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  • 1.
    Aagah, Awa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Baydono, Sibel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Does openness affect economic growth?: A panel data on developing and developed countries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on economic growth through a panel analysis containing a set of 61 countries over 15 years. The method we use is the fixed effect regression model in Stata, to see whether openness to trade has explanatory power over GDP per capita growth. We use secondary data taken from World bank and Worldwide Governance Indicators. The data used is a panel data containing 61 countries and the period we are studying starts at 2002 and ends in 2016, a 15 years' time interval. Our empirical results suggest that openness during these years have had a small negative impact on growth, but although this, the variable does not seem to have a statistical significance upon per capita growth within this period of time. Therefore, with reference to this study we cannot see any significance of openness upon growth.

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  • 2.
    Aaltonen, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sköld, Mathias
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Behöver pensionssystemet en förändring?: En studie om investmentbolag i premiepensionssystemet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is evaluate if there is another investment opportunity than the current investment opportunities in the Swedish pension system. In order to do this the study will produce a portfolio of a Swedishand an international investment company with a good balance between risk and return for a comparison of today’s premium pension scheme.

    Methodology: The study is based on historical data for ten years which further is analyzed through the Pearson R model. The selection consists of investment companies in the Nordic- and the American market. Along with the quantitative study an interview will be made with a representative well familiar with savings and pension investments. Finally the credibility of the study and methodology criticism is presented.

    Theoretical Framework: The theoretical frame of reference consists of previous theories that are relevant to produce the best-suited portfolio. Markowitz modern portfolio theory is the main theory which is supplemented by additional essential measures as the Sharpe ratio. Furthermore, a developed portfolio theory by Grubel & Solnik is applied to get an international perspective.

    Result: The result consists of a presentation of the processed data as underlies the analysis being carried out.

    Conclusions: The study produces a portfolio in the form of Bure Equity AB and Berkshire Hathaway. In comparison with the pre-existing pension options the study’s portfolio shows a significantly higher nominal return. The constellation of Bure Equity AB and Berkshire Hathaway exhibits a nominal return of 19,75 % in relation to the active saver in the premium pension with a nominal return of 7 %. The passive saver assigned to AP7 Safa exhibits a nominal return of 11 %.

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  • 3.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other2016In: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 106-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

  • 4.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text2018In: Brazilian Journalism Research, ISSN 1808-4079, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 676-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the tenets of discourse narratology, this essay identifies and discusses the various narrative and rhetorical features typical of literary journalism/reportage that have evolved from the classical tradition of first-hand observation/eyewitness reporting. I give examples of narrative patterns that have influenced literary journalism throughout the 20th century and up until today, and argue that they differ from structures found in comparable ways of narrating in fiction as well as in autobiographies. I highlight four consequences of a rhetorical “position of witnessing”: a narrative perspective directed from the outside and inward, and an illusion of simultaneity of a reporter being present on the spot and seemingly witnessing and narrating at the same time. Furthermore, the essay explores how realism, in terms of mimetic (scenic) form and scrutinized details, works differently in literary journalism than in realistic fiction. In this article, I attempt to demonstrate how narratology can open new doors to our understanding how literary journalism works in its single structures and how these structures in turn affect the reader’s experience.

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  • 5.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Poetry of Grayness: Stig Dagerman's German Autumn as Postwar Reportage from Germany2022In: The Routledge Companion to World Literary Journalism / [ed] John S. Bak; Bill Reynolds, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 107-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tysk höst (German Autumn) is perhaps the most famous Swedish reportage book from the twentieth century. It was written as a series of reportages by the young author Stig Dagerman and depicts the life of ordinary people in Germany in 1946. Themes such as suffering, guilt, and feelings of dejection are discussed, framed by an atmosphere of grayness. The reader is invited to empathize, not with certain individuals but rather with anyone who is cold, hungry, and bereaved of their beliefs. This chapter explores how these themes are made universally human by an advanced literary technique. Dagerman links the abstract to the concrete, the argumentation to what he has observed on the spot. This is achieved through figurative language, where key words are repeated, gradually transforming them in meaning and blurring the line between illustrated scenes and metaphors. The result becomes a paradoxical kind of gray expressiveness, where the power of the language seems to contradict the gloomy content.

  • 6.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Att se genom andras ögon: narrativa stretegier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Barbro Alvings folkhemsblick exotiserar Norrland2023In: Mediehistorisk tidsskrift, E-ISSN 2464-4277, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När den legendariska svenska reportern Barbro Alving, signaturen Bang, 1951 åker på reportageresa till det svenska Norrland gör hon sig till talesperson för myndigheternas framväxande välfärdsprojekt. Detta innebär att norrlänningar ska uppfostras till bättre hygien, bättre matvanor och bättre läsvanor. Den här artikeln gör generaliserande värderingar synliga när narratologisk och medieretorisk analys samt stilanalys belyser ett samspel mellan berättarperspektiv och berättarröst i Bangs åtta reportage från Norrland. Analysen visar hur valet av källor återspeglar ett klassamhälle där högre samhällsföreträdare, tillsammans med den berättande reportern, får stå för artikelseriens problemformuleringar samtidigt som framför allt fattiga kvinnors livssituation skildras med medkänsla men sällan någon djupare inlevelse. Med en närmast filantropisk blick görs norrlänningar till föremål för ”folkhemmets” välfärdsförbättrande insatser, samtidigt som de själva inte inkluderas i det ”vi” där reportern och hennes Stockholmsläsare ingår.

  • 8.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Den engagerade reportern: Svenska sociala reportage 1910–20102023 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social reportages are written by reporters who fight for the weak and expose injustices. So it is said in the profession, in handbooks and among the genre’s supporters. But what is hidden behind the ideal? And what does the commitment look like when it is converted into text? This book highlights reportages by some of the 20th century’s most celebrated Swedish reporters and examines the ways in which their texts convey a commitment to the reader. The narratologically based analyses are performed against a background of changing ideas about a reporter’s role in society. It turns out that the commitment is often time-related and can be counteracted by generalizing values about the depicted people. Here, the difference between empathy and compassion becomes crucial.

    The selected reporters represent Swedish social reportage at central turning points within the tradition. Ester Blenda Nordström and Gustaf Hellström have been chosen for the 1910s, Ivar Lo-Johansson for the years around 1930, Barbro Alving for the 1950s, Jan Guillou for the 1970s and Maciej Zaremba and Karen Söderberg for the 1990s and 2000s.

  • 9.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid2020In: Vad är journalistik?: En antologi av journalistiklärare på Södertörns högskola / [ed] Elin Gardeström & Hanna Sofia Rehnberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, p. 67-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid
  • 10.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage2021In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 142, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1910s was a dynamic period in Swedish journalism when reporters became professionals and the largest newspapers engaged their own foreign correspondents. A prominent correspondent of the time was Gustaf Hellström, also a famous writer. His reports from France during the First World War, collected in the book 1 1/2 mil härifrån står världens största slag, are known for their dedicated attitude. An assumption in this essay is that such an attitude corresponds to a narrative commitment, which could be divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion

    Using tools from discourse narratology and cognitive narratology, I investigate narrative techniques and strategies at work when a narrative commitment is constructed in the reportages from France. A conclusion is that parallel perspectives and a multitude of voices within the narrative construction connect the individual to the general and convey empathy with all victims of the war, civilians as well as soldiers on both sides. 

    In a final section, I place Hellström’s series of reportages from France within a broader context where I highlight similarites with Stig Dagerman’s series of reportages Tysk höst from 1946 and Svetlana Alexievich’s documentary books from the 1980s and onwards.

  • 11.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narratologia a dziennikarstwo literackie: W jaki sposób wzajemne oddziaływanie głosu oraz punktu widzenia może służyć wytworzeniu zrozumienia dla Innego2016In: Tekstualia, ISSN 1734-6029, no 4, p. 5-28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen2015In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

  • 13.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Skiftande berättarperspektiv och självkritisk reporter komplicerar bilden: Budskap och berättarteknik i tre svenska reportageböcker om gängkriminalitet2023In: Journalistica, ISSN 1901-6220, E-ISSN 1904-7967, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hur ser berättelsen om svensk gängkriminalitet ut i tre aktuella reportageböcker och med vilken berättarteknik är den konstruerad? Med en blandning av narratologisk och medieretorisk analysmetod undersöker den här artikeln hur innehåll och form samspelar i Mammorna av Alexandra Pascalidou, Familjen av Johanna Bäck- ström Lerneby och Tills alla dör av Diamant Salihu. En slutsats är att skiftande berättarperspektiv kan motverka ensidighet, samtidigt som narrativ medkänsla utan parallell narrativ inlevelse kan hindra läsarens möjlighet att föreställa sig de skildrade människornas situation. Dramatiserade händelseförlopp kan öka närvarokänslan, medan en reporter som ifrågasätter sin egen auktoritet uppmuntrar läsaren till att undvika förenklande slutsatser. Till sist bidrar person- beskrivningar och urval av fakta i de tre böckerna till skilda budskap. Studien visar att reportagegenren tack vare sin narrativa form har potential att skildra samhällsproblem på komplexa sätt. Detta gäller särskilt när gestaltningen kombineras med gedigen faktaresearch. 

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  • 14.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Case of Literary Journalism: Rethinking Fictionality, Narrativity, and Imagination2023In: Style, ISSN 0039-4238, E-ISSN 2374-6629, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the genre of literary journalism/reportage against a background of earlier assumptions on fictionality. At a local level in nonfiction, fic- tionality can be expressed through invented stories and scenarios that create a con- trast to the global, nonfictive context. However, fictionality can also be expressed through stylistic devices that traditionally have been associated with narrative fic- tion. A local contrast may appear, but only if the genre in itself is not narrative. If the focus is on the nonfictional and narrative genre of literary journalism/reportage, there will be no contrast. Here, the rhetoric will work just like in narrative fiction and should be considered to be part of the features of narrativity. Furthermore, the concept imagination should be perceived in close relation to Monika Fludernik’s understanding of narrative as experience. The conclusion is a call to partly rethink existing connections between fictionality, narrativity, and imagination in order to better understand the narrative nature of reportage. 

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  • 15.
    Abbas, Najat
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Happier Childrens etableringsprocess: En studie om socialt entreprenörskap vid etablering utomlands2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe how social entrepreneurs' establishment process and then identify the challenges and factors that social entrepreneurs should take into account when establishing abroad and what resources that have been used to tackle the various challenges.

    Research questions:

    • How do social entrepreneurs establish operations abroad?
    • What factors are important to consider for social entrepreneurs when establishing abroad?
    • Witch resources can be used by social entrepreneurs to tackle the challenges that comes along when establishing abroad?

    Method: This is a case study and is investigating the case with social entrepreneurs' establishment process of the non-profit organization Happier Children in Morocco. Introspective method and qualitative research strategy were used to gather the empirical material. The study is based on an inductive approach. The study's choice of respondents consists of Swedish social entrepreneurs who established an orphanage in Morocco.

    Theory: The theories used in this study are Barriers during establishment abroad and Resources used during establishment abroad.

    Conclusions and results: This study showed that social entrepreneurs established a business/ projects in Morocco by first having a preparatory work. The preparatory work included planning, material collection and procurement, information retrieval, administrative applications and the establishment of a new wider network. Thereafter, the social entrepreneurs established their projects in Morocco. The periods for the social entrepreneur’s establishment process of the various projects and programs varied between three months to two years. During the establishment process of Happier Children, all of the social entrepreneurs experienced various challenges. These challenges caused stress, frustration, disappointment, lack of trust and cooperation, limited information availability and constant 7 barriers. It is therefore important that social entrepreneurs when establishing abroad should take into account factors such as differences in language, culture, business ethics, administrative support, the occurrence of corruption, inadequate access to information and the importance of a broad network and social capital

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  • 16.
    Abbasi, Tara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Bostadsmiljöns påverkan på unga kvinnors identitetsutveckling: En studie om sex unga kvinnor och deras upplevelser av identitet och stigmatisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative and empirical study was to study a group of young women and how they shaped their identites through their experiences and selfrealisation in the suburb Tensta. The main focus of the study was to find what significance and impact the environment had and how much it effetct the individuals’ self image and place in society. Further more the study was done through semi-structured interviews. The different kinds of theories used in this study were mainly Goffman's theory on stigma, Link and Phelan’s explanation model for the process of stigmatization, Skegg’s theory on effeminately as a norm, and the author Sobring etc. as the source to understand the different identity concepts. With the help of these explanation models we learned to comprehend and get a better view of what these young women felt in their stigmitized area called Tensta and how it affected their identity and behaviour. Also, in how they saw themselves and their self image we could draw real life conclusions and what we found out was that these women had ambitious feelings about the future with a general positivity despite their location. Even though they have been and are still being discriminated and stigmitized against, they still keept a postive outlook on life.

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    Bostadsmiljöns påverkan på unga kvinnors identitetsutveckling
  • 17.
    Abdalla, Amal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konradsdal, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    CSR, receptet för en lyckad M&A transaktion?: En kvantitativ studie om hur effekterna av företagens sociala ansvar påverkar M&A transaktioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the awareness of social- and environmental factors could be beneficial within M&A transactions in such that companies tend to obtain a higher success in such transactions if they are aware of these factors. The study also examines whether the actual return by the event date strikes higher for the social- and environmental aware companies than the unaware companies, where the event date is when the M&A transaction was due.

    Method: The authors have chosen to use two different methods; the Event Study- and Panel Study methods. The event window consists of five days before- and five days after the due date of the M&A, which makes it a total of 11 days. The estimation window is based on the 30 days before the event window and is examined in order to obtain an expected return of which is not affected by the event. The sample is based on international, Swedish companies which has undergone a M&A with a non- Swedish company, and is connected to the UN’s initiative Global Compact.

    Theory: The authors have chosen to apply the Efficient Market Hypothesis and besides that, a developed model based on a current one, the Merger Management Model. The difference between the models is that the Merger Management Model is based on tangible factors whereas the developed model, Social and Environmental Merger Management Model, is based on intangible factors. The chapter starts with the Efficient Market Hypothesis and then continues with the Merger Management Model and an explanation of the social- and environmental factors. The chapter ends with an explanation of the factors’ impact on companies and culminates onto the developed model.

    Conclusion: The outcome shows that companies of which are aware of social- and environmental risks, have incentives to a higher success rate in M&A transactions than companies that are unaware of these risks. The results of the hypothesis test made in this study strengthens the conclusion since the outcome of the p-value almost reached 64 percent, which means that there most likely is a correlation between the companies’ awareness of the social- and environmental factors and their success in M&A transactions.

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  • 18.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Procedural Fairness and Political Trust Among Young People: Lessons from a panel study on Swedish High School Students2015In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 253-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ‘fair’ institutions in developing democratic legitimacy has received increased attention. Citizens who perceive – on basis of past experiences – that they are being treated fairly by authorities have been held to have greater trust in political institutions. However, previous studies on the relationship between procedural fairness and political trust have not paid sufficient attention to individuals with limited first-hand experiences of authorities. We examine the relationship on an authority that virtually all individuals meet early in life: the school. Using structural equation modeling on unique panel data covering 1500 Swedish adolescents (ages ranging from 13 to 17), we find a reciprocal relationship: personal encounters with school authorities shape young people’s political trust; however, the images that adolescents get of the political system (through family, peers, media and so on) have also consequences on their perceptions about the authorities they encounter in their daily lives. The analysis increases our understanding of how individuals form their political allegiances by showing that the relationship between fairness and trust is more dynamic than has previously been suggested: neither an accumulated set of experiences of authorities nor formal ties with political institutions (as voters and so on) are required for a relationship to emerge.

  • 19.
    Abdi, Abdirashid Mohamed
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Swedish government agencies and the 2030 Agenda, in between hope and despair: A qualitative study about how the Swedish government agencies work to achieve the 2030 Agenda in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted A/RES/70/1, 2015, a resolution that entails 17 integrative and indivisible UN Sustainable Development Goals, by the name of 2030 Agenda, a plan of action that calls for the transformation of the world to ecologically, economically and socially sustainable planet where peace and prosperity endure. With its indivisibility and universality characteristics, the Agenda puzzled the world states, demanding a new form of governance style for its realization.

    With the use of qualitative research methodology, this thesis, therefore, examines how the Agenda's policies are coordinated by the Swedish Government Agencies and what activities and mechanisms they use to integrate the Agenda' policies into their daily operational activities.

    Through collaborative governance and sociological institutionalism theoretical lens, results show that Government agencies use several mechanisms such as collaboration, dissemination of knowledge, leadership and communications to enhance the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in Sweden. Nevertheless, some challenges hinder the agencies from working with the Agenda on a full scale, that if addressed properly, it could have improved the current conditions.

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  • 20.
    Abdi Hassan, Asho
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Amin, Sagal
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En effektivare hantering av negativ eWOM: En kvalitativ studie om de effektivaste faktorerna inom service recovery som företag tillämpar vid hantering av negativ eWOM2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to gain an understanding of the most effective factors in service recovery that companies apply when managing negative eWOM. 

    Method: With the help of a qualitative cross-sectional study based on a deductive research approach, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with marketing managers. 

    Conclusion: The results show that companies in this study use several components in the theory of service recovery to deal with negative eWOM. The most popular and advantageous methods that the majority of respondents use, to manage negative eWOM in the most optimal way, are done primarily by responding to criticism and preferably at an early stage, as well as an application of psychological recovery methods such as apologizing and showing empathy. Less popular factors in service recovery that companies in the study do not experience are as effective , but which some respondents use are concrete compensations, systems similar to web care, to maintain a continuous dialogue with their consumers and ensure that the same problems do not arise. 

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  • 21.
    Abdi Mohamed, Aukar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ramsey, Gabriel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ledarskap i den kreativa processen: En studie om små dataspelsföretag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Leadership in the creative process: A study about small computer game companies.

    Problem: Currently there is a lack of studies that focus on different leadership perspectives effect on creativity within groups. There is a lack of information about how leadership shapes and the leadership’s role in the creative process, especially in creative intensive industries. A big part of previous research focuses on countries like USA and Japan, but not Sweden. The computer game industry is a fast changing industry, therefore there are many challenges and business opportunities that organizations might lack knowledge about.

    Purpose: The purpose of this essay is to gain an understanding for what leadership in the creative process in small computer game companies look like. At the same time we want contribute knowledge and understanding about the leadership's influence on the creative process.

    Method: The study is based on a interpretive social science perspective with a qualitative research strategy. A phenomenological approach has been used to capture the respondent's’ experience of leadership in the creative process in the computer game industry with the help of semi structured interviews. The research approach was abductive due to the researchers constantly going between data and known theories when searching after the most probable explanations. During processing of data a phenomenographic data analysis model was used.

    Conclusion: Different leadership perspectives work differently under different circumstances. According to the theoretical framework leadership theories does not necessarily exclude one from another, rather aspects from different leadership theories are combinable. Since there are many kinds of computer game companies it is imperative to understand one’s own organization and to be open to pick aspects from different leadership theories to tailor a leadership perspective that fits the organization's context.

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  • 22.
    Abdi, Najib
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lemmetty, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning inom finansbranschen: en studie om legitimitetsstrategier i svenska bankers hållbarhetsrapporter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines annual and sustainability reports from Swedish banks in the pursuit of legitimacy strategies.

    The study applies content analysis on the annual and sustainability reports from four banks from the period 2013-2018. Keywords for the study were extracted from an anti-corruption report. After which an interpretive analysis is done to classify the banks different legitimacy strategies for the period.

    The study found that there was an increase in anti-corruption related CSR in line with earlier studies in the banks SEB, Swedbank, Handelsbanken and Nordea. Several different legitimacy strategies were detected and the shift between them could be identified.

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  • 23.
    Abdirahman, Leensaa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kombarova, Lalitta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Digitala banktjänster och kundernas förtroende: En empirisk kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan digitala banktjänster och bankkunders förtroende2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem formulation: The shift to digital banking services means a different way of working to maintain the trust of its customers, this as the service has become less personal. Trust and service are valued highly for the customers, while new demands are being made regarding convenience and automated self-service. Against this background, possible problems that may arise are a lack of security and the risks surrounding integrity. 

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between customers' trust and the banks' digital banking services. In addition to this, the researchers want to gain an understanding of bank customers' trust in their digital bank. 

    Method: The survey is based on a quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire which is then used to carry out a correlation and regression analysis. 

    Framework: Technology Acceptance Model, Social Exchange Theory, Perceived Risk and Digital Trust Model. 

    Empiricism: The empiricism has four different focus areas: control questions, trust, digital banking services and lastly risk as well as security. These are compiled and tested in a correlation and regression analysis to examine relationships by testing hypotheses. 

    Conclusions: The findings show that there is a positive relationship between the usability of digital banking services and trust in digital banking services, and that perceived integrity risk has a negative relationship with trust. Although there may be a link between the ease of use of digital banking services and trust, there is not enough support to prove this. 

      

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  • 24.
    Abdulah, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dini, Rahma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kulturell mångfald inom företag: En fallstudie om kulturell mångfaldsarbete inom transportsektorn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund​: En ökad globalisering, internationalisering och invandring runt om i världen idag har påverkat näringslivet på olika sätt. Effekterna av detta har haft en kulturell inverkan på Sveriges organisationer. År 1945 ersattes arbetskraftsinvandringen med flykting- och anhöriginvandring. Invandringen har inneburit att den kulturella och religiösa heterogeniteteni det svenska samhället har ökat jämfört med åren innan, vilket har bland annat skapat kulturella utmaningar för företagen i Sverige.

    Problemdiskussion:​ Kulturell mångfald har bidragit till olikheter på arbetsplatsen som har skapat utmaningar för företagen. Olikheterna är allt ifrån sättet man tänker, hur man utför sitt jobb, språket man talar till sättet man klär sig och de symboler man bär. Det är inte alltid de kulturella värderingarna går i enlighet med företagets värderingar och normer. Frågan är hurföretagen ser på dessa utmaningar och hur de hanterar dem.

    Forskningsfråga:​ Hur arbetar företag inom transportbranschen med kulturell mångfald och hur definierar dem utmaningarna som kommer med mångfald bland de anställda?

    Syfte: ​Studien syftar till att undersöka hur företag inom persontransportsektorn arbetar med kulturell mångfald bland de anställda samt hur de hanterar utmaningarna kring den.

    Metod:​ Vi har valt att använda den kvalitativa metoden för att samla information. I vår kvalitativa forskningsmetod har vi använt oss utav semistrukturerade intervjuer bestående av öppna frågor med ledningen för att förstå hur de valda företagen arbetar med mångfald.

    Resultat:​ De fyra företag som undersökts i studien har alla sitt sätt att arbeta med den kulturella mångfalden, men inget av företagen har i dagsläget en medveten strategi som specificerar arbetet med kulturell mångfald på en djupare nivå. Därmed hanterar företagen de utmaningar som uppkommer i samband med detta först när diskriminering eller händelser som strider mot jämställdheten uppstår

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  • 25.
    Abdulahad, Jennifer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Nordling, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Inget vågat, inget vunnet: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i riskbenägenhet mellan män och kvinnor utifrån demografiska faktorer och geografiska områden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: This study aims to examine the factors that influence the individual's different choice of risk level. Demographic characteristics are the underlying factors being analyzed in the study with a special emphasis on geographic factors – this in order to analyze and explain the Swedish individual’s approach to risk. Based on certified private advisers’ perspective, the study will also examine their approach to manage individuals’ risk.

    Purpose: Studying the differences in risk aversion among individuals when making investment decisions, based on demographic factors and geographical areas.

    Theory: The essay’s theoretical framework deals with theories covering behavioral finance, the risk appetite development in individuals at a demographic and geographic way, and an overview of previous research on the subject.

    Method: We conducted a quantitative study in which 340 respondents were asked to answer a survey. We also interviewed three certified counselors from three different banks in Sweden.

    Conclusions: In line with behavioral finance theory, people are not rational when making investment decisions. The study concludes that people in big cities tend to be more risk-averse than people in smaller cities. Sex is shown to be a differentiating factor with men having a higher risk-aversion than women. A higher income and level of education leads to a higher risk attitude and marital status affects the risk appetite where a married person has a higher risk appetite than a person who is single. Age and education, showed to have no relationship to the level of risk.

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  • 26.
    Abdullah, Firas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Afram, Cimel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland högstadieelever utifrån skolkuratorernas perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate mental illness among high school students from the perspective of school counselors. The questions asked for this study are how the experiences are examined from the school counselors' perspective, what strategies are used to counteract this phenomenon and what the causes are for mental illness. The method used for this study was to implement interview five school counselor questions concerning the subject of mental illness among young students. The results showed that mental illness has increased during recent years and that supportive talks and lectures are used by school counselors as a strategy to counteract mental illness among young people. According to the school counselors' statements, there are reasons such as stress, the influence of social media, problematic relationships within the family and with friends, love relationships and socio-economic vulnerability. The study also describes the role as school curator and the curator's professional attitude towards students. In conclusion, the results indicate that there is a lack of research in the chosen area, which requires more further research.

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  • 27.
    Abdullah, Nahian Bin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A Panel Data Approach of Determining Factors of Economic Growth for Different IncomeGroups of Countries.2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives of the study include, to identify whether there is any direct impact of labor, capital/investment, technological advancement and institutional quality on economic growth; understanding the marginal effect of capital and technological advancement for different levels of institutional quality; determining how these relationships vary on the group of countries based on their income groups – poorer to richer.

    Method: Panel data for the period 2006–2020 and 40 countries was considered for the analysis. In order to examine the relationships for all the countries, fixed effect OLS was applied. In addition, to identify the nature of the relationships for the countries based on their income group, quantile fixed effect regression was conducted. To control the time effect, the variable, year, was considered as dummy variable.

    Findings: The study finds that the rate participation of the labor force negatively impacts economic growth whereas institutional quality, capital formation, and advancement of technology positively impact economic growth. The study also finds that the relationship between economic growth and labor, capital, R&D and institutional quality vary across the income group of countries. In case of the 10th quantile, that is the lowest income group countries, none of the independent variables have been found to be impacting the dependent variable, economic growth. This statement has been found true for the two subsequent upper groups of countries – that is for 25th and 50th quantile – as well. However, in the case of 75th and 90th quantile, institutional quality has been found to impact economic growth positively.The positive impact, however, has been found decreasing with increasing of income group of countries. On the other hand, the findings of the study implies that the impact of capital on economic growth will likely to be significant with gradual improvement in the quality of institutions and it has been the case for all the income group countries. In addition, the study finds, the impact of advancement of technology on economic growth gradually decrease with the improvement of institutional quality. Other than this lowest income group of countries, for all other income group countries, the impact of technological advancement tends to have a positive impact with the gradual improvement of the quality of institutions of an economy.

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  • 28.
    Abdullahi, Abdi Isamail
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Does Export Diversification Boosts Economic Growth in Sub SaharanAfrica Countries?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growth induced export has become a major concern for policy makers to transform and upgrade the export composition to achieve economic growth objectives; in this respect, export diversification become at the heart of growth induced export narrative. Nevertheless, this study attempts to find relationship between export diversification and economic growth. To investigate this relationship, a cross-section method is used with averaged data from the period 1991 to 2009 of 41 sub Saharan Africa countries; moreover, diagnostic tests were conducted to ensure the robustness of the model. The empirical result of this study shows positive correlation between export diversification and economic growth which can be concluded that export diversification promotes economic growth.

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  • 29.
    Abdulmahdi, Fatma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Yalcin Kilic, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lyxkonsumtion: - En kvalitativ intervjustudie gällande unga medelklasskvinnors lyxkonsumtion2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the development of the consumer culture, luxury consumption has emerged and gained greater importance. For centuries, luxury has usually been linked to the upper class, such as monarchs and individuals in power (Forty, 1986). However, it is claimed that today's luxury has become broader and is more accessible to a larger number of people (Wirfält, 2011). Today, the middle class is also larger and richer, which thus makes it complex to distinguish the classes (Andersson, 2004).

    The purpose of this essay is to shed light on the underlying factors that influence young middle-class women's buying behavior regarding luxury goods. The aim is also to gain a deeper understanding of why young women in the middle class consume exclusive brands and how they feel about it. The survey is conducted with the help of a qualitative interview study. This is done through semi-structured interviews with ten women between the ages of 20-25.

    The results of the study have shown that the respondents are mainly looking to meet psychological needs such as receiving confirmation and approval from their environment. Thus, they get a sense of belonging to a particular class or group. These young middle-class women feel a pressure from their social environment which thus makes them want to follow trends to fit into society and not end up in an outside position. In this context, luxury consumption is used to construct an identity, express who one is or show one's high status.

  • 30.
    Abdulzahra, Rweeda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Självpresentation hos högskolestudenter genom sociala medier - med välbefinnandet i fokus2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to gain an increased understanding of the college students 'self-presentation on social media, emphasizing whether the use of social media affects the college students' well-being. It is also studied whether the use of social media has changed due to the corona pandemic. This essay aims to gain an in-depth understanding of the research topic. A qualitative approach was used in the study, where a total of four semi-structured interviews were conducted. All participants were students at Södertörn University. The collected material was interpreted with the help of theories of Goffman's dramaturgical perspective on role appearances and self-presentation, as well as Scheff's theory of social ties and its role in human life. The theories were used interchangeably to conduct a content analysis. The survey shows that the informants have a daily use of social media that is focused on communication purposes and a social interaction with family and friends. The results of the study show numerous positive aspects of the use of social media. However, there are considerably negative impacts on the informants' well-being. In addition, the participants were continuously seeking approval from others, as well as an idealization of themselves in order to place themselves in social cohesion. This resulted in the college students engaging in presenting themselves in a favorable way on social media. Finally, the results show that the informants experienced a negative impact on self-esteem, stress, anxiety and depression due to their use of social media platforms.

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  • 31.
    Abdulzahra, Rweeda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Llanes García, Stefhan
    “Det känns som att jag inte existerar!”: En kvalitativ studie om distansundervisningens påverkan på social interaktion för nyanlända gymnasieelever2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to gain an in-depth understanding of how the transition from campus to distance education can change newly arrived high school students’ social interactions at school, and how the transition can affect students' experiences of schooling. Previous national research on newly arrived students in relation to social interaction has found that the school environment can play an important role, namely to be the meeting place where students have the opportunity to establish influential social relationships, which can contribute to, for example, study motivation or future aspirations, so-called social energy. After the transition to distance education, the Swedish National Agency for Education has established, with the help of follow-ups and statistics, that the student group of new arrivals is particularly exposed to the transition, which is illustrated by poorer study results and/or less study motivation. This essay thus attempts to gain an in-depth understanding of how the transition can be experienced by newly arrived high school students, based on their own stories. The study is qualitative and a total of seven semi-structured interviews with newly arrived high school students have been conducted. Based on Goffman's dramaturgical perspective, in particular the concepts of appearances and regions, as well as Thompson's four interaction models, the results suggest, firstly, that newly arrived high school students may experience language learning difficulties and less study motivation, due to the missing physical interaction. Secondly, the results show that opportunities for individual support decrease, especially linguistically, since the teaching takes place via a joint video call where all students are time-bounded. The results also indicates that students who have had negative experiences of physical interaction at school, discrimination as an example, can perceive distance learning positively, as they are given the opportunity to turn off their cameras, but at the same time attend the lesson. Thirdly, the results show that the methods of communication between teacher and student (and vice versa) have changed in connection with the transition to distance studies. The changed communication can be illustrated by personal support taking place instead via email, or by teachers using other digital platforms, such as google images, in order to convey a message.

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    “Det känns som att jag inte existerar!” En kvalitativ studie om distansundervisningens påverkan på social interaktion för nyanlända gymnasieelever
  • 32. Abe, Sarah Krull
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Richardson, Erica
    Abbott, Pamela
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1924-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Abebe, Melat
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ammouri, Elektra
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Revisorns oberoende: En kvalitativ studie om vilka hot mot revisorns oberoende som identifieras samt var gränsen går för en yrkesmässig relation gentemot en vänskaplig kundrelation mellan revisor och kund2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting is a significant area within business finance and aims to provide an overall picture of the company's financial position. The independence of the auditor can also be considered as part of a larger discussion about the role of companies in society and their responsibilities towards stakeholders. Ensuring that the auditor's independence is maintained can help create a more sustainable and ethical business climate that benefits both the company and society as a whole. Setting a clear boundary between the professional role and the private life has always been a challenge for people. There are a number of challenges to auditor independence, including increased competition in the marketplace, increased complexity in companies operations, and increased pressure from company management to maximize profits and share prices. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the auditors secures their independent role and identify threats that may endanger the auditor's independence. Furthermore, the study will examine where the line is drawn for a professional or friendship relationship between accountant and client. The empirical material was collected using a qualitative research method based on semi-structured interviews with authorized accountants. According to the results of the conducted study, it is found that accountants prefer independence over client relationships, but on the other hand, had chosen profitable clients over independence. The significant threats to auditor independence are considered to be financial incentives, such as conflicts of interest or the pressure to maintain client relationships. Threats to auditor independence can arise from a range of factors, including financial incentives, personal relationships and familiarity with clients.

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  • 34.
    Abed, Rood
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Olsson, Saga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Goodwillnedskrivningar: En studie avseende ledningens handlingsfrihet och opportunistiska goodwillnedskrivningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studien avser att undersöka om det går att påvisa ett samband mellan goodwillnedskrivningar och företagets ekonomiska utveckling, företagsledningens incitament och företagets bolagsstyrning bland bolag i Sverige. Då den svenska bolagsstyrningsmodellen och ägarstrukturen skiljer sig från den anglosaxiska, syftar studien även till att utvärdera om utfallen i denna studie avviker från en tidigare genomförd studie i Storbritannien och om avvikelserna kan hänföras till just skillnaderna i ländernas ägarstruktur och bolagsstyrning.  

    Metod: Metoden är en replikering av en tidigare studie. Vi har använt oss av en kvantitativ metod, med deduktiv ansats. Studiens primära analysmodell är en Tobitregressionsanalys. Empirin är hämtad från databasen FactSet samt manuell granskning av årsredovisningar. Studien baserar sig på samtliga noterade bolag på Nasdaq Stockholm per den 1 oktober 2018 för åren 2015, 2016 och 2017. Detta resulterade i ett totalt urval om 330 bolag och 990 observationer. Efter bortfall baserat på olika förbehåll uppgick det slutliga urvalet till 408 observationer, varav 74 med och 334 utan rapporterade goodwillnedskrivningar.

    Slutsatser: Studien fann inget statistiskt säkerställt samband mellan företagets ekonomiska utveckling och goodwillnedskrivningar. Däremot tyder studien på att de bolag vars bokförda värde på eget kapital överstiger dess marknadsvärde redovisar goodwillnedskrivningar i större utsträckning. Vad gäller företagsledningens incitament till att manipulera resultatet så visade studien på ett signifikant samband mellan VD-byten och goodwillnedskrivningar. Detta indikerar att en nytillsatt VD använder sig av resultatmanipulering för egen vinning. Vi fann inget signifikant samband mellan företagens bolagsstyrningsmekanismer och nedskrivning av goodwill. Utfallen i den tidigare studien, som baserar sig på bolag i Storbritannien, skiljer sig markant från utfallen i vår studie. Detta skulle kunna förklaras av att ägarstrukturen och bolagsstyrningsprinciperna skiljer sig åt mellan länderna.

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  • 35.
    Abedi Tameh, Dana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Edstam, Oscar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ansvarsfullt investerande eller en ren förlustaffär?: En komparativ studie mellan hållbara och konventionella aktiefonder i Sverige och Irland2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been conflicting results from previous research regarding sustainable investing and its financial return compared to regular investment alternatives. Simultaneously, the trend towards sustainable investing has grown significantly in recent times, prompting a keen interest in understanding the effect of sustainable investing on investors, specifically in terms of returns and risks. This study aims to provide insights into sustainable investments in equity funds, specifically in terms of returns and risks, when compared to conventional equity funds. Using Jensen's Alpha methodology, a quantitative study was conducted on 310 randomly selectedequity funds, from both sustainable and conventional categories in Sweden and Ireland during the period of 2016-2022. The main findings showed that there is no strong statistical correlation between sustainability and financial returns. Furthermore, the study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in returns for Swedish equity funds, whereas Irish sustainable equity funds exhibited statistically significantly lower returns in comparison to their conventional counterparts. Regarding risk, the study demonstrates that Irish sustainable equity funds carried lower risk, while Swedish sustainable equity funds performed with a higher risk when compared to their conventional counterparts. 

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  • 36.
    Abikari, Masoome
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Negative emotions and consumer behavioural intention to adopt emerging e-banking technology2023In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 28, p. 691-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful implementation of e-banking technology depends on how consumers perceive the technology and how likely they are to adopt it. Although several studies have analysed the impact of some specific negative emotions, few studies examine a broad range of consumers' negative emotions (i.e. both deterrence and loss emotions) arising from appraisals of e-banking technology. This study investigates the possible relationships between deterrence and loss emotions, and consumers' behavioural intention to adopt emerging e-banking technology. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to analyse a conceptual model and related hypotheses. The empirical evidence draws attention to the relationship between loss emotions and consumers' behavioural intention to adopt emerging e-banking technology through effort expectancy and performance expectancy, respectively.

  • 37.
    Abo Shkir, Buthaina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rydqvist, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    CSR och de fyra storbankerna: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av storbankernas CSR-kommunikation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problematization: The demands of CSR have increased in both Sweden and the rest of the world. A sector which has during the 2000s increased its commitment to CSR issues is the banking industry. Banks have a great economic importance for society, but also a great importance for sustainability and social development. Banks are active in socially responsible companies and are inclined to report information about their CSR activities. Despite this, banks have not had a great attention in the field of CSR research compared to other sectors. Few studies within CSR have also been longitudinal.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how the four largest Swedish banks Handelsbanken, SEB, Nordea and Swedbank have presented their CSR activities during 2000-2010.

    Research question: How have the CSR activities been formed within the four largest banks in Sweden between the years 2000-2010?

    Method: For this study has a qualitative content analysis of the four largest banks annual reports and sustainability reports during 2000-2010 been conducted. In the content analysis, emerging coding has been used where categories were developed after an examination of the empirical material. The content was divided into four themes: stakeholders, environment, ethics and philanthropy.

    Result and conclusion: The result in this study shows that the banks have presented CSR activities in similar areas which are stakeholders, environment, ethics and philanthropy. All the banks had extended their responsibilities and had an active participation in CSR issues during 2000-2010. The differences between their CSR activities are mostly when they developed them, but in the end the banks have tended to be similar in their CSR.

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  • 38.
    Aboona, Youley
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Yousef, Nancy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Organisationskriser och ledarskap: En studie om hur ledare hanterar organisationskriser som uppkommer i följd av globala kriser2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations are constantly going through inevitable changes due to global crises that risk the organization's existence. Crisis management work is thus an important process that refers to how these crises are handled. Leadership is an important component during crisis situations as the leader's role determines what the crisis management work looks like and how effective it is. With the help of leadership skills and competencies, the leader can succeed in crisis management in a productive way.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate and create a deeper understanding of how leaders handle organizational crises that arise because of global crises and the importance of different leadership competencies that are fundamental in crisis management.

    Method: The study follows an interpretivist paradigm and refers to the phenomenon of organizational crises and leadership. The study is based on the qualitative research method and has a deductive approach. Literature and scientific articles form the basis of the study's theoretical frame of reference. The empirical material of the study is based on five semistructured interviews with the CEO from different niche banks.

    Conclusion: Leadership is an important and crucial factor that affects crisis management in the organization when a crisis occurs. The leader's role is fundamental in how crises are handled, which leads on to crisis management. Crisis management efficiency depends on leadership skills and behavior that the leader chooses to have in order to adapt to the ongoing crisis. It is essential to possess leadership skills that can be applied during crisis situations and lead to effective crisis management. Furthermore, leaders can choose what behavior they have towards the crisis, which is also decisive for how the crisis is handled and how the results ofthe crisis management emerge.

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    Organisationskriser och ledarskap En studie om hur ledare hanterar organisationskriser som uppkommer i följd av globala kriser
  • 39.
    Abraha, Senait
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Mengesha, Soliana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Ensamhet bland äldre: En systematisk forskningsöversikt om riskfaktorer bakom upplevelsen av ensamhet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which risk factors are behind involuntary loneliness among the elderly and how the risk factors can be counteracted with the help of protective factors. The study was carried out with a systematic research overview where we compiled previous research on the chosen subject area and thematized the work using content analysis. The theories we chose to start from to analyze the results are the activity theory by Lars Tornstam (2005) and the SOC model by Baltes Baltes (1990). The results showed that there were both individual and structural factors that increased the risk of the elderly experiencing existential, social, and emotional loneliness. At the individual level̊, the results showed that physical and mental illness, loss of partner or close friends, and loss of physical and mental abilities can be risk factors for experiencing loneliness. At the societal level, the results showed that low socio-economic status and the feeling of powerlessness can increase the risk of loneliness among the elderly. The results also showed that many of the risk factors can act as protective factors, such as health and structural risk factors, good physical and mental health and high socio-economic status are protective factors against loneliness among the elderly. The risk factors for loneliness among the elderly can be countered if the elderly are allowed to maintain successful aging and an active life adapted to their abilities.

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  • 40.
    Abrahamsson, Hilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Björkman, Felix
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Den digitala generationen: En surveyundersökning om ungdomars nyhetsvanor och förtroende för medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a quantitative survey of young people's news habits and trust in media. Our main points mainly concern how and how often young people consume news, and what confidence they have in different news sources. The result shows that half of the 126 respondents are consuming news every day. Social media is the respondents main source of news, and they think it's easiest to get news from there. At the same time, it appears that the surveyed people have low confidence in social media as a news source, compared to traditional media such as television, radio and newspapers, that only a few of the respondents use as main sources for news. We discuss how this outcome may affect journalism in the future, as the new generation of media- and news-consumers choose new media in front of traditional ones.

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  • 41.
    Abrha, Luwam
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Införandet och tillämpningen av CRM i svenska myndigheter: En fenomenografisk studie om hur CRM upplevs av medarbetare på svenska statliga myndigheter2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present essay, the application of Customer Relationship Management in Swedish government agencies is studied, with a particular focus on the perceptions of the personnel concerned with CRM systems. Research on the topic has previously been carried out in, among other places, Western Europe and the USA, and in these studies emphasis has been placed on how the business's efficiency has been affected by CRM, but no research of a similar kind has been carried out in Sweden. In order to conduct such a study focused on Swedish conditions, semi-structured interviews with 7 Swedish government authorities have been carried out. The investigation is based on a phenomenographic research approach and a number of different theories have been applied in order to interpret the empirical data. Those to be invoked concern Customer Relationship Management, New Public Management, Criticism of NPM, The four E's, Customers/clients, Communication strategies, Trust, Organizational changes/resistance and Isomorphism. The subsequent analysis has been supported by these theories, whereby it has been possible to carry out the investigation applying an all-round perspective.

    A conclusion drawn from the analysis was that the respondents felt that CRM systems have considerable potential to streamline the operations of the relevant authorities. Another is that there is a need for CRM research aimed at Swedish government authorities, as these differ in many ways from those that prevail abroad.

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  • 42.
    Abu Baker, Nessrin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur i svenska SMF inom hotellindustrin: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som belyser kapitalstruktur utifrån pecking order teorin2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyze factors within the hotel industry with a focus on the capital structure of small- and medium sized companies based on the trade-off theory and pecking order theory. However, the hypotheses were based on the pecking order theory and were then tested through a regression analysis. The study was based on a quantitative study where the data was retrieved from the database Retriever Research and is based on 97 Swedish hotels between the years 2011- 2019. When analyzing the capital structure of the hotel industry, three dependent variables have been applied (total debt, long-term debt and short-term debt) as well as the five different independent variables (growth, age, size, profitability and asset structure). Based on a regression analysis, it has been shown that 6 hypotheses out of 15 support the pecking order theory, of which 3 out of 15 hypotheses support the trade off theory. The remaining 6 hypotheses were not significant and are considered to be unrelated between the dependent variable and the independent variable. In summary, the asset structure had greater explanatory power to total debt and long-term debt. However, the study also found significance with other factors, including growth potential with total-long-term debt, age and long-term debt and last between size and long-term debt, that all support assumptions from the pecking order theory. In addition the study rejected the relationship between age and short-term debt, and between size and total and total-short term debt because the hypotheses supported the trade-off theory. Finally, no relationship could be found between growth potential and short-term debt, age and total debt, asset structure and short-term debt. Overall, the author found no relationship between profitability and the three different dependent variables.

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    Kapitalstruktur i svenska SMF inom hotellindustrin
  • 43.
    Abushiere, Taher
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jernfalk Löfblad, Jacqueline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hur speglar kapitalstrukturen svenska FinTech-företags finansiella prestation?: En kvantitativ studie om finansiering och lönsamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess whether there is a relationship between capital structure and financial performance among Swedish FinTech companies. Previous studies have examined this relationship in other industries and in other countries with mixed and sometimes contradictory results. The theoretical framework consists of theories such as trade-off theory, pecking-order theory and the life cycle theory. For the purpose of the study, a regression analysis of 204 Swedish FinTech companies was conducted between the years 2017-2019. The results show that FinTech companies are financed with approximately half of liabilities, most of which consist of current liabilities. Consistent with the pecking-order theory, the results of the current study indicate a negative and significant relationship between leverage and profitability measured as ROE. In addition, larger- and older companies seem to be more profitable.

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  • 44.
    Abushiere, Tarik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jound, Idris
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    IFRS 16 påverkan på företagens finansiella rapporter: En kvantitativ studie om IFRS 16 påverkan på nordiska börsnoterade företag inom detaljhandeln, tjänstesektorn och byggbranschen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: IAS 17, the name of the previous standard of leasing, allowed firms to showcase their leasing as either operational or financial. This allowance led to the financial reports of firms not presenting the leasing requirements and therefore showing misleading financial ratios. After a review performed by the IASB and FASB and the given conclusions, IFRS 16 was implemented in January 2019. This led to leasing contracts required to be presented in financial form, with the exception of leasing contracts with duration below 12 months and assets valued less than 5 000 United States Dollar. As of today, it is mandatory to report a leasing contract in the balance sheets, which facilitates economic comparisons and eliminates potential flaws when analysing financial situations of certain firms. IFRS 16 is expected to affect the financial ratios, cash flow analysis and income statement and balance sheet of companies that are included.   

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to aid build an understanding of the impact on the financial ratios of firms operating on Nasdaq OMX Nordic after the implementation of IFRS 16. Additionally, this study aims to analyse if certain sectors are affected in different ways.

    Methodological approach: The methodological approach of this study is a quantitative method. To collect the data for this approach, interim reports for the first quarter of 2019 are used. In this study, the calculations of the financial rations have been done with the support of a census survey based on 103 publicly quoted companies within retailing and construction & service industries within Nordic. Lastly, the cross-over effects following the change to IFRS 16 within the financial ratios of these companies are constructed within the same industries. 

    Results: The introduction and implementation of IFRS 16 showed significant effects across all sectors. This is explained due to, the firms in the selected sectors of this study, mainly being financed through leasing. The results of this study show that effects of the implementation of IFRS 16 were most significant in the retailing industry, followed by the service industry. The construction industry was impacted the least by observing the financial ratios. 

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  • 45.
    Achioyamen, Chichi Violet
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kazmi Johansson, Sophia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Institutional Factors and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2004-2018: Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to have an in-depth understanding of the importance of the institutional environment for financial development in 43 Sub-Saharan African countries during the years 2004-2018. Using new institutional economic theory (NIE) we study how the four institutional factors Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability affect financial development. We also survey how the effect of institutional factors varies when there are either high, medium or low levels of corruption. Empirical results show a positive linear relationship between all institutional factors and financial development. However, when corruption levels are high the correlation between institutional factors and financial development varies and has a weak linear relationship. Inferential statistics results from a fixed effect regression model with robust standard errors shows; when we control for the financial environment, Political Stability and Absence of Violence is the only indicator for the institutional environment that has a positive significant effect on financial development. We thereby conclude that the institutional environment, mostly political institutions, are important for financial development.

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    Economics Bachelor Thesis
  • 46.
    Acici, Candeger
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Den sena ADHD diagnosens betydelse: En studie av mäns självbiografiska berättelser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to review how men in Sweden who received a late ADHD diagnosis experience their lives with ADHD. The study conducted through a qualitative content analysis of three men's self-biographies. The result showed that life with ADHD for men causes difficulties. The study also showed that ADHD diagnosis could facilitate the situation for the men, but that it still existed difficulties after receiving the ADHD diagnosis. The study showed how much social life and society's view influenced men's experience, feelings, self-esteem, and daily life. However, the study showed that society has norms and expectations which are not adapted for people with ADHD. The study illustrated that it is therefore essential to carry out several studies about how society sees function variations. This can develop better conditions for people with disabilities. Consequently, society can be more adapted to everyone. According to the study, the society can be more adapted to everyone.

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  • 47.
    Ackehed, Ida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Molin Olsson, Elias
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Styrande faktorer och aktiemarknadens påverkan på finansiering inom IT-branschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to examine the possible relationship between patterns on the stock market and the capital structure of IT-companies. Furthermore, the study attempts to contribute a deeper understanding of the ways Chief Financial Officers (CFO) and Chief Executive Officers (CEO) handle aspects pertaining to levels of debt, solidity, the market when making investment decisions and factors that influence a company´s value. This has been done using the Market Timing Hypothesis as the main theoretical frame of reference. The study has primarily been conducted using quantitative data analysis in the form of multiple regression. Qualitative interviews have been subsequently conducted with the purpose of enhancing the statistical findings. The results from the study indicate that financial decisions largely vary depending on the situation, albeit market value being an influencing factor. Moreover, the profitability of the company and the amount of fixed assets play a role in financial decisions. The respondents further noted that the amount of equity and debt of the company does affect its value.

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  • 48.
    Acosta, Dania
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Unga killar en i hederskontext: En studie kring yrkesverksammas uppfattning kring unga killar som lever i en hederskontext2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research was carried out during the autumn term in 2014 and aims to highlight the honour context and boys who lives in it in Sweden. The research is based on the experience of professionals who work with honour related questions. The starting point for the study is boys who lives in honour related terms. The study is based in three questions; what is the meaning of living in a honour context? What is it like to live in a honour context for young men? How are the help possibilities for young men in a honour context?

    The study is qualitative and ethnological. The method is used to obtain the empirical material that consists of interviews. The analysis is done using gender-based theories. The study shows the informants experience of honour related violence as well as what actions available today for vulnerable young people with a specific focus on young men. The result shows that young men are a vulnerable group which is not highlighted, the Swedish research has been focused on young girls who are victims of honour related violence. This has led to efforts in place has been directed towards girls and today there is a limited help for young men who are victims. 

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  • 49.
    Adam, Mouzamil
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljam, Yoel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Marknadsföringens utveckling på sociala medier: En studie baserat på både en kvalitativ samt en kvantitativ undersökning om utvecklingen marknadsföring har haft på sociala medier och vilken påverkan covid-19 pandemin haft2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This study examines how digital marketing with a focus on social media has been affected in recent years and mainly after the covid-19 pandemic and how it in turn is also affected by e-commerce. Applied theories that are relevant to the purpose of the investigation have been used such as word of mouth, the advertising value model and inbound marketing. In order to investigate the purpose, it has been started from investigating from the perspective of entrepreneurs as well as the perspective of consumers, by conducting qualitative semi-structured interviews with two entrepreneurs who use marketing via social media. Then a quantitative survey was collected with answers from 100 respondents who live in Sweden and use social media on a daily basis. 

    The result was that traditional marketing has decreased while digital marketing mainly on social media has increased sharply. In connection with the increased digital marketing, the activity on social media with consumers have also increased proportionally. The respondents also noted that they noticed the increased use of social media and marketing via these platforms in connection with the covid-19 pandemic. This relocated marketing has been difficult for some companies but also creates opportunities for the majority of companies.

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  • 50.
    Adam, Rebecka
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lind, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Får alla vad de vill ha?: En studie om riskkapitalbolagens påverkan på högteknologiskt nyföretagande.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Venture Capital has been of big importance for new ventures in high technology industries, but has decreased markedly in numbers since the end of the”dot-com” bubble. The main purpose of this thesis was to examine how the IT and communications industry manages the reduction in the private equity market. The second purpose was to study the importance of venture capital on new ventures in the IT and communication industry. The research questions concerns how new ventures manages their financing, how they choose financing and which method they use to pursuit it, as well as how competitors influence them and with their venture capital funding. 

    Method: The study was based on method triangulation with both qualitative data through interviews and quantitative data through researching annual reports. 

    Results and conclusions: Of the twelve researched new ventures has five gotten venture capital. The companies have chosen different financial sources and control aversion was the main cause of internal financing. This study shows that financing sources also can contact companies to invest in. The majority of businesses with venture capital has used external assistance when seeking venture capital investments. Most of the businesses have not been affected from competitors’ venture capital investments. 

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