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  • 1.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    University of Gdansk, Sopot, Poland.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Spatial Policy Unit, Poland.
    Stalmokaitė, Ignė
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Turski, Jakub
    Spatial Policy Unit, Gdansk, Poland.
    Blue justice through and beyond equity and participation: a critical reading of capability-based recognitional justice in Poland’s marine spatial planning2024Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 67, nr 10, s. 2206-2228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While blue justice has gained traction, recognition and capability, which are necessary conditions for procedural and distributive justice, remain under-developed. We develop a four-dimensional blue justice framework that builds on recognition and capabilities to critically examine and advance justice in Poland’s marine spatial planning (MSP). We find that misrecognition of differential identities and capacities scripted powerless stakeholders out of participation and reduced possibilities for fair distribution. Conversely, MSP regulation augmented the rights of powerful actors through granting de jure “objecting” rights to some, inviting only strategic sectors to agenda-setting fora and, limiting MSP communication to meeting legal requirements. Several stakeholders also see defence and wind energy as key winners of MSP. While society will benefit from national security and energy sufficiency, especially given Russia’s increased weaponization of energy, many believe that financial profits from wind energy will accrue to developers. We offer governmental and planning measures to enhance capabilities. 

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  • 2.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Knol-Kauffman, Maaike
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Selim, Samiya Ahmed
    Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), Germany; University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Bangladesh.
    Introductory commentary: Marine conflicts and pathways to sustainability in an era of Blue Growth and climate change2024Ingår i: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, marine conflicts are growing in frequency and intensity due to increasing global demands for resources (Blue Growth) and climate change. This article introduces a collection in Maritime Studies on marine conflicts and pathways to sustainability in an era of Blue Growth and climate change. We posit that while conflict can be problematic, it can also play a positive role in bringing about societal change, by highlighting unsustainable and unjust practices and be a trigger for sustainability transformation. However, left unattended, festering marine conflict can hinder just and equitable sustainability transformation. We present two distinct, yet arguably complementary, lenses through which researchers working with sustainability engage with marine conflicts. First, a social-ecological systems approach engages in conflicts by examining the interdependencies between human and ecological systems and related governance arrangements, promoting collaborative learning and action, and exploring adaptive governance strategies that seek sustainability conflict resolution. Second, a political ecology approach addresses conflicts by examining power dynamics and resource (mal)distributions, arguing for fair governance, and emphasizing the need to address historical and current injustices that are at the root of conflicts. Next, we present insights on diverse sustainability transformational pathways, including the importance of searching for common ground and the need for the reconfiguration of power relations as key steps to understand and inform sustainability conflict research. We conclude by indicating that more sustainability research in marine conflict settings is needed and by forwarding intersectionality as a promising approach to productively reframe and disrupt the debilitating effects of deep-rooted marine sustainability conflicts. 

  • 3.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Avila, Marcela
    Universidad Arturo Prat, Chile; , Universidad de Magallanes, Chile.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Riquelme, Ricardo
    Universidad Arturo Prat, Chile.
    Rodriguez, Daniel
    Universidad Arturo Prat, Chile.
    Aroca, Gesica
    Universidad Arturo Prat, Chile.
    Gutierrez, Juan
    Universidad Arturo Prat, Chile.
    Prospects of equitable and sustainable seaweed aquaculture: a case study of changing gender and socio-economic relations in Maullín, Chile2024Ingår i: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the development of marine tenure in the Maullín River, Chile. It starts with the emergence of artisanal red algae (Gracilaria chilensis) gathering and the changes resulting from the governmental ad hoc allocation of small-scale aquaculture concessions. We aim to track this transition, its drivers, effects on the work organization, gender relations, market relations and the sustainability/equity challenges currently confronting the community. We use a feminist political ecology approach to direct our multi-method data collection strategy and to analyse the empirical material. The State by enabling local tenure for the development of marine aquaculture concessions played an influential role in Maullín community attaining de facto territorial tenure. This led to the establishment of residential aquaculture communities while facilitating the integration of women in aquaculture activities. We see both steps as positive economic and social development opportunities in Maullín. While marine tenure has provided livelihood chances, low prices caused by the producers’ disadvantaged market position and the lack of supportive alliance building pose ongoing problems. We conclude that these factors are serious challenges to the sustainability of aquacultural livelihoods at Maullín River. While the case depicts aspects of women’s empowerment such as their engagement in developing potential post-production innovation ideas, entrepreneurial abilities to conduct market transactions as well as their better competence in literacy, math and financial expertise, there is still a long way to reach gender equality in the male-dominated aquacultural sector. © 2024, The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Stalmokaitė, Ignė
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Armoškaitė, A.
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Latvia; Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ikauniece, A.
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Latvia.
    Matczak, M.
    Gdynia Maritime University, Poland.
    Turski, J.
    Gdynia Maritime University, Poland.
    Zaucha, J.
    Gdynia Maritime University, Poland; University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Exploring social justice in marine spatial planning: planner and stakeholder perspectives and experiences in the Baltic Sea Region2023Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the increasing traction of social justice in marine spatial planning (MSP) by exploring perceptions and experiences of social justice from the viewpoint of planners and different social groups who were included and (self)excluded in MSP processes. The study builds on empirical material from Poland, Latvia, and Germany consisting of interviews, MSP legislation, and documents that were analysed through the lens of a multidimensional social justice framework centring on recognition, representation, distribution, and capabilities. Results indicate that MSP institutional arrangements constrain possibilities for marginalised and less consolidated actor groups (residents, coastal tourism, and small-scale fisheries) to enjoy the same degree of recognition that is given to groups representing strategic national interests (renewable energy and shipping). We also highlight the role of planners’ self-reflectivity in enhancing/depriving capabilities of vulnerable social groups whose wellbeing and multidimensional relationships with the sea call for institutional responses adaptive to specific planning contexts. 

  • 5.
    Tafon, Ralph
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Armoskaite, Aurelija
    Aalborg University, Denmark; Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Latvia.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ikauniece, Anda
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Latvia.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mainstreaming coastally just and equitable marine spatial planning: Planner and stakeholder experiences and perspectives on participation in Latvia2023Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 242, artikel-id 106681Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Community participation and influence are vitally important for meeting the multidimensional sustainability aims of marine spatial planning (MSP) and more specifically for procedural and distributive justice. While participation has received substantial research interest, we identify a need to: 1) develop equity-based principles for coastal community participation that can be used to assess and reform MSP practices; 2) generate rich empirical accounts of coastal community participation and representation linked to real-world MSP practices. Here we present the results of a study that synthesizes critical MSP and blue justice scholarship to develop principles and indicators of coastally equitable and just planning. Drawing on interviews with planners and stakeholders and analysis of planning and legal documents, these principles are used to assess participatory processes linked to Latvian MSP practices in the period 2015 to 2019. Our analysis shows that equitable and just MSP needs to be based on participation that is timely, inclusive, supportive & localized, collaborative, methodical and impactful. When applied to the Latvian case these six principles provide a comprehensive and versatile heuristic approach to assess participation in MSP. In the context of Latvian MSP practices, we revealed a fundamental challenge of maintaining inclusive and localized participation throughout the full planning cycle. To counteract the successive narrowing/hardening of participatory space our results indicate a need for continuously promoting diversity of voices and perspectives, opportunities for collaborative sense making, visioning and critique. This will help to bridge diverse MSP divides (e.g., between land and sea, between local, national, and global values and priorities, between science and local knowledge, and between blue growth, conservation, and justice goals). If applied more generally in research and as part of MSP evaluation an equity-based approach can promote the mainstreaming of coastally just and equitable MSP practices. Finally, considering contextual factors (e.g., history, culture, power, legislation) that shape participation and representation is crucial when applying the equity principles to a particular MSP setting to acknowledge and accommodate its particular characteristics and challenges.

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  • 6.
    Tafon, Ralph
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Pikner, Tarmo
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Multispecies blue justice and energy transition conflict: examining challenges and possibilities for synergy between low-carbon energy and justice for humans and nonhuman nature2023Ingår i: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 22, artikel-id 45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores deep insights into sustainability transition tensions and pathways in terms of place-based conflict and potential for synergies between offshore wind energy (OWE) development and justice for humans and nonhuman nature. Specifically, we build a capability and recognition-based multispecies blue justice framework that at once centers ecological reflexivity (i.e., environmental awareness-raising, proxy representation of nature, and institutional recognition and protection of rights of nature and human-nature relationality), decenters anthropocentric frames of justice, and sheds light on injustices, human and nonhuman that climate and energy transitions may create or reinforce. This framework then informs analysis of a sustainability transition conflict, specifically a longstanding OWE conflict on Hiiumaa island, Estonia. This analysis unravels justice concerns, human and nonhuman, raised by proxy representatives of nature (i.e., grassroots actors and environmental stewards), the knowledge contestations involved, and the resolution measures undertaken thus far. Next, we discuss the possible transformative role of the OWE conflict, including how a Supreme Court ruling invalidating the OWE plan has fostered reflexive planning and may have set a legal precedent that may have human and nonhuman justice implications for the handling of future planning cases. We then highlight remaining challenges for socially and ecologically responsive OWE deployment. These include the judicial non-recognition of nature’s right as well as environmental values and sociocultural ties to nature as rights worth protecting, and the likely effects that formalization of European Union ambitions to speed-up and ramp-up renewable energy could have locally. These include prospects for environmental stewards and ocean defenders to steer nature-positive, people-centered energy transitions. Last, we propose conditions for enhanced multispecies justice, including how formal interventions (e.g., law) and informal practices (e.g., negotiation, awareness-raising) can be harnessed to unlock productive conflict and align energy transitions with the norms of justice, human and nonhuman.

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  • 7.
    Chaplin-Kramer, R.
    et al.
    World Wildlife Fund, USA.
    Neugarten, R. A.
    Cornell University, USA.
    Gonzalez-Jimenez, D.
    National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico.
    Ahmadia, G.
    World Wildlife Fund, USA.
    Baird, T. D.
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    Crane, N.
    One People One Reef, USA; Society for Conservation Biology, USA, Cabrillo College, USA.
    Delgoulet, E.
    Paris.
    Eyster, H. N.
    University of Vermont, USA.
    Kurashima, N.
    Kamehameha Schools, USA; University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, USA; Hawaiʻi Conservation Alliance, USA.
    Llopis, J. C.
    School of Natural Sciences, USA; Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Millington, A.
    University of Cambridge, USA.
    Pawlowska-Mainville, A.
    University of Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Rulmal, J.
    One People One Reef, USA.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Shrestha, S.
    Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science, USA.
    Vaughan, M. B.
    University of Hawai at Mānoa, USA; University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant Program, USA.
    Winter, K. B.
    Hawaiʻi Conservation Alliance, USA; University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, USA.
    Wongbusarakum, S.
    University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, USA; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Cambodia; University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant Program, USA.
    Pascual, U.
    Scientific Campus of the University of the Basque Country, Spain; Ikerbasque Basque Foundation for Science, Spain; University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Transformation for inclusive conservation: Evidence on values, decisions, and impacts in protected areas2023Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 64, artikel-id 101347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As countries consider new area-based conservation targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity, protected areas (PAs) and their impacts on people and nature are coming under increasing scrutiny. We review the evidence base on PA impacts, combining the findings from existing rigorous impact evaluations with local case studies developed for this study. We identify characteristics of PA establishment and management that improve the sustainability of biodiversity conservation and justice for local communities. We find that recognizing and respecting local values and knowledge about natural resource stewardship, colearning, and comanagement are key to achieving positive impacts for nature and people. Transforming PA governance toward more inclusive conservation depends upon the ability of PAs to be designed and implemented around the values and needs of local people. 

  • 8.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Glavovic, Bruce
    Massey University, New Zeeland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Oceans of Conflict: Pathways to an Ocean Sustainability PACT2022Ingår i: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 213-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Festering ocean conflict thwarts efforts to realize the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This paper explores transformations of ocean conflict into situated sustainability pathways that privilege human needs, justice and equity. We first outline the promise and limits of prevailing ocean/coastal governance practices, with a focus on marine spatial planning (MSP), which by framing conflict in shallow terms as use incompatibility, supports resolution strategies that privilege neoliberal technocratic-managerial and post-political models of consensual negotiation, thereby obscuring the structural inequalities, maldistributions and misrecognitions that drive deep-seated conflicts. Next, the distinctive features of the marine realm and ocean conflict are explained. Third, we outline the root causes, drivers and scale of conflict, with reference to history, climate, culture, governance, institutions and prevailing international socio-political conditions. Fourth, we reflect on the nature of conflict, exploring implications for shallow and deeper approaches of handling conflicts. Fifth, we highlight the implications of knowledge co-production for understanding and transforming conflict in pursuit of justice. Then, in response to the orthodoxies of MSP and prevailing conflict resolution strategies, we elaborate an alternative approach – Pragmatic Agonistic co-produced Conflict Transformation (PACT) for sustainability – sketching out key elements of a praxis that seeks to transform destructive interaction patterns of conflict into co-produced, constructive, scalable and ‘institutionalizable’ yet contestable and provisional sustainability knowledge-action.

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    Tafon et al. 2021
  • 9.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Armoskaite, A.
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Latvia; Aalborg University Copenhage, Denmark.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, J.
    University of Gdańsk, Poland; Maritime Institute in Gdansk of Gdynia Maritime University, Poland.
    In search of social sustainability in marine spatial planning: A review of scientific literature published 2005–20202021Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 208, artikel-id 105618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of commentators have argued that up until now marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) research and practice have been dominated by blue economy and environmental concerns and have tended to neglect what might be regarded as social sustainability concerns. To gain more insight into the character and extent of such a gap, as well as how to address it, this article examines how social sustainability has been addressed in peer reviewed scientific articles on MSP between 2005 and 2020. Using search terms such as participation, democracy, social inclusion, social cohesion, equity we systematically identify and review 310 scientific articles that address diverse social sustainability concerns within MSP and marine governance. The review showed that very few papers systematically conceptualised or developed a coherent framework for engaging with social sustainability. Instead, they mostly addressed particular social concerns including participation and engagement, equity and social justice, socio-cultural values and preferences. Marine management and planning efficiency, as well as related instrumental framings of the merits of participation were the key arguments for including these dimensions of social sustainability in MSP. In terms of how to better include social sustainability in MSP, most attention was given to social-cultural mapping and ways to improve social inclusion/participation while also redressing exclusion and maldistribution of outcomes in MSP practice. We conclude that there is a need to deepen and diversify MSP inquiry with respect to social sustainability. In particular, scholars would do well to delve deeper and more broadly in social science literature to find inspiration on ways to understand and elucidate social issues. Here, the enormous body of relevant work on justice, power, critical institutionalism, political ecology and terrestrial planning literatures has hardly been tapped. It is also evident from this review that there is a need for both the academic and practice-based communities to more comprehensively address how the multidimensions of social sustainability interact with each other, as well as with economic and environmental aspects of marine planning and governance. Based on these observations, we highlight a set of suggestions on how to develop MSP research and practice on social sustainability. Most importantly, we argue that more in-depth co-production, linking scholars, practitioners and society actors, is needed. 

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  • 10.
    Stalmokaitė, Ignė
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sustainability transformations – research in the Baltic and beyond2021Ingår i: Baltic Rim Economies review, Vol. 5, s. 2s. 20-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and promoting sustainability is one of the key concerns across research, policy-making and everyday lifestyle choices. At the same time, there is growing acknowledgement that responding to sustainability challenges such as biodiversity loss, climate justice and decarbonisation, among others, is rife with differences about what sustainability transformation means and implies across different settings, including the Baltic. The multifaceted character of the sustainability conundrum highlights a range of interrelated questions. For example, what repercussions the promotion of local solutions may have for long-term sustainability paths at national, regional and global levels? How to value ethical, political, social and scientific views on which problems to prioritise and whose knowledge counts? In response, universities are increasingly partnering with stakeholders in solution-oriented sustainability research projects. We understand sustainability transformations as fundamental to how societal, institutional, and technological domains interact towards just, legitimate and enduring arrangements. This perspective provides opportunities to reflect on the complexities of societal change towards sustainability, including who should be involved in partnering for change, what constitutes positive change in particular contexts, how change could come about as well as who benefits and who loses. We relate to these questions with illustrations from research projects undertaken in the Baltic and beyond.

  • 11.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, FredSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.Sokolova, TatianaEnvirohealthMatters, Sweden.
    Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South2020Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Sokolova, Tatiana
    et al.
    EnvirohealthMatters, Sweden.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Introduction: Learning to Learn from the Complex Interactions and Dilemmas of Field Research2020Ingår i: Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South / [ed] Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Fred Saunders, Tatiana Sokolova, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, s. 1-12Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Kidd, Sue
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Calado, Helena
    University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Marine Spatial Planning and sustainability: Examining the roles of integration - Scale, policies, stakeholders and knowledge2020Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 191, artikel-id 105182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has been heralded as the key means of achieving a more integrated approach to marine use across sectors and spatial scales. Achieving greater integration and coherence in MSP governance arrangements is seen as a way to resolve current problems of marine governance (such as fragmentation) and address future resource demands in a sustainable way. However, there is a lack of clarity and consensus in practice regarding sustainability in MSP, both in terms of MSP governance practices and sustainable resource use. For example, how are we to treat the environment in MSP? Should we conceive the environment as just another sector with interests to be negotiated, or as the very boundary condition that limits possibilities for maritime activities and developments? How do we integrate diverse views on this in MSP decision-making? This is but one example of an integration challenge in MSP important for sustainability. There are numerous others. Integration is intimately connected to the ability of MSP to deliver sustainable marine resource use at various levels and scales. The roles of integration are diverse and interconnected, including those that affect social-ecological integration or land-sea interaction, but also aspects of good governance and social sustainability. The latter include inter-sectoral decisionmaking, stakeholder engagement, cross-border interaction and knowledge pluralism. How integration is exercised in these procedural aspects of MSP is likely to substantively affect outcomes both in terms of sustainable blue growth or the ability to deliver an ecosystem-based approach. Integration as a policy and analytical problem to be addressed has also been discussed elsewhere – most saliently in the fields of sustainable development, ICZM, environmental policy integration, planning theory and socio-ecological systems. While there has been some work on integration in MSP, additional insight is needed: to better empirically ground the roles of integration in MSP, to understand the multidimensionality and interdependencies of integration dimensions and to unpack what ‘balance’ might mean for understanding and pursuing sustainability in different MSP contexts. In response, this special issue aims to explore the roles, problems and opportunities of various types of integration in relation to MSP's sustainability ambitions.

  • 14.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sokolova, Tatiana
    EnvirohealthMatters, Sweden.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Kokko, Suvi
    Reflections on a Process of Research with Reindeer Herding Communities in Sweden’s Norrbotten2020Ingår i: Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South / [ed] Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Fred Saunders, Tatiana Sokolova, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, s. 151-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ikauniece, Anda
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Riga, Latvia.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    University of Gdańsk, Sopot, Poland / Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Theorizing Social Sustainability and Justice in Marine Spatial Planning: Democracy, Diversity, and Equity2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikel-id 2560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates a conceptual framework to examine social sustainability in marinespatial planning (MSP). Based on a critical literature review of key texts on social sustainabilityin MSP and the broader sustainable development literature we show the need to elaborate acogent and comprehensive approach for the analysis and pursuit of social sustainability linkedto the sea. We then theorize social sustainability by developing a conceptual framework throughintegrating three dimensions: Recognition, Representation and Distribution. While these three socialsustainability/justice features clearly overlap and are interdependent in practice, the conceptualthinking underpinning each of them is distinctive and when taken together they contributetowards conceiving social sustainability as a pillar of sustainability. Our approach can support ananalysis/evaluation of MSP in that, first, its broad scope and adaptability makes it suitable to examinethe wide range of claims, demands, and concerns that are likely to be encountered across dierentpractical MSP settings. Second, it acknowledges the opportunities and challenges of assessing,implementing, and achieving social justice within a broader sustainability framework.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Nthane, Tsele T.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa / Abalobi NPO, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Toward Sustainability of South African Small-Scale Fisheries Leveraging ICT Transformation Pathways2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 1-22, artikel-id 743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Though Internet and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been employed in small-scale fisheries (SSFs) globally, they are seldom systematically explored for the ways in which they facilitate equality, democracy and sustainability. Our study explored how ICTs in South African small-scale fisheries are leveraged towards value chain upgrading, collective action and institutional sustainability—key issues that influence small-scale fishery contributions to marine resource sustainability. We held a participatory workshop as part of ongoing research in the town of Lambert’s Bay, South Africa, in collaboration with small-scale fishers and the Abalobi ICT project. We mapped fisher value chain challenges and explored the role of ICT-driven transformation pathways, adopting Wright’s ‘Real Utopian’ framework as the lens through which to explore equality, democracy and institutional sustainability. We found Abalobi’s ICT platform had the potential to facilitate deeper meanings of democracy that incorporate socio-economic reform, collective action and institutional sustainability in South Africa’s small-scale fisheries. Where fishers are not engaged beyond passive generators of data, this had the potential to undermine the goals of increasing power parity between small-scale fisheries and other stakeholders.

  • 17.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Transdisciplinary Challenges in the Process of Co-producing Transformation Research with Small-scale Fishers: Case Studies from Chile and Poland2020Ingår i: Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South / [ed] Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Fred Saunders, Tatiana Sokolova, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, s. 35-58Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019Ingår i: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha; Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 175-199Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 19.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

    Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

    Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 20.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Fred Saunders.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Day, Jon. C.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    McCann, Jennifer
    Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Smythe, Tiffany
    United States Coast Guard Academy, USA.
    Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings2019Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Maack, Lotta
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Morff, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk & University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles2019Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, nr 175, s. 98-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, CORPI, Lithuania.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning2019Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, nr 169, s. 254-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU MSP Directive is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room foradaptation to national contexts. The main objective in this article is to identify and analyse potential obstacles toeffective and efficient planning caused by the diversity among national MSP frameworks that the Directive'sbroad regulatory boundaries have led to. It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially betweenneighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across national borders. Divergence betweennational MSP frameworks can also emerge from how political, jurisdictional and, administrative systemsand traditions are organised in different Member States. It is shown that neighbouring countries can divergesubstantially in how the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability are balanced, which canmake transnational coordination challenging. Furthermore, it is shown that stakeholder consultations differamong Member States in terms of, for example, who were invited, how the consultations were undertaken, andthe role they play in relation to political decision-making. Because of these, and other differences in how MSPframeworks are being developed in the Member States, it is suggested that regional integration should bepromoted with discretion. From this perspective, it seems reasonable to embrace diversity, while simultaneouslypromoting the adaptive management of coordination problems at lower levels, when, or if, they emerge or canbe foreseen. Thus, increased integration of national MSP frameworks should be viewed as an instrument toreduce concrete efficiency losses, rather than as an intrinsic good.

  • 23.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 754-768Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a radical approach to achieving sustainable development objectives at sea. While critics challenge its avowed radicalness, often through highlighting dominative processes, more insidious mechanisms of restricted agency remain under-elaborated, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This paper offers a more robust and balanced reading of MSP/power. First, drawing on Haugaard, we read MSP as providing actors with dispositional power to act in concert, thus entailing a move from the risks of ‘resource rush’ to structuring, which facilitates predictability and promotes agency. However, MSP’ing may also restrict agency when (1) powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to pursue sectoral goals; (2) planning fantasies and the planner’s cognitive limitation sustain dominative power-relations; and (3) in setting the boundaries of MSP, bias is mobilized in favor of vested interests. We thus deploy Foucault’s notion of freedom, to analyze the relationship between ‘steering’ and resistance subjectivities, and his concept of parrhesias to consider to what extent, an ethico-political planner may contribute towards more equitable processes and outcomes. We conclude that besides the planner, the state as the ultimate authority in MSP must intervene substantively to minimize differentials in the distribution of actors’social resources.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon2019Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 41-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.

  • 25.
    Gallardo-Fernandez, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    “Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice”: Women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile2018Ingår i: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 177-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Global South are increasingly subjected to the internationalisation of food systems. Guided by a feminist political ecology approach, we examine how gender relations and power structures within SSF are changing through policy interventions and market linkages. Chilean women working in SSF have traditionally been unregistered direct producers. Since the early 2000s, however, women have formally entered as fishers within this hitherto male-dominated space. Today, women constitute almost a quarter of artisanal fishers in Chile. While women have become more visible, among others, in their engagement in territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs), little research attention has been paid to women’s roles within SSF. We redress this shortfall by examining the struggle to obtain TURFs by an all-women seaweed gatherers union in Coliumo (Bio-Bio Region, Chile). Using participatory research tools, we describe key gendered interactions and events over a local struggle for resources. Our findings show how closely related episodes of cooperation and conflict were involved in realising TURFs, which included differently-gendered relationships. While the women implicated in formalising fishing entitlements accrued individual benefit and enhanced their collective standing, the conflict left a deep scar among women in the community.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    GallardoSaunders2018
  • 26.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz- Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung, Germany.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Joanna Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Jacek Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE: Deliverable 2.7: New generation EU Directives and the role of transnational coordination: Marine Spatial Planning of the Baltic Sea2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSP Directive) from 2014 is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room for adaptation to national contexts. Because of this larger room for adaptation, transposition becomes a process of designing domestic policy frameworks that fulfil the broad requirements of the Directive, rather than a simple and linear implementation procedure. However, allowing Member States to design marine spatial planning frameworks that fit domestic contexts, have thus far meant that regional coherence suffers. Although the pivotal role of transnational coordination is emphasised in the Directive, it does not stipulate how to set up such coordination, and the Member States have not yet been able to achieve much of self-organising in this area.A closer look is in this report taken on four policy-dimensions that are emphasised in the MSP Directive: Planning approach, Organisation, Sustainability, and Stakeholder inclusion. Based on in-depth case studies carried out in the BALTSPACE research project on MSP frameworks in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden, examples of coordination and coherency challenges are described and discussed for each dimension.It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially between neighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across country borders. Even though they share the same (EU) regulatory pressures, Latvia and Lithuania, for example, are developing national MSP frameworks based on quite different conceptual foundations. Whereas Latvia has taken the Ecosystem Approach as a point of departure for constructing a new MSP framework, Lithuania has instead chosen to adapt existing functional zoning approaches to management of maritime areas. Such diversity may be possible to explain because of differing domestic contexts, but may nevertheless lead to coordination problems when coordination is needed.Divergence between national MSP frameworks can also emerge from different political, jurisdictional and, administrative systems and traditions, that is, in societal organisation. In an example based on case studies undertaken in Denmark and Sweden, it is shown that degree of societal centralisation and distribution of political power can be related to differences in how environmental protection and blue growth are prioritised. However, it is difficult to tell whether diverging prioritisations have led to differences on organisation, or of it is the other way around, that differences in organisation have led to diverging prioritisations.It is stated in the MSP Directive that the overarching objective is to promote sustainable development. The focus on sustainable development can be said to reflect the Directive’s new generation characteristics. The concept of sustainable development is broad and imprecise, which facilitates political agreement. However, when more precise details must be addressed, disagreements may surface that make implementation challenging. In cases where neighbouring countries diverge substantially on how ecological, economic and social sustainable ought to be balanced, finding agreements on how to coordinate policies and practices, when needed, can be difficult. Based on case studies in Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden, it is, for example, argued that adoption of functional zoning or the Ecosystem Approach may not say much about how ecological, economic, and social dimensions are prioritised in different countries.Stakeholder consultations of some kind have historically been undertaken in all Baltic Sea countries. However, how such consultations have been undertaken, who have been invited, and the role the consultations play in relation to political decision-making differ, as shown in examples from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland. Because the MSP Directive is silent on how to design stakeholder consultations – it only says that they should be held – there is no political pressure on regional coordination. It is not clear from our data if these differences cause efficiency losses due to coordination deficits, but a reasonable assumption is that when, for example, marine natural resources are shared between two or more countries, jointly designed and undertaken consultations on specific transboundary issues potentially can promote transparency, understanding, and coordination.In conclusion, it is suggested that while regional coherency is often called for as a means to reduce inefficiencies, it might not be a good idea to integrate without discretion. Considering that the MSP Directive allows domestic context to matter when Member States design national MSP frameworks and that adaptation to domestic context is likely to reduce implantation gaps and increase the legitimacy of marine spatial planning, a more reasonable objective can be to embrace domestic diversity, while simultaneously adaptively promoting possibilities to solve coordination problems at lower levels, if they emerge or can be foreseen. From this perspective, increased coherence is a tool to reduce efficiency losses, rather than an intrinsic good.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

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    Hassler et al Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning
  • 28.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community2018Ingår i: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The agri-pastoralist communities of the semi-arid region of Chile, with their unusual common land ownership, have not escaped economic neo-liberalism. The general pattern of insatiable demand of land for agricultural production, mining, energy generation and real-estate development has become a challenge for these communities. How are these processes affecting the traditional practices of these localized agri-food systems, based on rain-fed-agriculture, pastoralism and the fading practice of transhumance? In this article, we look at how the Huentelauquén Agricultural Community in the Canela Commune has dealt with, reacted to, and been affected by regional economic shifts geared towards market liberalization. In particular, we analyze the structural changes in the community in regard to alienation of the commons and changes in land tenure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants in this setting. To provide a richer contextual setting, this article draws on several other empirically-based works on the commons’ emergence and evolution, land commoditization and local struggles for livelihoods. Our study shows that a community can adopt different strategies when dealing with powerful sectoral development that can involve resistance as well as positioning that seeks to find favorable terms of engagement. Our findings highlight that processes affecting the traditional commons are resulting in the re-appropriation and re-occupation of the land. This is resulting in social differentiation, weakening of the community’s social bonds, depeasantization and further degradation of an already vulnerable ecosystem. In sum, these shifts are posing an existential threat to this form of traditional agri-pastoralism. 

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    fulltext
  • 29. Gallardo, Gloria
    et al.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Efterord – förändringens horisont2018Ingår i: Ekonomi för Antropocen: skiftet till en hållbar värld / [ed] Robert Österbergh ; Mikael Malmaeus, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2018, s. 338-349Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 30.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ávila, Marcela
    Isakson, Alberto
    Greco, Iván
    Moscoso, Patricia
    Rodríguez, Daniel
    Granjeras del Mar: Luchas y Sueños en Coliumo2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the book is to make visible the history and aspirations of the Union of Independent Workers of Artisanal Fishermen, Shore Harvesters and Seaweed collectors, Caleta Coliumo − which in spite of its masculine name is composed only of women. In doing so the authors hope to contribute to supporting the Union’s ongoing struggle to secure productive livelihoods and contribute more widely to coastal sustainability in the region. These are goals that we think should involve partnerships between scientists, fishing organizations and local, regional and national authorities. The book is also a contribution to the general discussion on the Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB) and especially to the entry of women into fishing in Chile.

    More particularly, this book focuses on the experience of women in Coliumo, in southern Chile (Bío-Bío region), who in the heat of the struggle for coastal resources with fishermen from an adjacent fishing cove, organized themselves and were successful in applying for and obtaining exclusive use rights in coastal marine areas under the system of Territorial Rights of Use for Fishing (TURFs). Gaining entitlements to TURFs soon evolved into a new struggle for resources, this time among women aligned with different fishing unions in Coliumo. The outcome of this struggle was the creation of a second TURFs, again governed only by an all-women fishing union. This demonstrated once again, that in addition to the women’s role as seaweed collectors, they were able to effectively exercise their recently acquired negotiation and managerial skills. These were capacities that even local fishermen came to admire. What began as a conflict with fishermen from another cove, became an avenue where two all-women fishing unions became managers of two TURFs entitlements in the village.  The women’s capacities to effectively manage their TURFs entitlements and related resources has resulted in increases in income and enhanced standing in their communities. The fishing union examined in the study will soon be moving up the value chain from seaweed collectors to producers. With the support of the State, there are also plans to develop small-scale algae aquaculture. Through the collective exercise of their own agency the women of Coliumo have empowered themselves not only as fishers and workers but also as resource managers, entrepreneurs and community leaders.

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  • 31.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The Ecosystem Approach and Sustainable Development in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning: The Social Pillar, a ‘Slow Train Coming’2018Ingår i: The Ecosystem Approach in Ocean Planning and Governance: Perspectives from Europe and Beyond / [ed] David Langlet; Rosemary Rayfuse, Nijhoff: Brill Nijhoff, 2018, s. 160-194Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter develops an analytical framework, drawing on the multidimensional role of integration, to explore how the Ecosystem Approach (EA) is variously conceived and practiced in marine spatial planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea region (BSR). This framework is used to examine how EA practices reflect differing conceptions of sustainable development (SD) in Baltic marine and coastal areas. This work intersects with several of the other chapters on marine planning in this volume by explicitly exploring links between EA and SD through examination of in-depth BSR case studies. Results reveal that EA principles for MSP developed at the international level (HELCOM/VASAB) and in some national MSP settings (e.g. Latvia), combined with a common assumption of ecological limits to development, largely acknowledge a wide definition of EA as a governance approach building on societal choice and diverse knowledge inclusion (as seen e.g. in the Malawi principles). However, looking at more specific guidelines and MSP practices, there is a significant gap between espoused principles and the practical implementation of EA in BSR MSP, especially regarding social aspects of sustainability such as participation, social inclusion and knowledge pluralism. While work on ecological services in EA looks promising as a means of developing joined-up thinking between ecological and economic interests, it is uncertain whether this approach can deliver on EA’s social sustainability ambitions. We conclude the chapter by discussing ways that could strengthen the social pillar in MSP as a form of governance to bridge the gap between EA principles and practice.

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    fulltext
  • 32.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Klaipėda University Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Janßen, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

  • 33.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    c Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

  • 34.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 35.
    Zaucha, J.
    et al.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    d Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Gee, K.
    f Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Turski, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS Policy Brief: Challenges and Possibilities for MSP integration in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 769-782Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sokolova, Tatiana
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017Ingår i: Journal of Political Ecology, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, s. 667-691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

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  • 39.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Complex Shades of Green: Gradually Changing Notions of the 'Good Farmer' in a Swedish Context2016Ingår i: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 391-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are ever-growing demands on farmers to consider the wider environmental implications of production, not least in the Baltic Sea Region where concerns about agricultural-related eutrophication are significant. In Sweden, farmers are being nudged through voluntary agri-environmental measures, enticed by the market and compelled to make the transition from a productivist agriculture to a multifunctional one. Drawing on the ‘good farmer’ concept, inspired by Bourdieu, this paper studies Swedish conventional and agri-environmental farmers’ views and reflections on the changing relationship between farming practices and the environment. The paper finds that despite 25 years of agri-environmental policy in Sweden, some conventional farmers are still mired in a narrow productivist mindset. That said, the study concludes that we should be wary of conceiving the ‘good farmer’ too strictly in productivist terms, given that the ‘rules of the agricultural game’ in Sweden are leading to a more divergent farmer habitus. Farmers are looking for opportunities within the multifunctional agricultural field, which increasingly demands and expects all farmers to embed social and environmental goals into production considerations.

  • 40.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala University, Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Van Tuyen, Truong
    Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietman.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Marciniak, Boguslaw
    Dıaz Pla, Rodrigo
    Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile.
    Transformation of small-scale fisheries: critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilities2016Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, nr June, s. 26-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.

  • 41.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    A Discussion of the Debates Underpinning Agri-Environmental Schemes as a form of Payment for Ecological Services2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Payments for Ecological Services (PES) has rapidly emerged around the world as a key environmental governance approach. This paper is concerned with Agricultural Environmental Schemes (AES) as a particular form of PES to improve the environmental performance of agriculture particularly in relation to water quality in Sweden. Win-win descriptions prevail in AES policy discourse to describe the simultaneous achievement of environmental goals and economic outcomes for farmers. AES are underpinned by an instrumental assumption that farmer behaviour can be influenced towards adopting better environmental practice by providing monetary incentives (or at least compensation). This paper has touched on a number of contentions in the PES literature, including: doubts about how well standardised PES schemes link with local conditions; how and whether PES schemes can engender local innovation; procedural and distributive equity concerns; claims that monetary incentives may ‘crowd out’ socially derived sources of motivation (local norms); and doubts about whether PES schemes, disembedded from local institutions, can deliver ‘sufficient’ environmental behavioural change. Given the relatively recent emergence of AES schemes, it is important that we learn more from the experience of implementation. Critically oriented empirically-based research then has the capacity to work as a circuit breaker between ideologically driven arguments that side either for or against the use of market mechanisms, such as AES for environmental governance. Such insights may be useful to help focus research on farmer engagement with AES that subjects it to greater empirical scrutiny and validation.

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  • 42.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Planetary boundaries: at the threshold… again: sustainable development ideas and politics2015Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 823-835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications of the planetary boundaries (PBs) proposal involves scien- tific, moral and political dimensions. The core of the PBs idea is that humankind is transgressing global environmental tipping points resulting in changed conditions that threaten to unravel human progress. The growing status of the proposal potentially makes it a highly influential organising concept that seems to contain within it aspirations to dra- matically reconstitute the relationship between society and the environment—thereby transforming the politics of sustainable development. This paper situates PBs in contem- porary green thinking. Key planning events and related documents supporting the Post- 2015 Development Agenda process are then examined to identify strategies and reactions to the PB proposal. The findings show that divisions reminiscent of older North/South environment and development tensions related to the role of experts, democracy and the Right to Development threaten to prevent PBs from being mainstreamed in key UN environment and development programmes and fora.

  • 43.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Power and resistance in Cameroon: strategies, intentionality, intersectionality, and shifting spaces and identities2015Ingår i: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 321-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest communities in Cameroon engage in social transformation when faced with social injustices and uneven power relations in their interactions with local state authorities and transnational corporations. It focuses on the different strategies that marginalized resource-dependent communities employ in resisting existing forms of domination manifested in public–private-community forest governance relations. We show how power operates in closed governance spaces to work against equitable, democratic and effective policy-making. We take as a point of departure that resistance or social change cannot be understood in isolation from power. Moreover, we engage with the intentionality debate and make the case that some forms of resistance are goal oriented in character. We reveal how disenfranchised communities, using powerful traditional ritual as a form of public protest, can effectively open up closed spaces and obtain effective participation in processes denied them. Our findings have significance for resistance and power debates relating to intentionality, intersectionality and outcomes.

  • 44.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Power Relations and Cassava: Conservation and Development in Cameroon2015Ingår i: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 82-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking conservation and development activities requires local institutional change that can deliver global conservation as well as local socioeconomic benefits. Participatory approaches are considered a key element to this end, although recent research demonstrates that they may reinforce existing inequitable governance systems. This article examines microinstitutional formations and development interventions in the Mount Cameroon National Park. The study found that blending new governance approaches with traditional institutions at Mount Cameroon National Park led to diminished participation of the project and a failure to listen to and deliver meaningful development opportunities to Bavenga villagers. The article concludes that while local participation and governance institutions constitute laudable additions to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects, the implications of reproducing traditional authority structures must be carefully considered, and locally grounded development opportunities need to be better embedded into these projects.

  • 45.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The promise of common pool resource theory and the reality of commons projects2014Ingår i: International Journal of the Commons, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 636-656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.

  • 46.
    Rabe, Linn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice?2013Ingår i: Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 0856-860X, E-ISSN 2683-6416, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 133-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.

  • 47.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently: A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity Conservation2013Ingår i: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 3-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions  of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.

  • 48.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar2011Ingår i: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 261-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    The Politics of People - Not Just Mangroves and Monkeys: A study of the theory and practice of community-based management of natural resources in Zanzibar2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based management of natural resource (CBNRM) projects have commonly failed to deliver conservation and development benefits. This thesis examined how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory have contributed to the indifferent performance of CBNRM projects. Evidence was gathered from two CBNRM case studies in Zanzibar to show that CPR institutional design does not sufficiently acknowledge the politics or social relations of project sites. Moreover, these limitations reduce CPR theory's explanatory power and the functionality of CBNRM projects. This is because CPR theory's influence on CBNRM projects is to frame people with fixed identities and related interests as 'rational resource users', rather than people enrolled in multiple network relations with differentiated means of influence, interests and responsibilities. Actor-oriented theory is used to show that CBNRM would benefit from a shift in the correlation with institutional design factors to understanding the operation of power and conflict at project sites. These findings suggest that currently CBNRM projects are too mired in concern about regulating the 'direct' relationship between resource users and conservation objectives, with problematic implications. It is shown that actor-oriented theory is more sensitive to the different capacities, interests and strategies of actors in CBNRM institutional transformation processes. While actor-oriented theory does not offer a parsimonious or predictive theory to reform CPR theory or CBNRM policy, it can provide insights into pre-project conditions and emergent practice useful for explaining project interventions. 

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  • 50.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    A Political Ecology Inspired Critique of Common Pool Resource Research and Practice2010Ingår i: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power : an anthology / [ed] Friman, E. and Gallardo Fernández, G., Uppsala: CSD Uppsala , 2010, s. 23-46Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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