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  • 1.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Relatively poor, absolutely ill?: A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 5, 389-394 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: To investigate whether the income distribution in a Russian region has a "contextual" effect on individuals' self rated health, and whether the regional income distributions are related to regional health differences. Methods: The Russia longitudinal monitoring survey (RLMS) is a survey (n = 7696) that is representative of the Russian population. With multilevel regressions both individual as well as contextual effects on self rated health were estimated. Main results: The effect of income inequality is not negative on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. When inequality levels are high, however, there is a tendency for men's health to be negatively affected. Regional health differences among men are in part explained by regional income differences. On the other hand, women do not seem to be affected in the same way, and individual characteristics like age and educational level seem to be more important. Conclusions: It seems that a rise in income inequality has no negative effect on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. On the other hand, when inequality levels are higher a rise tends to affect men's health negatively. A curvilinear relation between self rated health and income distribution is an interesting hypothesis. It could help to explain the confusing results that arise when you look at countries with a high degree of income inequality (USA) and those with lower income inequality (for example, Japan and New Zealand).

  • 2.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The European health divide: a matter of financial or social capital?2004In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 59, no 9, 1985-1992 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'European east-west health divide' has been documented both for mortality and for self-rated health. The reason for this divide, however, remains to be explained. The aim of this study is, firstly, to investigate whether in 1995-97 differences in self-rated health persisted between countries in central and eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and western Europe. A further aim is to try to explain these differences with reference to people's financial status and social capital. This study found substantial differences in self-rated health between countries in western Europe, in central and eastern Europe, and in the former Soviet Union (where self-rated health seems to be poorest in general). There were also substantial differences between areas in terms of economic and social capital, with western Europe doing better in all the analysed circumstances. In economic terms people in the former Soviet Union seemed to be more dissatisfied than those living in central and eastern Europe. When one looks at differences in social capital between the two post-communist areas the picture is more mixed. Economic satisfaction was demonstrated to have a strong and significant effect on people's self-rated health, with a higher satisfaction reducing the odds of 'poor' health. When this factor was controlled for the area, differences in self-rated health were reduced dramatically, for both men and women. Organisational activity (men only), trust in people, and confidence in the legal system also reduced the odds of 'less than good health', but were not as important in explaining the health differences between areas. One can conclude that economic factors as well as some aspects of social capital play a role for area differences in self-rated health. Of these it would appear that economic factors are the more important.

  • 3.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Stirling, United Kingdom .
    Timms, Duncan
    Bridging the dual digital divide: A local net and an IT-café in Sweden.2006In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 9, no 2, 137-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Akceptacja samobójstwa oraz jej korelaty w Europie Wschodniej i Zachodniej w okresie przemian ustrojowych2006In: Suicydologia, ISSN 1895-3786, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    Wstęp. Celem niniejszej pracy było zbadanie akceptacji samobójstwa i jej związku z umieralnością z powodu samobójstw oraz czynników, od których zależy ocena samobójstwa w Europie. Dane dotyczące postaw: 33 221 wywiadów przeprowadzonych w 25 krajach europejskich (Światowe Badania Wartości, World Values Study, 1990–1991). Dane dotyczące umieralności z powodu samobójstwa: statystyki WHO. Materiał i metody. Obliczono korelację rangową między wskaźnikami samobójstw wśród kobiet i mężczyzn z różnych grup wiekowych a postawami wobec samobójstwa. Czynniki determinujące postawę badano z użyciem analizy regresji zarówno logistycznej, jak i liniowej. Aby opisać różne struktury postaw, przeprowadzono analizę czynnikową. Wyniki. Ogólnie samobójstwo oceniano negatywnie, lecz poszczególne kraje różniły się ze względu na wysokość i rozkład ocen. Statystycznie istotne dodatnie korelacje między umieralnością samobójczą a postawami wobec samobójstwa stwierdzono wśród kobiet w wieku 15-64 lat. Ostateczny model czynników determinujących na poziomie indywidualnym akceptację samobójstwa obejmował: wysoką pozycję Boga (korelat ujemny), religii (ujemny) i rodziny (ujemny) w hierarchii ważności, wiek (ujemny), nietolerancję wobec niezrównoważenia psychicznego (ujemny), dobre zdrowie subiektywne, myśli o śmierci oraz liberalny styl wychowywania dzieci. Ten model wyjaśniał 12,6% wariancji w Europie Zachodniej, ale tylko 2,6% we Wschodniej. Analiza czynnikowa wykazała, że miejsce samobójstwa wśród innych aktów również odróżniało Europę Wschodnią do Zachodniej. Wnioski. Kraje europejskie różnią się pod względem akceptacji samobójstwa. Dodatnie związki między postawami wobec samobójstwa a umieralnością samobójczą istnieją wśród kobiet. Osobista religijność jest najlepszym predyktorem akceptacji samobójstwa w Europie Zachodniej, lecz czynnik ten nie ma znaczenia w Europie Wschodniej, co wskazuje na ogólniejszą różnicę dotyczącą sensu samobójstwa.

  • 5.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Självmordens geografiska fördelning i Sverige2006In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, 251-268 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Självmordsdödligheten varierar mellan olika geografiska områden: mellan kontinenter och enstaka länder, mellan län och landsdelar, mellan kommuner och mellan stadsdelar, t o m mellan husen i samma stadsdel. Den aktuella presentationen fokuserar på att beskriva självmordens geografiska fördelning i Sverige. Eftersom det finns stora skillnader i mäns och kvinnors självmordsdödlighet, samt dödligheten i olika åldrar och med olika metoder, behandlas dessa i viss mån separat. Den statistik som analyseras kommer från databanken hos Nationellt centrum för suicidforskning och –prevention (NASP) . Den omfattar åren 2000-2002 och de angivna talen avser medelvärden för dessa tre år, de senaste för vilka detaljerad statistik fanns tillgänglig. Hela Sverige hade under perioden i genomsnitt 16.6 självmord per 100000 invånare årligen. Detta tal var som högst i Gotlands län (24.4) och lägst i Västerbotten (12.0). Det var högre än genomsnittet i Östergötland, Kronobergs, Blekinge och Skåne län samt i Värmland, Dalarna och Gävleborgs län, medan Västkusten, Jönköpings län, Södermanland och Norrbotten hade lägre än genomsnittliga tal. I historisk jämförelse är dagens fördelning mycket intressant. Självmordens gamla geografiska fördelning, har ändrat sig påtagligt sedan 1965 efter att ha varit mycket stabil i mer än 100 år. Korrelationen mellan 1830- och 2000-talens siffror är nu mycket låg (r=0.09), och den med 1960-talets tal (r=0.33) är inte heller den statistiskt signifikant vilket tyder på att en rumslig omorganisation har ägt rum. Det finns även en viss kontinuitet. Sålunda ligger t ex Skåne, Dalarna och Gävleborgs län fortfarande över riksgenomsnittet i självmord, och Jönköpings, Kalmar, Västra Götalands, Västerbottens och Norrbottens län ligger under det. Självmorden i Kronobergs län och på Gotland har emellertid ökat betydligt i relativt hänseende samtidigt som de har minskat drastiskt i Stockholms och Södermanlands län så att Stockholm nu ligger under riksgenomsnittet. Vidare har skillnaderna mellan länen fortsatt att jämnas ut. På 1830-talet var självmordstalet i Stockholms län nio gånger högre än i Västerbotten, och på 1960-talet nästan tre gånger så högt som i Kronobergs län som då låg sist; 2000-2002 är de ledande gotländska siffrorna bara dubbelt så höga som de västerbottniska.

  • 6.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide Mortality of Eastern European Regions before and after the Communist Period2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, no 2, 307-319 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of Eastern European suicide mortality both before and at the end of the Communist period, as well as the changes that occurred during this period.

    Regional data on suicide mortality were collected from Czarist “European Russia” in 1910 and from the corresponding area in 1989. The distribution of suicide mortality was mapped at both points in time. Regional continuity over time was further studied with the help of geographical units specially constructed for this purpose.

    In 1910, suicide mortality was found to be high in the northern Baltic provinces, in the urban parts of north and central Russia, the more urbanized parts of northern and western Poland, in east Ukraine, and in the northern Caucasus, while suicide rates were generally low in south Russia, Dagestan, and in southern Poland. In 1989, suicide mortality was highest in the Urals, the east Russian “ethnic” areas, and in southeast Russia. The rates were low in Poland, Moldavia, and in most of the northern Caucasus. The across-time analysis using specially constructed comparison units showed that the spatial distributions of suicide mortality in 1910 and 1989 were not correlated with each other. Additional analyses pointed to a short-term consistency of regional patterns both in the 1900s–1920s and the 1980s–1990s.

    The lack of regional continuity in suicide mortality in the area may imply an absence of strong and continuous regional cultures, or a strong influence of other factors, such as societal modernization, on suicide mortality. Suicide as an act changed its social nature during the Communist period, becoming more normal, and more equally distributed among social classes and geographical locations.

  • 7.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Unga kvinnors självmord i Sverige: höga tal i jämförelse med övriga Europa2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 102, no 23, 1835-1836 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel samlades in statistik om självmord bland unga (15-24 år) kvinnor från 28 europeiska länder under åren 1998-2002 . För att även kunna mäta den relativa (visavi unga män) förekomsten av självmord hade också den standardiserade andelen kvinnors självmord av alla självmord i ungdomsåldersgruppen uträknats.

    Det visade sig för det första, att även om självmordstalen för unga kvinnor i Sverige inte är höga i sig (5.2 per 100000, jämfört med ca 16 för hela befolkningen över 15 år), så är denna grupp problematisk dels eftersom den inte har haft samma klart sjunkande utveckling som andra grupper (med undantag av unga män), dels eftersom den i internationell jämförelse med samma grupper i andra länder visar sig vara i sämre position än den svenska befolkningen i stort. Dessa fakta ger båda för sig anledning att följa och analysera utveckligen och dess orsaker. En möjlig relaterad faktor är det att unga kvinnor leder statistiken över självmordsförsök. Man kan tänka sig att deras (relativt) ökande suicidalitet kunde egentligen ”bara” handla om att deras självmordsmetoder e d skulle ha ändrats så att deras suicidala beteende allt oftare skulle resultera i fullbordade självmord. Vi saknar dessvärre pålitlig historisk statistik över självmordsförsök för att kunna bedöma detta, och problemet, dödsfallen, försvinner inte heller med det.

  • 8.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Reitan, Therese C
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Note on the Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST)2006In: Social history (London), ISSN 0307-1022, E-ISSN 1470-1200, Vol. 31, no 2, 180-181 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, no 11, 2732-2741 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  • 10.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Alcohol and homicide in early 20th-century Russia2005In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, Vol. 32, no 4, 501-525 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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