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  • Öhman, Malte
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Dödsbetraktelser: En undersökning av dödens betydelse i Marcus Aurelius Självbetraktelser2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although written down almost two thousand years ago, the philosophical topics that are discussed in the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are just as relevant to contemplate today as they were in his time. In the Meditations, Marcus reflects on many themes regarding the human condition and what his own individual task may be in a world full of wrongdoers, natural changes, and death. Thoughts about his own and other people’s mortality occur often throughout the work as if he always wants to keep the imminence of death present in his mind, but why is that so? In this essay, I investigate that question with the aim to better understand what role reflections on death has in his philosophy. What purpose does these contemplations on death serve? What is the meaning with reflecting on death for him? By analysing all extracts from the book concerning the theme of death, I found that Marcus primarily think about death for four different reasons: (1) to remind himself not to fear death, (2) to remind himself not to get distracted by things that, in the presence of death, appear trivial and unimportant by viewing life on earth from above, (3) to remind himself of what actually is important, namely moral virtue and maximizing the present moment, and (4) to remind himself that liberation is coming and that death soon will relieve him from his weary and exhausting life. I also place my analysis in relation to what other studies on Marcus Aurelius have found and compare my view with the likes of Pierre Hadot, William O. Stephens, and John Sellars. 

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  • Al-Jammali, Kawther
    Kontroversiella frågor inom de samhällsorienterande ämnena: Möjligheter respektive utmaningar med undervisning av kontroversiella frågor i samhällsorienterade ämnen2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about teachers in socially oriented subjects and their attitudes and experiences regarding working with controversial issues in teaching. Previous research has shown that there are shortcomings and major challenges in handling controversial subjects in the classroom. Therefore, I chose to investigate this by interviewing eight subject teachers in socially oriented subjects. The purpose of the study was to examine different teachers' work with controversial issues and their experiences of opportunities and challenges respectively in teaching controversial subjects. After conducting a qualitative interview study with eight teachers, the results were consistent with previous research. The results of the study indicate a lack of time and challenges associated with working on controversial issues, as they are difficult to handle and can lead to conflicts and disruptions in the classroom. Consequently, some teachers choose not to teach about controversial issues. However, on the other hand, the results of the study show that there were teachers who encouraged working with controversial issues as they considered it important to socialize students into society by addressing controversial topics. They believed that by doing so, students develop into democratic citizens with political tolerance. Another interesting finding from the interview study is that certain schools as a whole choose not to work with controversial issues to avoid negative consequences. This is interesting because other schools in the study, for example, those with UN profiles, focus on challenging students with controversial issues to develop them into democratic citizens of society. One can therefore conclude that working with controversial issues is a task that must involve the entire school, not just the teacher, as it requires efforts from management, colleagues, teachers, and students. Thus, in schools where only the teacher is responsible for addressing controversial issues without support from management or colleagues, it may lead to a reduction in teaching on controversial subjects.

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  • Eckervig, Edvin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hanno, Izla
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    FinTech och riskhantering inom den svenska banksektorn: En kvalitativ studie om samarbete, utmaningar och risker kring digitala betalningsalternativ vid utvecklingen av FinTech2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization includes a technical and digital development that plays a central role in today's banking sector. In step with digitalization, FinTech has developed and resulted in a collaboration between banks and FinTech companies, which leads to the development of new digital payment options within the banks. Digital payment options have grown in the banking sector and are widely used against customers in various ways. Along with the introduction of digital payment options, and a collaboration between banks and FinTech companies, challenges and risks have also developed. With this as a basis, the study intends to analyze how the Swedish banks handle digital payment alternatives, in relation to the challenges and risks that arise as a result of the banks' collaboration with FinTech companies. The study uses an abductive approach and the empirical answers are based on in-depth interviews, which results in a qualitative study.

    The study has focused on both large banks and other newly developed banks, with the aim of reaching large parts of the banking sector. The study has identified that the development of FinTech, digital payment options, risks and challenges do not differ broadly between the different banks. All respondents highlight how they experienced cyber attacks, data leakage and human errors. Furthermore, different management strategies have been highlighted for the challenges and risks that arise, many of the responses being mutually reinforcing while others are more unique. The study shows how the banks' management strategies are based on technical and organizational improvements. Different management strategies that the study can highlight are training, authorization levels, monitoring systems and the employment of hackers. The study has contributed with several aspects that explain the management strategies in more detail and contributes with new research on the cooperation between banks and FinTech companies.

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  • Kern, Ina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Investigation of the use of influencer strategies by the German public media sector: The Instagram channels News-WG, Migratöchter and Mädelsabende as a case study2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis deals with the impact of influencers on journalism and explores the question of whether influencer strategies are adopted by journalists and how these strategies affect journalistic practices. By examining journalistic content on three German public service media accounts: News-WG, Migratöchter, and Mädelsabende, this study aims to uncover the extent to which influencer tactics are integrated into journalistic work by German public service media. Based on the theoretical framework of the profession of journalism and the profession of influencers, specific strategies were identified that characterize the work of influencers. These strategies were divided into the categories of posting, trust/authenticity, journalistic quality, and influencer inspiration. A qualitative content analysis of Instagram accounts and interviews with people associated with these accounts were then conducted. The analysis revealed that while Instagram accounts draw inspiration from influencer practices, journalistic quality and adherence to professional standards remain paramount. In addition, the analysis was placed in the context of the theory of hybrid media, which added a further perspective to the analysis.This research contributes to the understanding of the evolving dynamic between influencers and journalism in the digital age.

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  • Mainit, Limuel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Thunqvist, Elmer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vikten av varumärkeskommunikation för nystartade företag på sociala medier: En kvalitativ forskning om hur varumärkeskärlek kan utvecklas hos konsumenter2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the role of brand communication on social media for a start-up company and to understand how brand love can be created and developed in consumers. By applying the theories of brand equity and relationship marketing to three marketing concepts, the research is able to focus on understanding how consumers interact with a start-up. This was done using a qualitative approach with university students to discuss their perceptions and experiences of the start-up Temu and other companies and brands. The results show that brand communication has a significant impact on social media in how it interacts and engages consumers. Although participants did not explicitly declare their feelings towards brands, the data collection shows indications of what was appreciated in other brands. Transparent communication, wide product range and mutually beneficial relationship between companies and customers are what were emphasized as important to build and create relationships where the possibility of brand love can develop. This research contributes to the understanding of how start-ups can use brand communication on social media to establish and strengthen relationships with their customers to develop brand love. 

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  • Wallnér, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Om begreppet sorg: med stadig hänsyn till tröstens problem2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the following essay, one of grief’s central problems, namely its relation to consolation, is examined. Ancient philosophers’ answers to the question are compared with contemporary ones. Interestingly, although these answers and their theoretical frameworks largely differ, they seem to have one essential point in common, which is the idea that afterlife, understood either as metaphysical or non-metaphysical concept, lies at the core of what makes consolation intelligible. What is put into question in this essay is therefore this rather daring thing: does really the idea of afterlife, when faced with death, console grief, and if not, is there anything left to offer any consolation?

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  • George, Lilian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Elia, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En sambandsanalys av kapitalanskaffning och lönsamhet: En empirisk studie av kapitalanskaffning inom butiker som distribuerar smycken och klockor2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the relationship between capital structure and profitability in small and medium- sized enterprises within the retal sector, with a specific focus on the jewelry and watch industry. This particular focus is chosen due to the lack of previous research in this specific area and the dynamic nature of the retail industry, which adds to its interest. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the pecking order theory. A quantitative method with a deductive approach had been utilized. Secondary data has been sourced from the Retriever Business database.

    To achieve the study's objectives, various data analyses were conducted using the variables: profitability (measured as ROA and ROE), long-term debt, short-term debt, size, and age. The study included observations from 166 micro-enterprises within the jewelry and watch industry, operating during the period 2018-2022.

    The results from the regression analysis demonstrated a negative relationship between capital structure and profitability, highlighting the risks associated with high levels of debt. A statistically significant relationship was found between short-term debt and profitability, indicating that higher levels of short-term debt are associated with lower profitability. This finding is partially in line with the pecking order theory, but the uncertainty in the results calls for further research. A statistically significant relationship was also observed between long-term debt and profitability, which supported the pecking order theory. The results for the relationship between firm size and profitability were mixed. No significant relationships were found between the age of the firms and profitability, suggesting that firm age does not have a statistically significant impact on profitability in the jewelry and watch industry.

    The results have been analyzed in the context of previous research and the pecking order theory, showing the study's varying outcomes. Some results supported the stated hypotheses, while others contradicted them.

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  • Gudmundson, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Lifvakt, Isac
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    100 dagar av invasions-bevakning: En jämförelse av svensk mediebevakning från Ukraina- och Gazainvasionerna2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka hur de svenska rikstidningarna Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet och Expressen bevakat invasionerna av Ukraina 2022 och Gaza 2023.  Vi ämnar att se vilka likheter och skillnader som uppenbarar sig i de båda bevakningarna. Forskningsfrågorna som formulerats utifrån den övergripande frågeställningen är: 1. Vilka aspekter av krigen har fått mest fokus och därmed högst nyhetsvärde i svensk dagspress?, 2. Hur ser fördelningen av källor ut angående statistiken från konflikten som används i artiklarna? och 3. I vilken utsträckning får de inblandade sidorna synas i form aktörer som uttalar sig. Studiens resultat har byggts på en kvantitativ innehållsanalys som utgår från tidsperioderna 2023-10-27 till 2024-03-25 för Gazakriget och från 2022-02-24 till 2022-07-17 för Ukrainakriget. Studien omfattar totalt 200 artiklar, varav 100 behandlar varje konflikt. Vi har inkluderat 25 artiklar från varje tidning per konflikt för att säkerställa en jämn fördelning. För att kunna forma en förståelse för materialet användes följande teorier: gestaltningsteorin, nyhetsvärdering och Westerståhls objektivitetsmall. Resultatet visar att nyhetsvärderingen gällande vilka aspekter som lyftes i respektive konflikt var mycket likartade. Civilas upplevelser, militära operationer, politik och humanitära förhållanden förekom i båda bevakningarna. Den stora skillnaden var dock att Ukraina hade en bredare bevakning. Fördelningen av källor när det gäller statistik och uttalade aktörer var i stort sett likartad. Det fanns dock en markant underrepresentation av politiker och militärer från Hamas i bevakningen av Gaza, vilket i sin tur eventuellt skulle kunna påverka den allmänna bilden av konflikten. 

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  • Nousiainen, Nicklas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Palmgren, Clayton
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Idrottens finansiering och crowdfunding: En kvalitativ studie hur idrottsorganisationerna finansieras och hur upplever samt anpassar sig idrottsorganisationerna till crowdfunding?2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background - Swedish sports organizations often struggle to gain financial income, due to reasons such as the 51% rule within Swedish sport, not obtaining enough financial income internally through the organization and the loss of earnings from the Covid-19 pandemic and other economic fluctuations. Therefore this study was conducted to analyze and describe how Swedish sport organizations seek financial help externally to be able to finance their organizations. Where the organizations network status was examined to see the potential external help they could benefit from and how the usage of crowdfunding could be an alternative for the organizations to gather financial help.  

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe how sports organizations finance themselves. 

    Method - The way in which the study was performed, was through a qualitative method with an abductive approach. Through six semi structured interviews with representatives from the Swedish sports organizations the empirical data was collected. Then analyzed in relation to theories and previous research by a thematic analysis. 

    Findings - The findings of this study suggest that Swedish sports organizations tend to prioritize their internally generated financial amounts of capital to finance their organizations through traditional financial methods such as: membership fees, sponsorship income, ticket sales, public support and in addition some organizations earned capital through player sales. Rather than reaching out to external financial investors, where crowdfunding was seen as a potential financial method to gather financial support. The Swedish sports organizations considered it to be important to engage and maintain their networks for this type of financial gathering method to be functionable.

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  • Abed, Rayahin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, English language.
    Formal Language Style in EFL and SFI Classrooms in Sweden: Exploring Perceptions and Practices2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of formality in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms in upper secondary schools and in SFI (Swedish for Immigrants) classrooms in Sweden. This research specifically examines how EFL and SFI teachers perceive and integrate formal language into their teaching practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 teachers, including 5 EFL and 5 SFI teachers to gather qualitative data. The interviews ranged from 20-45 minutes and were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic analysis to identify recurring themes and patterns within the interview transcripts. The findings reveal distinct perceptions and practices between EFL and SFI teachers regarding formal language. EFL teachers view formal language as essential for promoting social norms, such as politeness and respect. They incorporate formal language using formal texts, advanced formal vocabulary, and sentence structures. Some EFL teachers prioritize the use of formal language based on specific lesson goals, while others are influenced by the informal nature of Swedish culture and prefer to use informal language in their classrooms. On the other hand, SFI teachers perceive formal language as flexible and context dependent. They emphasize practical applications of formal language such as writing emails and formal letters at a basic level. SFI teachers focus on clarity and correctness over strict formal language rules and the aim of such focus is to ensure that the students learn the basic Swedish language necessary for social integration.

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  • Spångberg, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dorf, Martina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbara fonder - ett vinnande koncept för investeraren?: En kvantitativ studie om hållbarhet och avkastning i fonder2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för hållbara fonder har ökat avseendevärt de senaste åren. Tidigare studier hade delade meningar huruvida hållbara fonder genererar bättre eller lika bra avkastning som traditionella fonder. Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera avkastningen och risken hos hållbara fonder i jämförelse med traditionella fonder samt om hållbarhetsmärkningen är av statistisk signifikans i detta. Studiens författare analyserar ett urval baserat på EU:s taxonomis gemensamma klassificering för “hållbarhet” och enligt SFDR:s rapporteringskrav, vilket gör det aktuellt. 

    Denna studie är av kvantitativ natur som testar hypoteser för att analysera med hjälp av teorier och tidigare empiriska studier. Perioden för studien är de senaste fem åren, 2019-2024 med ett urval på totalt 69 observationer, uppdelade i tre grupper beroende på hållbarhetsnivå. 

    Genom statistisk metod har P-värde tagits fram där studien kunnat dra slutsatsen att hållbara fonder är ett bättre val för investeraren än traditionella. 

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  • Basmahji, Christoffer Jacob
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Montes, Leonardo
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Cirkulära företags kapitalstruktur och dess samband på företagstillväxt: En kvantitativ studie om kapitalstrukturens roll för tillväxt bland svenska företag som anammat cirkulär ekonomi2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att förbättra förståelsen av hur kapitalstrukturen påverkar tillväxten hos svenska företag som anammar cirkulär ekonomi. Genom en kvantitativ forskningsstrategi, som inkluderar både en korrelationsanalys och multipel linjär regressionsanalys, analyseras data från 449 företag inom sektorerna återvinning, återtillverkning och återanvändning som antagit cirkulära principer. Studien finner att intern finansiering, såsom kvarhållna vinster och eget kapital, har en stark och signifikant positiv inverkan på företagstillväxten, vilket stödjer The Pecking Order Theory. Resultatet visar även på att extern finansiering, i form av banklån och nyemissioner, bidrar positivt till tillväxt, särskilt inom dessa sektorer och som därmed stödjer Trade-off theory. Vidare analyserar studien hur företagsstorlek och ålder påverkar tillväxten. Resultaten indikerar att större och äldre företag tenderar att ha en stabilare tillväxt när de använder en balanserad kapitalstruktur. Studien identifierar även utmaningar och möjligheter kopplade till finansieringen av cirkulära företag, inklusive bristen på anpassade finansieringskällor. Genom att fylla existerande forskningsgap, bidrar studien till en förbättrad förståelse för hur företag kan hantera finansieringsutmaningar inom cirkulär ekonomi och därmed främja en hållbar ekonomiskt tillväxt. Därmed kan studiens resultat vägleda företag och offentliga organisationer i att optimera kapitalstrukturen för att främja hållbar tillväxt inom cirkulär ekonomi. Studien kommer även att förbättra förståelsen för både investerare och forskare.

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  • Yakoob, Marjam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Jansson, Towa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Från broadcast till TikTok: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av Lilla Aktuellts värderingav nyheter2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utforskar Lilla Aktuellts nyhetsvärdering under tidsperioden 9 maj 2023 till 22 februari 2024. Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att jämföra nyhetsvärderingen i Lilla Aktuellts sändningar och TikTok-videoklipp. Sociala medier har påverkat människors nyhetskonsumtion och där antalet barn och unga som får sina nyheter från sociala medier plattformar har ökat. Vårt teoretiska ramverk baseras på Håkan Hvitfelts teori om nyhetsvärdering, där 10 punkter omfattar hans kriterier för nyhetsvärdering. Teorin om medielogik har tillämpats för att se vilka skillnader i utförande som sker när man byter plattformar.  

    Genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys kodade vi Lilla Aktuellts 100 sändningar och 100 TikTok-videoklipp. I studien undersöker vi ämnen som förekommer i både broadcast och på TikTok, vilken ordning dessa ämnen placeras i och till sist vilka aktörer som kommer till tals i både programmet och TikTok. I vårt resultat för nyhetsvärderingen framkommer det att båda plattformarna tenderar att fokusera på ämnen inom nöje/kultur, sport och samhälle. Utifrån vårt resultat för de som kommer till tals har vi kommit fram till att barn och elitpersoner är de två största aktörerna.  

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  • Rosqvist, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hur investerar Generation Z?: Studien undersöker hur Generation Z investerar jämfört med Millennials, Generation X och Baby Boomers samt vilka faktorer som påverkar utfallet av Generation Z:s aktieportfölj2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The stock market has become increasingly accessible over the years and more predictable with the advancements in digitalization, benefiting younger investors. Overall, Generation Z shows a greater presence in the market, which could be attributed to the increased access to information leading to heightened investment activity. The study aims to examine how Generation Z invests compared to Millennials, Generation X and Baby Boomers, and identify possible factors influencing the outcomes of their stock portfolios. The study applies a quantitative method following a deductive approach. Hypotheses are formulated based on theories such as Modern Portfolio Theory, risk tolerance linked to age, and Investor Attention. To investigate the phenomenon, data is collected through surveys. The survey is distributed to the study's target group, which is Generation Z in Sweden, through convenience sampling. Furthermore, secondary data is compared to primary data to discuss how factors like the influence of other investors and perceived risk tolerance differ among generations. Secondary data is processed by conducting a descriptive content analysis, where the content is then presented as categories in the results. The secondary data also presents portfolio values for Generation Z, Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers.

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  • Yousef, Kristian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Knezevic, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Visa, Övertyga och Sälj: En kvalitativ studie som identifierar strategier för att bemöta fenomenet showrooming2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify strategies that physical stores can implement to effectively address the phenomenon of showrooming. To answer the study's purpose, aqualitative research method was applied, including a focus group interview with consumers and four semi-structured interviews with store personnel. The focus group interview aimed to understand consumers' perspectives on showrooming, while the semi-structured interviews focused on the stores' strategies. Furthermore, the study adopted an abductive approach whose theoretical framework formed the basis for the interview guides and thus the collected material. The theoretical framework consists partly of a collection of strategies to address showrooming, as well as the theories of Customer Experience Factors and the Theory of Planned Behavior. 

    The results revealed several strategies to counter showrooming. Price matching, where stores match online prices, was identified as a direct method to attract price-focused customers to make purchases in-store. However this strategy was presented as a short term solution, as it in an early stage isn't a profitable strategy. Improved customer service and an attractive store atmosphere created a unique added value that could not be easily replicated online, strengthening customer loyalty. Membership programs and time-limited promotions were used to reward loyal customers and offer extra value. Additionally, it was found that tailored services, such as personal advice and customization of products in-store, increased the likelihood of on-site purchases. By integrating these strategies, stores can address showrooming and retain their customers

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  • Agharzayeva, Leyla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Bakhtiyarova, Dilnaza
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Abstrakt normprövning: En komparativrättslig studie av det svenska Lagrådet och den azerbajdzjanska författningsdomstolens rättstillämpning av den abstrakta normprövningen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This public law study aims to analyze abstract norm review in Sweden and Azerbaijan, conducted byspecific entities – the Swedish Council on Legislation (Lagrådet) and the Constitutional Court ofAzerbaijan, respectively. The primary focus is to examine and compare the approaches of Lagrådet andthe Azerbaijani Constitutional Court in abstract norm control.In this essay, a comparison is made between abstract norm review in Sweden and Azerbaijan, revealingsimilarities in purpose but significant differences in the powers and the binding nature of decisions.Historically, Sweden has undergone a longer constitutional development, while Azerbaijan hasundergone changes following its independence from the Soviet Union, which is noticeable throughvarious historical and political contexts shaping their norm review processes.In practice, Lagrådet in Sweden plays an advisory role during the legislative process. Although itsadvice carries significant weight, the final decision to follow or deviate from these recommendationslies with the government. Meanwhile, the Constitutional Court in Azerbaijan possesses direct legallybinding authority over its decisions, which affect all organs and individuals in the country.The difference in independence and legitimacy between these institutions is reflected in their impact onlegislation. Despite its active role, Lagrådet is subordinate to the government's decisions. Meanwhile,the Constitutional Court in Azerbaijan has a more independent and tangible influence on legislation. 

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  • Izgin, Georgis
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Santhakumar, Sujipan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Påverkas värdeaktier och tillväxtaktier av varierande marknadsförhållanden?2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the performance of value and growth strategies in the Swedishstock market during the period 2012–2022. By applying the efficient market hypothesisand portfolio theory, we analyze how different market factors influence the returns ofthese strategies. We employ quantitative methods, a deductive approach, regressionanalysis, and a longitudinal design. Our findings indicate that value stocks are not significantly affected by variables such as interest rates, GDP growth, Covid-19, and thewar in Ukraine. At the same time growth stocks are negatively impacted by interest ratesand the war in Ukraine, but positively influenced by GDP growth, OMX index, andCovid-19. This suggests that the growth portfolio is more volatile compared to the valueportfolio. However, the higher volatility of the growth portfolio may imply both a higherpotential for returns and an increased risk for growth stocks. In conclusion, both valueand growth strategies have their advantages and disadvantages. The value portfolio isperceived as a safer investment, while the growth portfolio shows potential for higherreturns but with increased volatility. However further research is still needed to enhancethe full understanding of which strategy is most advantageous in the long term, becausethe results of the variable were largely unexplained.

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  • Cartier, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Jonason, Patricia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Law.
    The Articulation Between Soft Law and Hard Law in the Legal Management of Covid-19 in France and Sweden: Two asymmetrical strategies revealing a specific “administrative citizenship”2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal strategies employed by France and Sweden to combat the Covid-19 pandemic differed significantly. Indeed, the articulation of hard law and soft law instruments varied, particularly due to differences in the trust placed by the state in its citizens. Meanwhile, both countries faced the same necessity of implementing efficient and effective standards designed to combat the pandemic. However, the fluctuating context in which these norms were established, along with the difficulty for the intended recipients to distinguish between what was mandatory and what was merely advisory, significantly contributed to the lack of legibility in health regulations in both countries.

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  • Riihimäki, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Mainit, Limuel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Medarbetares anpassningsförmåga till digital transformation inom försörjningskedja: En analys av ledningens beslut2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studying digital transformation in Supply Chain Management provides a comprehensive understanding of how IT-tools can transform operational business processes to identify opportunities and challenges for an organization. However, previous studies suggest that the approach to how an organization achieves digital transformation is still a research topic that has some knowledge gaps, especially on how management encourages changes within the organization. By studying how employees are affected by management decisions in supply chain management, this research presents new insights into employee attitudes towards digital change. In order to explain the importance of this, the Alters Framework is used to analyze an IT-dependent work system and how digital changes affect different roles and business processes of an organization. Not only that, but also Business IT-alignment in combination with Resource-Based View Theory is used to identify how the organization can use its resources and competencies to improve business processes. By taking a qualitative research approach to the impact of employees at operational, tactical and strategic levels, this research provides a good overview of how an organization can be developed and improved. The data collected shows that there is a lack of the IT-support and IT-tools used, which hinders the pace of the business to undergo a digital transformation. The conclusion is that management has a significant impact on employees' values, attitudes and business process.

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  • Vonic, Patricia Lydia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies.
    Lila drömmar: En etnologisk studie av relationen mellan sydkoreansk populärkultur och psykisk hälsa i Sverige2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate how the popular male K-pop group BTS has influenced seven people, to motivate them to a better mental health and new life path in Sweden. The study examines purple dreams that represents mine and six other individuals’ stories that has found similar motivation from Korean popular culture. The method used in this study are autoethnography, my own prior memories and qualitative methods in the form of three interviews and three written stories. The theoretical perspective in the study consists of Blumer's interactionism, which provides a closer insight into how a fandom as a whole community acts and reacts in its inner workings.

    The results show that the informants experience an improvement in their mental state through this community. It also showed that communication between fans has helped improve mood, providing fans with a community to help fulfill some goals on the road to their dreams. It emerged in the interviews and stories that fans, and idols play a significant role in the BTS community. The community's experience show that culture and interaction are important to people's lifestyles and have contributed to better mental health.

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  • Widoff, Max
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Lärfars, Jessica
    Södertörn University.
    Hållbara fonders prestation vid olika marknadsförhållanden: En jämförelse med traditionella fonder på den svenska marknaden2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability has become a growing trend on the stock- and fund market throughout therecent years, although there is still some uncertainty on how the performance differs betweensustainable funds/stocks and more traditional funds/stocks. Previous research have shownthat sustainable funds show greater accomplishment in coping with periods of uncertainty andrisk.The purpose of this qualitative study is thereby to compare the performance of Swedishsustainable funds, with the performance of Swedish traditional funds. The study’s periodspans between the years 2017 and 2023. The selection contains a total of 13 sustainable fundsand 24 traditional funds. The result is presented with the help of descriptive statistics andregression analysis.The result of this study produced varying results across different periods, with the initialperiod showing no significant difference while the latter two periods indicated betterperformance by sustainable funds. Shortly summed up, the study shows that in periods ofuncertainty and risk, the sustainable funds appear to perform better than the traditional funds.The study identifies a positive, but not a particularly strong correlation between sustainabilityrating and risk-adjusted return for the funds. This means that the performance cannot alone beexplained by their sustainability rating, and more studies need to be done to understand theunderlying factors that may have an impact on fund performance. 

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  • Haglund, Amelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Moa, Vermcrantz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Gestaltning och genus i mediers skildringar av kvinnomord: En kvalitativ studie av gestaltningen av två mordfall i Aftonbladet och Expressen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker hur två mordfall gestaltas i svensk kvällspress, specifikt Aftonbladet och Expressen. Detta genom att undersöka mordet på 19-åriga Tova Moberg och mordet på 21-åriga Tove, två fall som fått stor uppmärksamhet i media. För att uppnå studiens mål har vi formulerat fyra frågeställningar som besvaras i studien: 1) Hur gestaltas fallet Tova Moberg och fallet Tove i Aftonbladet och Expressen? 2) Beskrivs offren och förövarna med könsstereotypa egenskaper? Vilka i så fall? 3) Hur gestaltas relationen mellan gärningspersonen och offret? 4) Finns det skillnader i gestaltningen av gärningspersonen mellan de två fallen? Ett teoretiskt ramverk, som involverar gestaltningsteori och genusteori, har använts för att besvara frågeställningarna. Sexton artiklar har analyserats och kodats genom tematisk analys. Resultatet visar att gestaltningen av fallen skiljer sig markant när det gäller gestaltningen av både offer och gärningsperson. De könsstereotypa attribut som tillskrivs offer och förövare kan ha en inverkan på offrets status samt i vilken grad offrets skuldbeläggs. Vidare visar resultatet att båda mordfallen beskrivs i ett sken av en konfliktfylld relation mellan offer och gärningsperson. Sammanfattningsvis tenderar undersökta nyhetsmedier att tillskriva aktörerna vissa egenskaper och beteenden där brotten betraktas som individuella problem snarare än strukturella problem. Mordfallen gestaltas, i undersökta medier, på ett episodiskt vis.  

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  • Nikolov, Lara
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Code-Switching in EFL Classrooms: A Comparative Study of Observed and Perceived Code-Switching Triggers among Swedish Upper Secondary School Students2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates code-switching among EFL students during pair work in uppersecondary school classroom settings. The aim is to uncover the reasons behind code-switchingand the factors influencing code-switching. Using a mixed-methods approach, the research usesclassroom observations and survey to collect data from 13 EFL students. Observations captured real-time code-switching instances, while the survey gathered students' perceptions and self-reported motivations for code-switching. The findings reveal that the most frequent reason for code-switching is a lack of vocabulary, both observed in the classrooms and reported by thestudents themselves. The second most frequent observed reason for code-switching is the needfor clarifications or explanations in Swedish. In students' self-reports, difficulty remembering English words was the second most common reason. Lastly, engaging in miscellaneous talkemerged as the third most common reason observed in classroom interactions, while studentsreported that code-switching occurs naturally or comes as a reflex as their third most commonreason in the questionnaire. The findings indicate that code-switching serves as a strategic toolto manage linguistic gaps, maintain conversational flow and express emotions, among otherthings.

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  • Saliba, Lilly
    Södertörn University.
    AI Tools in the Classroom: Reforming Teaching or Risking Tradition?: Unveiling English Teachers’ Perspectives on AI Tools in Language Teaching2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the growing integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in educational settings, specifically focusing on detecting AI-generated content in students’ English essays. As AI technologies like ChatGPT and Gemini become more prevalent, understanding their impact on education is crucial. This research aims to identify the linguistic features that lead English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers to suspect AI involvement in student work. By conducting semi-structured interviews with eight EFL teachers from lower upper secondary and high schools, the study examines their experiences and perspectives. Using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework, the study analyzes the crossing of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge, highlighting the opportunities and challenges AI presents in contemporary education. The findings show the dual role of AI as both a beneficial tool for improving learning and a challenge to maintaining academic integrity. Despite the limitations, such as the evolving nature of AI, the research highlights the need for teachers to balance the benefits of AI with preserving authentic student work. Future research directions include exploring more effective AI detection methods and understanding the long-term impact of AI on students’ critical thinking skills.

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  • Aksionova, Anastasia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Rojas Hara, Norika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Agil verksamhet och agil arbetsmetod: En uppsats om hur dessa strategier går hand i hand med anställdas upplevelser på arbetsplatsen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary purposes of an organization is to adapt to its environment in order to deliver the demanded product or service. Consequently, organizations find the need to adapt their internal processes to increase competitiveness and find solutions to problems arising from market changes. The concept of agility emerged in the early 2000s in conjunction with the technological boom and aims to organize and structure work methods within organizations. To delve deeper into this phenomenon, this essay explores how agile organizations adopt agile work methods and how these methods function in practice. The research is based on data collection through in-depth interviews and scientific articles, within a theoretical framework. The study also includes a clear connection to information systems within the organization, which are crucial prerequisites for businesses in today's society and organization. The study contributes with a result where employees experience different changes in the performance of the work through the introduction of agile working methods.

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  • Bodén Nordström, Mimmi
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Comparative Literature.
    Ungdomens fantastiska gotik: En undersökning av närvaron av gotiska drag, definierade av Fred Botting i Gothic (2013), i fantasyserien Septimus Heap (2005-2013) av Angie Sage2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will examine gothic traits in young adult and children's fantasy, specifically the fantasy series Septimus Heap (2005-2013) by Angie Sage. In order to get a better overview of the material i will be looking at the series as a whole and from there examining the parts i find relevant.  The basis of my analysis will be the gothic traits identified by Fred Botting in Gothic (2013) and a close reading of Septimus Heap (2005-2013). My analysis will be divided in to categories based on these gothic traits, and sub-categories based on what parts of the source material I am discussing. I conclude that several gothic traits, as defined by Botting, are present and recurring in Septimus Heap (2005-2013) but that aspects of these may sometimes differ from Bottings description of the classic gothic traits.

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  • Ölvestad, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Local Communities ́Capability to Freedom of Choice: A Case Study of Burunge Wildlife Management Area, Tanzania2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) are established all around Tanzania, giving the incentive to local communities to preserve nature, and simultaneously promoting socio-economic development for the local communities. Having a capability approach, this paper is leveraging theories of justice in order to establish a perception of local communities freedom to improve their well-being in ways they see fit their wills. Through semi-structured interview, and literature review, I found the local communities' inclusion within the WMA is regarded as important as important infrastructure could thus be established, however, from perspectives of justice, local communities ́capability to freedom of choice are diminishing. This is demonstrated in the occurrence of wildlife damage on villages crops and livestock, and most notably the villages themself. The paper argues that there is a lack of recognition of the local communities from external stakeholders, hence affecting their capability to participate in decision-making. The development of the local communities are very much dependent on the interest of investors, and hence the need for government regulations of participatory processes are demonstrated. 

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  • Josephson, Peter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    Lundgren, Frans
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Teori och professionell kvalitetskultur2024In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 278-282Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • Josephson, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    Klassresa med vin: En berättelse om smak2024In: Arche - tidskrift för psykoanalys, humaniora och arkitektur, ISSN 2000-7817, no 88-89, p. 177-182Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Peter Josephson skriver om vinet och dess historia. Dess verkliga intåg i svensk dryckeskultur skedde inte förrän en bit in på 1700-talet. Vinet väckte initialt kritik och motstånd. Josephson skildrar hur den ädla druvan har gjort en resa från överklassdryck till folkdryck. Icke desto mindre, konstaterar han, är det även idag en fördel att vara välbeställd om man vill få tillgång till de bästa vinerna.

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  • Olutayo, Blessing Adeoluwa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Svanström Holmqvist, Noelle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Mångfald eller meriter?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om journalisters erfarenheter och synpunkter på mångfald och mångfaldsarbete2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om mångfald är debatterad inom journalistkåren och det finns delade meningar om dess betydelse och påverkan på det journalistiska arbetet. Uppsatsens frågeställningar handlar om journalisters syn på hur mångfald på en redaktion kan påverka nyhetsbevakningen, journalisternas erfarenheter av mångfaldsarbete på redaktioner och hur de upplever att mångfaldsarbetet fungerar.                                      

    Vi utgår från fyra teoretiska ramverk genomgående i studien, allt från hur vi skapade frågeställningarna till hur vi analyserar resultatet. Dessa ramverk är teorier knutna till mångfald och mångfaldsarbete, gestaltningsteorin, dagordningsteorin och intersektionalitetsteorin. Teorierna i samspel ger oss en övergripande bild över fenomenet då det ger oss en grund för att förstå vad mångfaldsarbete går ut på, faktorer som kan påverka hur och vad som syns i nyhetsbevakningen samt att hjälpa oss förstå hur maktordningar skapas.                                                                                                

    Det som undersökningen fokuserar på är att belysa journalisternas erfarenheter och åsikter, något som påverkar hur de individuellt ser på vikten av mångfald på nyhetsredaktionerna. Detta såväl i korrelation med arbetsmiljön men även hur samhället speglas i nyhetsbevakningen. För att få svar på det utförde vi kvalitativa intervjuer med 7 journalister, alla med olika åldrar, journalistiska erfarenheter, kön och etniska bakgrunder. Med hjälp av vårt urval fick vi ett nyanserat resultat som innefattar olika perspektiv.  

    Resultatet visade att journalisterna har en enad syn på frågan om mångfalden på redaktioner, däremot så var meningarna delade när det kom till orsaker till att medielandskapet ser ut som det gör idag. Meningarna var även delade när det kom till lösningar på fenomenet eftersom många ansåg att så som det ser ut idag är ett problem. Journalisterna uttryckte att de upplevde att det behövdes mer mångfald på de olika redaktionerna och att en ökad mångfald hade varit berikande då det öppnar möjligheten att kunna rapportera utifrån fler perspektiv i samhället.   

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  • Härviden, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ungdomskulturens snusrusch: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur fyra svenska nyhetsmedier rapporterar om det vita snuset2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien ämnar att undersöka hur fyra nyhetsmedier: Aftonbladet, Expressen, Svenska Dagbladet och Dagens Nyheter, framställer det vita snuset och kopplar resultaten med hur det kan påverka trender bland ungdomar. När det vita snuset lanserades 2016 ingick inte det i lagen om tobaksprodukter vilket innebar att snuset kunde marknadsföras och säljas till personer under 18 år väldigt enkelt. Resultatet blev en explosionsökning av snusande ungdomar. I augusti 2022 kom ”lagen om tobaksfria nikotinprodukter” till vilket innebar en förändring i samhället i form av marknadsföring och försäljning. Hur skriver nyhetsmedier om det vita snuset idag? Sammanfattningsvis belyser studien efter en kvantitativ och kvalitativ innehållsanalys att nyhetsartiklar idag framställer och gestaltar nikotinsnuset som mestadels hälsofarligt och är ett pågående problem för dagens ungdomar.

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  • Safar, Cham
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, The Study of Religions.
    Religiositet hos unga vuxna: En studie om hur religiositet uttrycks av unga Syrisk-ortodoxa kristna2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the manifestation of religiosity among young Syriac Orthodox Christians in Sweden. Focusing on the age group of 20–29, the thesis delves into how religiosity is expressed within this community, both in public and private domains, such as church, family, workplace, and social media. The research highlights the interplay between religious identity and secular society, examining the impact of cultural and generational differences on religious practices and beliefs. Methodologically, the study employs qualitative analysis, drawing on interviews to understand the personal and collective aspects of religiosity in a multicultural and secular context. The findings reveal diverse expressions of faith, shaped by the dynamics of community engagement, cultural adaptation, and individual spirituality, offering a nuanced view of young adults navigating their religious identity in modern Sweden.

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  • Eriksson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Ontologi efter dekonstruktionen av arké: En fråga om övergången och relationen mellan princip och anarki hos Reiner Schürmann och Giorgio Agamben2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work considers what ontology might be after the deconstruction of arché in Reiner Schürmann's and Giorgio Agamben's thinking. It addresses the question by reading Schürmanns historical deduction of the categories of presencing in his book Heidegger On being Acting: From Principles to Anarchy. This deduction is at the heart of his thought in that it tries to manifest what it means to live the transition from arché to an-arché, from a life under principles and why's, to a life without why, and the principle of anarchy. This transitional thought rests on what he calls the hypothesis of closure of the metaphysical field. The deduction is therefore a question of a relation between the first beginnings end as an other beginning. He shows this by establishing categories that are both conceptual- and sensible form. This reaches its full articulation in what he calls the categories of transition; categories in which the distinction between category and intuition seems to collapse – that are its own gaze or eye, that sees both the past and the future at the same time. This is a question regarding relationality: the transition from a causal relationality to an anarchic relationality, from a substance ontology to relational ontology. What is the relational status of the transition itself and its categories? This question lead to the main one: is the transition between arché and an-arché a relation between the two? The overall purpose is to explore this question in order to open, in the end, a path between him and Agamben. The later has pointed out that the key problem to live truly anarchic is a critique of the ontological relation because language presuppositional structure manifests in it, which takes its “full” form in his work The Use of Bodies. Here, perhaps – which we only can point to – Schürmann's thought can meet Agamben's in the caesura between arché and an-arché. Can anarchy ever be in a position of principle? In the end we will have to point to the notion of oikonomia as an area of further research to understand the question of anarchy between Agamben and Schürmann.

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    Ontologi efter dekonstruktionen av arké Eriksson Magnus
  • Alva, Folkesson
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nyhetsrapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av artiklar från lokala och regionala nyhetsmedier2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur rapporteringen om riskområdet Tjärna Ängar sett ut i lokala och regionala nyhetsmedier under 5 års tid. Studien har fokuserat på vilka ämnen som förekommit i rapporteringen, vart artiklarna om dessa ämnen placerats i tidningarna samt vilka gestaltningsmönster som varit vanligt förekommande i artiklarna. Studien har även undersökt vilka som får komma till tals i artiklarna och om nyheterna främst ger en positiv eller negativ bild av Tjärna Ängar. Genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys har totalt 200 artiklar om Tjärna Ängar studerats. Artiklarna har analyserats utifrån en kombination av dagordningsteorins första nivå och gestaltningsteorin.

    Resultatet av de studerade artiklarna visade att majoriteten av rapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar handlade om brott/kriminalitet och domar, negativa händelser och innehöll gestaltningsmönstret den farliga staden. Resultatet visade även att det främst var poliser och räddningstjänstpersonal, lokala företagare samt boende som fick komma till tals i de studerade artiklarna.

    Utifrån den rapportering som studerats i denna studie gick det att dra slutsatsen att det inte fanns några större skillnader mellan den lokala dagstidningen och den regionala dagstidningen i rapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar. Utifrån artiklarna som studerats gick det även att dra slutsatsen att ämnena brott/kriminalitet och domar, politik, samhällsfrågor/sociala förhållanden och byggnationer/infrastruktur både förekom relativt mycket i rapporteringen och oftast placerades längre fram i tidningarna vilket möjligtvis kan sända ut signaler till publiken om att dessa ämnen är viktigare än andra ämnen.

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  • Riihimäki, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Stiernstedt, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Restriktioner av tredjepartscookies: En kvalitativ studie om dess påverkan på företagens marknadsföringsstrategier och kundrelationer i en ny era2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study examines the impact of third-party cookie restrictions on companies' marketing strategies and ability to reach their customer segments. Through semi-structured interviews with respondents in various marketing positions in different industries, the study provides insight into the respondents' own perceptions of how these restrictions affect their business operations. 

    Today, there is a strong emphasis on the use of data to more effectively reach out to customer segments, where these insights are crucial for developing marketing strategies and achieving competitive advantage. The study suggests that the elimination of third-party cookies has an impact on companies' marketing strategies and their ability to reach their customer segments. This is due to a reduction in data insight, making it increasingly difficult for companies to understand their customer segments and thus target and shape their marketing campaigns. The study also draws attention to opportunities arising from the restrictions such as increased privacy and continuous development of new strategies. In conclusion, this qualitative study highlights that the restrictions on third-party cookies will require new ways of working for marketers, which requires adaptability and creativity. 

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  • Thorell, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Socrates in Continuum: Self-Knowledge in Plato's Phaedrus2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the outset of the Phaedrus, Plato tells us that Socrates’ knows himself (228a). This statement is then followed up by Socrates’ claim that he is not able to obey the Delphic imperative and know himself (229e-230b). This apparent contradiction has given rise to an interesting debate concerning what kind of knowledge we are dealing with here. While the debate is complex a few main positions can be identified. One group of scholars, hereafter referred to as the practitioners, argue that the self-knowledge Socrates here talks about is a life-guiding term. The practitioners argue that when striving toward what is true about oneself and acknowledging one’s limits, one turns away from chaos towards a well structured life. Another group of scholars, referred to as the mystics, argue that self-knowledge is something Socrates’ possesses when contemplating over his own epistemic limits as well as his soul and its connection to the Forms. Finally, the unitarian view explains the content of self-knowledge, namely that it includes dispositional and cognitive knowledge of oneself. Even if these views are helpful to explain the different parts of self-knowledge, they fail to explain Socrates’ apparently contradictory answers regarding self-knowledge. What is lacking, and what this thesis will try to provide, is an account of how Socrates both can say that he knows and does not know himself. The thesis will help explain how Socrates can be said to have self-knowledge. However, Socrates does not yet have absolute self-knowledge and acknowledges, with his denial of self-knowledge, that a deepened self-knowledge can be gained gradually. On the view that this thesis will test and defend, Socratic self-knowledge is a continuum, that is to say, a coherent yet dynamic knowledge. This can help to explain how Socrates can claim to both know and not yet know himself. 

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  • Bårman, Erik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Confusio hos Augustinus2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis takes as its point of departure the implicit Augustinian view of thinking. Besides his own definition of thinking as a ”collecting” in the Confessions (and his view of thinking in On the Trinity), Augustine also suggests thinking as volving [volvere]. This kind of thinking is structured by words revolving [revolvere] in the mind. This, is suggested, by necessity leads to an involvement [involvere] in the world. The fact of being involved in the world also means striving to evolve [evolvere] that in which you are involved: the structure is volvere–revolvere–involvere–evolvere.

    This, in turn, is due to ”being” being diffused [diffusio], which then is infused [infusio] into human beings. As a result, the human being tries by thinking to fuse [fusio] reality from dispersion into unity. From this, confusion [confusio] emerges. Here, the structure is diffusio–infusio–fusio–confusio. The aim of this thesis is to envelope and place what for Augustine is predominantly a negative notion of confusio in the right manner as a generative and dynamic notion, structured in a threefold manner: cosmologically as origin, biologically as shame, cognitively as confusion. These being three aspects defining the ego.

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    Confusio hos Augustinus
  • Blomqvist, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Brutna mönster för medias bevakning av klimatförändringar: En kvantitativ undersökning av rapporteringen om klimatförändringar i Aftonbladet och Dagens Nyheter från januari 2010 till december 20192024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker hur medias uppmärksamhet för klimatförändringar har förändrats i kvantitet under 2010-talet. Det här görs genom att månadsvis räkna antalet artiklar relaterade till klimatförändringar som publicerades i Aftonbladetoch Dagens Nyheter, tryckt press, från januari 2010 till december 2019. Och genom att identifiera vilka klimatrelaterade ämnen som artiklarna handlar om under perioder då bevakningen av klimatförändringar ökade.  

    Studiens övergripande huvudfråga är ” Hur har medias bevakning av klimatförändringar förändrats under 2010-talet?”, den besvaras med hjälp av fyra mer specifika underfrågor som berör den årliga kvantitativa förändringen under decenniet, hur medias uppmärksamhet för klimatförändringar under inledningen av 2010-talet skiljer sig jämfört med slutet, huruvida bevakningen är mer eller mindre stabil under slutet av decenniet jämfört med inledningen, och vilka ämnen som drog medias uppmärksamhet till klimatförändringar under årtiondet samt hur detta skiljer sig under slutet av decenniet jämfört med inledningen. Resultatet analyseras med hjälp av tidigare relevant forskning och en samlande teori av Jesper Strömbäck om vilka händelser och fenomen som blir nyheter utifrån sex punkter och tre styrfält.  

    Studiens resultat visar att uppmärksamheten för klimatförändringar i Aftonbladet och Dagens Nyheter, tryckt press, ökade markant under 2010-talet. Under decenniets första fem år skedde inga större förändringar men efter att Parisavtalets undertecknades år 2015 ökade uppmärksamheten och sommar 2018, i samband med en ovanligt varm och långvarig värmebölja samt Greta Thunbergs mediala inträdde, ökade uppmärksamheten ännu mer. Resultatet visar också att medias uppmärksamhet för klimatförändringar går i cykler med tydliga upp- och nedgångar, men att bevakningen sett från månad till månad var mer stabil under 2010-talets slutskede jämfört med inledningen. Avslutningsvis visar resultatet att ämnet klimataktivism gick från att i princip vara obefintligt i den mediala bevakningen under inledningen av årtiondet till att dominera rapporteringen i slutet av det. 

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    Brutna mönster för medias bevakning av klimatförändringar
  • Larsson, Linus
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Sanningens väg i det sjätte massutdöendets tidsålder: Heidegger och Parmenides i naturrättens tjänst2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Rights of Nature movement is a quickly growing global phenomenon. However, it is not always obvious what the movement really means. What is its underlying experience? How can its transformative depth be formulated? What is the meaning of this depth? Starting from the ‘Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth’ this essay seeks to elucidate the ontological meaning of these questions through attending to the possible relation of the Rights of Nature movement to Heidegger’s turning toward Parmenides, in the sense of ‘primordial thinker’, or ‘essential thinker’, that is, a thinker who in an essential way thinks the origin as such. This ‘origin’ will be dealt with in relation to the oikos of ecology. In other words ‘essential thinking’ will be brought forward as a thinking that essentially makes possible the mindful awareness of this oikos, this ‘home’, ‘house’, ‘abode’, or ‘place of dwelling’. A chief point of the essay is that an essential experience of this oikos is necessary if the ontological implications of the Rights of Nature movement is to be disclosed.

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  • Astervall, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Mellan förstörelse och berättande: En filosofisk undersökning av narrativets kraft i det genusbaserade våldets efterdyningar2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to emphasize the significance of narrative in giving voice to survivors of gender-based violence, and in breaking the silence surrounding this issue – matters that statistical reports tend to overlook. The voices of survivors of gender-based violence are often disregarded or not heard in statistical reports, despite their significance for understanding and addressing it. Therefore, I seek to deepen our understanding of the consequences of gender-based violence by reading survivors’ narratives alongside a number of philosophical thinkers who are not typically read together, but whose work can contribute to a better understanding of the violence itself and the narration that arises in its wake, namely Adriana Cavarero, Susan J. Brison, Kelly Oliver, and María Lugones. 

    By applying several philosophical concepts to listen to what the narratives of the victims express, I also intend to contextualize them within a larger societal framework, to better understand the impact of gender-based violence. I will be drawing from Susan Brison’s concept aftermath, Adriana Cavarero’s discussion of relating narratives, horrorism, and narrative against destruction, as well as María Lugones’s concept “world”-travelling. The narratives I engage tend to convey that gaslighting is a significant aspect of the abuse, which is why I choose to analyze it with reference to Kelly Oliver’s work. 

    My hope is that my thesis will complement and enrich the quantitative and statistical approach represented by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions. I prioritize the voices of survivors, allowing their narratives to guide the discourse. This approach, influenced by Cavarero, emphasizes the importance of centering the experiences of those directly affected by violence, and by listening to their stories I want to increase awareness and understanding of the violence perpetrated against them. In the face of what Cavarero calls ontological violence, it becomes important to start listening to the voices of the survivors, as they need to be heard. I also aim to initiate societal debates and actions that can lead to change and support for those affected by gender-based violence.

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  • Henriksson, Olivia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Matjournalistik – från utbildning till inspiration: En kvalitativ, historisk genrestudie av matjournalistik2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet mat är trendigare någonsin, och recept och krogrecensioner florerar allt oftare i tidningar och på sociala medier. Syftet med denna uppsats är att reda ut vad matjournalistik är för genre och vad den ger utrymme för men även att försöka reda ut vad en matjournalist behöver besitta för kunskaper och hur man axlar rollen på ett professionellt vis. För att undersöka genren och arbetsrollen har frågeställningarna fokuserat på hur det har sett ut rent historiskt. Mer specifikt fokuserar studien på en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av Dagens Nyheters arkiv, mellan 1974 och 2024, där teman samt på en kvalitativ intervjustudie där personer som befinner sig på den matjournalistiska scenen har medverkat. Bland de medverkande intervjupersonerna finns matjournalister, pensionerade matjournalister, matskribenter på sociala medier och kockar. Variationen av intervjupersoner har bidragit till olika perspektiv och gynnat den kvalitativa metoden på så sätt att åsikter har fått stötas mot varandra i resultat- och analyskapitlen. 

    Det teoretiska ramverket är baserat på Bourdieus fältteori med visst fokus på symboliskt kapital, samt professionaliseringsteori med fokus på de professionalisering. Resultatet av studien visar att genrens innebörd innehåller en del olika teman, men framför allt att den har förändrats samt breddats med tidens gång. Enligt innehållsanalysen finns flera återkommande textformat sedan 1974. Innehållet är till viss del liknande genom tiden, precis som att olika teman och trender återkommit, men bredden på innehållet och variationen har ökat och bidragit till ett mer varierat innehåll.  Dessutom har rollen som matjournalist utmanats av digitalisering och ökad konkurrens från modernare aktörer än de traditionella tidningarna. Idag finns alternativa medier som till viss del förnyar synen på vad man kan definiera som matjournalistik. 

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  • Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Rova, My
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ett porträtt av den granskande journalisten: En kvalitativ textanalys om hur granskande journalister porträtteras i facktidningen Journalisten2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur svenska kriminaljournalister och grävande journalister, med särskilt fokus på granskande reportage om brott och kriminalitet, beskrivs och porträtteras i facktidningen Journalisten, samt med en jämförande utgångspunkt i genus. Studien utgår från en kvalitativ textanalys, med analysfrågor som vi format utifrån Johanna Ledin och Ulla Mobergs (2019) språkliga textanalysmetod. Vi har i studien analyserat sju personporträtt om kriminaljournalister och grävande journalister från tidningen Journalisten. Analysen utgår från ett frågeschema med syfte att identifiera vilka egenskaper som tilldelas journalisternas person, vilka ideal som tilldelas yrkesrollen samt om porträtteringen skiljer sig utifrån ett genusperspektiv. Det teoretiska ramverket är baserat på teoretiska utgångspunkter som berör journalistyrket professionalisering, genus och yrkesideal. Resultatet av den kvalitativa textanalysen visar på ett flertal återkommande journalistiska ideal. De främsta ideal som tilldelas yrkesrollen relaterar till den journalistiska funktionen, men att vara ambitiös och engagerad i sin arbetsroll lyfts också som betydande ideal. Genom textanalysen har vi observerat att de egenskaper som lyfts hos de granskande journalisterna också stämmer bra överens med yrkesidealen. Samt att de egenskaper hos journalisterna som inte relaterar till eller stämmer sämre överens med yrkesrollen får mindre utrymme i texterna. Resultatet visar dessutom att porträtteringen i texterna skiljer sig utifrån ett genusperspektiv, där de kvinnliga granskande journalisterna porträtteras i högre grad utifrån ytliga faktorer samt att texten lägger en större vikt på deras privatliv och känslor.

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  • Gunnarsson, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Linder, Filip
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Vild lek i förskolans inomhusmiljö: En fenomenografisk studie om förskolepedagogers olika uppfattningar om vildlek och dess plats i inomhusmiljön2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how nine preschool educators perceive childrens’ “wild play” in regardsto the indoor environment in preschool. By using phenomenography as a method we haveinterviewed nine educators about their perception about childrens’ wild play and how it canbenefit them. We discuss the educators' different views of the challenges that come with wildand risky play in the indoor environment in preschool and how to accommodate the entire class.The majority of those interviewed associated the term 'wild play' itself with negative terms, suchas chaos, fighting, conflicts, but beyond this, they recognized that children had a need to engagein this type of play even indoors. Educators highlighted the limitations present in theenvironment, such as noise levels and space. 

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  • Rosander, Felix
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Stiernstedt, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Informatics.
    Stora datamängders revolution: en ny era av digital marknadsföring2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study explores the impact of big data and predictive analytics on digital marketing strategies in data-driven businesses. Through in-depth interviews with digital marketers and data analysts in different industries, the study provides an insight into the respondents' personal perception of how these digital tools affect their strategies and business operations in the IT-reliant work system. The use of big data and predictive analytics are considered critical tools to more effectively collect and analyze customer data and behavior. This is because it gives rise to the ability to predict customer trends and adapt the business' marketing strategies in real time.

    Today, companies' ability to effectively collect and analyze data plays an increasingly crucial role. Not only to develop marketing strategies, but also to achieve significant competitive advantage. The study suggests that businesses that effectively integrate big data and predictive analytics into their strategies gain a better understanding of their customer segments through increased insight and can thus better target and adapt their marketing campaigns to their customer segments. The study also highlights challenges arising from factors such as data quality, optimization, ethics and other aspects that require accuracy and necessary skills.

    The future of digital marketing is increasingly moving towards data-driven approaches, where there is a greater emphasis on using analytical methods to make decisions. This development demonstrates a shift from the traditional marketing strategies to an application of a data-driven approach. In light of this, it is increasingly important for companies to adopt an approach that enhances their ability to quickly adapt and apply technological tools to exploit this potential. In conclusion, this qualitative study highlights the importance of integrating big data and predictive analytics into business and marketing strategies. This proves to have a great impact on not only improving the organization's marketing but also strengthening the overall business operations. This underlines the need to continuously develop data analytics skills and strategies to understand how they can transform customer relationships and business performance. This perspective is based on interpretations of interviews with marketers in IT-reliant work systems, and should be seen as insights specific to the cases studied rather than broad generalizations.

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  • Dahlberg, Lina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hiitti, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Påverkas rapporteringen?: En studie om självcensur inom journalistiken2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur åtta journalister vid lokala medieföretag i Sverige påverkas av hot och hat i sitt yrke och hur de ser på självcensur. Åtta journalister från olika lokalmedier runt om i Sverige har intervjuats genom kvalitativa intervjuer och resultatet visar att kvinnliga journalister upplever mer frekventa och allvarliga hot jämfört med sina manliga kollegor, men det rapporterades inte om fysiskt våld direkt relaterat till deras yrke. Journalisterna visade generellt brist på rädsla för konflikter eller repressalier trots näthat och skrämmande situationer. De betonade sitt åtagande för den journalistiska integriteten och korrektheten. De visade också en stark vilja att undvika självcensur och upprätthålla journalistikens etik och pressfrihet, även när de erkände potentiella påtryckningar från arbetsgivare eller externa krafter. Sammanfattningsvis belyser studien det komplexa samspel mellan journalistikens integritet, yttre påtryckningar och det förändrade medielandskapet och ger insikt om utmaningarna och möjligheterna som journalisterna står inför i dagens samhälle.

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    Påverkas rapporteringen? En studie om självcensur inom journalistiken
  • Holmgren-Theodore, Loudridge
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Aesthetic Learning Processes.
    Titta vad jag säger fröken!: En utforskning av förhållandet mellan estetiskt uttryck i teatern och icke-verbala förskolebarn.2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I in this study aim to investigate the connection between aesthetic expression in theatre and nonverbal communication among preschool children, grounded in Vygotsky's artefact and mediation theories. Theatre, with its rich visual and performative elements, serves as a medium for artistic expression and imaginative exploration. Within early childhood education, understanding how theatre influences children's nonverbal communication skills is essential for promoting children development and social interaction. Lev Vygotsky’s theories of artefacts and mediation provide a valuable framework for examining the role of theatre in children's socioemotional development. Artefacts, such as costumes, props, and stage settings, serve as cultural tools that scaffold children's learning and cognition. Theatre acts as a mediating artefact that facilitates children's exploration of emotions, roles, and relationships through dramatic play and performance. Theatre can provide an environment where children can experiment with these nonverbal communication skills in a supportive and creative context.

    I seek to elucidate how exposure to theatrical experiences impacts the nonverbal communication abilities of young children. By examining the perspectives of educators working closely with young children, this research aims to uncover nuanced understandings of how aesthetic experiences in theater contribute to the development and learning of preschoolers.

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  • Arxet, Ugo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Rizvanovic, Vernes
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Kan en robot recensera?: En kvalitativ studie om kulturjournalisternas syn på AI och om hur teknologin påverkar den journalistiska yrkesrollen och kulturen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Artificiell intelligens inom journalistiken är ett omstritt ämne, inte minst inom journalistiken. Det råder idag en stor osäkerhet om vad för påverkan AI kommer att ha på journalistiken samtidigt som fler medier implementerar fler verktyg som drivs med hjälp av AI. Kulturjournalistiken står nu inför en icke-tidigare sedd utveckling inom kulturjournalistik och kultursamhället på grund av utvecklingen inom AI. 

    Syftet med denna studie är att kvalitativt undersöka sju svenska kulturjournalisters inställningar och åsikter om AI-verktyg och vilken påverkan det har haft på kulturjournalistiken, både i nutid och i framtiden. Frågeställningarna inkluderar frågor kring vilka appliceringsområden AI har inom kulturjournalistiken, kulturjournalisternas attityder och känslor för AI inom kulturen och hur kulturjournalistiken påverkas av AI-genererat innehåll. 

    Studiens resultat visar att kulturjournalisterna inte känner en påtaglig rädsla inför att AI ska ersätta dem. Det finns vissa farhågor, i och med risken för ökad missinformation, sämre källkritik och sämre journalistisk kvalitet på innehåll. Kulturjournalisterna är inte oroade eftersom de arbetar inom delar av kulturjournalistiken, till exempel litteraturkritiker, där AI ännu inte visat sig ha kapaciteten att generera resultat som överträffar arbete som de mänskliga journalisterna är kapabla till att skapa. Oron för att bli ersatt är betydligt mindre då AI-verktygen som implementerats idag tillför fler arbetsuppgifter än innan, till exempel på grund av att textare och översättare blivit avskedade. 

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  • Salah Ali, Mariam
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Källan till matematisk förståelse: Fokus på grundläggande taluppfattning och eventuella utmaningar i F-32024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the implementation of mathematics education concerning basic numerical understanding in grades F-3, based on the study's theoretical framework, Foundational number sense (FoNS): Eight Key Components. The methods used include surveys and semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that several key components are included in mathematics education in F-3, but to varying extents. Some key components are less prevalent than others, and these can be linked to the challenges that arise during mathematics education. To improve students' understanding of basic numerical understanding numeracy, a conclusion is that there needs to be increased inclusion of the various key components in mathematics education, as they represent different aspects of basic numeracy. Students' difficulties with a specific key component can be compensated for by focusing more on another, enabling a more holistic understanding of the subject.

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  • Mikaelsson, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Sultana, Sharmin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Språkutveckling hos nyanlända elever på fritidshemmet: En kvalitativ undersökning om fritidshemslärarens arbete med nyanländas språkutveckling2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative survey is to create a deeper understanding of the school-age educare in Swedish schools, the language development for newly arrived students and what challenges there are, as well as how school-age educare teachers collaborate with guardians and other people in the school to be able to contribute to the language development of newly arrived students. We interviewed four school-age educare teachers from schools in the greater Stockholm area and analyzed the results from a social constructionist perspective and previous research in this area. The results from our study indicate that school-age educare teachers work with newly arrived students' language development in different ways, but there are shortcomings in terms of strategies, tools, methods, and processes. There is a need for skills development to improve this work. In addition, good collaboration between the staff and guardians is essential to achieve better results. Since newly arrived students have different needs and backgrounds, it is important to take this into account and strive for the right conditions so that a safe, inclusive social environment can be created. The school needs to work to find solutions for competence development and improved cooperation in their operations. A fascinating future research area focusing on the language development of newly arrived students is regarding tools, training, and frameworks for after-school teachers. It is about how modern digital tools such as Google Translate and AI services can support after-school teachers in creating a more inclusive learning environment.

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  • Dahvu, Louise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Palmhager Berg, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Det sköra relationsarbetet: En studie av fritidshemslärares metoder och erfarenheter2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on how school-age educare teachers' reason about their work in order to include all students in after-school education based on students' different conditions and needs. Issues touched upon and discussed in this study are school-age educare teachers' views on inclusion, pedagogical strategies and methods, and challenges that school-age educare teachers identify with inclusion work. This is a qualitative study and we have used semi-structured interviews to collect our data material. We have visited two different schools and interviewed four trained educare teachers with greater responsibility within the operation. We analyzed the collected material through a relational perspective. The results were divided into three different themes that answer our questions. In the result it appeared that the school-age educare teachers agree that it is important to work for and find alternative approaches to include all students in the activities. They also agree on the importance of being a responsive and engaged adult in social contexts and of actively building relationships with the students. When it comes to challenges, the experiences differed, we saw obstacles such as poor cooperation, staff shortages, guardians' resistance to diagnoses and religious reasons, among other things.

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