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  • 1.
    Rashed, Ismail Ismail Ibrahim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    The association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis: Effects of different levels of vitamin D deficiency - A meta-analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies studying the risk of vitamin D deficiency in tuberculosis patients and in healthy controls. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the level of vitamin D to test the risk in TB groups and in healthy groups.

    Methods: Pubmed was searched for observational studies in human and English that discussed the association between risk of low serum vitamin D and TB. Meta-analysis was performed on all relevant studies combined and for subgroups of each vitamin D level.

    Results: 22 studies were selected and pooled in the analysis. The results were consistent with previous studies examining the same risk. The overall log risk ratio (log RR) of low vitamin D was significantly higher in TB patients 1.68 times than healthy controls. In 4 subgroup meta- analyses based on vitamin D level below (20 nmol/L, 30 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L), the risk of having low vitamin D in TB patients was (1.82, 2.89, 1.38, 1.32) respectively. That subgroup analysis showed more clearly the higher RR were below 20 and 30 nmol/L. The smallest RR was at 75 nmol/L level.

    Conclusion: This study verified the association between risk of low vitamin D level and TB development. It also clarified that, the risk increased by decreasing vitamin D level.

  • 2.
    Zaman, Muhammad Haidar
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Improvement in Hepatitis “C” viral infection with advanced antiviral therapy,treatment – a meta-analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hepatitis is the inflammation of liver and there are many reasons of hepatitis. Among these reasons the viral hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are the common hepatic infections and the major causes of liver cancer and liver cirrhosis in the world especially in Asia and Medal east. HBV and HCV infections are having very high mortality ratio in Europe and every year millions of people become infected and die due to HBV or HCV in Europe and Worldwide. That’s why viral hepatitis needs a serious consideration and perfect treatment.

    Objective: Objective of the study was to analyze the role of ribavirin in HCV treatment and to observe the virological response and relapse against it by using statistical meta-analytical techniques.

    Selection criteria and data collection: For this meta-analysis I used the publication databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar to collect all research articles describing treatment and response of HCV and using the antiviral drugs Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (control group) in combination with the active agent Ribavirin.

    Method and Methodology: Meta-analysis was performed using the statistical package R and the package metafore.

    Result and conclusion: The result shows that the use of ribavirin with control group (ledipasvir and sofosbuvir) did not show a significant impact on the sustained virological response (SVR) during and after treatment. But addition of ribavirin in control group effectively reduced the rate of relapse after treatment.

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