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  • 1.
    Birksjö, David
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Innovative Security Business: Innovation, Standardization, and Industry Dynamics in the Swedish Security Sector, 1992–20122023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to generate new knowledge on innovation output and standardization in industries where innovation output typically is considered sparse. This is done through the longitudinal study of the Swedish security guard industry and security sector 1992-2012. Several longitudinal databases have been constructed across the two studied decades. These include three different databases on innovations in the security guard industry and the security sector, one on standardization of security products and services, and a database that describes industry structure and development. In contrast to much previous research, and in line with recent calls for multiple innovation indicators, this approach enables the addressing of innovation through the lens of several longitudinal innovation indicators and from different perspectives. It also allows for analysis of the relationship between innovation and standardization, which often have played a peripheral role in previous innovation studies. 

    The main findings show that innovation has played an important role in the industry and the sector as a whole. Essential characteristics of innovation in the studied industry/sector, 1992-2012, have corresponded – to varying degrees – to established ‘stylized facts’ in the literature on industry patterns of innovation output. The importance of multiple indicators is particularly apparent when addressing temporal patterns of innovation output in the present study. Different approaches to measuring innovation output showed distinctly different temporal patterns of innovation, bearing different implications on the relationship between innovation output and industry development and dynamics. 

    Moreover, standardization is explored from complementing perspectives: i) as diffusion of innovation; ii) as organizational and marketing innovation, and iii) as an industry-specific indicator of innovation output. Fundamental questions regarding innovation output are thereby addressed, such as how innovation research addresses and captures innovations after market introduction, along with discussions on what constitutes ‘innovativeness’ in terms of newness and commercial application. 

    The dissertation contributes to and challenges conventional knowledge on industry patterns of innovation output and the role of innovation in service industries, mature industries, and low-tech industries. It also contributes to the literature on the relationship between innovation and standardization, and to the methodological discussion on innovation indicators.

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    Innovative Security Business: Innovation, Standardization, and Industry Dynamics in the Swedish Security Sector, 1992–2012
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  • 2.
    Birksjö, David
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Undervisningsdebuten – som man frågar gråter svaren2014In: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, p. 57-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Undervisningsdebuten – som man frågar gråter svaren
  • 3.
    Birksjö, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Löfgren, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Westberg, Karl
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth.
    The Swedish Innovation Paradox Revisited: A Discussion about Measurement Problems2012In: Entrepreneurship and innovation networks: revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2012, p. 95-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature in the field of innovation lacks clear definitions of how to classify different types of innovations and how they are operationalized and measured. This can create problems when innovation policies are developed.

    Recent responses to the Swedish paradox (Granberg and Jacobsson, 2006; McKelvey et al. 2007) – where investments in knowledge and R&D not in a corresponding manner contributes to innovations and economic growth – states that measurement problems may be the answer to the existence of this paradox. Innovations are often measured by number of patents, patent citations and R&D expenditures.

    In this paper we primarily focus on the number of patent applications as proxy for innovation to provide better information for decision making and research.

    The study consists of two empirical parts. One focusing on data covering the Swedish security industry and data on patents applications. The other part is a qualitative study where managers are interviewed about innovativeness within their company. This allows us to find innovations that are not showing in the patent data.

    Our study showed that major innovations were often introduced from other industries – implemented by large dominating companies – and they were seldom patented. Our quantitative data indicates a lower level of innovation that arguably could be assumed to be the case judging from our qualitative data which includes a number of unpatented innovations. Notwithstanding considerable measurement problems, it seems that the Swedish security industry is characterised by high growth in terms of number of firms but a relatively modest amount of patented innovations. Major innovations have rather come from other industries, or have not been patented and therefore they are not captured in statistics when using patent as a proxy for innovation. This study provides empirics from the Swedish security industry that indicates these claims.

    With this paper we want to provide a basis for discussion about the use of patent statistics as an indicator of innovation. We also suggest that the usage of patents as a proxy for innovations need to be further discussed and elaborated.

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