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  • 1.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Kyoto University, Japan.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania.
    Krumins, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Educational inequalities in hypothermia mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-152023Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 555-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increased focus on cold-related mortality in recent years, there has been comparatively little research specifically on hypothermia mortality and its associated factors.

    METHODS: Educational inequalities in hypothermia mortality among individuals aged 30-74 in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in 2000-15 were examined using data from longitudinal mortality follow-up studies of population censuses (the Baltics) and from a longitudinal register-based population data file (Finland).

    RESULTS: Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were much higher in the Baltic countries than in Finland across the study period. From 2000-07 to 2008-15, overall ASMRs declined in all countries except among Finnish women. Although a strong educational gradient was observed in hypothermia mortality in all countries in 2000-07, inequalities were larger in the Baltic countries. Between 2000-07 and 2008-15, ASMRs declined in all educational groups except for high-educated women in Finland and low-educated women in Lithuania; the changes however were not always statistically significant. The absolute mortality decline was often larger among the low educated resulting in narrowing absolute inequalities (excepting Lithuania), whereas a larger relative decline among the high educated (excepting Finnish women) resulted in a considerable widening of relative inequalities in hypothermia mortality by 2008-15.

    CONCLUSION: Although some reduction was observed in absolute educational inequalities in hypothermia mortality in 2000-15, substantial and widening relative inequalities highlight the need for further action in combatting factors behind deaths from excessive cold in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, including risky alcohol consumption and homelessness.

  • 2.
    Laidra, Kaia
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Havik, Merle
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Murd, Carolina
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Tulviste, Jaan
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Tamson, Merili
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Akkermann, Kirsti
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kreegipuu, Kairi
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Sultson, Hedvig
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Ainsaar, Mare
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Uusberg, Andero
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Rahno, Jaana
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Panov, Liisi
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Leetmaa, Kadri
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Aasa, Anto
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Lehto, Kelli
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Estonian National Mental Health Study: Design and methods for a registry‐linked longitudinal survey2023Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikel-id e3106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The Estonian National Mental Health Study (EMHS) was conducted in 2021–2022 to provide population-wide data on mental health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, and methods of the EMHS and to evaluate the survey response.

    Methods

    Regionally representative stratified random sample of 20,000 persons aged 15 years and older was drawn from the Estonian Population Register for the study. Persons aged 18 years and older at the time of the sampling were enrolled into three survey waves where they were invited to complete an online or postal questionnaire about mental well-being and disorders, and behavioral, cognitive, and other risk factors. Persons younger than 18 years of age were invited to fill an anonymous online questionnaire starting from wave 2. To complement and validate survey data, data on socio-demographic, health-related, and environmental variables were collected from six national administrative databases and registries. Additionally, a subsample was enrolled into a validation study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Results

    In total, 5636 adults participated in the survey wave 1, 3751 in wave 2, and 4744 in wave 3. Adjusted response rates were 30.6%, 21.1%, and 27.6%, respectively. Women and older age groups were more likely to respond. Throughout the three survey waves, a considerable share of adult respondents screened positive for depression (27.6%, 25.1%, and 25.6% in waves 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Women and young adults aged 18 to 29 years had the highest prevalence of depression symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The registry-linked longitudinal EMHS dataset comprises a rich and trustworthy data source to allow in-depth analysis of mental health outcomes and their correlates among the Estonian population. The study serves as an evidence base for planning mental health policies and prevention measures for possible future crises.

  • 3.
    Mensah, George A
    et al.
    National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Fuster, Valentin
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Spain.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    University of Washington, USA.
    Roth, Gregory A
    University of Washington, USA.
    Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risks, 1990-20222023Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 82, nr 25, s. 2350-2473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan; Kyoto University, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Inoue, Y.
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Shin, J. I.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, South Korea.
    McKee, M.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Psychological distress and voting behaviour in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2023Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 22709Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poorer mental health is linked to a lower likelihood of voting in elections. However, little is known about this association in non-Western settings. This study examined the association between psychological distress and voting in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Data were analysed from 18,000 respondents aged ≥ 18 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11. Information was collected on previous voting behaviour and future voting intentions. Psychological distress was assessed with a 12-item scale. In pooled multivariable logistic regression analyses psychological distress was significantly associated with ‘never voting’ (not having voted previously or intending to vote in future) and ‘past voting only’ (having voted previously but not intending to vote in future). In stratified analyses psychological distress was linked to never voting in women and working-age adults. The significant association between psychological distress and voting was observed only in hybrid political regimes. Psychological distress is associated with a reduced likelihood of voting in FSU countries especially among women, working-age adults and those in hybrid political regimes. 

  • 5.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Kyoto University, Japan.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania.
    Krumins, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Sociodemographic inequalities in mortality from drowning in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study2023Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 1103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Drowning is an important public health problem. Some evidence suggests that the risk of drowning is not distributed evenly across the general population. However, there has been comparatively little research on inequalities in drowning mortality. To address this deficit, this study examined trends and sociodemographic inequalities in mortality from unintentional drowning in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015.

    METHODS: Data for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania came from longitudinal mortality follow-up studies of population censuses in 2000/2001 and 2011, while corresponding data for Finland were obtained from the longitudinal register-based population data file of Statistics Finland. Deaths from drowning (ICD-10 codes W65-W74) were obtained from national mortality registries. Information was also obtained on socioeconomic status (educational level) and urban-rural residence. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 person years and mortality rate ratios were calculated for adults aged 30-74 years old. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effects of sex, urban-rural residence and education on drowning mortality.

    RESULTS: Drowning ASMRs were significantly higher in the Baltic countries than in Finland but declined by nearly 30% in all countries across the study period. There were large inequalities by sex, urban-rural residence and educational level in all countries during 2000-2015. Men, rural residents and low educated individuals had substantially higher drowning ASMRs compared to their counterparts. Absolute and relative inequalities were significantly larger in the Baltic countries than in Finland. Absolute inequalities in drowning mortality declined in all countries across the study period except between urban and rural residents in Finland. Changes in relative inequalities were more variable during 2000-2015.

    CONCLUSION: Despite a sharp reduction in deaths from drowning in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015, drowning mortality was still high in these countries at the end of the study period with a substantially larger risk of death seen among men, rural residents and low educated individuals. A concerted effort to prevent drowning mortality among those most at risk may reduce drownings considerably in the general population.

  • 6.
    Vaccarella, Salvatore
    et al.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), France.
    Georges, Damien
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), France.
    Bray, Freddie
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), France.
    Ginsburg, Ophira
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), France; U.S. National Cancer Institute Maryland, USA.
    Charvat, Hadrien
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), France.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Artnik, Barbara
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lorenzoni, Valentina
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    De Vries, Esther
    Pontificia Universidad Bogota, Colombia.
    Marmot, Michael
    University College London Institute of Health Equity, England.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial College, England.
    Mackenbach, Johan
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between and within countries in Europe: a population-based study2023Ingår i: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 25, artikel-id 100551Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Reducing socioeconomic inequalities in cancer is a priority for the public health agenda. A systematic assessment and benchmarking of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer across many countries and over time in Europe is not yet available.

    METHODS: Census-linked, whole-of-population cancer-specific mortality data by socioeconomic position, as measured by education level, and sex were collected, harmonized, analysed, and compared across 18 countries during 1990-2015, in adults aged 40-79. We computed absolute and relative educational inequalities; temporal trends using estimated-annual-percentage-changes; the share of cancer mortality linked to educational inequalities.

    FINDINGS: Everywhere in Europe, lower-educated individuals have higher mortality rates for nearly all cancer-types relative to their more highly-educated counterparts, particularly for tobacco/infection-related cancers [relative risk of lung cancer mortality for lower- versus higher-educated = 2.4 (95% confidence intervals: 2.1-2.8) among men; = 1.8 (95% confidence intervals: 1.5-2.1) among women]. However, the magnitude of inequalities varies greatly by country and over time, predominantly due to differences in cancer mortality among lower-educated groups, as for many cancer-types higher-educated have more similar (and lower) rates, irrespective of the country. Inequalities were generally greater in Baltic/Central/East-Europe and smaller in South-Europe, although among women large and rising inequalities were found in North-Europe (relative risk of all cancer mortality for lower- versus higher-educated ≥1.4 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the England/Wales). Among men, rate differences (per 100,000 person-years) in total-cancer mortality for lower-vs-higher-educated groups ranged from 110 (Sweden) to 559 (Czech Republic); among women from approximately null (Slovenia, Italy, Spain) to 176 (Denmark). Lung cancer was the largest contributor to inequalities in total-cancer mortality (between-country range: men, 29-61%; women, 10-56%). 32% of cancer deaths in men and 16% in women (but up to 46% and 24%, respectively in Baltic/Central/East-Europe) were associated with educational inequalities.

    INTERPRETATION: Cancer mortality in Europe is largely driven by levels and trends of cancer mortality rates in lower-education groups. Even Nordic-countries, with a long-established tradition of equitable welfare and social justice policies, witness increases in cancer inequalities among women. These results call for a systematic measurement, monitoring and action upon the remarkable socioeconomic inequalities in cancer existing in Europe.

    FUNDING: This study was done as part of the LIFEPATH project, which has received financial support from the European Commission (Horizon 2020 grant number 633666), and the DEMETRIQ project, which received support from the European Commission (grant numbers FP7-CP-FP and 278511). SV and WN were supported by the French Institut National du Cancer (INCa) (Grant number 2018-116). PM was supported by the Academy of Finland (#308247, # 345219) and the European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 101019329). The work by Mall Leinsalu was supported by the Estonian Research Council (grant PRG722).

  • 7.
    Long, Di
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Klokgieters, Silvia
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kalėdienė, Ramunė
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Heggebø, Kristian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Costa, Giuseppe
    University of Turin, Italy.
    Eikemo, Terje
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Widening educational inequalities in mortality in more recent birth cohorts: a study of 14 European countries.2023Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 77, nr 6, s. 400-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies of period changes in educational inequalities in mortality have shown important changes over time. It is unknown whether a birth cohort perspective paints the same picture. We compared changes in inequalities in mortality between a period and cohort perspective and explored mortality trends among low-educated and high-educated birth cohorts.

    DATA AND METHODS: In 14 European countries, we collected and harmonised all-cause and cause-specific mortality data by education for adults aged 30-79 years in the period 1971-2015. Data reordered by birth cohort cover persons born between 1902 and 1976. Using direct standardisation, we calculated comparative mortality figures and resulting absolute and relative inequalities in mortality between low educated and high educated by birth cohort, sex and period.

    RESULTS: Using a period perspective, absolute educational inequalities in mortality were generally stable or declining, and relative inequalities were mostly increasing. Using a cohort perspective, both absolute and relative inequalities increased in recent birth cohorts in several countries, especially among women. Mortality generally decreased across successive birth cohorts among the high educated, driven by mortality decreases from all causes, with the strongest reductions for cardiovascular disease mortality. Among the low educated, mortality stabilised or increased in cohorts born since the 1930s in particular for mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and alcohol-related causes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trends in mortality inequalities by birth cohort are less favourable than by calendar period. In many European countries, trends among more recently born generations are worrying. If current trends among younger birth cohorts persist, educational inequalities in mortality may further widen.

  • 8.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neligan, Aidan
    Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK; UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, UK.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, Juris
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-20152022Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 4597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about socioeconomic differences in epilepsy mortality. This study examined educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality in the general population in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015. Education-specific mortality estimates for individuals aged 30-74 in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were obtained from census-linked mortality datasets while data for Finland came from the register-based population and death data file of Statistics Finland. Trends and educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality were assessed using age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100,000 person years and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RRs) calculated using Poisson regression. ASMRs were higher in men than women in all countries. ASMRs reduced in 2000-2015 among all men and women except for Finnish women. Among men, an inverse educational gradient in epilepsy mortality in 2000-2007 widened in 2008-2015 with ASMRs falling among high and mid educated men in all countries but increasing among low educated men in three countries. An inverse educational gradient in female mortality remained in all countries throughout 2000-2015. Although epilepsy mortality fell in the Baltic countries and Finland (men only) in 2000-2015, this masked a clear inverse educational gradient in mortality that became steeper across the period.

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  • 9.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia; University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Veideman, Tatjana
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Age, Period and Cohort Effects On Alcohol Consumption In Estonia, 1996-20182021Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 451-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To analyse the independent effects of age, period and cohort on estimated daily alcohol consumption in Estonia.

    METHODS: This study used data from nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys from 1996 to 2018 and included 11,717 men and 16,513 women aged 16-64 years in total. The dependent variables were consumption of total alcohol and consumption by types of beverages (beer, wine and strong liquor) presented as average daily consumption in grams of absolute alcohol. Mixed-effects negative binomial models stratified by sex were used for age-period-cohort analysis.

    RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was highest at ages 20-29 years for both men and women and declined in older ages. Significant period effects were found indicating that total alcohol consumption and consumption of different types of beverages had increased significantly since the 1990s for both men and women. Cohort trends differed for men and women. Men born in the 1990-2000s had significantly lower daily consumption compared to earlier cohorts, whereas the opposite was found for women.

    CONCLUSION: While age-related patterns of alcohol consumption are aligned with life course stages, alcohol use has increased over the study period. Although the total daily consumption among men is nearly four times higher than among women, the cohort trends suggest convergence of alcohol consumption patterns for men and women.

  • 10.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Changing effect of the numerator-denominator bias in unlinked data on mortality differentials by education: evidence from Estonia, 2000-20152021Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 88-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This study highlights changing disagreement between census and death record information in the reporting of the education of the deceased and shows how these reporting differences influence a range of mortality inequality estimates.

    Methods This study uses a census-linked mortality data set for Estonia for the periods 2000–2003 and 2012–2015. The information on the education of the deceased was drawn from both the censuses and death records. Range-type, Gini-type and regression-based measures were applied to measure absolute and relative mortality inequality according to the two types of data on the education of the deceased.

    Results The study found a small effect of the numerator–denominator bias on unlinked mortality estimates for the period 2000–2003. The effect of this bias became sizeable in the period 2012–2015: in high education group, mortality was overestimated by 23–28%, whereas the middle education group showed notable underestimation of mortality. The same effect was small for the lowest education group. These biases led to substantial distortions in range-type inequality measures, whereas unlinked and linked Gini-type measures showed somewhat closer agreement.

    Conclusions The changing distortions in the unlinked estimates reported in this study warn that this type of evidence cannot be readily used for monitoring changes in mortality inequalities.

  • 11.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Rubio Valverde, José
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; CCIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Instituto Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Wojtyniak, Bodgan
    National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of inequalities in years with disability: an international-comparative study2021Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 527-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persons with a lower socioeconomic position spend more years with disability, despite their shorter life expectancy, but it is unknown what the important determinants are. This study aimed to quantify the contribution to educational inequalities in years with disability of eight risk factors: father’s manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high body-weight, low physical exercise and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: We collected register-based mortality and survey-based disability and risk factor data from 15 European countries covering the period 2010–14 for most countries. We calculated years with disability between the ages of 35 and 80 by education and gender using the Sullivan method, and determined the hypothetical effect of changing the prevalence of each risk factor to the prevalence observed among high educated (‘upward levelling scenario’), using Population Attributable Fractions. Results: Years with disability among low educated were higher than among high educated, with a difference of 4.9 years among men and 5.5 years among women for all countries combined. Most risk factors were more prevalent among low educated. We found the largest contributions to inequalities in years with disability for low income (men: 1.0 year; women: 1.4 year), high body-weight (men: 0.6 year; women: 1.2 year) and father’s manual occupation (men: 0.7 year; women: 0.9 year), but contributions differed by country. The contribution of smoking was relatively small. Conclusions: Disadvantages in material circumstances (low income), circumstances during childhood (father’s manual occupation) and high body-weight contribute to inequalities in years with disability.

  • 12.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Kyoto University, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Richardson, Erica
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicin, UK.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Japan.
    Shakespeare, Tom
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Disability and loneliness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2021Ingår i: Disability and Health Journal, ISSN 1936-6574, E-ISSN 1876-7583, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikel-id 101123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People with disabilities (PWD) often face structural and other barriers to community involvement and may therefore be at risk of loneliness. Yet, so far, this issue has received little attention.

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between disability and loneliness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU).

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 18000 respondents aged ≥18 that came from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey that was undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010/11. Respondents reported on whether they had a disability (no/yes) and its severity. A single-item question was used to assess loneliness. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: Across the countries, 6.8% of respondents reported being disabled. In a fully adjusted combined country analysis, disability was associated with higher odds for loneliness (odds ratio: 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.60). In an analysis restricted to PWD, individuals in the most severe disability category (Group 1) had over two times higher odds for loneliness when compared to those in the least severe disability category (Group 3).

    CONCLUSIONS: Disability is associated with higher odds for reporting loneliness in the FSU countries and this association is especially strong among those who are more severely disabled. An increased focus on the relationship between disability and loneliness is now warranted given the increasing recognition of loneliness as a serious public health problem that is associated with a number of detrimental outcomes.

  • 13.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Social Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine and School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Demographic Research Centre, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, Juris
    Demography unit, Faculty of Business, Management and Economics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Population Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Department of Social Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine and School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Economic cycles and inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study2021Ingår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 16, nr 12, s. 3357-3368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To estimate whether large macroeconomic fluctuations in the 2000s affected inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal register-based follow up study.

    SETTING: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland.

    PARTICIPANTS: General population in the 35-74 age group.

    MEASUREMENTS: Socioeconomic status was measured by the highest achieved educational level and was categorised using the International Standard Classification of Education 2011 as low (included categories 0-2), middle (3-4), and high (5-8). Educational inequalities in alcohol-related mortality in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 were examined using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality.

    FINDINGS: Alcohol-related mortality increased in all countries in 2004-2007 except among Estonian women and decreased/remained the same from 2008 onwards except among Latvian men. By 2012-2015 alcohol-related mortality was still higher than in 2000-2003 in Finland, Latvia and Lithuania (women only). Relative inequalities increased across the study period in all countries (significantly in Lithuania and Latvia). The 2004-2007 increase in relative inequalities was mostly driven by a larger mortality increase among the low educated, whereas in 2008-2011 and in 2012-2015 inequalities often increased because of a larger relative mortality decline among the high educated. However, these period changes in relative inequalities and between educational groups were often not statistically significant. Absolute inequalities were larger in 2012-2015 vs. 2000-2003 in all countries except Estonia (decrease).

    CONCLUSION: In Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, alcohol-related mortality tended to increase faster among the low educated during a period of economic expansion (2004-2007) and tended to decrease more among the high educated during a period of economic recession (2008-2011).

  • 14.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, Domantas
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, Juris
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kondo, Naoki
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Macroeconomic changes and educational inequalities in traffic fatalities in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 2397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined trends and inequalities in road traffic accident (RTA) mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in the 2000s. Educational inequalities in RTA mortality in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 among 30-74 year olds were examined using census-linked longitudinal mortality data and by estimating the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall RTA mortality decreased substantially between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015. From 2004-2007 to 2008-2011, the RTA mortality decline accelerated but was larger in the Baltic countries. Among men the RTA mortality decline was mostly driven by a larger fall among the high and middle educated. Among women, the changes in RTA mortality by educational level had no clear pattern. From 2000-2003 to 2012-2015 relative educational inequalities in RTA mortality increased among men, although more in the Baltic countries. Among women the pattern was mixed across countries. Absolute inequalities fell in all countries among both sexes. Educational inequalities in male RTA mortality may be growing because of increasingly less access to safer cars and a more hazardous driving culture among the lower educated.

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  • 15.
    Long, Di
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Costa, Giuseppe
    University of Turin, Torino, Italy.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Paris, France.
    Nusselder, Wilma
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Smoking and inequalities in mortality in 11 European countries: a birth cohort analysis2021Ingår i: Population Health Metrics, E-ISSN 1478-7954, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the trends of smoking-attributable mortality among the low and high educated in consecutive birth cohorts in 11 European countries.

    METHODS: Register-based mortality data were collected among adults aged 30 to 79 years in 11 European countries between 1971 and 2012. Smoking-attributable deaths were estimated indirectly from lung cancer mortality rates using the Preston-Glei-Wilmoth method. Rate ratios and rate differences among the low and high-educated were estimated and used to estimate the contribution of inequality in smoking-attributable mortality to inequality in total mortality.

    RESULTS: In most countries, smoking-attributable mortality decreased in consecutive birth cohorts born between 1906 and 1961 among low- and high-educated men and high-educated women, but not among low-educated women among whom it increased. Relative educational inequalities in smoking-attributable mortality increased among both men and women with no signs of turning points. Absolute inequalities were stable among men but slightly increased among women. The contribution of inequality in smoking-attributable mortality to inequality in total mortality decreased in consecutive generations among men but increased among women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking might become less important as a driver of inequalities in total mortality among men in the future. However, among women, smoking threatens to further widen inequalities in total mortality.

  • 16.
    Teng, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Blakely, Tony
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; University of Otago Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Atkinson, June
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Kalėdienė, Ramunė
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The National Institute for Health Development, Estonia, Sweden.
    Martikainen, Pekka T
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Changing social inequalities in smoking, obesity and cause-specific mortality: Cross-national comparisons using compass typology2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 7, artikel-id e0232971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many countries smoking rates have declined and obesity rates have increased, and social inequalities in each have varied over time. At the same time, mortality has declined in most high-income countries, but gaps by educational qualification persist-at least partially due to differential smoking and obesity distributions. This study uses a compass typology to simultaneously examine the magnitude and trends in educational inequalities across multiple countries in: a) smoking and obesity; b) smoking-related mortality and c) cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Smoking prevalence, obesity prevalence and cause-specific mortality rates (35-79 year olds by sex) in nine European countries and New Zealand were sourced from between 1980 and 2010. We calculated relative and absolute inequalities in prevalence and mortality (relative and slope indices of inequality, respectively RII, SII) by highest educational qualification. Countries were then plotted on a compass typology which simultaneously examines trends in the population average rates or odds on the x-axis, RII on the Y-axis, and contour lines depicting SII.

    FINDINGS: Smoking and obesity. Smoking prevalence in men decreased over time but relative inequalities increased. For women there were fewer declines in smoking prevalence and relative inequalities tended to increase. Obesity prevalence in men and women increased over time with a mixed picture of increasing absolute and sometimes relative inequalities. Absolute inequalities in obesity increased for men and women in Czech Republic, France, New Zealand, Norway, for women in Austria and Lithuania, and for men in Finland. Cause-specific mortality. Average rates of smoking-related mortality were generally stable or increasing for women, accompanied by increasing relative inequalities. For men, average rates were stable or decreasing, but relative inequalities increased over time. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and external injury rates generally decreased over time, and relative inequalities increased. In Eastern European countries mortality started declining later compared to other countries, however it remained at higher levels; and absolute inequalities in mortality increased whereas they were more stable elsewhere.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco control remains vital for addressing social inequalities in health by education, and focus on the least educated is required to address increasing relative inequalities. Increasing obesity in all countries and increasing absolute obesity inequalities in several countries is concerning for future potential health impacts. Obesity prevention may be increasingly important for addressing health inequalities in some settings. The compass typology was useful to compare trends in inequalities because it simultaneously tracks changes in rates/odds, and absolute and relative inequality measures.

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  • 17.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Baburin, A
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, D
    Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, J
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, P
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Economic fluctuations and urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study2020Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in the context of macroeconomic changes. Educational inequalities among 30-74 year olds were examined in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardized mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall mortality rates were larger in rural areas except among Finnish women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality were often larger in urban areas among men but in rural areas among women. Absolute inequalities were mostly larger in rural areas excepting Finnish men. Between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015 relative inequalities increased in most countries while absolute inequalities decreased except in Lithuania. In the Baltic countries the changes in both relative and absolute inequalities tended to be more favorable in urban areas; in Finland they were more favorable in rural areas. The overall pattern changed during the reccessionary period from 2004-2007 to 2008-2011 when relative inequalities often diminished or the increase slowed, while the decrease in absolute inequalities accelerated with larger improvements observed in urban areas. Despite substantial progress in reducing overall mortality rates in both urban and rural areas in all countries, low educated men and women in rural areas in the Baltic countries are becoming increasingly disadvantaged in terms of mortality reduction.

  • 18.
    Rydland, Håvard T
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Fjær, Erlend L
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway / Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huijts, Tim
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Bambra, Clare
    Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Wendt, Claus
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Dibben, Chris
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Kalėdienė, Ramunė
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut de Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. A comparison of European healthcare systems2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 7, artikel-id e0234135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Educational inequalities in health and mortality in European countries have often been studied in the context of welfare regimes or political systems. We argue that the healthcare system is the national level feature most directly linkable to mortality amenable to healthcare. In this article, we ask to what extent the strength of educational differences in mortality amenable to healthcare vary among European countries and between European healthcare system types.

    METHODS: This study uses data on mortality amenable to healthcare for 21 European populations, covering ages 35-79 and spanning from 1998 to 2006. ISCED education categories are used to calculate relative (RII) and absolute inequalities (SII) between the highest and lowest educated. The healthcare system typology is based on the latest available classification. Meta-analysis and ANOVA tests are used to see if and how they can explain between-country differences in inequalities and whether any healthcare system types have higher inequalities.

    RESULTS: All countries and healthcare system types exhibited relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. The low-supply and low performance mixed healthcare system type had the highest inequality point estimate for the male (RII = 3.57; SII = 414) and female (RII = 3.18; SII = 209) population, while the regulation-oriented public healthcare systems had the overall lowest (male RII = 1.78; male SII = 123; female RII = 1.86; female SII = 78.5). Due to data limitations, results were not robust enough to make substantial claims about typology differences.

    CONCLUSIONS: This article aims at discussing possible mechanisms connecting healthcare systems, social position, and health. Results indicate that factors located within the healthcare system are relevant for health inequalities, as inequalities in mortality amenable to medical care are present in all healthcare systems. Future research should aim at examining the role of specific characteristics of healthcare systems in more detail.

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  • 19.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia; University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Veideman, Tatjana
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Long-term trends in the body mass index and obesity risk in Estonia: an age-period-cohort approach2020Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 65, s. 859-869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To analyse the age, period and cohort effects on the mean body mass index (BMI) and obesity over the past two decades in Estonia.

    Methods

    Study used data from nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys on 11,547 men and 16,298 women from 1996 to 2018. The independent effects of age, period and cohort on predicted mean BMI and probability of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were modelled using hierarchical age–period–cohort analysis.

    Results

    Curvilinear association between age and mean BMI was found for men, whereas the increase in mean BMI was almost linear for women. The predicted mean BMI for 40-year-old men had increased by 6% and probability of obesity by 1.8 times over 1996–2018; the period effects were slightly smaller for women. Men from the 1970s birth cohort had higher mean BMI compared to the average, whereas no significant cohort effects were found for obesity outcome.

    Conclusions

    Population-level BMI changes in Estonia during 1996–2018 were mostly driven by period rather than cohort-specific changes.

  • 20.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Baburin, A.
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, D.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ; Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, J.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, P.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ; Stockholm University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Macroeconomic fluctuations and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000–2015: A register-based study2020Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 131, s. 138-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented economic growth followed by a deep recession. This study aimed to examine changes and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in relation to macroeconomic fluctuations. Methods: We analysed changes in overall suicide mortality and by educational level between the 2000–2003, 2004–2007, 2008–2011 and 2012–2015 periods among men aged 30–64 years using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression), the relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Results: Overall suicide mortality fell markedly from 2000–2003 to 2004–2007. The decline was largest among high educated men in the Baltic countries and among middle and low educated men in Finland. From 2004–2007 to 2008–2011, the positive trend slowed and while suicide mortality continued to fall among middle and low educated men, it increased somewhat among high educated men in all Baltic countries. In Finland, suicide mortality decreased among the high educated and increased slightly among low educated men. Conclusions: In the Baltic countries, lower educated men had a smaller decline in suicide mortality than higher educated men during a period of rapid economic expansion, however, they were not more disadvantaged during the recession, possibly because of being less exposed to financial loss. Consequently, relative inequalities in suicide mortality may increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions.

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  • 21.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio Valverde, J.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M.
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, H.
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Costa, G.
    University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Deboosere, P.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kalediene, R.
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovács, K.
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, G.
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Rodriguez-Sanz, M.
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Nusselder, W. J.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Progress against inequalities in mortality: register-based study of 15 European countries between 1990 and 20152020Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 34, nr 12, s. 1131-1142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are a challenge for public health around the world, but appear to be resistant to policy-making. We aimed to identify European countries which have been more successful than others in narrowing inequalities in mortality, and the factors associated with narrowing inequalities. We collected and harmonised mortality data by educational level in 15 European countries over the last 25 years, and quantified changes in inequalities in mortality using a range of measures capturing different perspectives on inequality (e.g., ‘relative’ and ‘absolute’ inequalities, inequalities in ‘attainment’ and ‘shortfall’). We determined which causes of death contributed to narrowing of inequalities, and conducted country- and period-fixed effects analyses to assess which country-level factors were associated with narrowing of inequalities in mortality. Mortality among the low educated has declined rapidly in all European countries, and a narrowing of absolute, but not relative inequalities was seen in many countries. Best performers were Austria, Italy (Turin) and Switzerland among men, and Spain (Barcelona), England and Wales, and Austria among women. Ischemic heart disease, smoking-related causes (men) and amenable causes often contributed to narrowing inequalities. Trends in income inequality, level of democracy and smoking were associated with widening inequalities, but rising health care expenditure was associated with narrowing inequalities. Trends in inequalities in mortality have not been as unfavourable as often claimed. Our results suggest that health care expansion has counteracted the inequalities widening effect of other influences. © 2019, The Author(s).

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  • 22.
    Di Girolamo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy / Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Costa, Giuseppe
    University of Turin, Torino, Italy.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pacelli, Barbara
    Regional Health and Social Care Agency of Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, Italy.
    Rubio Valverde, José
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Progress in reducing inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality in Europe2020Ingår i: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 106, s. 40-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recent declines in cardiovascular mortality have benefited all socioeconomic groups equally and whether these declines have narrowed or widened inequalities in cardiovascular mortality in Europe.

    METHODS: In this prospective registry-based study, we determined changes in cardiovascular mortality between the 1990s and the early 2010s in 12 European populations by gender, educational level and occupational class. In order to quantify changes in the magnitude of differences in mortality, we calculated both ratio measures of relative inequalities and difference measures of absolute inequalities.

    RESULTS: Cardiovascular mortality has declined rapidly among lower and higher socioeconomic groups. Relative declines (%) were faster among higher socioeconomic groups; absolute declines (deaths per 100 000 person-years) were almost uniformly larger among lower socioeconomic groups. Therefore, although relative inequalities increased over time, absolute inequalities often declined substantially on all measures used. Similar trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality separately. Best performer was England and Wales, which combined large declines in cardiovascular mortality with large reductions in absolute inequalities and stability in relative inequalities in both genders. In the early 2010s, inequalities in cardiovascular mortality were smallest in Southern Europe, of intermediate magnitude in Northern and Western Europe and largest in Central-Eastern European and Baltic countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower socioeconomic groups have experienced remarkable declines in cardiovascular mortality rates over the last 25 years, and trends in inequalities can be qualified as favourable overall. Nevertheless, further reducing inequalities remains an important challenge for European health systems and policies.

  • 23.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, s. 91-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 24.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Valverde, Jose Rubio
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsnki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    INSERM, Sorbonne Universités, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / CIBER Epidemiologí y Salud Püblica, Madrid, Spain.
    Nusselder, Wilma J.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of inequalities in life expectancy: an international comparative study of eight risk factors2019Ingår i: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. E529-E537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. Methods We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. Findings In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2.3-8.2 years among men and 0.6-4.5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19.8% among men and 18.9% among women), low income (9.7% and 13.4%), and high bodyweight (7.7% and 11.7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. Interpretation Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants.

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  • 25.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-20162019Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 1026-1032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented credit-driven economic growth that was followed by a deep recession. This study examined the impact of profound macroeconomic changes on population mental health in Estonia in 2004-2016.

    METHODS: Data on 17 794 individuals in the 20-64 age group were obtained from seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of past 30-day depression was calculated for men and women further stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether these characteristics were associated with the yearly variation in depression.

    RESULTS: In 2006, the adjusted prevalence ratio for depression was 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) for men and 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) for women as compared with 2004; in 2010, the prevalence ratio as compared with 2008 for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CIs 1.04 to 1.43 and 1.09 to 1.37, respectively). Among men, the increase in the prevalence of depression in 2008-2010 was statistically significant for 35-64 year olds, ethnic Estonians, those who were married, mid-educated or were employed, whereas among women, a significant increase was observed in 50-64 year olds, Estonians and non-Estonians, those who were not-married, were highly educated or mid-educated, in the mid-income group or were employed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Population mental health is responsive to macroeconomic changes. In less wealthy high-income countries, the greater impact of recession on depression among advantaged groups may relate to a higher debt burden coupled with job insecurity.

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  • 26.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Factors associated with improving diet and physical activity among persons with excess body weight2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1166-1171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in Eastern Europe, the study examined the trends and factors associated with self-reported weight reducing behaviours among individuals with excess body weight in Estonia.

    METHODS: Study used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 2006 to 2016 including 4302 men and 3627 women aged 20-64 years with excess body weight (BMI ≥ 25). Trends in the prevalence of changing eating habits and physical activity and their sociodemographic and health-related correlates were studied using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among overweight or obese respondents, 41% of men and 48% of women reported improvements in dietary habits and 19% of men and women reported increase in physical activity during the past 12 months in 2016. Positive trend for 2006-2016 regarding both outcomes was observed for men whereas no statistically significant differences were found for women. Women and those with lower than tertiary education had higher odds for reporting change in eating habits whereas older age and smoking or excessive alcohol consumption reduced the odds. Improvement in physical activity was more likely among younger respondents, women, ethnic Estonians and those with tertiary education, whereas poorer health and smoking reduced the odds. Weight-related advice from health professionals or family had strong effect on both outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic and health profiles differentiate the self-reported behavioural change among persons with excess body weight. Advice from either health professionals or family may have a potential to facilitate positive changes in eating habits and physical activity among those individuals.

  • 27.
    Baars, Adája E
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio-Valverde, Jose R
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain.
    White, Chris
    Office for National Statistics, London, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and its contribution to inequalities in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in ten European countries2019Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 64, nr 6, s. 861-872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess to what extent educational differences in total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) could be reduced by improving fruit and vegetable consumption in ten European countries.

    METHODS: Data from national census or registries with mortality follow-up, EU-SILC, and ESS were used in two scenarios to calculate the impact: the upward levelling scenario (exposure in low educated equals exposure in high educated) and the elimination scenario (no exposure in both groups). Results are estimated for men and women between ages 35 and 79 years.

    RESULTS: Varying by country, upward levelling reduced inequalities in DFLE by 0.1-1.1 years (1-10%) in males, and by 0.0-1.3 years (0-18%) in females. Eliminating exposure reduced inequalities in DFLE between 0.6 and 1.7 years for males (6-15%), and between 0.1 years and 1.8 years for females (3-20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Upward levelling of fruit and vegetable consumption would have a small, positive effect on both TLE and DFLE, and could potentially reduce inequalities in TLE and DFLE.

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  • 28.
    Tanaka, Hirokazu
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lee, Jung Su
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Kobayashi, Yasuki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mortality inequalities by occupational class among men in Japan, South Korea and eight European countries: a national register-based study, 1990–20152019Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 73, nr 8, s. 750-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We compared mortality inequalities by occupational class in Japan and South Korea with those in European countries, in order to determine whether patterns are similar.

    Methods: National register-based data from Japan, South Korea and eight European countries (Finland, Denmark, England/Wales, France, Switzerland, Italy (Turin), Estonia, Lithuania) covering the period between 1990 and 2015 were collected and harmonised. We calculated age-standardised all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men aged 35–64 by occupational class and measured the magnitude of inequality with rate differences, rate ratios and the average inter-group difference.

    Results: Clear gradients in mortality were found in all European countries throughout the study period: manual workers had 1.6–2.5 times higher mortality than upper non-manual workers. However, in the most recent time-period, upper non-manual workers had higher mortality than manual workers in Japan and South Korea. This pattern emerged as a result of a rise in mortality among the upper non-manual group in Japan during the late 1990s, and in South Korea during the late 2000s, due to rising mortality from cancer and external causes (including suicide), in addition to strong mortality declines among lower non-manual and manual workers.

    Conclusion: Patterns of mortality by occupational class are remarkably different between European countries and Japan and South Korea. The recently observed patterns in the latter two countries may be related to a larger impact on the higher occupational classes of the economic crisis of the late 1990s and the late 2000s, respectively, and show that a high socioeconomic position does not guarantee better health.

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  • 29.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / 5Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2019Ingår i: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 158-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.

    METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.

    RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.

    CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.

  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 12011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 31.
    Griswold, Max G.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Arian, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Tymeson, Hayley D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Venkateswaran, Vidhya
    Harvard Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Tapp, Austin Douglas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Seattle Genet, Seattle, WA USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Dept Populat & Family Hlth, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abate, Degu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Abay, Solomon M.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Pharm, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dept Law Philosophy & Econ Studies, Rome, Italy..
    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi
    Minist Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Abebe, Zegeye
    Univ Gondar, Human Nutr, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Aboyans, Victor
    Dupuytren Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Limoges, France.;Univ Limoges, Inst Epidemiol, Limoges, France..
    Abrar, Mohammed Mehdi
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Acharya, Pawan
    Nepal Dev Soc, Chitwan, Nepal..
    Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Global Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cochrane South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Adhikari, Tara Ballav
    Ctr Social Sci & Publ Hlth Res Nepal, Nepal Hlth Res Environm, Kathmandu, Nepal.;Univ Southern Denmark, Unit Hlth Promot Res, Odense, Denmark..
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Univ Extremadura, Fac Sport Sci, Badajoz, Spain..
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agarwal, Gina
    McMaster Univ, Dept Family Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi
    Yerevan State Univ, Chair Zool, Yerevan, Armenia.;Sci Ctr Zool & Hydroecol, Res Grp Mol Parasitol, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;Vital Strategies, Gurugram, India..
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Akibu, Mohammed
    Dept Midwifery, Lexington, KY USA..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Epidemiol, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al Asfoor, Deena H.
    Minist Hlth, Off Undersecretary Hlth Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, Dept Internal Med, St Louis, MO USA.;Dept Vet Affairs, VA St Louis Hlth Care Syst, Clin Epidemiol Ctr, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alahdab, Fares
    Mayo Clin Fdn Med Educ & Res, Evidence Based Pract Ctr, Rochester, MN USA.;Syrian Amer Med Soc, Res Comm Educ Comm & Avicenna Journal Med Editor, Washington, DC USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Albujeer, Ammar
    Naba Al Hayat Fdn Med Sci & Hlth Care, Najaf, Iraq..
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.;New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Ali, Syed Danish
    Univ London, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Alijanzadeh, Mehran
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin, Iran..
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Kuwait Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Kuwait, Kuwait.;Natl Univ Malaysia, Int Ctr Casemix & Clin Coding, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Res Council Hlth Working Life & Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Res Grp Hlth Econ, Cartagena, Colombia.;Univ Coast, Res Grp Hosp Management & Hlth Pol, Barranquilla, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ South Australia, Sansom Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Aminde, Leopold N.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ammar, Walid
    Fed Minist Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon.;Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amoako, Yaw Ampem
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
    Natl Univ Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew Sch Publ Pol, Singapore, Singapore..
    Andrei, Catalina Liliana
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania..
    Angus, Colin
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Hlth & Related Res, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Ansha, Mustafa Geleto
    Dept Publ Hlth, Lexington, KY USA. Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Birmingham City Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Aryal, Krishna K.
    ABT Associates Nepal, Monitoring Evaluat & Operat Res Project, DFID Nepal Hlth Sect Programme 3, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Educ Dev Ctr, Mashhad, Iran..
    Ausloos, Marcel
    Univ Leicester, Sch Business, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.
    Benin Clin Res Inst IRCB, Project Deworm3, Calavi, Benin.;Lab Studies & Res Act Hlth LERAS, Control Infect Dis Project, Porto Novo, Benin..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gandhinagar, India..
    Ayele, Henok Tadesse
    McGill Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Occupational Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Dilla Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dilla, Ethiopia..
    Ayer, Rakesh
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Community & Global Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Inst Med Res & Plant Med Studies, Ctr Food & Nutr Res, Yaounde, Cameroon.;Univ South Africa, Dept Hlth Studies, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Azzopardi, Peter S.
    South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Discipline Int Dev, Maternal & Child Hlth Program, Global Adolescent Hlth Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Badali, Hamid
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Med Mycol, Invas Fungi Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Fac Med, Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Publ Hlth Risk Sci Div, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Banach, Maciej
    Med Univ Lodz, Dept Hypertens, Lodz, Poland.;PMMHRI, Lodz, Poland..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basaleem, Huda
    Univ Aden, Aden, Yemen..
    Baye, Estifanos
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Dept Psychiat, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Gandhi Med Coll Bhopal, Dept Community Med, Bhopal, India.;Jazan Univ, Jizan, Saudi Arabia..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Hosp Dijon, Dept Neurol, Dijon, France.;Univ Burgundy, Fac Hlth Sci, Dijon Stroke Registry, Dijon, France..
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Belay, Saba Abraham
    Dr Tewelde Legesse Hlth Sci Coll, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, London, England..
    Bernstein, Robert S.
    Emory Univ, Hubert Dept Global Hlth, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Univ S Florida, Dept Global Hlth, Tampa, FL USA..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harar, Ethiopia.;Univ Newcastle, Sch Publ Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Beyranvand, Tina
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Bhaumik, Soumyadeeep
    George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Biadgo, Belete
    Univ Gondar, Dept Clin Chem, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Bijani, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran.;Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Bililign, Nigus
    Woldia Univ, Woldia, Ethiopia..
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy.;GBS CIDP Fdn Int, Conshohocken, PA USA..
    Birungi, Charles
    UCL, UCL Ctr Global Hlth Econ, London, England.;United Nations Programme HIV AIDS UNAIDS, Fast Track Implementat Dept, Gaborone, Botswana..
    Bizuneh, Hailemichael
    St Pauls Hosp, Publ Hlth, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Southern Denmark, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Bjorge, Tone
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.;Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Borges, Guilherme
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Dept Epidemiol & Psychosocial Res, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Bosetti, Cristina
    IRCCS, Dept Oncol, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Univ New South Wales, Transport & Rd Safety TARS Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi
    Univ Genoa, Genoa, Italy..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Al Shifa Sch Publ Hlth, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Calabria, Bianca
    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Campuzano Rincon, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Univ Valley Cuernavaca, Sch Med, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Carreras, Giulia
    Inst Canc Res Prevent & Clin Network ISPRO, Florence, Italy..
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carvalho, Felix
    Univ Porto, Appl Mol Biosci Unit, Porto, Portugal..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline
    Costa Rican Dept Social Secur, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Dent, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Inst Hlth Carlos III, Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Planning & Econ, Madrid, Spain..
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chattopadhyay, Aparajita
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Dept Dev Studies, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Chaturvedi, Pankaj
    Tata Mem Hosp, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Pulm Med, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Chung, Sheng-Chia
    UCL, Dept Hlth Informat, London, England.;Hlth Data Res UK, London, England..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Claro, Rafael M.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Nutr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Conti, Sara
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Cousin, Ewerton
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Dachew, Berihun Assefa
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dargan, Paul, I
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London, England.;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Clin Toxicol Serv, London, England..
    Daryani, Ahmad
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Toxoplasmosis Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Inst Biomed Engn INEB, Porto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Inst Res & Innovat Hlth I3s, Porto, Portugal..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    De Castro, Filipa
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    De Courten, Barbora
    Monash Univ, Monash Ctr Hlth Res & Implementat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    De Neve, Jan-Walter
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Aksum Univ, Dept Clin Pharm, Aksum, Ethiopia..
    Des Jarlais, Don C.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Disha Fdn, Gurgaon, India..
    Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dhimal, Meghnath
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Hlth Res Sect, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Doku, David Teye
    Univ Cape Coast, Dept Populat & Hlth, Cape Coast, Ghana.;Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Sch Hlth & Biomed Sci, Royal Melbourne Inst Technol, Bundoora, Vic, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India..
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Edessa, Dumessa
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Dept Clin Pathol, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Lab Socioecon Issues Human Dev & Qual Life, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth FRIHOI, Dept Med Stat & Documentary, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Farioli, Andrea
    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Psychol, Sao Cristovao, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Univ Porto, Dept Chem, Porto, Portugal..
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ferri, Cleusa P.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fijabi, Daniel Obadare
    Brandeis Univ, Heller Sch Social Policy & Management, Waltham, MA USA.;Univ Memphis, Sch Publ Hlth, Memphis, TN 38152 USA..
    Filip, Irina
    Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA USA.;AT Still Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Mesa, AZ USA..
    Finger, Jonas David
    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
    Fischer, Florian
    Bielefeld Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Flaxman, Abraham D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Franklin, Richard Charles
    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Futran, Neal D.
    Univ Washington, Sch Med, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gallus, Silvano
    IRCCS, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Lab Studies & Res Act Hlth LERAS, Noncommun Dis Dept, Porto Novo, Benin.;Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Univ, Neurosurg Dept, Fes, Morocco..
    Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Div Human Nutr & Hlth, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Ghadimi, Reza
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Ghandour, Lilian A.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ghimire, Mamata
    Univ Tsukuba, Dept Hlth Care Policy & Management, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Univ Warwick, Unit Acad Primary Care, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed
    Univ Hail, Dept Family & Community Med, Hail, Saudi Arabia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw Z.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth & Hlth Serv Management, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Coll Nursing & Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Univ Oklahoma, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Oklahoma City, OK USA.;Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Ctr Clin & Epidemiol Res, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, Hlth Improvement Directorate, London, England..
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Univ Hosp Polyclin Vittorio Emanuele, Integrated Tumor Registry, Catania, Italy..
    Guo, Yuming
    Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Alma Gutierrez, Reyna
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Dept Epidemiol & Psychosocial Res, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Gvs, Murthy
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Hyderabad, India..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Med, Tehran, Iran.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Radiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Hagos, Tekleberhan Beyene
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Inst Biomed Sci, Dept Anat & Embryol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Dept Family & Community Med, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Sch Hlth & Environm Studies, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Med Sch, Perth, WA, Australia.;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Neurol Dept, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Vital & Hlth Stat, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Cardiol Dept, Trivandrum, Kerala, India..
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Dept Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.;Univ Hosp Antwerp, Unit Epidemiol & Social Med, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Simon, I
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Heibati, Behzad
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Air Pollut Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Henok, Andualem
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Francisco Hernandez-Llanes, Norberto
    Natl Commission Against Addict, Secretary Hlth, Subdirectorate Regulat Guidelines & Tech Procedur, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Herteliu, Claudiu
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hibstu, Desalegn Ts Tsegaw
    Hawassa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Hoogar, Praveen
    Manipal Univ, Transdisciplinary Ctr Qualitat Methods, Manipal, Karnataka, India..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.;NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Hostiuc, Mihaela
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Dept Legal Med & Bioeth, Bucharest, Romania.;Emergency Hosp Bucharest, Dept Internal Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Xiangya Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Birzeit, Palestine.;Qatar Univ, Doha, Qatar..
    Idrisov, Bulat
    Bashkir State Med Univ, Infect Dis Dept, Ufa, Russia..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Univ Liberia, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Monrovia, Liberia..
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Deakin Univ, Inst Phys Act & Nutr, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia..
    Jackson, Maria D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Community Hlth & Psychiat, Jamaica, NY USA..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Univ Colombo, Fac Grad Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka.;Univ Colombo, Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany.;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Inst Hlth & Nutr Sci, Czestochowa, Poland.;Univ Opole, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Opole, Poland..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Sch Publ Hlth, Cork, Ireland..
    Kadel, Rajendra
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, Dept Hlth Policy, Personal Social Serv Res Unit, London, England..
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Mekelle Univ, Nutr & Dietet, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Kapil, Umesh
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Malignancies Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassa, Tesfaye D. Dessale
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kebede, Seifu
    Salale Univ, Midwifery Program, Fiche, Ethiopia..
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Pharm Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Univ Nairobi, Odel Campus, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Khader, Yousef
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Alramtha, Jordan..
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman
    Univ Newcastle, Sch Publ Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam Univ, Dept Populat Sci, Mymensingh, Bangladesh..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, SNU Med Res Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khater, Mona M.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Med Parasitol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Cho-Il
    Korea Hlth Ind Dev Inst, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Sch Med, Sepang, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kisa, Adnan
    Univ Oslo, Dept Hlth Management & Hlth Econ, Oslo, Norway.;Tulane Univ, Dept Global Community Hlth & Behav Sci, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kochhar, Sonali
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Erasmus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Ashmir Inst Med Sci, Dept Internal & Pulm Med, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain..
    Krishan, Kewal
    Panjab Univ, Dept Anthropol, Chandigarh, India..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Yuksek Ihtisas Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.;Hacettepe Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR 72467 USA..
    Kumar, Pushpendra
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Populat & Work Abil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lam, Hilton
    Natl Inst Hlth, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Lami, Faris Hasan
    Acad Med Sci, Dept Community & Family Med, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Rockville, MD USA..
    Lang, Justin J.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent Branch, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lansky, Sonia
    Municipal Hlth Dept Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte City Hall, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Larsson, Anders O.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Akad Sjukhuset, Dept Clin Chem & Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Latifi, Arman
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Lee, Paul H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Sch Nursing, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Asbestos Dis Res Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Ctr, CERIMP, Local Hlth Unit, Florence, Italy.;Univ Florence, Dept Hlth Sci, Florence, Italy..
    Li, Yichong
    Shenzen Inst Cardiovasc Dis, Dept Clin & Epidemiol Res, Shenzhen, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Lee-Ling
    Univ Malaya, Dept Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Sch Publ Hlth, Haifa, Israel..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Ctr Chron Dis Control, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lobato-Cordero, Andrea
    Natl Inst Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energies, Quito, Ecuador..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    King Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle
    Harvard Univ, Ariadne Labs, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Philippines Manila, Dev & Commun Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Machado, Isis Eloah
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Sch Nursing, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Madotto, Fabiana
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Damietta Univ, Dumyat, Egypt..
    Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy
    Aswan Fac Med, Opthamol Dept, Aswan, Egypt..
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, KURC, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Community Based Participatory Res Ctr CBP, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mapoma, Chabila Christopher
    Univ Zambia, Dept Populat Studies, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Doctor Peset Univ Hosp, Psychiat Dept, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Res, New Delhi, India.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mckee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv Res & Policy, London, England..
    Mehta, Varshil
    Sevenhills Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Agr & Nutr Sci, Halle, Germany.;Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NUTRICA, Innovat Off Nutricard, Halle, Germany..
    Mekonen, Tesfa
    Bahir Dar Univ, Psychiat, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Melese, Addisu
    Debre Tabor Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia..
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Univ West Florida, Dept Publ Hlth, Pensacola, FL USA..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund UNFPA, Peru Country Off UNFPA, Lima, Peru..
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Ethiopian Acad Med Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Dept Hypertens & Internal Med, Szczecin, Poland..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Mini, G. K.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.;Amrita Inst Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Kochi, Kerala, India..
    Mirica, Andreea
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Natl Inst Stat Romania, Presidents Off, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Dept Atherosclerosis & Coronary Heart Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Moazen, Babak
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Frankfurt Univ Appl Sci, Inst Addict Res ISFF, Dept Hlth & Social Work, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Salahaddin Univ, Dept Biol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Inst, Nutr & Cohort Studies Dept, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moraga, Paula
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster, England..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sci & Engn Fac, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jalu, Moti Tolera
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.;St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Hlth Management & Econ, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Mukhopadhyay, Satinath
    Inst Postgrad Med Educ & Res, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Kolkata, India..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Initiat Non Commun Dis, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Najafi, Farid
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Epidemiol Dept, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nansseu, Jobert Richie
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Dis Epidem & Pandem Control, Lebanon, NH USA.;Univ Yaounde, Fac Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Publ Heath, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Nayak, Mudavath Siva Durga Prasad
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Nejjari, Chakib
    Univ Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Fes, Morocco.;Mohammed Vi Univ Hlth Sci, Int Sch Publ Hlth, Casablanca, Morocco..
    Neupane, Subas
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Norwegian Ctr Addict Res SERAF, Oslo, Norway.;Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norwegian Natl Advisory Unit Concurrent Subst Abu, Brumunddal, Norway..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Univ Embu, Dept Biol Sci, Embu, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Nguyen, Trang Huyen
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Semarang State Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Kota Semarang, Indonesia.;Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Monash Univ, Ctr Cardiovasc Res & Educ Therapeut, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Monash Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Hlth Policy Consult, Res Unit, Accra, Ghana..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Western Sydney Univ, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, HIV AIDS STIs & TB HAST Programme, Durban, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Osakhati, Namibia..
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Lagos, Dept Psychiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Autonomous Univ Chile, Providencia, Chile..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Ikoyi, Nigeria..
    Oommen, Anu Mary
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Community Hlth, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;San Diego State Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, San Diego, CA 92182 USA..
    Orpana, Heather M.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Appl Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Sch Psychol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Ortega-Altamirano, Doris D., V
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Ortiz, Justin R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Maryland, Ctr Vaccine Dev, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Global Hlth Nursing, Chuo Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
    North West Univ, Agr Econ Grp, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Univ, Dept TB & Resp Med, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Ctr Hlth Outcomes & Evaluat, Bucharest, Romania..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Parry, Charles D. H.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Res Council South Africa, Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Use Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Parsian, Hadi
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Dept Clin Biochem, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Patle, Ajay
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India.;Int Inst Hlth Management Res, New Delhi, India..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Populat Hlth Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    Save Children, Hlth Nutr & HIV AIDS Program, Kathmandu, Nepal.;Ludwigs Maximillians Univ, Ctr Int Hlth, Munich, Germany..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Publ Hlth, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael R.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai Mental Hlth Ctr, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Basic Med Sci Dept, Durban, South Africa..
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Econ & Business, Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Noncommun Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Mesa, AZ USA.;Medichem, St Joan Despi, Spain..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Mol & Cell Biol Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Immunol, Sari, Iran..
    Rahim, Fakher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy Res Ctr, Hlth Res Inst, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, INCAS, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India.;Univ Gottingen, Dept Econ, Gottingen, Germany..
    Rajsic, Sasa
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Raju, Sree Bhushan
    Nizams Inst Med Sci, Dept Nephrol, Hyderabad, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Mortal Studies, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.;Univ Hlth Sci, Publ Hlth Dept, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Yonsei Univ, Inst Poverty Alleviat & Int Dev, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr Publ Hlth Educ & Training, London, England.;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Reis, Cesar
    Loma Linda Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med & Occupat Med, Loma Linda, CA USA..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Sch Social Sci, Penrith, NSW, Australia.;Western Sydney Univ, Psychol Dept, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Sari, Iran..
    Roever, Leonardo
    Univ Uberlandia, Dept Clin Res, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Room, Robin
    La Trobe Univ, Ctr Alcohol Policy Res, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia.;Stockholm Univ, Ctr Social Res Alcohol & Drugs, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran..
    Rostami, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran.;Babol Univ Med Sci, Infect Dis & Trop Med Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roy, Ambuj
    AIIMS, Dept Cardiol, New Delhi, India..
    Sabde, Yogesh Damodar
    Indian Council Med Res, Natl Inst Res Environm Hlth, Bhopal, India..
    Saddik, Basema
    Univ Sharjah, Coll Med, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Mashhad Univ Med Ci, Dept Med Biotechnol, Mashhad, Iran..
    Saleem, Zikria
    Panjab Univ, Coll Pharm, Chandigarh, India..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Hlth Policy, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, Ctr Primary Care & Outcomes Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Salvi, Sundeep Santosh
    Chest Res Fdn, Clin Res Div, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sanabria, Juan
    Marshall Univ, Dept Surg, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Nutr & Prevent Med, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    Nephrol Grp, LIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Santomauro, Damian Francesco
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Policy & Epidemiol Grp, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Milicevic, Milena M. M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Hlth Econ & Financing Res Grp, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Appl & Environm Sci, Fac Med, Dept Hlth & Soc, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Esfahan, Iran..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ Kwazulu Natal, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Howard Coll Campus, Durban, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Utkal Univ, UGC Ctr Adv Study Psychol, Bhubaneswar, India.;Udyam Global Assoc Sustainable Dev, Bhubaneswar, India..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Univ North Carolina Charlotte, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Charlotte, NC USA..
    Saxena, Sonia
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Saylan, Mete
    Bayer, Market Access, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Univ Zurich, Swiss Res Inst Publ Hlth & Addict, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    South African Med Res Council, Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Dis, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, HART, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Schwendicke, Falk
    Char Univ Med Ctr Berlin, Dept Operat & Prevent Dent, Berlin, Germany..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Shaikh, Masood A. Ali
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Lab Sci, Sari, Iran.;Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Basic Sci, Sari, Iran..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Harvard Univ, BWH Div Gen Internal Med & Primary Care, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Nationwide Children sHosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164 USA..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, Halle, Germany..
    Shukla, Sharvari Rahul
    Symbiosis Int Univ, Symbiosis Inst Hlth Sci, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Dept Psychol, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Columbia Univ, Dept Hlth & Behav Studies, New York, NY USA..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Da Silva, Natacha Torres
    Portuguese Inst Sport & Youth, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Hlth Ind Complex & Innovat Hlth, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.;Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain Narain
    Sch Prevent Oncol, Patna, Bihar, India.;Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Sitas, Freddy
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Soares Filho, Adauto Martins
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Dis & Noncommun Dis & Hlth Promot, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Soofi, Moslem
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Hosp Princess IISP, Pneumol Serv, Res Inst, Madrid, Spain.;Autonomous Univ Madrid, Pneumol Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Div Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Steckling, Nadine
    Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany.;Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth, Hlth Serv Res & Hlth Technol Assessment, Hall In Tirol, Austria..
    Stein, Dan J.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Dept Community Med, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Sur, Patrick J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;Carlos III Hlth Inst, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tabuchi, Takahiro
    Osaka Int Canc Inst, Canc Control Ctr, Osaka, Japan..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    New York Med Coll, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Community Med Dept, Tehran, Iran.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Thapa, Subash
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Publ Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Thomas, Nihal
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Endocrinol, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland..
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Med Sch, Dept Ophthalmol, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Hanoi Univ, Dept Hlth Econ, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Troeger, Christopher E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
    Univ Heart Ctr Hamburg, Dept Vasc Med, Hamburg, Germany..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Ullah, Irfan
    Gomal Univ, Gomal Ctr Biochem & Biotechnol, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.;Mufti Mehmood Mem Teaching Hosp, Programmat Management Drug Resistant TB Unit, TB Culture Lab, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Div Hlth Sci, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Argentine Soc Med, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Hosp Velez Sarsfield, Intens Care Unit, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    UKK Inst, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch
    Minist Hlth FRIHOI, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia.;Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Dept Informat & Internet Technol, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Dept Hlth Care Adm & Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wagnew, Fasil Wagnew Shiferaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Nursing, Debremarkos, Ethiopia..
    Waheed, Yasir
    Fdn Univ, Fdn Univ Med Coll, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Psychiat, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Weldegebreal, Fitsum
    Haramaya Univ, Dept Med Lab Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Demog Change & Ageing Res Area, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, German Natl Cohort, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Widecka, Justyna
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Zdroje Hosp, Szczecin, Poland..
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Univ Melbourne, Australian Inst Muscular Skeletal Sci, Dept Med & Neurol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Psychol & Counselling, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    NHS Scotland, Informat Serv Div, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Med, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Diabet & Metab Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Div Injury Prevent & Mental Hlth Provement, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Pharm, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
    Univ South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Yisma, Engida
    Addis Ababa Univ, Sch Alaide Hlth Sci, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yotebieng, Marcel
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Publ Hlth, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Univ Kinshasa, Sch Publ Hlth, Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Dept Hlth Pol & Management, Jackson, MS USA.;Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zachariah, Geevar
    Mother Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Trichur, India..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Student Res Comm, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Zhang, Xueying
    Univ Texas Houston, Houston, TX USA..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    PHFI, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurugram, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162018Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, nr 10152, s. 1015-1035Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.

    Methods: Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health.

    Findings: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week.

    Interpretation: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.

  • 32.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study2018Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, s. 332-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

    Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

    Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

    Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

    Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

  • 33.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults2018Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 1070-1078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

  • 34.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vals, Kaire
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Macroeconomic changes and trends in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in 2004-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study2018Ingår i: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id 199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess trends and inequalities in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in 2004-2012.

    METHODS: Data on 22,784 individuals in the 20-64 age group were retrieved from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates of past 12-month dental visits were calculated for each study year, stratified by gender, age group, ethnicity, educational level and economic activity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of study year and socioeconomic status on dental visits.

    RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of dental visits in the past 12 months was 46-52% in Estonia and 61-67% in Lithuania. In 2004-2008, the prevalence of dental visits increased by 5.9 percentage points in both countries and fell in 2008-2010 by 3.8 percentage points in Estonia and 4.6 percentage points in Lithuania. In both countries the prevalence of dental care utilization had increased slightly by 2012, although the increase was statistically insignificant. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed that these differences between study years were not explained by differences in socioeconomic status or oral health conditions. Women, the main ethnic group (only in Estonia), and higher educated and employed persons had significantly higher odds of dental visits in both countries, but the odds were lower for 50-64 year olds in Lithuania.

    CONCLUSIONS: In European Union countries with lower national wealth, the use of dental services is sensitive to macroeconomic changes regardless of the extent of public coverage, at the same time, higher public coverage may not relate to lower inequalities in dental care use.

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  • 35.
    Lozano, Rafael
    et al.
    University of Washington, US.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    University of Washington, US / Christian Medical College & Hospital (CMCH) Vellore, India.
    Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, nr 10159, s. 2091-2138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health -related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990-2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. 

    Methods We measured progress on 41 health-related S DG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2.5th percentile and 100 as the 97.5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. 

    Findings The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59.4 (IQR 35.4-67.3), ranging from a low of 11.6 (95% uncertainty interval 9.6-14.0) to a high of 84.9 (83.1-86.7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attaimnent by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030.

    Interpretation The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health -related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health -related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence -related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains curative interventions in the case of NCDs towards multisectoral, prevention -oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the S DGs. What is clear is that our actions or inaction today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030. 

  • 36.
    Lorant, Vincent
    et al.
    Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Kapadia, Dharmi
    University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Department of Sociology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Strand, Bjørn Heine
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in Europe: the widening gap2018Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 212, nr 6, s. 356-361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.AimsWe assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations.

    METHOD: The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35-79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years.

    RESULTS: In the 1990s, people in the lowest educational group had 1.82 times more suicides than those in the highest group. In the 2000s, this ratio increased to 2.12. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities were substantial in both periods and generally did not decrease over time, whereas among women inequalities were absent in the first period and emerged in the second.

    CONCLUSIONS: The World Health Organization (WHO) plan for 'Fair opportunity of mental wellbeing' is not likely to be met.Declaration of interestNone.

  • 37.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Valverde, José Rubio
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Artnik, Barbara
    Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania;.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
    White, Chris
    Office of National Statistics, Newport, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Trends in health inequalities in 27 European countries2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, nr 25, s. 6440-6445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from <i>ca</i> 1980 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 17 countries covering 9.8 million deaths and data on self-reported morbidity from <i>ca</i> 2002 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 27 countries covering 350,000 survey respondents. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes over time and country-fixed effects analyses to study the impact of crisis-related economic conditions on health outcomes. Recent trends were more favorable than in previous decades, particularly in Eastern Europe, where mortality started to decline among lowly educated men and where the decline in less-than-good self-assessed health accelerated, resulting in some narrowing of health inequalities. In Western Europe, mortality has continued to decline among the lowly and highly educated, and although the decline of less-than-good self-assessed health slowed in countries severely hit by the financial crisis, this affected lowly and highly educated equally. Crisis-related economic conditions were not associated with widening health inequalities. Our results show that the unfavorable trends observed in the United States are not found in Europe. There has also been no discernible short-term impact of the crisis on health inequalities at the population level. Both findings suggest that European countries have been successful in avoiding an aggravation of health inequalities.

  • 38.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: A study of 17 European countries2017Ingår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 47, s. 44-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970–2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality. Finally, trends in behavioral risk factors, particularly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, appear to partly explain variations in inequalities in mortality trends. This study shows that analyses of variations in health inequalities between countries can help to identify entry-points for policy.

  • 39.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Artnik, Barbara
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality - A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e0182526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.

    RESULTS: The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  • 40.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ethnic variation in self-rated health–mortality association: Results from a 17-year follow-up study in Estonia2017Ingår i: Medicina, ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 114-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted the role of self-rated health (SRH) as an important predictor of mortality. With substantial ethnic differences in SRH and mortality reported in Estonia, this study aims to examine the ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association in this setting. Materials and methods The baseline data come from nationally representative 1996 Estonian Health Interview Survey. Individual records of 3983 respondents in the 25–79 age group were linked with mortality data with 17 years follow-up time. The association between SRH and all-cause mortality was analysed using the Cox regression for two ethnic groups and separately for men and women. Results Among ethnic Estonians, both men and women with bad or very bad SRH had about 60% higher mortality compared to those with good or very good SRH even after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In contrast, SRH did not predict mortality among non-Estonian men and women. A strong and universal inverse association with mortality was found for personal income. Education (among men) and occupation (among women) predicted mortality only among non-Estonians, whereas ever smoking was associated with mortality in Estonian men and women. Overweight women had lower mortality risk compared to women in normal weight category. Conclusions We found considerable ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association and in socioeconomic predictors of mortality. Further research, preferably focusing on cause-specific mortality and reporting heterogeneity of SRH could potentially shed further light on ethnic differences in SRH–mortality association in Estonia and more generally on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Eastern Europe.

  • 41.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sur, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lee, Alex
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Marczak, Laurie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Rome, Italy..
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.;Dr Mohans Diabet Special Ctr, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Arnlov, Johan
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Baye, Estifanos
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia.;Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England..
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Dept Community Med & Global Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Univ Porto, Dept Ciencias Biol, Fac Farm, Oporto, Portugal..
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Coll Hlth Sci & Med, Wolaita, Ethiopia..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Fac Biotechnol, Oporto, Portugal..
    Furst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA USA..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Ambo Univ, Ambo, Ethiopia..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England..
    Horino, Masako
    Bur Child Family & Community Wellness, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson, CA USA..
    Islami, Farhad
    Amer Canc Soc, Surveillance & Hlth Serv Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Endrocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med, Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Ctr, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun J.
    Southern Univ Coll, Fac Chinese Med, Johor Baharu, Malaysia..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Natl Inst Hlth Res & Dev, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Ku, Tiffany
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Publ Hlth Res Inst, Sch Publ Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Univ Ibadan, Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Pediat, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Preventat Med, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea.;Hlth Sci Fdn & Study Ctr, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Maragheh, Iran..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Marshall Univ, Joan C Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sartorius, Benn
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Publ Hlth Med, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Durban, South Africa..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Huntington, WV USA..
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Food & Agr Org, Global Perspect Studies Unit, Rome, Italy..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Hamadan Univ Med Sci, Dept Med Surg Nursing, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL USA..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.;Western Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Schulich Sch Med & Dent, London, ON, Canada..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia..
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;James Cook Univ, Cairns, Qld, Australia..
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia.;Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Ctr Appl Hlth Res & Delivery, Div Hlth Sci, Warwick Med Sch Coventry, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Bergen, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Population Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wesana, Joshua
    Univ Ghent, Fac Biosci Engn, Ghent, Belgium..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yonga, Gerald
    Aga Khan Univ, East Africa, NCD Res Policy Unit, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

  • 42.
    Barber, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bollyky, Thomas
    Council Foreign Relat, Washington, DC USA..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Nolte, Ellen
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Observ Hlth Syst & Policies, London, England..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abdurahman, Ahmed Abdulahi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Hohenheim, Food Secur, Stuttgart, Germany.;Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abreha, Girmatsion Fisseha
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adane, Kelemework
    Mekelle Univ, Dept Med Microbiol & Immunol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adelekan, Ademola Lukman
    Publ Hlth Promot Alliance, Osogbo, Nigeria.;Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.;KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;CSIR, Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, Delhi, India.;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Internal Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Agarwal, Sunilkumar
    Natl Inst Occupat Hlth ICMR, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India..
    Agrawal, Anurag
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Orthoped Clin Epidemiol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Ahmed, Kedir Yimam
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, ICT & E Learning, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Newcastle Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Univ Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Alam, Noore
    Dept Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Alexander, Lily
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Ali, Syed Danish
    Univ London, London, England.;SIR Management Consultants, Oxford, England.;Inst & Fac Actuaries, Oxford, England..
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Allen, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Martin, Elena Alvarez
    Spanish Observ Drugs, Govt Delegat Natl Plan Drugs, Minist Hlth Social Policy & Equal, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amo-Adjei, Joshu
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.;Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amoako, Yaw Ampem
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Dept Med, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Anderson, Benjamin O.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Androudi, Sofia
    Univ Thessaly, Larisa, Greece..
    Ansari, Hossein
    Zahedan Univ Med Sci, Hlth Promot Res Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Zahedan, Iran..
    Ansha, Mustafa Geleto
    West Hararghe Zonal Hlth Dept, Chiro, Ethiopia..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aernloev, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran..
    Astatkie, Ayalew
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Atey, Tesfay Mehari
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Atnafu, Niguse Tadele
    Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Atre, Sachin R.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, BJ Med Coll, Clin Trials Unit, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin IRCB, Cotonou, Benin.;LERAS Afr, Parakou, Benin..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Ayele, Nebiyu Negussu
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Saleem, Huda Omer Ba
    Aden Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Aden, Yemen..
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    CCSS, Hosp Dr Rafael Calderon Guardia, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basu, Sanjay
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Baye, Kaleab
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw
    Jhpiego Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Burgundy, Univ Hosp & Med Sch Dijon, Dijon, France..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhan Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Bernal, Oscar Alberto
    Univ Andes, Bogota, Colombia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Tariku Jibat
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bikbov, Boris
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    GBS CIDP Int Fdn, Menemen, Turkey..
    Birungi, Charles
    UCL, London, England..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia..
    Bose, Dipan
    World Bank, Washington, DC 20433 USA..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Car, Josip
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore, Singapore..
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Casey, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Caso, Valeria
    Univ Perugia, Stroke Unit, Perugia, Italy..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.;Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chen, Alan Z.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chibalabala, Mirriam
    Crowd Watch Africa, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
    Minist Hlth, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Univ Salerno, Baronissi, Italy..
    Coggeshall, Megan S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
    Mayo Clin, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Cortinovis, Monica
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Crump, John A.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Injury Prevent & Safety Promot, Orebro, Sweden. Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, I3S Inst Invest Inovacao Saude, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Med, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Oporto, Portugal..
    Davey, Gail
    Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Ctr Global Hlth, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Davitoiu, Dragos V.
    Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Republican Inst Cardiol & Internal Dis, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.;Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.;Univ Colorado, Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA..
    Deribe, Kebede
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Deribew, Amare
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dicker, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Dokova, Klara
    Med Univ Varna, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Social Med, Varna, Bulgaria..
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Ehrenkranz, Rebecca
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ellingsen, Christian Lycke
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Eijkman Oxford Clin Res Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Enayati, Ahmadali
    Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Sci Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Social & Econ Studies Populat, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fuerst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Faghmous, Imad D. A.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines.;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
    DGS Directorate Gen Hlth, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Gen Vulnerable Populat & Hlth Dis, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Feigl, Andrea B.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    German Hosp Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Sci, Sao Paulo, Brazil.;Catholic Univ Portugal, Fac Biotechnol, CBQF Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Oporto, Portugal..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Ethiopia..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Sch Publ Hlth, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98104 USA..
    Fleming, Thomas D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Acad Med Sci, Inst Gerontol, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Seattle Genet, Seattle, WA USA..
    Franklin, Richard C.
    James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Frostad, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde G.
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gambashidze, Ketevan
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.;Natl Ctr Dis Control Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Gao, Wayne
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
    Manhica Hlth Res Ctr, Manhica, Mozambique.;Barcelona Inst Global Hlth, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gebre, Teshome
    Task Force Global Hlth, Decatur, GA USA..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich, Germany..
    Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gelaye, Amha Admasie
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Genova-Maleras, Ricard
    Reg Hlth Council, Directorate Gen Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain.;Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain..
    Gibney, Katherine B.
    Univ Melbourne, Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Melbourne Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Giussani, Giorgia
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Godwin, William W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Goldberg, Ellen M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient & Serv Alta Tecnol INDICASAT AI, Cuidad Del Saber, Panama..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Div Epidemiol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Griswold, Max
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Guban, Peter Imre
    Stockholm Cty Council Surveillance & Anal Ctr Epi, Solna, Sweden..
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Quarter, Anguilla.;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Quarter, Anguilla..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Tanush
    Montefiore Med Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Haile, Demewoz
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hakuzimana, Alex
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Euclid Univ, Banjul, Gambia..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Wayne Cty Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Detroit, MI USA..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia.;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Hao, Yuantao
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Hareri, Habtamu Abera
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Haro, Josep Maria
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England.;Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Bentley, WA, Australia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.;Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA..
    Horino, Masako
    Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Int Relat Div, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.;Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Huang, John J.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Huntley, Bethany M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Huynh, Chantal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Innos, Kaire
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Irenso, Asnake Ararsa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    James, Peter
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    James, Spencer Lewis
    Univ Colorado, Denver Hlth, Denver, CO 80202 USA..
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Jayaraman, Sudha P.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Surg, Richmond, VA USA..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka..
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India.;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Guragon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurgaon, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.;George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    John, Denny
    Int Ctr Res Women, New Delhi, India..
    Johnson, Catherine
    Johnson, Sarah C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Juel, Knud
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Soc Educ Act & Res Community Hlth, Gadchiroli, India..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland.;Qual & Equity Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Karimi, Seyed M.
    Univ Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA USA..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA..
    Kastor, Anshul
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya.;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.;Univ Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kerbo, Amene Abebe
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Coll Med Hlth Sci, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah
    Mohammed Ibn Saudi Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kibret, Getiye Dejenu
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Pauline
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Skudai, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kolk, Anneli
    Univ Tartu, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Tartu, Estonia..
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Brown Univ, Div Cardiol, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    NIHRD, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Kashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kuipers, Ernst J.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR USA..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Guragon, India..
    Kumsa, Fekede Asefa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lager, Anton Carl Jonas
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Lal, Aparna
    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Rockville, MD USA..
    Langan, Sinead M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Help Me See Inc, New York, NY USA.;Inst Mexicano Oftalmol, Queretaro, Mexico..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Laryea, Dennis Odai
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Latif, Asma Abdul
    Lahore Coll Women Univ, Dept Zool, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz
    Inst Nacl Epidemiol Dr Juan H Jara, Mar Del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lind, Margaret
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel..
    Lipshultz, Steven E.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA.;Childrens Hosp Michigan, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Yang
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Lo, Loon-Tzian
    UnionHealth Associates LLC, St Louis, MO USA.;Alton Mental Hlth Ctr, Alton, IL USA..
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lorch, Scott A.
    Univ Penn, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Swansea Univ, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd
    Aswan Univ Hosp, Aswan Fac Med, Aswan, Egypt..
    Mahdavi, Mahdi
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Social Secur Org Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mantovani, Lorenzo G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy..
    Manyazewal, Tsegahun
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, Div Populat & Patient Hlth, London, England..
    Marks, Guy B.
    Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Marquez, Neal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardinal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Spain..
    Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
    Univ East Ramon, Magsaysay Mem Med Ctr, Quezon City, Philippines..
    Massano, Joao
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal.;ULS Matosinhos, Hosp Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal..
    Mathur, Manu Raj
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth India, New Delhi, India..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McNellan, Claire
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Mehari, Alem
    Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA..
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Janakpuri Superspecialty Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mengistie, Mubarek Abera
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Menota, Bereket Gebremichael
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mereta, Seid Tiku
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Micha, Renata
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Millear, Anoushka
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mills, Edward J.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Minnig, Shawn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Hunger Act Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Univ Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Mohanty, Sanjay K.
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Univ Papua New Guinea, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Reprod Hlth & ObGyn, Boroko, Papua N Guinea..
    Molokhia, Mariam
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Montico, Marcella
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran..
    Moraga, Paula
    Queensland Univ Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mori, Rintaro
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Moses, Mark
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sci Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Nagata, Chie
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naldi, Luigi
    Azienda Osped Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nascimento, Bruno Ramos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Hosp Univ Ciencias Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Negoi, Ionut
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Newton, Charles R.
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Minist Hlth & Social Welf, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Taipei, Taiwan.;Semarang State Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Semarang City, Indonesia..
    Nolte, Sandra
    Deakin Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Nomura, Marika
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Saitama, Japan..
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Norrving, Bo
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Lund, Sweden..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Univ Western Sydney, Ctr Hlth Res, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Okoro, Anselm
    Soc Family Hlth, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, Durban, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Olagunju, Andrew Toyin
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Opio, John Nelson
    Lira Dist Local Govt, Lira Municipal Council, Lira, Uganda..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Osborne, Richard H.
    Deakin Univ, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Osman, Majdi
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;YBank, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria. JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pain, Amanda W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pakhale, Smita
    Ottawa Hosp, Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Castillo, Elizabeth Palomares
    Minist Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Papachristou, Christina
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    UK Dept Int Dev, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Paul, Vinod K.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Pearce, Neil
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, REQUIMTE LAQV, Lab Farmacognosia, Oporto, Portugal..
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Natl Inst Resp Dis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
    Hop Univ Cruces, OSI EE Cruces, Baracaldo, Spain.;Biocruces Hlth Res Inst, Baracaldo, Spain..
    Perico, Norberto
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pigott, David M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa..
    Pinho, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia..
    Prakash, V.
    Charotar Univ Sci & Technol, Anand, Gujarat, India..
    Purwar, Manorama
    Intergrowth 21st Study Res Ctr, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Quistberg, D. Alex
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rankin, Zane
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya
    Diabet Res Soc, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.;Diabet Res Ctr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Rao, Puja C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Fac Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Reitsma, Marissa
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.;Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N. N.
    Univ Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Univ New South Wales, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vis Sci, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sari, Iran..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Roba, Hirbo Shore
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Rokni, Mohammad Bagher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Roy, Nawal K.
    Holmusk, Singapore, Singapore.;Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Prince Wales Hosp, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Sackey, Ben Benasco
    World Hlth Org, Accra, Ghana..
    Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
    Dev Res & Projects Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Sandar, Logan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Internal Med Dept, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Joao Vasco
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal..
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia.;Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Ciencias Aplicadas & Ambient, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa.;SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Saylan, Mete I.
    Bayer Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Ageing Res, Heidelberg, Germany.;FOM Univ, Inst Hlth Care & Social Sci, Essen, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team HART, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Seid, Abdulbasit Musa
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Seifu, Canaan Negash
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Serdar, Berrin
    Univ Colorado, Aurora, CO USA..
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Setegn, Tesfaye
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Shackelford, Katya Anne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Shaheen, Amira
    Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Palestine..
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Tufts Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Shamsipour, Mansour
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sharma, Jayendra
    Minist Hlth, Thimphu, Bhutan..
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Rupnagar, India..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Zhongshan Hosp, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shi, Peilin
    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan.;Sandia Natl Labs, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Grad Sch, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shoman, Haitham
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Sibamo, Ephrem Lejore Sibamo
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sindi, Shireen
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singh, Abhishek
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.;Birmingham Vet Affairs Med Ctr, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Om Prakash