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  • 1.
    Bosma, R. H.
    et al.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Ha, T. T. P.
    Can Tho University, Can Tho, Vietnam.
    Hiep, T. Q.
    Can Tho University, Can Tho, Vietnam.
    Phuong, N. T. H.
    Can Tho University, Can Tho, Vietnam.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bregt, A. K.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Changing opinion, knowledge, skill and behaviour of Vietnamese shrimp farmers by using serious board games2019In: The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, ISSN 1389-224X, E-ISSN 1750-8622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Mekong Delta's shrimp farming contributes to socio-economic development but tends to reduce the mangrove area. On the one hand, NGOs advocate balancing ecology and economy, while on the other hand, the Vietnamese government supports intensifying shrimp production. The latter strategy increases shrimp diseases and marginalises smallholders. To influence the opinions, knowledge and behaviour of shrimp farmers, we developed and tested a serious board game. Approach: Through several iterations, we designed a realistic board game mimicking local shrimp farming. Then, after conducting three sessions of gameplay with farmers in three sites, we assessed how this gameplay influenced players. We used a semi-experimental set-up by collecting data on the day of the gameplay, and on two further time-points. Findings: After the gameplays, farmers reported to have learned about the risks of monoculture-intensive-shrimp system and the advantages of hybrid systems. Likert ratings showed that players adopted innovations faster and, in case of shrimp diseases, consulted commercial service-providers less, but with other farmers more. They confirmed to have learned that the best strategy for them would be to adopt hybrid systems, i.e. intensify part of the area of mixed-mangrove or improved-extensive shrimp farms. Theoretical implications: Realistic board games can create opportunities for social learning and training of groups which are not always easy to reach. Practical implications: Board games can support transfer of knowledge and skills to farmers, and can develop their critical thinking. Creation: The findings that board games are effective in the context of a top-down extension systems offer value opportunities.

  • 2.
    Ericsson, Anna
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Water Availability and Distribution in Africa: Effects of the IFAD irrigation scheme in Kiru Valley, Tanzania2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The case study was made in the area of Kiru Valley, Tanzania, in order to study the conflicts over the water in the river Dodumera, and also to understand how the villages Mawemairo, Matufa and Mapea have been affected by the construction of the IFAD irrigation scheme. The aim was to connect the conflicts in the area with a general view of how water can create such conflicts. The method used in the case study was semi-structured interviews. The results from the interviews made with farmers and officials in Kiru Valley was analysed through general theories about water conflicts and theories about governing common-pool resources, such as Ostrom’s eight principles and the theory the Tragedy of the Commons. The analysis was also made through the IFAD poverty reduction strategy programme (PRSP). The conclusion made on the basis of this analysis was that the IFAD project, in Kiru Valley, was in correlation with the PRSP and an attempt to reduce poverty in the two villages Mawemairo and Matufa. The project has been very successful and has contributed to an increase of livelihood and development in the villages. However, the scheme has also affected other villages, such as Mapea. The scheme has contributed to a decrease of water availability in the Dodumera River for Mapea. Nowadays they only rely on rain-fed irrigation. The conflicts have been affected by the scheme, not so much in the quantity of the conflicts but more in the target of the conflicts. Before the construction of the scheme the conflicts was directed at the big-scale farmers, now they are directed at the scheme. On the other hand, the scheme has helped reducing the conflicts between the farmers in Mawemairo and Matufa. There are solutions to conflicts and water scarcity, such as more efficient irrigation techniques and Ostrom’s principles on governing the common-pool resources.

  • 3.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence: Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known as Management Areas -- MAs). Replacing the former unsuccessful fishing regulatory measurements, the MEABR regime empowers the fishers with exclusive territorial use rights (TURF) to manage the species, often under commons institutions, thus creating new seascapes of confidence. However, as is often the case with new solutions, emergent problems are posed that threaten to undermine the reform. With the new regulated extraction measure and geographical expansion of this novel labour and production alternative, fishers experience a transition from ‘nomadic’ to sedentary fishing leading to a transformation of their lifestyle and skills. If MAs become permanent, fishing in rural areas may lead to tensions as the fishers settle on coastal lands without entitlement, or are hindered from developing their own fisheries infrastructure. The legal system does not seem to fully foresee the consequences of the reform, and prevailing power relations and private property rights work to disadvantage the fishers. Using a participatory approach for the first research location of El Quisco (Valparaíso Region), and interviews with key informants for the second research location of Puerto Oscuro (Coquimbo Region), fishers’ views of the Chilean TURF were evaluated. How fishers perceive this experience should be central for the success or failure of the MAs as a viable alternative to the earlier conditions of open access. While the assessment of El Quisco deals more with the performance of the MA, Puerto Oscuro is used to portray the seascapes of conflict that have emerged as ownership of the coastal land is contested. The study shows that while the reform has brought better incomes from the benthic resources, the overall economic importance of the MAs for the fishers is reduced relative to the incomes coming from fishing activities realized outside the MAs. Experiences in both cases have been otherwise positive in terms of the recuperation of the species, ecological concerns and strengthening fishers’ so-called soft assets. Nevertheless, many problems remain, among them the problem of access to the sea border and those related to ambiguous land rights to support coastal settlement and fishing infrastructure development.

  • 4.
    Hultén, Hilda
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Sportfiske är stort vid Stockholms ström2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som vill fiska i Strömmen är det bara att ta sitt fiskespö och gå dit, fisket har varit fritt för allmänheten sedan 1436. Men sportfisket är inte okontroversiellt, all lax och öring i Strömmen är inplanterad och hotar de naturliga fiskbestånden i länet. Och man bör akta sig - fiske kan vara beroendeframkallande.

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