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  • 1.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History. Stockholms universitet.
    Ethnic cleansings and Russification2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 1, A-M / [ed] Mats-Olov Olsson, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 189-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Barents Encyclopedia will present comprehensive information about the progress of the Barents Region Project, the project to establish international collaboration across national borders through innovative organizational conceptualizations, an active promotion of a transborder regional identity, and the introduction of new forms of regional governance in the most densely populated and industrialized part of the Arctic.

    Articles in the encyclopedia will discuss the historical roots of current developments and review the cultural, socio-economic, and political prerequisites for a continued and intensified transborder interaction among citizens inhabiting the Barents Region, a territory so designated through the signing of the 1993 Kirkenes Declaration.

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  • 2.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Indigenous People, Vulnerability and the Security Dilemma: Sami School Education on the Kola Peninsula, 1917–19912019In: Sámi educational history in a comparative international perspective / [ed] Otso Kortekangas, Pigga Keskitalo, Jukka Nyyssönen, Andrej Kotljarchuk, Merja Paksuniemi, and David Sjögren, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 63-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to discuss the political aspects of vulnerability in the context of theSami school education system. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the Russian Sami had no native-language school system or native textbooks. The Soviet regime was established on the Kola peninsula only in 1920, three years after the 1917 revolution. The politics of selfdetermination, the so-called korenizatsiya (indigenization), became a tool for Bolsheviks pursuing a nationalist agenda for the “oppressed” Sami people. The Soviet policy of indigenization collapsed in 1937 when the secret police NKVD fabricated the formation of a Sami underground rebel organization. In 1938 all the Sami schools were closed, and the Sami language textbooks were confiscated. The promotion of Sami education in Russia was then completely suspended until the establishment of Perestroika.

  • 3.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Kola Sami in the Stalinist Terror: A Quantitative Analysis2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 59-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is focused on aspects that have been understudied by previous research on the Kola Sami. First there is a quantitative analysis of the Sami victims of the Stalinist terror. Second there is the discussion of the shortand long-term roles of state violence for the affected indigenous community. Most prior studies of the ethnic aspects of the Stalinist terror have focused on the large Diaspora nationalities or post-war deportations, while this paper concentrates on a small homogenous indigenous community. The study reaches a new level of accuracy about the nature of Soviet terror, and who became victims and why.

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  • 4.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Nordic fishermen in the Soviet Union: Ethnic Purges and the Cleansing of the Cultural Landscape2017In: The Barents and the Baltic Sea Region: Contacts, Influences and Social Change / [ed] K. Alenius & M. Enbuske, Rovaniemi: Pohjois-Suomen historiallinen yhdistys , 2017, p. 39-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 5.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History. Stockholms universitet.
    Norwegians in the Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives for Research2015In: Fortid, ISSN 1504-1913, E-ISSN 1891-1668, no 2, p. 18-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stalinism like Nazism is a Europe-wide phenomenon. This means that the history of Stalinism could not be grasped inside the Soviet Union. In the past of the tiny Norwegian minority in Russia the history of Stalin’s dictatorship, of democratic Norway and of the international communist movement combined in a bizarre form. Access to previously unavailable sources from Soviet archives has brought to light a little-known history, namely “national operations” of the Soviet secret police (NKVD) and the deportation of minorities, one of the central features of Stalinist repression. However, most prior studies have been concerned with large minority groups. The faith of ethnic Norwegians in Stalin’s Soviet Union is under-studied and the main contribution to this subject was made by a journalist Morten Jentoft.

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  • 6.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Propaganda of Hatred and the Great Terror: A Nordic Approach2017In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research / [ed] Andrej Kotljarchuk; Olle Sundström, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, p. 91-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Propaganda of Hatred and the Great Terror: A Nordic Approach
  • 7.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    REVIEW on: Alexey Golubev and Irina Takala, The Search for a Socialist El Dorado. Finnish Immigration to Soviet Karelia from the United States and Canada in the 1930s (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2014), 236 p.2016In: Nordic and Baltic Studies Review, Vol. 1, p. 422-427Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Scandinavian and Finnish settlements on the Kola Peninsula: history and the sites of memory2017In: Conference proceeding Murman and Russian Arctic: history, present and future / [ed] Sergei Nikonov, Murmansk: Murmansk Artic State University , 2017, p. 77-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarizes the results of the study of Scandinavian and Finnish settlements on the Kola Peninsula supported by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies and Södertörn University as a part of the research project “Soviet Nordic Minorities and Ethnic Cleansing on the Kola Peninsula” led by Associate Professor Andrej Kotljarchuk. The focus of this article is on the representation of Kola-Nordic history as well as on the Nordic sites of memory in today’s Russia

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  • 9.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Skandinavy v Rossii: Imperiya Romanovykh, Stalinskii Sovetskii Soiuz i mesta pamiati [Scandinavians in Russia: The Romanov Empire, Stalin's Soviet Union and sites of memory]2016In: Problemy i tendentsii razvitiya sotsiokulturnogo prostranstva Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost / [ed] Tatiana Ryabova, Bryansk, 2016, Vol. 3, p. 86-93Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History. Stockholm University.
    The Nordic Threat: Soviet Ethnic Cleansing on the Kola Peninsula2014In: The Sea of Identities: A Century of Baltic and East European Experiences with Nationality, Class, and Gender / [ed] Götz, Norbert, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2014, p. 53-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    The Nordic Threat: Soviet Ethnic Cleansing on the Kola Peninsula
  • 11.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Sámi school education on the Kola Peninsula 1880–2015 : History, Memory and Contemporary Situation2016In: / [ed] Pigga Keskitalo, Kautokeino, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Soviet census of 1926 counted 1,708 Sami living in Northern Russia, 99.4 per cent of whom worked at that time with reindeer breeding, and the vast area of the Kola tundra was used by Sami reindeer (Kisilev & Kisileva 1987). The total population on the Kola Peninsula at that time was 22,858 persons. The Sami people consisted of 7.5 per cent of the total population and was a significant minority of the Barents region, exceeded in numbers only by the Russian majority.

     

    In the Russian empire, the Sami had no native-language schools and administrative autonomy. After the 1917 October revolution, the politics of self-determination the so called korenizatsiya became a dominant trope for Bolsheviks expressing national aspirations for “oppressed” indigenous peoples of the tsarist regime. The Soviet government looked on the indigenous people in a good way regarding them as a socialistic collective social group (Leete 2004: 28–30).

     

    The Soviet regime in the Barents Sea region was established only in 1920 after three years of civil war. The remote Northern area was terra incognita for Soviet leadership, whose personal experience was urban and linked to the industrial milieu. Therefore, with the help of a favourable national policy, the Bolsheviks wanted to attract indigenous peoples to take their side (Toulouze 2005: 140–141). The official nomenclature of indigenous peoples was changed, and Soviet officials began to use politically correct names. Thus, instead of Lapps (Russian lopari) the Sami (saamy) appeared in the Soviet legislation acts and mass media. In 1917, a delegation of the Kola Sami was met in the Kremlin by Joseph Stalin— Minister for Nationalities (Souvarine 1939: 200). In 1920, the national assembly of the Kola Sami appealed to the Soviet government of Murmansk with a requirement of cultural autonomy (Dashchinskiy 1999: 21).

     

    The interwar Soviet Union was unlike many other states in Europe. This difference concerns not only the abolition of private property and the dictatorship of the Communist Party, but also a nationalities policy based on internationalism. The Soviet Union was practically the first great power in the world that systematically promoted the national consciousness of indigenous peoples and established for them institutional forms characteristic of a modern nation. While indigenous peoples faced discrimination, the Soviet Union proclaimed in 1923 a policy of self-determination, cultural and linguistic rights for all minorities (Martin 2001). The main aim of the Soviet nationalities policy in the North was “to liberate indigenous peoples from the vestiges of the past” (Slezkine 1994: 220–221). The Bolshevik party decided to overcome “backwardness of indigenous peoples” and make them “modern,” which meant to develop them in the short term at a higher level of more advanced minorities (Sundström 2007: 130–135). The fascinating experiment of early Soviet minority politics included the establishment of Sami administrative autonomy with a center in Lovozero, the training and promotion of ethnic cadres, the invention and codification of Sami literary language in the Latin script and the introduction of a native system of education.

     

    New educational policy started with a nurture of native pedagogical cadres and preparation of native textbooks. In 1929 the first Sami school was opened and by 1937 there were 18 Sami primary schools on the Kola Peninsula. The future Sami teachers and educators have nurtured at the Sami Department of Murmansk Pedagogical College (33 Students in 1934) and in Leningrad, at the Institute for the Peoples of the North (8 students in 1933) and

     

    Lenin’s nationalities policy changed dramatically when in 1937, the Soviet secret police NKVD fabricated the so-called “Sami Complot.” 68 Sami were accused of being spies for Finland and members of the fictitious underground organization the alleged aim of which was to rebel against the USSR in order to establish an independent Sami republic. Terry Martin drew attention to the connection between the Great Terror and the liquidation of the native system of education of non-Slavic minorities and the expanding educational sphere of the Russian language (Martin 2001: 422-429). In the course of Stalin’s Great Terror the Sami schools on the Kola Peninsula were closed, Sami-language textbooks confiscated, and replaced by Russian-language textbooks. Many of native teachers were arrested by the NKVD and executed or sent to prison. The promotion of Sami culture in Russia was fully stopped simultaneously until the perestroika.

  • 12.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Sundström, OlleUmeå universitet.
    Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin’s Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology presents studies of Stalinism in the ethnic and religious borderlands of the Soviet Union. The authors not only cover hitherto less researched geographical areas, but have also addressed new questions and added new source material. Most of the contributors to this anthology use a micro-historical approach. With this approach, it is not the entire area of the country, with millions of separate individuals that are in focus but rather particular and cohesive ethnic and religious communities.

    Micro-history does not mean ignoring a macro-historical perspective. What happened on the local level had an all-Union context, and communism was a European-wide phenomenon. This means that the history of minorities in the Soviet Union during Stalin’s rule cannot be grasped outside the national and international context; aspects which are also considered in this volume. The chapters of the book are case studies on various minority groups, both ethnic and religious. In this way, the book gives a more complex picture of the causes and effects of the state-run mass violence during Stalinism.

    The publication is the outcome of a multidisciplinary international research network lead by Andrej Kotljarchuk (Södertörn University, Sweden) and Olle Sundström (Umeå University, Sweden) and consisting of specialists from Estonia, France, Germany, Russia, Sweden, Ukraine and the United States. These scholars represent various disciplines: Anthropology, Cultural Studies, History and the History of Religions.

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    Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin’s Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research
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  • 13.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Sundström, Olle
    Umeå University.
    Introduction: The Problem of Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union2017In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research / [ed] Andrej Kotljarchuk; Olle Sundström, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, p. 15-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Introduction: The Problem of Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union
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