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  • 1.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Historia.
    A bank in a monarchy: an early modern anomaly?: The Swedish Bank of the Estates of the Realm2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse credit as a core element in the political changes and processes of state formation that took place in Sweden in the second half of the seventeenth-century. The study focuses on discussions within the Council of the Realm and at the Diets about how to use the two Swedish seventeenth-century banks as creditors to the state. The two banks were essential parts of an elaborate attempt to shift public debt regime from one based on private creditors and the personal credit of the king and the men in the government to a regime based on institutional creditors and the credit of the Estates of the Realm. The outcome of the procesess was contingent upon some of the core topics of early modern Europe’s political and financial discourses: the nature of the sovereign, the relationship between private interests and the public good, and the role and functioning of representative assemblies. This process was the beginning of a development in which sovereign borrowing became a public concern, which eventually strengthened the Estate’s position vis-à-vis the government, and is a significant example of the interconnectedness of politics and credit.

  • 2.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mastering the narrative and the dirty tricks of trade: The re-establishment of a Swedish bank in 16682024Ingår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 264-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1657, Sweden saw the creation of its first bank, the private royal-chartered Stockholms Banco. It crashed a few years later and was reconstructed as the Bank of the Estates of the Realm. The intention here is to show how a bank could (re)open so soon after a disastrous crash and to point at some key factors in its success. The main argument posits not only that the principals of the new bank required an adequate institutional framework to make a credible commitment, but also that the prosperity of that bank depended upon said principals’ ability to control the narrative of the crashed bank and to recruit a good staff with strong personal credit, whose self-interest it could harness and credit it could use.

  • 3.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Historia.
    Med järnband och 'caute': Riksens ständers banks förtroendeskapande verksamhet 1668–17002024Ingår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 90, nr 1, s. 11-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel undersöks Ständernas banks (senare Riksbanken) första tid som aktör på den svenska kreditmarknaden. Genom att gå bortom ständernas beslut om att grunda en bank visar denna artikel att bankens kredit inte ansågs vara fast och avslutad vid riksdagens slut 1 oktober 1668. Tvärtom var personliga relationer och ständiga bedömningar av trovärdighet i handlingar och uppträdanden avgörande. Banken arbetade kontinuerligt med sin kredit i samspel med konkurrenters och kunders önskemål i en ”public economy of information”. Bankens praxis för kreditgivning uppstod i dialog med det omgivande samhället; vad som teoretiskt var bäst för bankens kredit var inte nödvändigtvis kompatibelt med kundernas behov. Kredit och trovärdighet behövde upprätthållas i en pågående process för att banken skulle fungera. Till skillnad från vad som diskuterats av tidigare forskning angående tidigmodern materiell kultur verkar kredit i detta sammanhang inte ha uttryckts genom utformningen av bankbyggnadens fasad eller interiördekorationer. Viktigare var tegelvalv och säkra lås, bredden på diskarna, personalens sätt att dagligen möta klienter och kompetensen att ekonomisera bankens resurser och därigenom signalera trovärdighet.

  • 4.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Historia.
    Sven Fritz: Johan Liljencrants. Den fredsälskande reformivraren som blev Gustaf III:s och Sveriges förste finansminister2024Ingår i: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, Vol. 1, s. 56-59Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Molinder, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Women's work and wages in the sixteenth century and Sweden's position in the ‘little divergence’2023Ingår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 76, nr 1, s. 145-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a unique source from the Swedish royaldemesnesto examine the work and relative wages of women insixteenth-century Sweden, an economic laggard in theearly modern period. The source pertains to workers hiredon yearly contracts, a type more representative of histori-cal labour markets than day labour on large constructionsites, and this allows us to observe directly the food con-sumed by workers. We speak to the debate on the ‘littledivergence’ within Europe, as women’s work and genderdifferentials in pay is a key indicator of women’s relativeautonomy and seen as a cause for the economic ascen-dency of the North Sea region during the period. Wefind small gender differentials among both unskilled andskilled workers, indicating that Sweden was a part of the‘golden age’ for women. We argue that despite superficialequality, women’s economic outlooks were restrained inmany other ways – including their access to higher-skilledwork and jobs in the expanding parts of the economy –adding important nuance to the discussion about the rela-tionship between women’s social position and economicgrowth in the early modern period

  • 6.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    För att bygga, brygga och begrava: Kreditmarknaden i 1600-talets Stockholm och Riksens ständers banks utlåningsverksamhet (To build, to brew and to bury: The credit market in Stockholm and the lending business of the Bank of the Estates of the Realm)2020Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, nr 2, s. 189-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To build, to brew and to bury: The credit market in Stockholm and the lending business of the Bank of the Estates of the Realm

    Early modern European credit markets are often described as based on personal trust and on private, or informal, credit. They are contrasted with modern markets, which are based on trust in institutions and on formal credit relations. The prevalent narrative of the Swedish credit market, as well as of many other credit markets in Europe, claims that it developed in a linear manner from personal to institutional credit during the long nineteenth century.

    This article aims to qualify this narrative by studying the transformations of the credit market in seventeenth-century Stockholm. In this period, an institutional actor, The Bank of the Estates of the Realm, founded 1668 in Stockholm, started to play a significant role both as a lender and as receiver of deposits. Previous research has mainly studied the exchanges of the nobility and the iron industry with the bank. This study takes a broader approach and looks at the bank’s total lending business with a special focus on smaller loans and the credit market in Stockholm.

    The bank extended small loans against both real property and chattels quite extensively. In probate inventories from Stockholm nearly one fifth of the households were debtors to the bank in the 1690s. Loans were taken by the members of the urban community to invest in real property – to buy or improve houses and plots – and by craftsmen to buy raw materials, but also to a lesser extent to finance life-cycle ceremonies such as weddings and funerals. In terms of the number of loans, rather than the sums extended, lending against movables, mainly objects of silver, was an important branch of the bank’s business. More people had access to pawnable movables than to real property and in a society with a very rudimentary juridical framework around mortgage lending the bank often preferred movables.

    The activities of the Bank of the Estates of the Realm show how institutions of various kind both pooled and lent money, activities commonly associated with banks, long before the nineteenth century and that the importance of institutional credit varied with time and place in early modern Europe.

  • 7.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    'Learning to bring dead capital to life': the Riksens Ständers Bank and the credit market in seventeenth-century Sweden2019Ingår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 209-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful mortgage lending is often said to require a system of registration, which records the ownership of, and any encumbrances on, a particular piece of real estate. Here we analyse how Sweden's Riksens Ständers Bank handled the uncertainties of the mortgage lending market c. 1680–1700, when there was no coherent system of property registration. The bank tried to make registration compulsory, but when influential groups opposed this move, the bank had to modify its lending practices. The study thus sheds light on the somewhat fraught initial stages of the shifts in the credit system, which from the latter half of the seventeenth century onwards, saw personal trust replaced by system trust, and private credit replaced by institutional credit.

  • 8.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    En fristad i en stormig värld: Anna Andersdotter på Eskilstuna gård2018Ingår i: Eskilstuna: en annan historia / [ed] Elin Eriksson, Eskilstuna: Eskilstuna stadsmuseum, Eskilstuna stadsarkiv, Stiftelsen Lagersberg , 2018, s. 106-135Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Pihl, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Några reflektioner kring ett 350-årsjubileum2018Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 57-61Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 9 av 9
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