This article investigates Dewey’s view of critical thinking as it appears in his How We Think. There, he distinguishes some key steps in the thinking process. It begins with a perceived difficulty, which we try to locate and propose a possible solution to, after which we examine and test the hypothesis, first in theory and then in practice, i.e. in an experimental corroboration. This conception of the thinking process follows a generalized, typical scientific working method. At the same time, however, Dewey tries to affirm and do justice to the relative, the particular and the individual, an endeavour that can be associated with the hermeneutic tradition. It is also in accordance with that tradition, as well as with Aristotle’s conception of phronesis, that Dewey stresses the importance of good judgement. In our schools, he maintains, we should try to promote good judgement, as well as critical thinking, on the part of students.