides looking into factors affecting intake, retention and recall of new information among Swedish university students, which appear to be directly associated with the scarcity principle and perceived value of the information sources the students use, the paper also discusses their inability to deploy relevant cognitive and metacognitive strategies in the process of learning, the impact of exposure to a certain assessment, learning and grading culture, as well as possible solutions to the issue.

  • 4.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Engelska.
    Magnetic Book as a Recyclable Tool Used for Teaching a Foreing Language and Incorporating Principles of Language Acquisition Theories2014Ingår i: International conference The Future of Education, Florence, Italy, 12-13 June, 2014, 4th ed., Padova, Italy: Libreria Universitaria, 2014, s. 324-328Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching English to children at an early age does not only prepare a breeding ground for early bilingualism/multilingualism but also facilitates language learning at later stages. The early introduction of English in the curricula of primary schools, which has recently become topical throughout Europe, also calls for the introduction of language-teaching methodology suitable for very young learners. Although there is currently a wide range of material parents and teachers have at their disposal that can assist them in improving their children’s and pupils’ linguistic potential, its amount may sometimes seem quite overwhelming. This can make the choice of the right activity rather complicated and thus the need for language-teaching aids that can be recycled several times arises.

    The paper focuses on practical examples of how a magnetic book can be used repeatedly to develop a young child’s language skills in their mother tongue or a second language and what methodology can be deployed in this respect that incorporates some of the principles of language acquisition theories. Special attention is being paid to behaviorism, Chomsky’s ideas, Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s interactionist approaches (fostering Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding), and connectionism as well as how these can be put into operation when one is working with the book.

  • 5.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Intimidation, Versatile Wide-Coverage Taints, Semantic Polarity and Semantic Association as Elements Facilitating Religious Persuasion2013Ingår i: Language and Communication Quarterly, ISSN 2168-7633, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 22-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear occupies an undeniable portion of our lives and in most cases represents an incentive and driving force underlying our acts. The paper looks into discursive practices of generating fear through direct intimidation and by overemphasizing and/or fabricating versatile wide-coverage taints (reader’s/listener’s imperfections and flaws) deployed for the purpose of inducing feelings of guilt and insufficiency. It also tackles the issue of semantic polarity (juxtaposing two stylistically more or less identical but semantically opposing blocks of text) discussing its impact on the message recipient and the concepts it endeavors to establish in them in order to influence their future choices and conduct. Attention is also paid to semantic association, which proves to be another intimidating technique frequently utilized in religious discourse to supercharge selected lexical items with the meanings the writer/speaker purposefully attaches to these, thereby exploiting excessive signification (in the Saussurean sense) to achieve their intended persuasive effect.

    The paper, which is based on the author’s research and analysis of a corpus of religious texts, illustrates the individual phenomena by presenting examples selected from sources used by several denominations and religious movements (Christians, Latter-Day Saints, Jehova’s Witnesses, Satanists, Scientologists, etc.). Besides, it statistically maps the distribution of direct intimidation and versatile wide-coverage taints segments across these sources and points out the recent trends in persuasive mechanisms deployed to induce a change of individual’s opinion and/or behavior.

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  • 6.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Means of Increasing Credibility in Religious Discourse – Credibility Boosters2013Ingår i: Language and Communication Quarterly, ISSN 2168-7633, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 230-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper looks into discursive practices of increasing credibility of a message and its source deployed in religious discourse for the purpose of boosting its persuasive potential. It is based on author’s research and analysis of a corpus of religious texts and illustrates the use of credibility boosters by presenting examples selected from sources of several denominations and religious movements (Christians, Latter-Day Saints, Jehova’s Witnesses, United Christian Action, etc.). Besides, it statistically maps the distribution of credibility boosters across four samples used by Judaism and Christianity, Church of Latter-Day Saints, Heaven’s Gate, and Church of Scientology. It also points out recent trends in some of the persuasive mechanisms deployed to induce a change of individual’s opinion and/or behavior.

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  • 7.
    Dvorak, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna,.
    Fear Induction, Versatile Wide-Coverage Taints, Semantic Polarity and Semantic Association as Means of Persuasion in Religious Discourse2012Ingår i: International Symposium on Language and Communication: Research trends and challenges: Proceedings book, Izmir, Turkey: Institute of Language and Communication Studies , 2012, s. 497-509Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear occupies an undeniable portion of our lives and in most cases represents an incentive and driving force underlying our acts. The paper looks into discursive practices of generating fear through direct intimidation and by overemphasizing and/or fabricating versatile wide-coverage taints (reader’s/listener’s imperfections and flaws) deployed for the purpose of inducing feelings of guilt and insufficiency. It also tackles the issue of semantic polarity (juxtaposing two stylistically more or less identical but semantically opposing blocks of text) discussing its impact on the message recipient and the concepts it endeavors to establish in them in order to influence their future choices and conduct. Attention is also paid to semantic association, which proves to be another intimidating technique frequently utilized in religious discourse to supercharge selected lexical items with the meanings the writer/speaker purposefully attaches to these, thereby exploiting excessive signification (in the Saussurean sense) to achieve their intended persuasive effect.The paper, which is based on the author’s research and analysis of a corpus of religious texts, illustrates the individual phenomena by presenting examples selected from sources used by several denominations and religious movements (Christians, Latter-Day Saints, Jehova’s Witnesses, Satanists, Scientologists, etc.). Besides, it statistically maps the distribution of direct intimidation and versatile wide-coverage taints segments across these sources and points out the recent trends in persuasive mechanisms deployed to induce a change of individual’s opinion and/or behavior.

  • 8.
    Dvorák, Martin
    et al.
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Smrzova, Jana
    www.nefrologie.eu: Building an Electronic Source of Information on the Principles of Andragogy2010Ingår i: Alternativni metody vyuky 2010, Prague, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cooperation between a patient and their physician represents a pre-requisite for successful treatment. Provided the patient is well-informed and willing to cooperate, their illness turns out to progress more slowly and, as a result, they usually live longer than the one who is not as they are more likely to take precautions against medical complications associated with it. Moreover, the quality of such a person’s life is higher and treatment less expensive.The nefrologie.eu portal aims to educate patients, their relatives and other people interested in the area of kidney diseases. Apart from the provision of information on how to prevent and alleviate kidney-related disorders, the portal conducts a perpetual needs analysis thereby ensuring it is the areas that interest patients most that are widely covered by it. In this respect, it also serves as a needs analysis tool for doctors to monitor the fields patients most frequently lack information about allowing them to pinpoint and focus on these during their sessions with their own patients.As the counseling section comprises answers to the questions (800 up to now) the visitors (more than 200 a day) have posted via the site and thus contains concrete information relevant to the individual visitors’ past, present and future lives, its educational impact is facilitated through the personalization factor. What also contributes to the efficiency of the educational process is the fact the information is presented through multiple presentation channels and thus ensures sufficient repetitions and variations on themes.The paper also discusses other principles of andragogy that appear crucial in building a publicly available electronic information source targeting medical education of adults.

  • 9.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Language Acquisition in an Infant: Role of Context2009Ingår i: Janua linguarum reserata: linvisticke, lingvodidakticke a literarni reflexe pro nove milenium, Pilsen, 2009, s. 14-20Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the role different kinds of context (situational, physical, social, and linguistic) play in the development of infant's language during its individual stages (cooing, babbling, word and sentence formation) and attempts to delineate those contextual factors that the author considers most fruitful in the language acquisition process. Some attention is also paid to the peculiarities of bilingual upbringing such as language games the child himself/herself invents in the context of two languages (Czech vs. English) and calque creation. The paper lists numerous examples and its presentation is accompanied by audio and video material collected during research.

  • 10.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Language Acquisition in a Toddler and Factors Affecting its Speed2008Ingår i: Sociokulturni kompetence ve vyuce cizich jazyku, Praha, 2008, s. 5 s.-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the factors affecting the speed at which a toddler acquires language, chiefly new expressions and collocations. A special attention is paid to the individual functions of the child’s early language as described by M.A. K. Halliday (instrumental, regulatory, interactional, etc.) and the situations determining these. It also aims to point out idiosyncrasies of the acquisition process in terms of the infant’s exposure to two different languages – a major one (spoken by most of the members of the infant’s community) and the minor one (spoken by one of his/her parents only). Besides the theoretical background, the paper presents author’s practical examples and authentic recordings.

  • 11.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    ESP and Automated Large-Scale Testing2007Ingår i: Profilingua 2007: sbornik prispevku z konference, Pilsen, 2007, s. 6-9Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the nature of most university examinations, students often tend to concentrate their preparation efforts into a one-off act. This approach, however, proves ineffective when it comes to languages. The author introduced a method of regular testing that boosts the efficiency of English-teaching process in that it makes students prepare on a regular basis and minimizes the burden of handling numerous tests submitted in every round. The paper discuses the methodology of systematic computerized testing by means of answer sheets whose contents can be scanned and automatically evaluated.

  • 12. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Webova stranka www.nefrologie.eu: prvni zkusenosti2007Ingår i: Vnitřní lékařství - časopis České internistické společnosti a Slovenskej internistickej spoločnosti, ISSN 0042-773X, nr 5, s. 611-612Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Attention Boosters in ESP Lectures2006Ingår i: LSP in Higher Education, Searching for Common Solutions, Brno, 2006, s. 68-70Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To prove successful, language teaching requires a great deal of students’ participation in the process. However, students’ attention, a pre-requisite for such participation, tends to gradually wane as the lesson proceeds – a phenomenon that becomes yet more marked at lectures due to these not requiring listeners’ active involvement.The paper focuses on the means and techniques of keeping students attentive at ESP lectures (whose primary purpose is to acquaint them with IT-related vocabulary and advanced grammar structures) such as message encryption and decryption, use of metaphors, deviation from the expected, incorporation of grammar in the relevant socio-cultural context, etc.

  • 14. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    www.nefrologie.eu jako prostredek edukace pacientu2006Ingår i: Vnitrni lekarstvi, Brno, 2006, s. 1124-1124Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Practicing English Grammar by Means of Electronic Drilling Exercises2003Ingår i: Sbornik prispevku z konference Profilingua 2003, Dobra Voda, 2003, s. 20-22Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Language drills aimed at practising grammatical phenomena function as a useful tool utilized to serve language-teaching purposes. Besides, they turn out to be a convenient utility when it comes to practising and revising the already acquired grammar and vocabulary. However, trying to invent new sentences containing a particular grammatical phenomenon or vocabulary of a certain lexical stratum repetitively, the teacher may find themselves exhausted and frustrated. The electronic drilling exercises can represent an asset in this respect. The paper tackles the issue of usage as well as production of electronic drilling exercises which, after becoming public by being posted on an Internet site, provide the teacher with a powerful tool. Their pros and cons are mentioned and an electronic drill sample presented.

  • 16.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Internet Language Teaching, Production of Electronic Teaching Material2002Ingår i: Odborny jazyk v procesu evropske integrace, Prague, 2002, s. 40-43Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper tackles the issue of language teaching by means of language-based Internet websites paying particular attention to teaching the language for specialized purposes. It foreshadows the potential of Internet to function as a supplementary source of language information and training as well as that of self-contained material which is capable of covering virtually every area of language learning - grammar, spelling, specialized expressions, pronunciation etc. The emphasis is laid on how all the above mentioned categories can be combined and harmonized to produce concise worksheets targeting specific areas (biology, medicine, computer science etc.), their specialized terminology and merits of working with such material.The demonstration of samples of worksheets, tests and pronunciation exercises represents a major part of the paper. All these utilize web design (HTML, CGI scripts, JAVA scripts) and common methods of Internet audio transfer to meet the modern learner's language needs. The paper is given in English.

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