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  • 1.
    Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl assimilation from water and algal food by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 765-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method was used to estimate assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dissolved and food associated PCBs (IUPAC 31, 49, and 153) by the Baltic Sea blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to radiolabeled PCBs in a series of shortterm toxicokinetic experiments at different algal food concentrations, both at apparent steady-state (ASS) and non-steady-state (NSS) conditions in respect to PCB partitioning between water and algae. The PCB AEs were calculated using a physiologically based bioaccumulation model where experimentally determined uptake and exposure rates at ASS and NSS conditions were combined into linear equation systems, which were solved for PCB AE from water and food. A positive relationship between PCB uptake and algae clearance by the mussels was observed for all three PCBs. The PCB AEs from both water and food increased with congener hydrophobicity (octanol/water partition coefficient [K-ow]), but AEs decreased with increases in water pumping and filtration rate of the mussels, respectively. The average contribution of food-associated PCB to the total uptake also increased with K-ow from approximately 30% for PCB 31 and PCB 49 to 50% for PCB 153, mainly as a consequence of increased sorption to the algal food.

  • 2.
    Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Overview of Ecological RiskCharacterisation Methodologies: ERICA deliverable 4b2005Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Näf, Carin
    In situ determination of PCB biodeposition by Mytilus edulis in a Baltic coastal ecosystem2000In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 194, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodeposits of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and pelagic and near-bed settling particulate matter were collected in situ over a 1 yr period in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic proper. The amounts of carbon and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the collected biodeposits were compared to those in pelagic and near-bed settling material and rates of carbon and PCB biodeposition by mussels were estimated. The filter-feeding activity and subsequent release of faecal matter by the mussels increased gross sedimentation of carbon to benthos by 45 % if compared to areas with no mussels. By selectively feeding on particles rich in organic carbon the mussels also concentrated associated contaminants and thereby increased gross sedimentation of PCBs by 50 %. This suggests that mussel biodeposition will enhance the availability of PCBs to benthic deposit feeders living in or in the vicinity of mussel beds. Extrapolation of the experimental results to the total Swedish coastal zone of the Baltic proper indicates that mussel biodeposition is responsible for a significant part of PCB net sedimentation, i.e. 17 % or 96 kg yr(-1). Consequently, even when seen from a large geographical scale, mussels are important modifiers of PCB cycling by directing considerable amounts of PCBs towards the benthic food web and thereby influencing the retention time of these and probably many other contaminants in the coastal zone. It is also Likely that changes in mussel biomass, for example owing to shifts in primary production or salinity, will markedly affect the transport and fate of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

  • 4. Coppelstone, David
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Ecological Risk Characterisation: An Interim Method for the ERICA Integrated Approach: ERICA deliverable D4a2005Report (Other academic)
  • 5. Garnier-Laplace, J.
    et al.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilbin, R.
    Alonzo, F.
    Ciffroy, P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Agueero, A.
    Björk, Mikael
    Oughton, D. H.
    Jaworska, A.
    Larsson, C. M.
    Hingston, J. L.
    Issues and practices in the use of effects data from FREDERICA in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 1474-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

  • 6. Gunnarsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Granberg, Maria
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    Effects of eutrophication on contaminant cycling in marine benthic systems2000In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Contrary to the equilibrium partitioning theory, bioaccumulation was proportional to the concentrations of algae and organic carbon. This was attributed to the high nutritional quality of the algal organic carbon and suggests that feeding rather than equilibrium partitioning governed bioaccumulation in these species. In the field, annual mass fluxes of PCBs in blue mussels and in brittle stars were estimated, as well as contaminant transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that: I) Eutrophication processes may contribute to increase HOC accumulation in benthic species. ii) Temporal variation in the quantity and quality of organic carbon needs to be considered when assessing contamination of benthic systems. ill) Macrofaunal feeding activities are important for the benthic-pelagic coupling of HOCs. iv) Bioturbation enhances the release of HOCs from sediment to overlying water.

  • 7. Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Burreau, Sven
    Gilek, Michael
    Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1218-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k(u)), depuration rate coefficients (k(d)), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99 (k(a) 120 and 170 L/day/g dry weight, respectively). The depuration rare decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, bur for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K-ow. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 (1.3 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) ml/g dry weight, respectively) were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

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