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  • 1. Akre, O
    et al.
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Tretli, S
    Body size and testicular cancer2000In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 92, no 13, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Development and psychometric properties of the Emotional State Questionnaire: a self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety1999In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are dimensions of emotional state that can be validly assessed with self-report measures. This article introduces a new self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety (Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q)) and presents data on its reliability and validity. The items of the EST-Q were derived from diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Thirty-three items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. The questionnaire was administered to 194 inpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders and to a population sample of 479 subjects. According to the results of factor analysis, five subscales were formed: Depression, Anxiety, Agoraphobia-Panic, Fatigue, and Insomnia. EST-Q and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.69-0.88). Significant differences in subscales between patients and population and across diagnostic groups confirmed the discriminant validity of the instrument. Depression, Anxiety, and Agoraphobia-Panic subscales distinguished corresponding diagnostic groups. Fatigue and Insomnia appeared to assess nonspecific psychopathology dimensions characteristic of several psychiatric disorders.

  • 3.
    Bonds, Olivia
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Mobbning: ur flera perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns elever som trycker ner andra i sin omgivning. När det är dags för rast finns det de som säger ”vad äcklig du är” och skrattar åt sin jämnåriga skolkamrat. Samtidigt sprider sig nya tekniker som gör skolan ännu mer försvarslös mot mobbning än tidigare. Inte ens i det egna hemmet kan ett barn vara garanterad att få slippa sin plågoande. Vad är egentligen mobbning? Hur tänker en mobbare? Och hur ser en vanlig skolmiljö ut år 2007?

  • 4. Clark, Kelly
    et al.
    Visuri, Ingela
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions.
    Autism and the Panoply of Religious Belief, Disbelief and Experience2019In: Neurology and Religion / [ed] Joanna Collicutt, Alasdair Coles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 139-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the cognitive mechanisms that incline us towards theistic belief in superhuman agents have been well documented over the past twenty-five years, unbelief has not received nearly so much attention. Recent studies however suggest that just as with theistic belief, various psychic mechanisms and processes might incline one toward unbelief, such as a propensity for analytic thinking. It has also been suggested that the connection between atheism and analytic thinking may be mediated by mentalizing constraints in autism. In this essay, we will present and evaluate a few such studies and then consider some additional ideas that we hope will contribute to a fuller understanding of possible approaches to religion and spirituality in autistic individuals.

  • 5.
    Dvorák, Martin
    et al.
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Smrzova, Jana
    www.nefrologie.eu: Building an Electronic Source of Information on the Principles of Andragogy2010In: Alternativni metody vyuky 2010, Prague, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cooperation between a patient and their physician represents a pre-requisite for successful treatment. Provided the patient is well-informed and willing to cooperate, their illness turns out to progress more slowly and, as a result, they usually live longer than the one who is not as they are more likely to take precautions against medical complications associated with it. Moreover, the quality of such a person’s life is higher and treatment less expensive.The nefrologie.eu portal aims to educate patients, their relatives and other people interested in the area of kidney diseases. Apart from the provision of information on how to prevent and alleviate kidney-related disorders, the portal conducts a perpetual needs analysis thereby ensuring it is the areas that interest patients most that are widely covered by it. In this respect, it also serves as a needs analysis tool for doctors to monitor the fields patients most frequently lack information about allowing them to pinpoint and focus on these during their sessions with their own patients.As the counseling section comprises answers to the questions (800 up to now) the visitors (more than 200 a day) have posted via the site and thus contains concrete information relevant to the individual visitors’ past, present and future lives, its educational impact is facilitated through the personalization factor. What also contributes to the efficiency of the educational process is the fact the information is presented through multiple presentation channels and thus ensures sufficient repetitions and variations on themes.The paper also discusses other principles of andragogy that appear crucial in building a publicly available electronic information source targeting medical education of adults.

  • 6.
    Ebishima, Ken
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, Takayuki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research. Method: We investigated the ASR and its modulation in 11 children with ASD and 18 with typical development (TD), analyzing the relationship between startle measures and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Second Edition. Results: Peak-ASR latency was negatively correlated with the VABS total score and socialization domain score of adaptive behaviors, while the ASR magnitude for relatively weak stimuli of 75-85 dB was positively correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior scores. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the prepulse intensity of 70-75 dB was also correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior. However, these relationships did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prolonged peak-ASR latency of ASD children might be associated with impairment in the developmental level of adaptive behavior, and that the greater ASR magnitude to relatively weak acoustic stimuli and smaller PPI of ASD children might increase the risk of maladaptive behavior. Future studies that have larger sample sizes will be important for further elucidating the neurophysiological factors that underpin adaptive as well as maladaptive behaviors in ASD.

  • 7.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm Univeristy / Karolinska Institutet.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 8.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana / Jönköping University.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Jylhävä, Juulia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bai, Ge
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Karolinska Institutet / University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Functional Aging Index Complements Frailty in Prediction of Entry into Care and Mortality.2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 74, no 12, p. 1980-1986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to develop a functional aging index (FAI) that taps four body systems: sensory (vision and hearing), pulmonary, strength (grip strength), and movement/balance (gait speed) and to test the predictive value of FAI for entry into care and mortality.

    METHOD: Growth curve models and cox regression models were applied to data from 1695 individuals from three Swedish longitudinal studies of aging. Participants were aged 45 to 93 at intake and data from up to 8 follow-up waves were available.

    RESULTS: The rate of change in FAI was twice as fast after age 75 as before, women demonstrated higher mean FAI, but no sex differences in rates of change with chronological age were identified. FAI predicted entry into care and mortality, even when chronological age and a frailty index were included in the models. Hazard ratios indicated FAI was a more important predictor of entry into care for men than women; whereas it was a stronger predictor of mortality for men than women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Measures of biological aging and functional aging differ in their predictive value for entry into care and mortality for men and women, suggesting that both are necessary for a complete picture of the aging process across genders.

  • 9. Fisher, Linda
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Malin
    Jiang, Yang
    Ramberg, Veronica
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Langel, Ulo
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Targeting cytokine expression in glial cells by cellular delivery of an NF-kappa B decoy2007In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, ISSN 0895-8696, E-ISSN 1559-1166, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B has emerged as an important strategy for design of anti-inflammatory therapies. In neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory reactions mediated by glial cells are believed to promote disease progression. Here, we report that uptake of a double-stranded oligonucleotide NF-kappa B decoy in rat primary glial cells is clearly facilitated by noncovalent binding to a cell-penetrating peptide, transportan 10, via a complementary peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide decoy was detected in the cells within 1 h only when cells were incubated with the decoy in the presence of cell-penetrating peptide. Cellular delivery of the decoy also inhibited effects induced by a neurotoxic fragment of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide in the presence of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 beta. Pretreatment of the cells with the complex formed by the decoy and the cell-penetrating peptide-PNA resulted in 80% and 50% inhibition of the NF-kappa B binding activity and IL-6 mRNA expression, respectively.

  • 10. Frängsmyr, L.
    et al.
    Israelsson, A.
    Teglund, Stephen
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Matsunaga, T.
    Hammarström, S.
    Evolution of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Structures of CGM9, CGM11 and pregnancy-specific glycoprotein promoters2000In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 63-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that the genes of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family can be divided into three subgroups, the CEA subgroup (n = 12), the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) subgroup (n = 11), and a third subgroup (n = 6). To further characterize the CEA gene family, we have determined the genomic structures of CGM9 and CGM11, analyzed the promoter regions of all eleven PSGs, studied the CGM15-PSG13 intergenic region and the evolutionary relationships between the CEA family genes. CGM9, a typical CEA subgroup member, was a pseudogene with the exon structure [5'UTR-L-L/N-TM-Cyt-3'UTR]. CGM11 contained a mixture of exons derived from CEA and PSG subgroup genes. The formula of the CGM11 pseudogene was [5'UTRL- L/N-C-3'UTR]. Thus both genes lacked the IgC2-like domains typically found in CEA subfamily members. The upstream promoter regions of all eleven PSGs were characterized. All PSG promoters lacked the classical TATA and CCAAT elements, but had putative PEA3 box(es), CACCC box(es), a RARE box, and poly (dG-dT) repeats of different lengths. Five PSGs also had an SP1 site. The complete 10-kb intergenic region between CGM15 and PSG13 was sequenced. Clusters of different types of repetitive sequences were seen. The time of divergence of the CEA and PSG subfamilies was estimated to be 107.7 ± 17.1 million years, or at about the time of human-rodent divergence. Models for the evolution of CEA and PSG and the third family subgroup genes are proposed.

  • 11. Gabriel, J. P.
    et al.
    Mahmood, R.
    Walter, A. M.
    Kyriakatos, A.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Calabrese, R. L.
    El Manira, A.
    Locomotor pattern in the adult zebrafish spinal cord in vitro2008In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zebrafish is an attractive model system for studying the function of the spinal locomotor network by combining electrophysiological, imaging, and genetic approaches. Thus far, most studies have been focusing on embryonic and larval stages. In this study we have developed an in vitro preparation of the isolated spinal cord from adult zebrafish in which locomotor activity can be induced while the activity of single neurons can be monitored using whole cell recording techniques. Application of NMDA elicited rhythmic locomotor activity that was monitored by recording from muscles or ventral roots in semi-intact or isolated spinal cord preparations, respectively. This rhythmic activity displayed a left-right alternation and a rostrocaudal delay. Blockade of glycinergic synaptic transmission by strychnine switched the alternating activity into synchronous bursting in the left and right sides as well as along the rostrocaudal axis. Whole cell recordings from motoneurons showed that they receive phasic synaptic inputs that were correlated with the locomotor activity recorded in ventral roots. This newly developed in vitro preparation of the adult zebrafish spinal cord will allow examination of the organization of the spinal locomotor network in an adult system to complement studies in zebrafish larvae and new born rodents.

  • 12. Gold, Rinat
    et al.
    Butler, Pamela
    Revheim, Nadine
    Leitman, David I.
    Hansen, John A.
    Gur, Ruben C.
    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Silipo, Gail S.
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Auditory Emotion Recognition Impairments in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Acoustic Features and Cognition2012In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 169, no 4, p. 424-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the ability to perceive emotion based on tone of voice. The basis for this deficit remains unclear, however, and relevant assessment batteries remain limited. The authors evaluated performance in schizophrenia on a novel voice emotion recognition battery with well-characterized physical features, relative to impairments in more general emotional and cognitive functioning. Method: The authors studied a primary sample of 92 patients and 73 comparison subjects. Stimuli were characterized according to both intended emotion and acoustic features (e.g., pitch, intensity) that contributed to the emotional percept. Parallel measures of visual emotion-recognition, pitch perception, general cognition, and overall outcome were obtained. More limited measures were obtained in an independent replication sample of 36 patients, 31 age-matched comparison subjects, and 188 general comparison subjects. Results: Patients showed statistically significant large-effect-size deficits in voice emotion recognition (d=1.1) and were preferentially impaired in recognition of emotion based on pitch features but not intensity features. Emotion recognition deficits were significantly correlated with pitch perception impairments both across (r=0.56) and within (r=0.47) groups. Path analysis showed both sensory-specific and general cognitive contributions to auditory emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia. Similar patterns of results were observed in the replication sample. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that patients with schizophrenia show a significant deficit in the ability to recognize emotion based on tone of voice and that this deficit is related to impairment in detecting the underlying acoustic features, such as change in pitch, required for auditory emotion recognition. This study provides tools for, and highlights the need for, greater attention to physical features of stimuli used in studying social cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  • 13.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Reproduction in Transition: Cross-border egg donation, biodesirability and new reproductive subjectivities on the European fertility market2015In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 107-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there should be little doubt that new reproductive technologies have ‘diversified, globalized, and denaturalized’ human reproduction (Inhorn and Birenbaum-Carmeli 2008). Not only have assisted reproductive technologies developed and spread throughout the world at a rapid pace, but this significant development has also given rise to a global market of cross-border reproductive care (CBRC). This article seeks to investigate CBRC between Sweden and the Baltic states, in which Swedish infertility patients travel to private fertility clinics as recipients of egg donation. This article argues that the restructuring of the European space (occurring in and through both the so-called ‘transition’ of the former Eastern Bloc and the expansion of the European Union) constitutes crucial conditions of emergence for the trans-European market of infertility care, which not only results in new modalities of reproductive mobility but also articulates a new set of interrelated European gendered reproductive subjectivities. Particular attention will be paid to the ways in which such ‘new reproductive subjectivities’ – here exemplified by a sample of cross-border donor egg recipients – are articulated in relation to notions of ‘choice’ and what I call ‘biodesirability’, and how such notions cannot be exempt from its specific post-socialist European context.

  • 14.
    Gurajada, Deepthi
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to a damaged Human Cornea an in vitro study2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corneal dystrophies are commonly referred to as an congenital condition. Surgical complications are usually worse then the primary dysfunction and patients need to go through large surgical process. Only 25 % of the patients reach driving licence vision after a surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate if the application of human embryonic stem cells (hESc) could replace epithelial cells of the human cornea. Corneal markers such as cytokeratins CK3, CK15, CK19 and Pax - 6 were analysed by immunohistochemistry. HES - Cellect was used as indication of  stem cell potential of the transplanted cells. hESc transplanted onto the cornea could be seen to attach and expand dominantly  towards Bowman’s membrane. Human embryonic stem cells in culture were relatively positive for markers, contradictionally stem cells  in the epithelial trails lost their stem differentiation  potential  and appeared to be negative for all markers used in these trails. Optimization of stem cells differentiation into epithelial which may in the future may gives us the ability to perform clinical applications with successful outcome.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Renström, Emma A
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender bias in assessment of future work ability among pain patients - an experimental vignette study of medical students' assessment2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Pain is a prevalent problem in many countries. Women are more often on sick-leave for pain than men. Such gender differences have been explained through biological factors, different demands for on the job market, and home conditions. Fewer studies have focused on how gender stereotypes may bias the medical assessment of pain patients. The aim of the present research was to investigate if a gender bias in medical students' evaluations of chronic pain patients can contribute to explaining the gender differences in sick-leave due to pain. Specifically, we investigated whether medical students' estimates of a patient's accuracy of their own work ability and amount of domestic work differed between female and male patients, and how such estimates influenced the medical students' judgments of the patient's work ability. Methods Medical students (n=137; 60 women; 74 men; three unspecified) read a vignette describing a patient with pain and filled out a questionnaire. The vignette was identical and gender neutral, except for the name of the patient signaling gender. A between-subjects experimental design was used in which participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition. Participants then judged the patient's work ability, the accuracy of the patient's self-assessed work ability, and the amount of domestic work they believed was performed by the patient. All ratings were made on seven-point items. Results The results showed that there was no main effect of gender on perceived future work ability of the patient, F (1,131)=0.867, p=0.353. However, male patients were considered to be more accurate in their self-assessed work ability than female patients F (1,131)=5.925 p=0.016 (Mfemale=4.87, SDfemale=1.22, and Mmale=5.33, SDmale=1.02). Moreover, female patients were thought to perform more domestic work, F (1,131)=25.56, p<0.001 (Mfemale=4.14, SDfemale=1.41, and Mmale=3.07, SDmale=1.16). Finally, perceived amount of domestic work moderated the effects of perceived future work ability for female but not for male patients, B=0.42, p=0.005. Hence, there was a positive effect of amount of domestic work performed on work ability judgments for women, such that the more domestic work they were assumed to perform, the more they were perceived to be able to work. Conclusions Gender stereotypes influenced assessments of future work ability in pain patients, mainly because women were assumed to perform more domestic work which had a positive effect on perceived work ability. Because domestic work should have a negative effect on recovery, expectations from the physician that domestic work is expected by female patients may in fact have the opposite effect prolonging sick-leave. Moreover, the students trusted the male patients' ability to assess their own work capacity more than women's. Implications It is important that medical students receive education about gender biases and how they may influence medical assessment during their training. Such education may alleviate the influence of gender stereotypes.

  • 16.
    Haglund, Anders
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Pekkanen, Jukka
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Nyetablering i den offentliga sjukvården: hinder på två nivåer2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Irradia AB is a manufacturer and seller of medical, surgical and cosmetical laser instruments. So far the company has failed in establishing exchange with the public health services in Sweden. The purpose of this studie was to analyse and evaluate obstacles in the way of Irradias introduction on the public health service market. The medical lasers were chosen as the primary products to study. Due to the nature of the area of investigation, mega level marketing was separated from the market level. On the mega level, new and complex medical products must be approved by experts. On the market level, a comparison was made between Irradia and the public health service market.

    The case study was chosen as a main method. Qualitative primary data was collected by interviewing. On the market level, interviews were conducted with Lars Hode, managing director of Irradia AB, Jan Svenonius, former director of purchasing at Huddinge Sjukhus and Mikael Wickström, director of purchasing at Karolinska Sjukhuset. On the mega-level, Audio Laser-Kliniken was chosen to represent Irradia, since their medical lasers are used for treatment of hearing disorders at the clinic. By using directive selection, the authors could quickly identify and interview persons who are negative when it comes to laser treatment of hearing disorders.

    Competitive strategies, the involvement theory, network theory and factors influencing buyer behavior were applied in the market level analysis. The mega level analysis is based on the network theory, the theory of dominant ideas and social psychology.

    Results of the market level analysis show that relations are of great importance in public health service purchasing processes. Irradia meets most of the basic conditions that are required for establishing exchange with the public health service market, but a relatively low degree of networking has been a flaw in the strategy that Irradia has had so far. Results of the mega level analysis show that the laser treatment of hearing disorders at Audio Laser-Kliniken does not comply with the requirements for an evidence-based medicine, according to the interviewees. Therefore laser treatment of hearing disorders has been announced illegitimate by the experts. The results also show that other treatment forms of hearing disorders can be difficult to evaluate regarding to the requirements of an evidence-based medicine. The results show, above all, that any possible distrust to the products among experts will have a negative impact on the possibility to establish exchange with the public health service market.

    The question at issue focused on factors that are of importance for companies trying to establish exchange with the public health service market. Conclusions of the study show that differentiation can be a suitable strategy for establishers with new products, and that customer academies can be a relevant way to reduce risks if the products are complex. New companies should try to create relations on both the mega level and market level. The study shows that relations with experts on the mega level are critical for companies trying to sell new products to the public health service market.

  • 17.
    Henning, Claes
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Södra Älvsborgs Hospital.
    Aygül, Nilsu
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wallgren, Karin
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Özenci, Volkan
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital.
    Detailed analysis of the characteristics of sample volume in blood culture bottles2019In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 57, no 8, article id e00268-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood volume is the most important variable, for detection of microorganisms in blood cultures (BC). Most standards recommend 40-60 ml blood, collected in several BC bottles filled up to 10 ml. We measured blood volume in individual BC bottles, and analysed the association of hospital, bottle type, day of the week, daily sampling time, and age and gender of the patient, with sampling volume and BC result. The variation in blood volume per BC bottle was analysed in a mixed linear model using hospital, bottle type, weekday, sampling time, age and gender as fixed factors, and patient ID and episode as random factors to control for repetitive sampling of individual patients. Only 18 % of all bottles were filled with the recommended 8-10 ml, and 47 % were filled with less than 8 ml. The mean (±SE) volume was larger in positive 9.09 (±0.15) compared to negative bottles 8.47 (±0.07) (p<0.001). Blood volume was larger in BacT/ALERT-FA Plus than in -FN Plus BC bottles (p<0.001). There was significantly lower volumes collected during the night (p<0.001). The volume of blood collected decreased significantly with increasing patient age (p<0.001). Larger volumes were collected from males compared to females, 8.78 (±0.06) vs. 8.36 (±0.06) ml (mean ± SE) respectively (p<0.001). The odds of detecting a positive patient increases with 13 % for each additional ml blood drawn. Our results show that we need to work actively with development of blood sampling routines to overcome age and gender effects, and to optimize blood sampling volumes.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic / .
    The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, no 47, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 19.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 1447-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 20.
    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Chandrasekar, Gayathri
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Addanki, Vamsi Krishna
    Teleost fish - Powerful models for studying development, function and diseases of the human eye2011In: Current Science, ISSN 0011-3891, Vol. 100, no 12, p. 1815-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human eye is a highly specialized structure and defects in its development or functioning process have an impact on the quality of life. Different animal models, especially murine models, have been used to identify the key molecular players required for the normal functioning of the eye. This review highlights the importance of the teleost model in dissecting the development, functioning process and diseases of the human eye. A high degree of conservation is seen in the development, organization and function of the eye throughout vertebrates. Vertebrate teleost models, zebrafish and medaka, have become popular to study various aspects of developmental biology and genetics. Teleost eye shows high similarity to that of the mammalian eye; for example, as seen in mammals, the retina of zebrafish and medaka shows six types of neurons and one type of glia arranged in three layers. In addition, rapid embryonic development, transparency during early development, and the availability of various biochemical, molecular and genetic techniques applicable on these models facilitate in dissecting the developmental and functioning processes of the eye. The availability of mutants with eye defects in zebrafish and medaka allows the possibility of utilizing these two species as comparative models in gaining rapid understanding of the developmental events of various human diseases. The small size of these fish embryos and their availability in large numbers allow performing medically relevant chemical screens to identify potential drug and/or drug targets for different human eye conditions.

  • 21. Lagerlund, M
    et al.
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Thurfjell, E
    Ekbom, A
    Lambe, M
    Predictors of non-attendance in a population-based mammography screening programme; socio-demographic factors and aspects of health behaviour2000In: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of non-attendance in a population-based mammography-screening programme in central Sweden, on the basis of telephone interviews with 434 non-attendees and 515 attendees identified in a mammography register, Non-attendance was studied in relation to sociodemographic factors, indicators of general health behaviour, self-rated health and experience of cancer in others and own cancer or breast problems. Being single or being non-employed were the only important socio-demographic predictors of non-attendance. Non-attendance was more likely among women who never visited a dentist, had not visited a doctor in 5 years, had never used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, had never had cervical smear tests, never drank alcohol, smoked regularly, reported no breast cancer in family or friends or own breast problems, We conclude that socio-demographic factors alone do not appear to constitute strong predictors of non-attendance, General health behaviour and previous experience of cancer and breast disease seem to be more important factors. Our results suggest that in the setting of population-based outreach mammography programmes, previous contacts with the health care system and encouragement from health professionals represent determinants of attendance.

  • 22.
    Larsen, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lilja, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sturidsson, Knut
    Karolinska Institutet / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Blatny, Marek
    Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala Univeristy / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Bulimia symptoms in Czech youth: prevalence and association with internalizing problems2019In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Although clinical studies suggest that bulimia symptoms are common in youth, research on the prevalence of such symptoms and of their association with comorbid internalizing problems in the general population has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the gender-specific prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Czech youth and explored the association between a clinical level of self-reported bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and internalizing problems by gender, controlling for age, socio-economic status and puberty status. Method The study was conducted on a representative national sample of Czech youth (N = 4430, 57.0% female) using self-report scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine the associations. Results The 3-month CLBS prevalence was higher in girls (11.4%) than in boys (3.8%) and in both genders a CLBS was associated with higher levels of comorbid internalizing problems. Discussion Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 23. Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Rahu, Mati
    Time trends in cancer mortality in Estonia, 1965–19891993In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 914-918Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lindén, Claudia
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Comparative literature.
    Axel Munthe och iscensättningen av en alternativ maskulinitet2009In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nilsson, Erika
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Vem ska laga dina tänder?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Polska tandläkare i Sverige och svenska tandläkare i England. Gränserna i Europa öppnas alltmer. I den här artikelserien om framtidens tandvård berättar en polsk tandläkare om sin flytt till Sverige. Du möter en tandläkarstudent som blivit av med sin tandläkarskräck och en klinikchef som inte tycker att han är särskilt bra. Vi börjar på lågpriskliniken City Dental, som satt igång debatten.

  • 26.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Lincoln, Karen D
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deu , Barcelona , Spain / CIBERSAM , Madrid , Spain.
    Allergies, infections, and psychiatric disorders among Black Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life2019In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: An emerging body of literature shows that allergies and infections are associated with psychiatric disorders, though there is little research to confirm these associations among Black Americans in the United States. Design: We analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, and used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between past 12-month allergies/infections and past 12-month psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, lifetime diabetes, and body mass index. Results: We found that allergies/infections were associated with mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders. We detected effect modification by ethnicity, with stronger odds for mood, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders, with no significant associations for substance use or eating disorders among Caribbean Blacks. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of screening for psychiatric disorders among Black individuals complaining of allergies/infections, and the need to also treat allergies/infections among people with psychiatric disorders.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Ida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Berrez, Jean-Marc
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Leipus, Arunas
    CHORI, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, USA / Umeå University.
    Östlund, Cecilia
    Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    The arginine methyltransferase Rmt2 is enriched in the nucleus and co-purifies with the nuclear porins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup1002007In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 313, no 9, p. 1778-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification of proteins implicated in RNA processing, protein compartmentalization, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. In a screen for proteins associated with the nuclear envelope in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have identified the arginine methyltransferase Rmt2, previously shown to methylate the ribosomal protein L12. By indirect immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionations we demonstrate here that Rmt2 has nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations. Biochemical analysis of a fraction enriched in nuclei reveals that nuclear Rmt2 is resistant to extractions with salt and detergent, indicating an association with structural components. This was supported by affinity purification experiments with TAP-tagged Rmt2. Rmt2 was found to co-purify with the nucleoporins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup100, revealing a novel link between arginine methyltransferases and the nuclear pore complex. In addition, a genome-wide transcription study of the rmt2 Delta mutant shows significant downregulation of the transcription of MYO1, encoding the Type II myosin heavy chain required for cytokinesis and cell separation.

  • 28.
    Onischenko, Evgeny A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Crafoord, Ellinor
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Phosphomimetic mutation of the mitotically phosphorylated serine 1880 compromises the interaction of the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 with the nuclear pore complex2007In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 313, no 12, p. 2744-2751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) reversibly disassemble and reassemble during mitosis. Disassembly of the NPC is accompanied by phosphorylation of many nucleoporins although the function of this is not clear. It was previously shown that in the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 a single serine residue at position 1880 is specifically phosphorylated during mitosis. Using amino acid substitution combined with live cell imaging, time-lapse microscopy and FRAP, we investigated the role of serine 1880 in binding of gp210 to the NPC in vivo An alanine subtitutions mutant (S1880A) was significantly more dynamic at the NPC compared to the wild-type protein, suggesting that serine 1880 is important for binding of gp210 to the NPC. Moreover a glutamate substitution (S1880E) closely mimicking phosphorylated serine specifically interfered with incorporation of gp210 into the NPC and compromised its post-mitotic recruitment to the nuclear envelope of daughter nuclei. our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic phosphorylation acts to dissociate gp210 from the structural elements of the NPC.

  • 29. Osby, U
    et al.
    Correia, N
    Brandt, L
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden2000In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by reducing the observed number of deaths by those expected. Our results confirmed a marked increase in mortality in schizophrenia both in males and females. Natural (somatic) causes of death was the main cause of excess deaths, with more than half of the excess deaths in females, and almost half of the excess deaths in males. Suicide was the specific cause of the largest number of excess deaths in males, while in females it was cardiovascular disease. SMRs were increased in both natural and unnatural causes of death, with 2.8 for males and 2.4 for females for all deaths, but were highest in suicide with 15.7 for males and 19.7 for females, and in unspecified violence with 11.7 for males and 9.9 for females. SMRs in suicide were especially high in young patients in the first year after the first diagnosis.

  • 30. Osby, U
    et al.
    Hammar, N
    Brandt, L
    Wicks, S
    Thinsz, Z
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Time trends in first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis in Stockholm County, Sweden2001In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 47, no 2-3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have reported decreasing time trends in first diagnosed schizophrenia patients. The aim of this: study was to analyze time trends for first admissions with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or a diagnosis of either schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis during 1978-1994 in Stockholm County, Sweden, with a population of around 1.8 million. Information about first psychiatric admission with the diagnosis schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis for residents of Stockholm County was obtained from the Swedish population-based psychiatric inpatient register. Age-adjusted average yearly changes in first hospitalization rates were estimated in a Poisson regression model. Time trends in first admission rates were calculated from 1978 to 1994, while admissions during 1971 to 1977 were observed only to eliminate later re-admissions. First admissions for schizophrenia declined by 1.9% annually for females and by 1.3% for males, while first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis together were unchanged over the study period for both genders. Our results indicate that the incidence of schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis taken together was essentially the same over the studied time period in Stockholm County, and that the apparent decline in first admission rates for schizophrenia may be an effect of changes in clinical diagnosis over time.

  • 31.
    Pelto-Piri, V.
    et al.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, I.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: Ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care2013In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity.

    Methods

    All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives.

    Results

    The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values.

    • Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility.

    • Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights.

    • Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients.

    Conclusions

    Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision.

  • 32.
    Pelto-Piri, V.
    et al.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, I.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    Staffs' perceptions of the ethical landscape in psychiatric inpatient care: A qualitative content analysis of ethical diaries2014In: Clinical Ethics, ISSN 1477-7509, E-ISSN 1758-101X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a qualitative description of situations at work that staff members perceive as giving rise to ethical issues. All staff members working with patients across seven wards were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in an ethical diary over the course of one week. One hundred and five staff members kept a diary. The diaries were analysed with qualitative content analysis where four dominant themes emerged: good care, order and clarity, loyalty, and inadequacy. These results contain statements in which patients are respected and listened to, as well as statements that express a desire for relatively strict, routine-based care. Relatively few statements were of a reflective or discussing nature which highlights the need for clinical ethical support. There is a need of a visible and supportive leadership which encourages ethical reflection. Reflections on real cases could provide an opportunity to challenge existing practices and thereby promote ethical awareness.

  • 33.
    Pelto-Piri, V.
    et al.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    Engström, Karin
    Örebro University.
    Engström, I.
    Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council / Örebro University.
    The ethical landscape of professional care in everyday practice as perceived by staff: A qualitative content analysis of ethical diaries written by staff in child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient care2012In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 6, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Although there has been some empirical research on ethics concerning the attitudes and approaches of staff in relation to adult patients, there is very little to be found on child and adolescent psychiatric care. In most cases researchers have defined which issues are important, for instance, coercive care. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative description of situations and experiences that gave rise to ethical problems and considerations as reported by staff members on child and adolescent psychiatric wards, although they were not provided with a definition of the concept.

    METHODS:

    The study took place in six child and adolescent psychiatric wards in Sweden. All staff members involved with patients on these wards were invited to participate. The staff members were asked to keep an ethical diary over the course of one week, and data collection comprised the diaries handed in by 68 persons. Qualitative content analysis was used in order to analyse the diaries.

    RESULTS:

    In the analysis three themes emerged; 1) good care 2) loyalty and 3) powerlessness. The theme 'good care' contains statements about the ideal of commitment but also about problems living up to the ideal. Staff members emphasized the importance of involving patients and parents in the care, but also of the need for professional distance. Participants seldom perceived decisions about coercive measures as problematic, in contrast to those about pressure and restrictions, especially in the case of patients admitted for voluntary care. The theme 'loyalty' contains statements in which staff members perceived contradictory expectations from different interested parties, mainly parents but also their supervisor, doctors, colleagues and the social services. The theme 'powerlessness' contains statements about situations that create frustration, in which freedom of action is perceived as limited and can concern inadequacy in relation to patients and violations in the workplace.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The ethical considerations described by child and adolescent psychiatric care staff are multifaceted and remarkably often concern problems of loyalty and organization. These problems frequently had a considerable influence on the care provided. It seems that staff members lack a language of ethics and require both an ethical education and a forum for discussion of ethical issues.

  • 34.
    Rashed, Ismail Ismail Ibrahim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    The association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis: Effects of different levels of vitamin D deficiency - A meta-analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies studying the risk of vitamin D deficiency in tuberculosis patients and in healthy controls. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the level of vitamin D to test the risk in TB groups and in healthy groups.

    Methods: Pubmed was searched for observational studies in human and English that discussed the association between risk of low serum vitamin D and TB. Meta-analysis was performed on all relevant studies combined and for subgroups of each vitamin D level.

    Results: 22 studies were selected and pooled in the analysis. The results were consistent with previous studies examining the same risk. The overall log risk ratio (log RR) of low vitamin D was significantly higher in TB patients 1.68 times than healthy controls. In 4 subgroup meta- analyses based on vitamin D level below (20 nmol/L, 30 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L), the risk of having low vitamin D in TB patients was (1.82, 2.89, 1.38, 1.32) respectively. That subgroup analysis showed more clearly the higher RR were below 20 and 30 nmol/L. The smallest RR was at 75 nmol/L level.

    Conclusion: This study verified the association between risk of low vitamin D level and TB development. It also clarified that, the risk increased by decreasing vitamin D level.

  • 35.
    Sandås, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Karlström, Micaela
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Distansuppföljning av ICD-patienter: En hälsoekonomisk utvärdering2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka vilka ekonomiska effekter införandet av distansuppföljning för ICD-patienter har ur ett samhällsperspektiv. Delsyftet är att identifiera ekonomiska argument och kvalitativa aspekter för och emot införandet av tjänsten distansuppföljning.

    Författarna har kommit fram till ett antal slutsatser. Att införa distansuppföljning som uppföljningsmetod för ICD-patienter istället för konventionella återbesök på sjukhus innebär stora kostnadsbesparingar. Nettonuvärdet uppgår till drygt 268 miljoner kronor efter femton år. Vid tidsperiodens slut erhålls en kostnadsbesparing på cirka 35,6 procent. De ekonomiska fördelarna överstiger kostnaderna redan efter ett år, och hela investeringskostnaden återfås efter sju år. Kvalitativa argument som talar för distansuppföljning är tidsbesparingar, förenklad uppföljning, bättre övervakning och att patienterna upplever en större trygghet.

  • 36.
    Schröder, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Att besegra de inre demonerna: en artikelserie om depressionsbehandling2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 37. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Webova stranka www.nefrologie.eu: prvni zkusenosti2007In: Vnitřní lékařství - časopis České internistické společnosti a Slovenskej internistickej spoločnosti, ISSN 0042-773X, no 5, p. 611-612Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    www.nefrologie.eu jako prostredek edukace pacientu2006In: Vnitrni lekarstvi, Brno, 2006, p. 1124-1124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, KodairaJapan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

    METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

  • 40.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Y.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 42.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Ueda, Michiko
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Childhood neglect and suicidal behavior: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.2020In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 103, article id 104400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although child neglect is common, there has been comparatively little research on it or its specific forms and their effects on mental health in adulthood.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to different forms of childhood neglect and lifetime suicidal behavior among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. general population.

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 5665 adults that were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on 'care', 'supervisory' and 'medical' neglect in childhood and lifetime suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, attempt). Lifetime psychiatric disorders were based on the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, any neglect was associated with significantly increased odds for all forms of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, odds ratio [OR]: 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.29; plan, OR: 2.27, 95 % CI: 1.78-2.91; attempt, OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.63-2.59, all p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses all individual forms of neglect were significantly associated with all forms of suicidal behavior. However, when all forms of neglect were included together in the fully adjusted models, care neglect was no longer significantly associated with any form of suicidal behavior.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of childhood neglect are associated with suicidal behavior in adults independent of common mental disorders. Future studies should focus on childhood neglect subtypes in order to better understand the effects of neglect on adult mental health.

  • 43.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Anorexia Nervosa and the Body Uncanny: A Phenomenological Approach2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that is closely related to questions of selfhood and social roles. The pursuit of excessive thinness is part of a search for identity in which the control of the body—its size and needs— becomes central. This need for control appears to be triggered by a state of bodily alienation in which the body is perceived to be foreign and horrifying to its bearer. The relentless dieting and excessive exercise pursued by the anorexic person eventually leads to a state of starvation in which the relationship of control between the person and her body becomes reversed: the body now controls the thoughts, feelings and actions of the anorexic person in an uncanny and life threatening way. In this paper an attempt is made to better understand the ways in which the body becomes alien in anorexia nervosa by way of a phenomenological analysis. The analysis is exemplified and supported by stories told by girls suffering from the illness. The aim of the paper is to show that anorexia nervosa is neither a bodily dysfunction, nor a cultural product, only. Rather, the disorder is best understood as an illness in which the autonomous nature of one’s own body becomes overwhelming in a fatal and characteristic way. The different ways of becoming bodily alienated interact in anorexia in establishing an uncanniness of the body that is both conspicuous—to people around the ill person—and hard to escape—for the person herself.

  • 44.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Depression and the Self: Bodily Resonance and Attuned Being-in-the-World2013In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the relationship between selfhood and depression, by focusing upon the lived body’s capacity to “resonate” with the world and thus open up an “attuned” space of meaning. Persons will become differently tuned in different situations because they embody different patterns of resonance—what is most often referred to as different temperaments—but the self may also suffer from idiosyncrasies in mood profile that develop into deficiencies of resonance, making the person in question ill. In many cases of depression one might describe this as a being out of tune in the sense of being oversensitive to the sad, anxious and boring tune qualities of the world. This phenomenological model allows us to describe a spectrum of various normal sensitivities which might favor certain moods over others, but also to identify pathologies, like depression, in which the body is out of tune and makes the being-in-the-world overwhelmingly unhomelike.

  • 45.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Psychopharmacology and the Self2013In: Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry / [ed] K. W. M Fulford et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 1171-1184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Tabletter för känsliga själar: den antidepressiva revolutionen2008Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The Body as Alien, Unhomelike and Uncanny: Some Further Clarifications2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The phenomenology of suffering in medicine and bioethics2014In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 407-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances.

  • 49.
    Svensson, Anna
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Inte bara piller: en artikelserie om äldredepression, om dem som drabbats och om vilken hjälp de får.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Tegnestedt, C.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Gunther, A.
    Karolinska University Hospital / Karolinska Institutet.
    Reichard, A.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Bjurström, R.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Martling, C. -R
    Karolinska University Hospital / Karolinska Institutet.
    Sackey, P.
    Karolinska University Hospital / Karolinska Institutet.
    Levels and sources of sound in the intensive care unit - an observational study of three room types2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 1041-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients describe noise as stressful and precluding sleep. No previous study in the adult setting has investigated whether room size impacts sound levels or the frequency of disruptive sounds. Methods: A-frequency S-time weighted equivalent continuous sound (L(AS)eq), A-frequency S-time weighted maximum sound level (L(AS)max) and decibel C peak sound pressure (L(C)peak) were measured during five 24-h periods in each of the following settings: three-bed room with nursing station (NS) alcove, single-bed room with NS alcove (1-BR with NSA) and single-bed room with bedside NS. Cumulative restorative time (CRT) (>5min with L(AS)max <55dB and L(C)peak <75dB) was calculated to describe calm periods. Two 8-h bedside observations were performed in each setting in order to note the frequency and sources of disruptive sounds. Results: Mean sound pressure levels (L(AS)eq) ranged between 52 and 58dBA, being lowest during night shifts. There were no statistically significant differences between the room types in mean sound levels or in CRT. However, disruptive sounds were 40% less frequent in the 1-BR with NSA than in the other settings. Sixty-four percent of disruptive sounds were caused by monitor alarms and conversations not related to patient care. Conclusions: Single-bed rooms do not guarantee lower sound levels per se but may imply less frequent disruptive sounds. Sixty-four percent of disruptive sounds were avoidable. Our findings warrant sound reducing strategies for ICU patients.

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