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  • 1. Abe, Sarah Krull
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Richardson, Erica
    Abbott, Pamela
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1924-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Andreev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Bogoyavlensky, Dmitri
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Comparing Alcohol Mortality in Tsarist and Contemporary Russia: Is the Current Situation Historically Unique?2013In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to 'drunkenness' were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist 'European Russia': an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870-1894, the male death rate from 'drunkenness' in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher-23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.

  • 3.
    Choi, M. J.
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yang, J. W.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Internal Med, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Lee, S.
    Dept Psychiat, Seoul, South Korea.;Inst Behav Sci Med, Seoul, South Korea.;Yonsei Univ, Yongin Severance Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Coll Med, Yongin, South Korea. Yonsei Univ, Dept Psychiat, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Kim, J. Y.
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oh, J. W.
    Yonsei Univ, Yongin Severance Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Coll Med, Yongin, South Korea. Yonsei Univ, Dept Psychiat, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Lee, J.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Univ Hosp, Urol Inst, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Stubbs, B.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.;South London & Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, Denmark Hill, London, England.;Anglia Ruskin Univ, Fac Hlth Social Care & Educ, Chelmsford, Essex, England..
    Lee, K. H.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Pediat, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Koyanagi, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.;ICREA, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hong, S. H.
    Yonsei Univ, Severance Hosp, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Ghayda, R. A.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Univ Hosp, Urol Inst, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Hwang, J.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Dragioti, E.
    Linkoping Univ, Pain & Rehabil Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jacob, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, Fac Med, Versailles, France..
    Carvalho, A. F.
    Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth CAMH, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Radua, J.
    Inst Invest Biomed August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.;Mental Hlth Res Networking Ctr CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, Dept Psychosis Studies, London, England.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Solna, Sweden..
    Thompson, T.
    Univ Greenwich, Sch Human Sci, London, England..
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, Cambridge Ctr Sport & Exercise Sci, Cambridge, England..
    Fornaro, M.
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Neurosci Reprod Sci & Dent, Naples, Italy..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Prevent Intervent Psychiat Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan..
    Bettac, E. L.
    Washington State Univ Vancouver, Dept Psychol, Vancouver, WA USA..
    Han, Y. J.
    Inje Univ, Haeundae Paik Hosp, Hosp Med Ctr, Dept Pediat,Coll Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Kronbichler, A.
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Internal Med Nephrol & Hypertens 4, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Yon, D. K.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul Natl Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lee, S. W.
    Sejong Univ, Dept Data Sci, Coll Software Convergence, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shin, J. , I
    Lee, E.
    Dept Psychiat, Seoul, South Korea.;Inst Behav Sci Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Solmi, M.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Psychiat, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Ottawa Hosp, Dept Mental Hlth, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Ottawa Hosp Res Inst OHRI, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Suicide associated with COVID-19 infection: an immunological point of view2021In: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 1128-3602, Vol. 25, no 20, p. 6397-6407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and leading cause of death. Beyond the deaths directly caused by the virus and the suicides related to the psychological response to the dramatic changes as socioeconomic related to the pandemic, there might also be suicides related to the inflammatory responses of the infection. Infection induces inflammation as a cytokine storm, and there is an increasing number of studies that report a relationship between infection and suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization status report and the PubMed database for keywords (COVID-19, suicide, infection, inflammation, cytokines), and reviewed five cytokine pathways between suicide and inflammation using two meta-analyses and two observational studies starting from November 31, 2020, focusing on the relationship between suicide and inflammation by infection. First, we discussed existing evidence explaining the relationship between suicidal behaviors and inflammation. Second, we summarized the inflammatory features found in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we highlight the potential for these factors to affect the risk of suicide in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 have high amounts of IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, IP10, and MCP1, which may lead to Th1 cell response activation. Also, Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-10) were increased in COVID-19 infection. In COVID-19 patients, neurological conditions, like headache, dizziness, ataxia, seizures, and others have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic can serve as a significant environmental factor contributing directly to increased suicide risk; the role of inflammation by an infection should not be overlooked.

  • 4.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    et al.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Unick, Jay
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, USA / Prevention Research Center, Oakland, USA.
    Nam, Boyoung
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries2016In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1353-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P < .001) and prevalence of psychotic experiences (P < .001), compared to individuals in middle-income countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis.

  • 5.
    Ebishima, Ken
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, Takayuki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research. Method: We investigated the ASR and its modulation in 11 children with ASD and 18 with typical development (TD), analyzing the relationship between startle measures and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Second Edition. Results: Peak-ASR latency was negatively correlated with the VABS total score and socialization domain score of adaptive behaviors, while the ASR magnitude for relatively weak stimuli of 75-85 dB was positively correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior scores. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the prepulse intensity of 70-75 dB was also correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior. However, these relationships did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prolonged peak-ASR latency of ASD children might be associated with impairment in the developmental level of adaptive behavior, and that the greater ASR magnitude to relatively weak acoustic stimuli and smaller PPI of ASD children might increase the risk of maladaptive behavior. Future studies that have larger sample sizes will be important for further elucidating the neurophysiological factors that underpin adaptive as well as maladaptive behaviors in ASD.

  • 6.
    Elmelid, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?2015In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  • 7.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.

    METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.

    RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

  • 8.
    Footman, Katharine
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    East-Ukrainian Foundation for Social Research, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rotman, David
    Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus .
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former soviet union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1628-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Results: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Conclusions: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  • 9.
    Haraguchi, Hideyuki
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Saito, Aya
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 324-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the across time stability of autistic traits during the transition period from preschool to school age in the general population. The current study compared autistic traits assessed by a mother-reported quantitative measure, the Social Responsiveness Scale, at age 5 and 8 years and examined the intraclass correlation coefficients of scores across the period for 168 Japanese community-based children. Results showed that total and two subdomain-related autistic trait scores remained primarily stable in males and females. This stability was observed for both children with higher and lower autistic traits scores with a possible sex-specific pattern. Our findings suggest that autistic traits in the general population can be reliably assessed using quantitative measures for this age period.

  • 10.
    Haraguchi, Hideyuki
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamaguchi, Honami
    Tokorozawa City Child Support Center, Saitama, Japan.
    Miyake, Atsuko
    Tokyo Special Education Psychological Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Horiguchi, Mari
    Research Center for Mental Health and Developmental Disorders, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Masahiko
    Tottori University, Tottori, Japan.
    Noro, Fumiyuki
    University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
    One-year outcomes of low-intensity behavioral interventions among Japanese preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: Community-based study2020In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 76, article id 101556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for evidence-based practice for children with autism spectrum disorders in the community, especially in areas with a scarcity of qualified experts and high financial costs, there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential benefits of early interventions which may be affordable in the real world (e.g. low-intensity behavioral or eclectic interventions). This study examined behavioral changes in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders who received low-intensity behavioral interventions (a mean of 5.5 h per week) or non-behavioral eclectic interventions delivered in community settings in Japan across a 1-year period and compared outcomes between the groups. We assessed children’s developmental quotient, adaptive behavior, autism symptom/severity, and maternal stress and depression at baseline and after 1 year. Our results revealed that children receiving interventions in their communities showed improvement in language and social development. Further, the degree of improvement in children receiving low-intensity behavioral interventions was significantly greater than in children receiving non-behavioral eclectic interventions. The improvement was associated with the intensity of total, especially one-to-one interventions. On the other hand, there were no group differences in the degree of improvement in other outcome measures. Our results suggest that some preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder may benefit from low-intensity behavioral interventions for their language and social development. A greater intensity of one-to-one interventions was found to be associated with greater progress in language development and communication skills. The current study highlights the importance of implementing early interventions in the community, even at a low intensity.

  • 11.
    Inagawa, Takuma
    et al.
    National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sugawara, Norio
    Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Maruo, Kazushi
    University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo.
    Yokoi, Yuma
    National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment2019In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 273-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.

  • 12.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Howard, A. G.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Qin, B.
    Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.
    Yazawa, A.
    Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Gordon-Larsen, P.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    The association between family members’ migration and cognitive function among people left behind in China2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 9, article id e0222867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While internal migration is widely occurring in countries across the world and older people are more likely to be left behind by family members who out-migrated to other locations, little attention has been paid to the cognitive health of those people who have been left behind (PLB). Understanding how these demographic patterns relate to older persons’ cognitive health may inform efforts to reduce the disease burden due to cognitive decline. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, 2000 and 2004. Participants aged 55 to 93 who participated in a cognitive function screening test (score range: 0–31) in two or more waves and provided information on family members’ migration (n = 1,267) were included in the analysis. A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between being left behind by any members who had not resided in the household for at least 6 months at baseline and cognitive function. Approximately 10% of the participants had been left behind by family members who migrated out of their communities. A significant interaction was observed in relation to cognitive function between being left behind and the number of years from the first test. Specifically, there was a less steep decline in cognitive function of PLB compared to people not left behind. This longitudinal study showed that PLB tended to have a higher cognitive function compared to those not left behind due to their relatively stable transition in cognitive function during the study period.

  • 13.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aida, J.
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan / Miyagi Prefectural Government Office, Sendai, Japan.
    Kawachi, I.
    Harvard University, Boston, USAChiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami2019In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 2045-7979, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

  • 14.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health & Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    December birth is associated with higher mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort.2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 281-282Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya-ku, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Month of birth is associated with mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort2016In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Month of birth (MOB) has been linked to a variety of health conditions in adulthood. This study examined the association between MOB and mortality among the healthy elderly in Japan, where a practice of traditional age reckoning was employed up until the late 1940s. The results showed male participants born in December were more likely to die earlier while those born in January had lower mortality. It is possible that social factors in early life, such as the time period when a birth is officially registered, may have implications for health that stretch across the life course.

  • 16.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Li, D.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Du, J.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Jin, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Chen, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Watanabe, C.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between economic development, lifestyle differentiation, and C-reactive protein concentration within rural communities in Hainan Island, China2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Earlier fieldwork in rural areas of Hainan Island, China, demonstrated that during the course of economic development increasing differences had emerged in lifestyles within communities. It is possible that these variations might have stratified residents into subpopulations with different health attributes. This study examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a biomarker of future cardiovascular events, and personal lifestyle parameters and the degree of community-level economic development among rural communities. Methods: A cross-sectional field survey was undertaken in 19 rural communities in Hainan. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 1,744 participants. Dried blood spot samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP concentration. Sex-stratified multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with CRP concentration among the participants. Results: While CRP concentration was negatively associated with being married and (more) education among men, for women CRP concentration was associated with the frequency of poultry consumption (P = 0.014) and the experience of migratory work in the previous year (P = 0.009). In addition, for females, living in communities with a greater degree of inequality, as indexed by the Gini coefficient, was also associated with increased CRP concentration (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Given that CRP concentration is a marker of future CVD risk, this study suggests that within these previously homogenous rural communities, economic development might have stratified people into population subgroups with a different CVD risk. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015.

  • 17.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shirai, Kokoro
    University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
    Amemiya, Airi
    National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Katsunori
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Ojima, Toshiyuki
    Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Hanazato, Masamichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Suzuki, Norimichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Fujiwara, Takeo
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0164525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Intitutet.
    Sjöblom, S.
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, M.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, US.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, US / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Risk Factors Associated with Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence among American Inner-City Youth: A Longitudinal Study2020In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 358-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for later alcohol dependence, as well as social and mental health problems. In this study, we investigate the risk factors (internalizing and externalizing behaviors) associated with early alcohol consumption over a period of 1 year, and examine whether the association is sex-specific. Methods: U.S. inner-city adolescents (N = 1785, Mean age = 12.11) were assessed and reassessed in the sixth and seventh grades (Mean age = 13.10). Self-reported information was obtained on the lifetime level of alcohol consumption, internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress [PTS]), and externalizing behaviors (sensation seeking, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers). Associations between the variables were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: In an adjusted SEM analysis drinking by the sixth grade was primarily associated with externalizing behaviors, whereas PTS was linked to lower levels of alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption and greater externalizing behaviors by the sixth grade predicted higher alcohol consumption by the seventh grade, whereas anxiety and African American ethnicity were associated with less alcohol consumption. No sex differences were found in the association between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and drinking. However, in the adjusted SEM analysis female sex predicted higher lifetime consumption by the seventh grade. Conclusion: Sensation seeking behavior, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers should be regarded as risk factors and taken into consideration when planning prevention efforts in order to decrease alcohol use in early adolescence.

  • 19.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic / .
    The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents2018In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, no 47, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 20.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westermark, C.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Koposov, R. A.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine,, USA; Säter Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Risky sexual behaviour among Russian adolescents: association with internalizing and externalizing symptoms2021In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 15, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is regarded as a major health problem during adolescence. Russia has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy, abortion and newly diagnosed HIV infections in the world, but research on RSB in Russian youth has been limited. To address this deficit, this study examined the role of several factors, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, in RSB among Russian adolescents. Methods: Self-reported data were collected from 2573 Russian adolescents aged 13–17 years old (59.4 % girls; Mean age = 14.89) regarding RSB (unprotected sex, early pregnancy, multiple sexual partners and substance use during sexual encounters). Information was also obtained on externalizing (conduct problems and delinquent behaviour) and internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress) symptoms, as well as interpersonal risk and protective factors (affiliation with delinquent peers, parental involvement and teacher support). Hierarchical multiple binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these variables and RSB. Results: Boys reported engaging in more RSB than girls. Externalizing symptoms and affiliation with delinquent peers were most strongly associated with RSB, whereas symptoms of anxiety were negatively associated with RSB. There was an interaction effect for sex and affiliation with delinquent peers on RSB with boys reporting RSB when having more delinquent peers. Neither parental involvement nor teacher support were protective against RSB. Conclusions: Early detection of and interventions for RSB and associated externalizing symptoms may be important for adolescent physical and mental wellbeing. Affiliation with delinquent peers should, especially among boys, be regarded as a risk marker for RSB.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Martina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Community Violence Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptoms among Belgian, Russian and US Adolescents: Cross-Country and Gender Perspectives2023In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Risk and Protective Factors for Problematic Drinking in Early Adolescence: A Systematic Approach2020In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use during early adolescence is associated with other risk behaviors as well as future health problems. Within the design of a larger prospective research program, a cohort of U.S. inner-city sixth-grade students (N = 1573, mean age = 12.10) were assessed and reassessed in the seventh-grade. Self-reported information was obtained on problems related to alcohol, fixed markers of risk (e.g. sex, age, SES), individual and interpersonal factors (e.g. internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and contextual factors (e.g. substance availability). Alcohol-related problems in seventh grade were foremost predicted by individual and interpersonal factors in the sixth grade including depressive symptoms, conduct problems, a decreased perception of wrongdoing, and affiliation with delinquent peers. In addition, alcohol use in the sixth grade and being of Hispanic or White ethnicity was also associated with subsequent alcohol-related problems. Interventions should be directed towards assessing and treating individual risk factors such as depression and externalizing symptoms.

  • 23.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Koposov, Roman
    University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic.
    The Role of Gender in the Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Anger, and Aggression in Russian Adolescents2020In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, ISSN 0894-9867, E-ISSN 1573-6598, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 552-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to anger and aggressive behavior in adult and veteran populations. However, research on the associations among anger, aggression, and PTSD in adolescents is lacking, particularly regarding differences between the sexes. To address this research gap, we used self-report data from Russian adolescents (N = 2,810; age range: 13-17 years) to perform a full path analysis examining the associations between PTSD symptoms and the emotional (anger traits) and cognitive (rumination) components of anger as well as physical/verbal and social aggression, after adjusting for depressive symptoms. We also examined the interaction effects between PTSD symptoms and sex on anger and aggression. The results indicated that girls scored higher on measures of anger and PTSD symptoms, ds = 0.20-0.32, whereas boys scored higher on measures of physical and verbal aggression, d = 0.54. Clinical levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with anger rumination, β = .16, and trait anger, β = .06, and an interaction effect for PTSD symptoms and sex was found for aggression, whereby boys with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms reported more physical/verbal and social aggression, βs = .05 and .20, respectively. Our findings suggest that PTSD symptoms may have an important impact on anger, anger rumination, and aggression during adolescence. In particular, boys seem to have an increased risk for aggressive behavior in the presence of PTSD symptoms. The present results highlight the importance of taking anger and aggression into account when evaluating PTSD.

  • 24.
    Jacob, L.
    et al.
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux 78180, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Haro, J. M.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Serious physical injury and depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 12–15 years from 21 low- and middle-income countries2020In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 264, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the relationship between physical injury and depression in youths from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms among adolescents in 21 LMICs. Methods: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2008) were analyzed. Serious physical injury and depressive symptoms in the past 12 months were assessed with self-report measures. The association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis. Results: The final sample consisted of 44,333 adolescents aged 12–15 years. After adjustment for sex, age, food insecurity, alcohol consumption, and country, an increasing number of serious physical injuries in the past 12 months was associated with increments in the odds for depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent fashion. Those who had ≥6 serious injuries (vs. no injuries) were 2.79 (95%CI=2.23–3.48) times more likely to have depressive symptoms. The pooled odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) for the association between at least one serious physical injury and depressive symptoms obtained by meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates was 1.83 (1.67–2.01) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=56.0%). Limitations: This was a cross-sectional study and causality of the association cannot be deduced. Conclusions: Serious physical injury may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among adolescents in LMICs. Efforts to prevent physical injury and the provision of adequate health care for those who are injured may improve mental wellbeing among adolescents in this setting.

  • 25.
    Jeong, D. Y.
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, J.
    Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea.
    Kim, J. Y.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, K. H.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Li, H.
    University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, United States.
    Lee, J. Y.
    Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea.
    Jeong, G. H.
    Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.
    Yoon, S.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Park, E. L.
    Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Hong, S. H.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.
    Kang, J. W.
    Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejon, South Korea.
    Song, T. -J
    Seoul Hospital Ewha Womans University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Leyhe, T.
    Geriatric Psychiatry University, Department of Geriatric Medicine, FELIX PLATTER, Basel, Switzerland; Psychiatric University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
    Eisenhut, M.
    Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Luton, United Kingdom.
    Kronbichler, A.
    Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Solmi, M.
    University of Padua, Padua, Italy; King’s College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Stubbs, B.
    King’s College London, De Crespigny Park, London, United Kingdom; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, United Kingdom; Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Jacob, L.
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Thompson, T.
    University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
    Dragioti, E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Brunoni, A. R.
    University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Universitario, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Carvalho, A. F.
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Kim, M. S.
    Korea University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Cheongsan Public Health Center, Ministry of Health and Welfare Wando, South Korea.
    Yon, D. K.
    Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, S. W.
    Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yang, J. M.
    University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Ghayda, R. A.
    University Hospitals and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States.
    Shin, J. I.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Fusar-Poli, P.
    University of Padua, Padua, Italy; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Empirical assessment of biases in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of alzheimer’s disease: An umbrella review and re-analysis of data from meta-analyses2021In: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 1128-3602, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 1536-1547Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of years lived with disability in older age, and several cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have been proposed in individual meta-analyses to be associated with AD but field-wide evaluation and scrutiny of the literature is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an umbrella review for the reported associations between CSF biomarkers and AD. Data from available meta-analyses were reanalyzed using both random and fixed effects models. We also estimated between-study heterogeneity, small-study effects, excess significance, and prediction interval. RESULTS: A total of 38 meta-analyses on CSF markers from 11 eligible articles were identified and reanalyzed. In 14 (36%) of the meta-analyses, the summary estimate and the results of the largest study showed non-concordant results in terms of statistical significance. Large heterogeneity (I2≥75%) was observed in 73% and small-study effects under Egger’s test were shown in 28% of CSF biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is an excess of statistically significant results and significant biases in the literature of CSF biomarkers for AD. Therefore, the results of CSF biomarkers should be interpreted with caution.

  • 26.
    Jeong, Yeonjae
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Park, Seoyeon
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Republic of Korea.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Spain; Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Spain.
    Jacob, Louis
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Spain; University of Versailles Saint‐Quentin‐en‐Yvelines, France.
    Kostev, Karel
    University Hospital, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Radua, Joaquim
    Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Global burden of gout in 1990‐2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 20192023In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 53, no 4, article id e13937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Although gout is one of the most common rheumatic diseases, world data is lacking because most studies have focused on industrialized countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the global burden of gout and associations with year of diagnosis, age, geographical region, sociodemographic status, and various further risk factors.

    Methods: Retrospective data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) was used, initially collected between 1990 and 2019. Raw numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 persons) of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) of gout were extracted from GBD 2019 for 204 countries and territories and stratified by sex, age, year, sociodemographic index, and geographic region. Correlations between gout and other chronic diseases were identified, and the burden attributable to high body-mass index (BMI) and kidney dysfunction was described.

    Results: The total number of patients and gout age-standardized prevalence rate increased between 1990 and 2019. Gout was most prevalent in Australasia and high-income North America, and a higher socio demographic index (SDI) was associated with higher age-standardized prevalence, incidence, and YLDs. High BMI and kidney dysfunction were risk factors for gout, while gout was correlated with other kidney diseases.

    Conclusions: The global prevalence of gout, as well as incidence, and YLDs increased worldwide from 1990 to 2019, and had a significant association with sex, age, geographic region, SDI, and risk factors. Understanding the complex interplay of environmental, sociodemographic, and geographic risk factors is essential in mitigating the ever-rising disease burden of gout.

  • 27.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1543-6136, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 28.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-20052017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

    METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

    RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  • 29.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 1447-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 31.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 773-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 32.
    Kim, J. H.
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, J. Y.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, J.
    Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Jeong, G. H.
    Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, E.
    Department of Psychiatry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, S.
    Department of Psychiatry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, K. H.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Kronbichler, A.
    Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Stubbs, B.
    King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Solmi, M.
    King's College London, London, UK; University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deéu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hong, S. H.
    Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Dragioti, E.
    Linköping University.
    Jacob, L.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deéu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Brunoni, A. R.
    University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Hospital Universitario, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Carvalho, A. F.
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Radua, J.
    King's College London, London, UK; Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Centre (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Karolinska Institutet.
    Thompson, T.
    University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Yang, L.
    Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada; Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Grabovac, I.
    Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Schuch, F.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Fornaro, M.
    Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rais, T. B.
    University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.
    de Pablo, G. S.
    King's College London, London, UK; Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Shin, J. I.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Fusar-Poli, P.
    King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Environmental risk factors, protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD: an umbrella review2020In: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 955-970Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD have been investigated, but the consistency and magnitude of their effects are unclear. We aimed to systematically appraise the published evidence of association between potential risk factors, protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers, and ADHD. Methods: In this umbrella review of meta-analyses, we searched PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, and screened the references of relevant articles. We included systematic reviews that provided meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations of potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers with diagnosis of ADHD. We included meta-analyses that used categorical ADHD diagnosis criteria according to DSM, hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD, or criteria that were less rigorous than DSM or ICD, such as self-report. We excluded articles that did not examine environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers of ADHD; articles that did not include a meta-analysis; and articles that did not present enough data for re-analysis. We excluded non-human studies, primary studies, genetic studies, and conference abstracts. We calculated summary effect estimates (odds ratio [OR], relative risk [RR], weighted mean difference [WMD], Cohen's d, and Hedges' g), 95% CI, heterogeneity I2 statistic, 95% prediction interval, small study effects, and excess significance biases. We did analyses under credibility ceilings, and assessed the quality of the meta-analyses with AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2). This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019145032. Findings: We identified 1839 articles, of which 35 were eligible for inclusion. These 35 articles yielded 63 meta-analyses encompassing 40 environmental risk factors and environmental protective factors (median cases 16 850, median population 91 954) and 23 peripheral biomarkers (median cases 175, median controls 187). Evidence of association was convincing (class I) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 1·63, 95% CI 1·49 to 1·77), childhood eczema (1·31, 1·20 to 1·44), hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (1·29, 1·22 to 1·36), pre-eclampsia (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and maternal acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy (RR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17 to 1·34). Evidence of association was highly suggestive (class II) for maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·45 to 1·76), childhood asthma (1·51, 1·4 to 1·63), maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and serum vitamin D (WMD −6·93, 95% CI −9·34 to −4·51). Interpretation: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight; pre-eclampsia, hypertension, acetaminophen exposure, and smoking during pregnancy; and childhood atopic diseases were strongly associated with ADHD. Previous familial studies suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, overweight, and smoking during pregnancy are confounded by familial or genetic factors, and further high-quality studies are therefore required to establish causality.

  • 33.
    Kim, Jae Han
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Kim, Jong Yeob
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seul
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, San
    Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Stubbs, Brendon
    Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain..
    Dragioti, Elena
    Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden..
    Jacob, Louis
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain; Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France..
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Radua, Joaquim
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thompson, Trevor
    Department of Psychology, University of Greenwich, London, UK..
    Smith, Lee
    The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK..
    Oh, Hans
    School of Social Work, University of Southern California, CA 90015, USA..
    Yang, Lin
    Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada; Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada..
    Fornaro, Michele
    Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, Federico II University, Naples, Italy..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    de Pablo, Gonzalo Salazar
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Department of Basic Sciences, Medicine Faculty of Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 15 Rue Djebel Lakdar, Tunis 1007, Tunisia..
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seung Won
    Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Hwang, Jimin
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA..
    Il Shin, Jae
    Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK..
    Environmental Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Biomarkers for Postpartum Depressive Symptoms: An Umbrella Review2022In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 140, article id 104761Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed an umbrella review on environmental risk/protective factors and biomarkers for postpartum depressive symptoms to establish a hierarchy of evidence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until 12 January 2021. We included systematic reviews providing meta-analyses related to our research objectives. Methodological quality was assessed by AMSTAR 2, and the certainty of evidence was evaluated by GRADE. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021230784). We identified 30 articles, which included 45 environmental risk/protective factors (154594 cases, 7302273 population) and 9 biomarkers (2018 cases, 16757 population). The credibility of evidence was convincing (class I) for antenatal anxiety (OR 2.49, 1.91-3.25) and psychological violence (OR 1.93, 1.54-2.42); and highly suggestive (class II) for intimate partner violence experience (OR 2.86, 2.12-3.87), intimate partner violence during pregnancy (RR 2.81, 2.11-3.74), smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.39, 1.78-3.2), history of premenstrual syndrome (OR 2.2, 1.81-2.68), any type of violence experience (OR 2.04, 1.72-2.41), primiparity compared to multiparity (RR 1.76, 1.59-1.96), and unintended pregnancy (OR 1.53, 1.35-1.75).

  • 34. Kislitsyna, Olga
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Gilmore, Anna
    McKee, Martin
    The social determinants of adolescent smoking in Russia in 20042010In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the prevalence of adolescent smoking in the Russian ederation and examine what factors are associated with it. ata were drawn from Round 13 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring urvey (RLMS) carried out in 2004. The sample consists of 815 dolescents (430 boys, 385 girls) aged 14-17 years who answered uestions about their health behaviours. moking was more prevalent among boys than girls (26.1 vs. 5.7%). aternal smoking and adolescent alcohol use were associated with smoking mong both sexes. The self-assessment of one's socioeconomic position as nfavourable was associated with girls' smoking, while living in a isrupted family, physical inactivity and having a low level of elf-esteem were predictive of boys' smoking. he family environment appears to be an important determinant of dolescent smoking in Russia. In particular, boys and girls may be odelling the negative health behaviour lifestyles of their parents, ith unhealthy behaviours clustering. Efforts to reduce adolescent moking in Russia must address the negative effects emanating from the arental home whilst also addressing associated behaviours such as lcohol use.

  • 35.
    Konishi, Shoko
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, USA.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Pollinosis and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese: a population-based cohort study2016In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1083-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Having an allergic disease may have health implications beyond those more commonly associated with allergy given that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that both atopy and allergy are linked to mortality. More viable immune functioning among the elderly, as indicated by the presence of an allergic disease might therefore be associated with differences in all-cause mortality.

    OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Japanese cohort, this study examined whether having pollinosis (a form of allergic rhinitis) in a follow-up survey could predict all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort, which at its 1993 baseline recruited residents aged 40-69 years old from two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The current study used information on pollinosis that was obtained from the follow-up survey in 2000. Mortality and migration data were obtained throughout the follow-up period up to December 2008. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.

    RESULTS: At the 2000 follow-up survey, 12% (1 088 out of 8 796) of respondents reported that they had pollinosis symptoms in the past 12 months. During the 76 186 person-years of follow-up, 748 died from all-causes. Among these there were 37 external, 208 cardiovascular, 74 respiratory, and 329 neoplasm deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, pollinosis was associated with significantly lower all-cause (hazard ratio 0.57 [95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.87]) and neoplasms mortality (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.92]).

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having an allergic disease (pollinosis) at an older age may be indicative of more viable immune functioning and be protective against certain causes of death. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the association between pollinosis and mortality.

  • 36.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute and Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, US; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Enuresis in young offenders: a study on prevalence and mental health comorbidity2024In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 15, article id 1328767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Enuresis is a common disorder in the school-age period, and is often associated with a variety of behavioral, psychological, and social problems. While early studies suggested an association between enuresis and delinquent behavior, there has been no recent research assessing the prevalence of enuresis and its comorbid psychopathology in young offenders. The aim of this study was to therefore assess the prevalence of enuresis and its associated psychiatric comorbidity in incarcerated young offenders.

    Methods: The prevalence of past and current enuresis and comorbid psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview and self-reports from 366 incarcerated male young offenders [age 14 to 19 years (mean age = 16.4)] from Northern Russia.

    Results: Seventy-three (20.0%) adolescents reported a previous history of enuresis, and in addition almost 10% of the youth reported current enuresis symptoms. Delinquent youth with enuresis did not significantly differ from other youth in the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses when assessed by a clinical diagnostic interview, but had significantly higher levels of self-reported mental health problems, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    Conclusion: Problems with enuresis are common among delinquent youth and may be associated with increased mental health problems. Given the potentially increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in young offenders with enuresis, comprehensive mental health screening of those who are detected with this condition should be considered in the juvenile justice system.

  • 37.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, United States; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Bulimia Symptoms in Russian Youth: Prevalence and Association With Internalizing Problems2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 797388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThere has been limited research on bulimia symptoms in adolescents from the general population outside the United States. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Russian youth and explore the associations between a clinical level of self-reported probable bulimia nervosa (BN) and internalizing problems, binge drinking and functional impairment by gender. MethodsData were collected from a representative sample of school students (N = 2,515, 59.5% female) from Northern Russia [age M (SD) = 14.89 +/- 1.13 years]. Probable BN and internalizing psychopathology were assessed using self-report scales. Chi-square and independent sample t-tests were used to compare respondents' demographic characteristics and disordered eating behaviors. GLM multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess the associations between probable BN, functional impairment and mental health problems (MHP) by gender. ResultsAnalyses showed that the 3-month prevalence of probable BN was higher in girls (3.9%) than in boys (1.2%). Probable BN was associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatic anxiety, somatic complaints, binge drinking and functional impairment. Boys reported a higher level of problem scores in relation to probable BN. ConclusionsOur findings suggest that bulimia symptoms are prevalent in Russian adolescents and are associated with MHP and functional impairment. Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated MHP is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 38.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University, USA; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Community Violence Exposure and School Functioning in Youth: Cross-Country and Gender Perspectives2021In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, article id 692402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many children and adolescents experience violent events which can be associated with negative consequences for their development, mental health, school, and social functioning. However, findings between settings and on the role of gender have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate cross-country and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and school functioning in a sample of youths from three countries. Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among school students (12-17 years old) in Belgium (Antwerp, N = 4,743), Russia (Arkhangelsk, N = 2,823), and the US (New Haven, N = 4,101). Students were recruited from within classes that were randomly selected from within schools that had themselves been randomly selected (excepting New Haven, where all students were included). CVE was assessed with the Screening Survey of Exposure to Community Violence. School functioning was assessed with four measures: the Perceived Teacher Support scale, Negative Classroom Environment scale, and Academic Motivation and Perception of Safety at School scales. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance were performed to assess differences in the levels of school-related problem behaviors in boys and girls, who reported different degrees of CVE. Results: Participants in all three countries reported a relatively high prevalence of violence exposure (36.2% in Belgium, 39.3% in Russia and 45.2% in the US who witnessed violence), with a higher proportion of girls than boys witnessing violent events (varied from 37.4 to 51.6% between the countries), whereas boys reported more episodes of victimization by violence than girls (varied from 32.3 to 49.9% between the countries). Youths who experienced increased CVE (from no exposure to witnessing to victimization) reported an increase in all school functioning problems in all of the countries and this association was not gender-specific. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regardless of differences in the level of CVE by country and gender, violence exposure is negatively associated with school functioning across countries. Nonetheless, even though reactions to community violence among adolescents may be expressed in a similar fashion, cross-country differences in social support systems should also be taken into account in order to provide culturally sensitive treatment modalities.

  • 39.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway;Sechenov First Moscow State Med University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Dept Prevent Intervent Psychiat Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA;Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Incarcerated Adolescents: Prevalence, Personality, and Psychiatric Comorbidity2021In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 652004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Incarcerated adolescents represent a risk group for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), but research on this population has been limited and no studies have been conducted in Russia. To address this deficit, this study examined NSSI and the factors associated with it among youth in a juvenile correctional facility in Russia. Methods: NSSI and psychopathology were assessed using a psychiatric interview and self-report questionnaire in 368 incarcerated male adolescents aged 14-19 years (mean age 16.4 years, S.D. 0.9) from Northern Russia. Results: 18.2% (N = 67) of the study participants had a history of NSSI and also had higher rates of anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, community violence exposure and scored higher on most of the Youth Self-Report problem scales. In addition, 31.3% of the NSSI group reported previous suicidal ideation and had thought about a specific suicide method compared to 12.0% in the No-NSSI group. Adolescents with NSSI also differed significantly from the No-NSSI group on self-directedness (lower) and self-transcendence (higher) personality traits. Conclusion: NSSI is common in incarcerated adolescents in Russia and is associated with extensive psychiatric comorbidity, suicidal ideation and specific personality traits.

  • 40.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Bulimia symptoms and anger and aggression among adolescents2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that anger and aggression may be elevated in adolescents with a bulimia nervosa (BN) diagnosis. However, as yet, little is known about whether bulimia symptoms are linked to anger and aggression in adolescents in the general population. To address this deficit this study aimed to explore the associations between a clinical level of bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and anger, anger rumination and aggression in community-based adolescents, and determine whether gender is important in this context.

    METHODS: This study was conducted on a representative sample of youth from northwestern Russia (n = 2613, age 13-17 years old, 59.5% female) using self-report scales. A proxy variable for a CLBS was created using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Aggression, anger and anger rumination were assessed by the Trait Anger Scale of the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Anger Rumination Scale, and scales created to assess physically and verbally aggressive behavior. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the associations between the study variables.

    RESULTS: A CLBS was more prevalent in girls than in boys (13.4% vs. 3.5%). The association with anger and aggression was stronger in both genders with a CLBS, compared to those adolescents without a CLBS. In the CLBS group, boys as compared to girls scored higher on verbal and physical aggression, anger rumination and social aggression. In both the CLBS and Non-CLBS groups higher anger and aggression scores were associated with increasing age.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that aggression and anger rumination are elevated in adolescents with BN symptoms, and that the associations between anger, aggression and BN symptoms may be stronger in boys. As previous research has indicated that the presence of aggressive behaviors may affect the prognosis of BN and complicate management of the disorder, clinician screening for these behaviors in adolescents with BN symptoms may facilitate the provision of more effective treatment, especially among boys.

  • 41.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, USA / Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Oakland, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, J.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Risk and functional significance of psychotic experiences among individuals with depression in 44 low- and middle-income countries2016In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2655-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population. Method: Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Results: When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone. Conclusions: This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 42.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Garin, N.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Miret, M.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Leonardi, M.
    Neurological Institute Carlo Besta IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy.
    Koskinen, S.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland .
    Galas, A.
    Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland .
    Haro, J. M.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: A cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between obesity and back pain has mainly been studied in high-income settings with inconclusive results, and data from older populations and developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess this association in nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America among older adults using nationally-representative data. Methods: Data on 42116 individuals ≥50 years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain in 2011-2012, and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa in 2007-2010 were analysed. Information on measured height and weight available in the two datasets was used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Self-reported back pain occurring in the past 30 days was the outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMI and back pain. Results: The prevalence of back pain ranged from 21.5% (China) to 57.5% (Poland). In the multivariable analysis, compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, significantly higher odds for back pain were observed for BMI ≥35 kg/m2 in Finland (OR 3.33), Russia (OR 2.20), Poland (OR 2.03), Spain (OR 1.56), and South Africa (OR 1.48); BMI 30.0-34.0 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 2.76), South Africa (OR 1.51), and Poland (OR 1.47); and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 1.51) and Poland (OR 1.40). No significant associations were found in the other countries. Conclusions: The strength of the association between obesity and back pain may vary by country. Future studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to differences in the associations observed. © 2015 Koyanagi et al.

  • 43.
    Koyanagi, A
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J M
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic symptoms and smoking in 44 countries.2016In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 133, no 6, p. 497-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychotic symptoms and smoking among community-dwelling adults in 44 countries.

    METHOD: Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) for 192 474 adults aged ≥18 years collected in 2002-2004 were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month psychotic symptoms. Smoking referred to current daily and non-daily smoking. Heavy smoking was defined as smoking ≥30 tobacco products/day.

    RESULTS: The pooled age-sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of psychotic symptoms (i.e., at least one psychotic symptom) for smoking was 1.35 (1.27-1.43). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those with no psychotic symptoms, the ORs (95% CIs) for smoking for 1, 2, and ≥3 psychotic symptoms were 1.20 (1.08-1.32), 1.25 (1.08-1.45), and 1.36 (1.13-1.64) respectively. Among daily smokers, psychotic symptoms were associated with heavy smoking (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92), and individuals who initiated daily smoking at ≤15 years of age were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.05-1.42) times more likely to have psychotic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: An increased awareness that psychotic symptoms are associated with smoking is important from a public health and clinical point of view. Future studies that investigate the underlying link between psychotic symptoms and smoking prospectively are warranted.

  • 44.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-like experiences and disordered eating in the English general population2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 241, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and disordered eating in the general population. We aimed to assess this association in the English adult population. Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey comprising 7403 English adults aged ≥16 years. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to identify the past 12-month occurrence of five forms of psychotic symptoms. Questions from the five-item SCOFF screening instrument were used to identify those with eating disorder (ED) symptoms and possible ED in the past year. The prevalence of any PLE was 5.1% (female) and 5.4% (male), while that of possible ED was 9.0% (female) and 3.5% (male). After adjustment for potential confounders, possible ED was associated with hypomania/mania in females (OR=3.23 95%CI=1.002-10.39), strange experiences [females (OR=1.85 95%CI=1.07-3.20) and males (OR=3.54 95%CI=1.65-7.57)], and any PLE in males (OR=3.44 95%CI=1.85-6.39). An interaction analysis revealed that the association was stronger among males for: auditory hallucinations and uncontrolled eating; and any PLE with uncontrolled eating, food dominance, and possible ED. Clinical practitioners should be aware that PLEs and disordered eating behavior often coexist. When one condition is detected, screening for the other may be advisable, especially among males.

  • 45.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and pain in an English national sample: The role of common mental disorders2016In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 175, no 1-3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

  • 46.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Japan.
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and suicidal behavior in England: Findings from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey2015In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 168, no 1-2, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

  • 47.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain.
    Lara, Elvira
    entro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain / Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK / King's College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital, Genova, Italy / National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Padova, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries2018In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

    SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

    MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

    CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

  • 48.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom / King's College London, London, United Kingdom / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / E.O. Galliera Hospital, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital, Genova, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    Fordham University, NY, USA.
    Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries2018In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 201, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.

  • 49.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between psychosis and severe pain in community-dwelling adults: Findings from 44 low- and middle-income countries2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 69, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies examining the association between schizophrenia and pain have produced mixed results and data on sub-threshold psychosis or psychotic symptoms and pain are scarce. This study assessed the association between psychosis and severe pain among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where no data exists.Data on 235,370 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month psychotic symptoms was established using four questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on whether they had at least one psychotic symptom and/or a lifetime psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between psychosis and past 30-day severe pain. The prevalence of severe pain among those with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 psychotic symptoms was 8.7%, 16.7%, 21.8%, 30.5% respectively. Compared to those with no psychotic symptoms or diagnosis, the ORs (95%CIs) were: at least one symptom without diagnosis [2.17 (1.99-2.38)]; no symptom with diagnosis [2.33 (1.71-3.17)]; at least one symptom and diagnosis [4.27 (3.20-5.71)]. Associations were partly mediated by chronic physical conditions, anxiety, and depression. Despite some limitations such as the use of a single-item question to assess pain, the results of this study suggest that individuals with psychotic symptoms or a psychosis diagnosis should be systematically assessed for pain, and if necessary, receive treatment for pain and its underlying conditions. Future research on the effect of pain management on psychosis outcome is warranted.

  • 50.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 1875-1885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged >= 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems.

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