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  • 1.
    Morsanyi, Kinga
    et al.
    University of Loughborough, UK; Queen’s University Belfast, UK.
    Hamilton, Jayne
    Queen’s University Belfast, UK.
    Stamenković, Dušan
    University of Niš, Faculty of Philosophy, Serbia.
    Holyoak, Keith J.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Linking metaphor comprehension with analogical reasoning: Evidence from typical development and autism spectrum disorder2022In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 479-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the relationship between metaphor comprehension and verbal analogical reasoning in young adults who were either typically developing (TD) or diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The ASD sample was highly educated and high in verbal ability, and closely matched to a subset of TD participants on age, gender, educational background, and verbal ability. Additional TD participants with a broader range of abilities were also tested. Each participant solved sets of verbal analogies and metaphors in verification formats, allowing measurement of both accuracy and reaction times. Measures of individual differences in vocabulary, verbal working memory, and autistic traits were also obtained. Accuracy for both the verbal analogy and the metaphor task was very similar across the ASD and matched TD groups. However, reaction times on both tasks were longer for the ASD group. Additionally, stronger correlations between verbal analogical reasoning and working memory capacity in the ASD group indicated that processing verbal analogies was more effortful for them. In the case of both groups, accuracy on the metaphor and analogy tasks was correlated. A mediation analysis revealed that after controlling for working memory capacity, the inter-task correlation could be accounted for by the mediating variable of vocabulary knowledge, suggesting that the primary common mechanisms linking the two tasks involve language skills.

  • 2.
    Morsanyi, Kinga
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Stamenković, Dušan
    University of Niš, Faculty of Philosophy, Serbia.
    Idiom and proverb processing in autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis2021In: Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science, ISSN 2520-100X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 367-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Figurative language processing impairments in autism have been widely demonstrated, and have been considered a defining feature of autism. Studies in this area often consider different types of figurative language together, and less attention has been paid to identifying the factors that might contribute to difficulties in processing specific types of figurative language. Here we present a preregistered systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the comprehension of idioms and proverbs in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Idioms are widely used multi-word figurative expressions, which are understood by using contextual information. Proverbs are a related type of fixed, figurative, formulaic expression in a sentential form, typically linked with wisdom. Idioms and proverbs represent forms of figurative language which are more conventionalized and frequently opaquer than metaphors, pointing to a unique way that they are processed in conversational contexts. Our analysis encompassed a total of 11 studies from 10 papers (involving 235 autistic and 224 TD individuals), which met our inclusion criteria (the ASD and TD groups were matched on both chronological age and intelligence). The analysis of accuracy data revealed a group difference favouring the TD over the ASD group, with a medium effect size, and no indication of a publication bias. Participants’ age was unrelated to the magnitude of group differences, but there was a trend for smaller group differences in the case of participants with higher (verbal) intelligence. We discuss these findings with reference to theories related to the nature of figurative language impairments in autism.

  • 3.
    Morsanyi, Kinga
    et al.
    Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom; Loughborough University, UK.
    Stamenković, Dušan
    University of Niš, Faculty of Philosophy, Serbia.
    Holyoak, Keith J.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Metaphor processing in autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis2020In: Developmental Review, ISSN 0273-2297, E-ISSN 1090-2406, Vol. 57, article id 100925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impairments related to figurative language understanding have been considered to be one of the diagnostic and defining features of autism. Metaphor comprehension and production in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to typically developing (TD) individuals have been investigated for around thirty years, generally showing an overall advantage for TD groups. We present a preregistered systematic review and meta-analysis including a total of 15 studies that fulfilled our set of inclusion criteria (notably, ASD and TD groups matched in chronological age and verbal- or full-scale IQ). Along with accuracy, we also analyzed group differences in reaction time in the studies that reported them. The results revealed a medium-to-large group difference favoring TD over ASD groups based on accuracy measures, as well as a similar overall advantage for TD groups based on reaction times. There was reliable heterogeneity in effect sizes for group differences in accuracy, which was mostly explained by the effect of verbal intelligence, with differences in metaphor processing being smaller for participants with better verbal skills. Some of the variation in effect sizes may also be attributed to differences in types of metaphor processing tasks. We also evaluated the quality of the studies included in the meta-analysis, and the evidence relating to the potential presence of publication bias.

1 - 3 of 3
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  • harvard-anglia-ruskin-university
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