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Porseryd, T., Larsson, J., Lindman, J., Malmström, E., Smolarz, K., Grahn, M. & Dinnétz, P. (2024). Effects on food intake of Gammarus spp. after exposure to PFBA in very low concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 202, Article ID 116369.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on food intake of Gammarus spp. after exposure to PFBA in very low concentrations
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2024 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 202, article id 116369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of thousands of highly persistent anthropogenic chemicals widely used in many industries. Therefore, they are, ubiquitously present in various types of environments. Despite their omnipresence, ecotoxicological studies of most PFAS are scarce, and those available often assess the effects of long chain PFAS. In this study, we present the results of an exposure experiment in which wild aquatic amphipod Gammarus spp. was exposed to the short chain perfluorinated substance perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) at very low and environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 10 and 100 ng/L. The exposure lasted for 12 days, and food intake and non-reproductive behavior were analyzed. Exposure to 10 and 100 ng/L PFBA resulted in a lower consumption of food during exposure but no effect on behavior was found. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Aquatic environment, Behavioral, Feeding, Gammarids, PFAS, PFBA, Pollution, Anthropogenic chemicals, Aquatic environments, Ecotoxicological study, Food intake, Gammarid, Gammarus, Low concentrations, Perfluorobutanoic acid, Polyfluoroalkyl substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53914 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2024.116369 (DOI)38640762 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85190529991 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-24 Created: 2024-04-24 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Smolarz, K., Świeżak, J., Turower, M., Czerniawska, N. & Grahn, M. (2018). Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Toxicology, 198, 240-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea
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2018 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Baltic Sea; blue mussel; pollution; physiology; histopathological lesions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33701 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.02.024 (DOI)000430630100025 ()29558709 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044104103 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-10
Note

As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Lind, E. E., Corell, H., Grahn, M., Smolarz, K. & Lönn, M. (2017). Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 98-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area
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2017 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2017
Keywords
AFLP, Baltic Sea, Barrier, Gene flow, Oceanographic connectivity, Population genetics
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30647 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2016.06.016 (DOI)000408787800012 ()2-s2.0-84977120681 (Scopus ID)1328/42/2010 (Local ID)1328/42/2010 (Archive number)1328/42/2010 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-2010
Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-19 Last updated: 2021-12-17Bibliographically approved
Gilek, M., Karlsson, M., Linke, S. & Smolarz, K. (Eds.). (2016). Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea (1ed.). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses of environmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sea level. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmental governance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems - eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species. Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the five case studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledge integration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation. Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusions on possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what are identified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2016. p. 253 Edition: 1
Series
MARE Publication Series, ISSN 2212-6260, E-ISSN 2212-6279 ; 10
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29774 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-27006-7 (DOI)1748/42/2008 (Local ID)978-3-319-27005-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-27006-7 (ISBN)1748/42/2008 (Archive number)1748/42/2008 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 08/371EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, BONUSThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A032-08
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Gilek, M., Karlsson, M., Linke, S. & Smolarz, K. (2016). Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: Identifying Key Challenges, Research Topics and Analytical Approaches (1ed.). In: Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz (Ed.), Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: (pp. 1-17). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: Identifying Key Challenges, Research Topics and Analytical Approaches
2016 (English)In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environmental objectives of reaching “good environmental status” by 2021 in the HELCOM BSAP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) and by 2020 in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) will be met. This chapter identifies key research topics, as well as presents analytical perspectives for analysing the gap between knowledge and action in Baltic Sea environmental governance. It does so by outlining important trends and key challenges associated with Baltic Sea environmental governance, as well as by summarising the scope and results of individual chapters of this interdisciplinary volume. The analysis reveals the development of increasingly complex governance arrangements and the ongoing implementation of the holistic Ecosystem Approach to Management, as two general trends that together contribute to three key challenges associated with (1) regional and cross - sectoral coordination and collaboration, (2) coping with complexity and uncertainty in science-policy interactions and (3) developing communication and knowledge sharing among stakeholder groups. Furthermore, to facilitate analysis of environmental governance opportunities and obstacles both within and across specific environmental issues, this chapter reviews the scientific literature to pinpoint key research issues and questions linked to the identified governance challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
MARE Publication Series, ISSN 2212-6260, E-ISSN 2212-6279 ; 10
Keywords
Marine governance, Ecosystem approach to management, Institutional fit, Stakeholder participation, Science-policy interactions
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29778 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-27006-7_1 (DOI)1748/42/2008 (Local ID)978-3-319-27005-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-27006-7 (ISBN)1748/42/2008 (Archive number)1748/42/2008 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 08/371EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, BONUSThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A032-2008The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A043-2012
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Lönn, M., Lind, E. E., Świeżak, J., Smolarz, K. & Grahn, M. (2016). Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast. PeerJ, 4, Article ID e2628.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast
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2016 (English)In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

National Category
Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31135 (URN)10.7717/peerj.2628 (DOI)000387168200015 ()27812424 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84994409132 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-10
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gilek, M., Linke, S., Udovyk, O., Karlsson, M., Lundberg, C., Smolarz, K. & Lemke, P. (2011). Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 9. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 9
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2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

  1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
  2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
  3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011. p. 42
Keywords
environmental governance, science-policy, uncertainty, precaution, participation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-15183 (URN)1748/42/2008 (Local ID)1748/42/2008 (Archive number)1748/42/2008 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A032-2008
Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K., Smolarz, K., Grahn, M. & André, C. (2011). The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?. Ambio, 40(2), 179-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?
2011 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-8392 (URN)10.1007/s13280-010-0129-x (DOI)000286933300008 ()21446396 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79951760834 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European StudiesSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2011-05-06 Created: 2011-05-06 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Tomaszkiewicz, M., Smolarz, K. & Wołowicz, M. (2010). Heterogamety in the Baltic Glacial Relict Saduria entomon (Isopoda: Valvifera). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 30(4), 757-761
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogamety in the Baltic Glacial Relict Saduria entomon (Isopoda: Valvifera)
2010 (English)In: Journal of Crustacean Biology, ISSN 0278-0372, E-ISSN 1937-240X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 757-761Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study describes the karyology of an isopod, Saduria entomon, and provides for the first time evidence of a XY/XX heterogamety for this species. The presented karyotype [56 (m + sm ) + 2 st + XX/XY] is characterised by the dominance of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes and is considered as apomorphic. This is the first time a valviferan is described with an XX/XY system. Mitotic and meiotic heterogamety observed in S. entomon suggests more advanced evolution of sex determination within this species in comparison to other Isopoda. Based on Ag-staining the presence of secondary constrictions and satellites on the 22nd pair of homologous chromosomes was identified. Inter- and intra-individual variability in chromosome number (2n  =  58, 2n  =  59 or 2n  =  61) was also observed. The between-species variation in heterogamety in isopods and the within-species variation in chromosomes numbers are discussed

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-8775 (URN)10.1651/09-3219.1 (DOI)000284514100024 ()2-s2.0-78449284988 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-06-02 Created: 2011-06-02 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Smolarz, K. & Wołowicz, M. (2010). Patologie a osady: diagnostyka zmian patologicznych u organizmów morskich. In: Bolałek Jerzy (Ed.), Fizyczne, chemiczne i biologiczne badanie osadów morskich. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patologie a osady: diagnostyka zmian patologicznych u organizmów morskich
2010 (Polish)In: Fizyczne, chemiczne i biologiczne badanie osadów morskich / [ed] Bolałek Jerzy, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, 2010
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-8777 (URN)978-83-7326-789-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-06-02 Created: 2011-06-02 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Projects
Evolutionary adaptation to environmental disturbance in marine ecosystems: genetic ecotoxicology in the Baltic Sea [A063-2010_OSS]; Södertörn University; Publications
Larsson, J. (2017). Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea. (Doctoral dissertation). Huddinge: Södertörns högskolaLarsson, J., Lind, E. E., Corell, H., Grahn, M., Smolarz, K. & Lönn, M. (2017). Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 98-109Dublinowska, M., Smolarz, K., Zabrzańska, S., Larsson, J. & Czerniawska, N. (2016). Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait. American Malacological Bulletin, 34(1), 28-39Lind, E. E. & Grahn, M. (2011). Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecotoxicology, 20, 503-512
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0205-7268

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