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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Forming and Communication of an Environmental Identity and Image: The Case of Riksbyggen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder demands on corporations to take environmental responsibilities are increasing and an environmentally responsible image could add values such as competitive advantage and a better reputation. To create a favorable image the corporation needs to develop a strong and sincere environmental identity that involves the whole organization. The identity is the way that the organization perceives itself and its self-expression and an environmental identity is one of the multiple identities that an organization can have. Communication is important both internally for establishing the identity and externally to create an environmentally responsible image. The organizational members need to be informed and involved in the responsibilities that the corporation is taken to be able to communicate them further to important external stakeholder groups. This thesis connects theories on corporate and organizational identities with organizational communication, culture and image to explain how the environmental identity and image is constructed. A case study has been conducted on a large Swedish company in the building and property management industry, Riksbyggen. The empirical material has mainly been gathered from interviews and also from participant observations. Nineteen employees and one consultant involved in the environmental communication process were interviewed individually or in focus group. The results showed that the case study organization had created a strong corporate environmental identity with clear visions and symbolic representations. However, the organizational environmental identity where the organizational members identify with the environmental activities was not yet developed fully. One reason behind this is the lack of dialogue opportunities in the organization, which means that the corporate identity is communicated from a top-down perspective. An environmentally responsible image was not established at organizational level either, even if some local initiatives had been successful.

  • 2.
    Afkari, Pegah
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Gregerson, Jenny
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Lokalbefolkning och turister - tillsammans eller separerade?: En studie om turismens sociokulturella effekter.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the host community of Tenerife perceives the socio-cultural effects of tourism on the island. The method chosen for the study was qualitative interviews which were performed with six respondents, each born in Spain, living permanently in Tenerife and employed within service-related occupations. The interview material was interpreted and handled according to a hermeneutic approach. The results of the study showed that the respondents had an over-all positive perception of tourism. Perceived positive socio-cultural effects were related to cultural and linguistic influences. Problems related to alcohol and community disorder were believed to be negative effects although they were not present to the same extent according to the respondents. The sociological theory “us and them” could be applied to this study since the locals chose to live and spend their free-time outside the tourist areas.

     

  • 3.
    Agaton, Stefan
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Östersjöledningen: En studie i åsikter och människors trygghetsupplevelse belyst av media2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Nord Stream natural gas pipeline has been a controversial project. The debate was primarily escalated by Poland's strong negative reaction to the project in the spring of 2006 over safety and security and then alternated back and forth in Europe until the approval by the nations most concerned in the Baltic region during the autumn of 2009.In the case study an approach is used that primarily maps out the media image of the various viewpoints that deal with the pipeline and how these viewpoints position themselves, primarily through political and environmental dimensions. Simultaneously there’s an attempt to map out the spatial spread of the media image views as to the proximity and distance to the pipeline in Sweden, Poland and Germany. A key question is whether distance or proximity to a large facility can affect people's attitudes.A parallel focus of the study is to explore the role of the Nord Stream natural gas pipeline in the cross-border hinterland region of Szczecin-Świnoujście. The complex cross-border relationship between Germany and Poland is characterized by the opportunities and obstacles to mobility & the potential of conflict between the needs of the individual vs. the state, partly due to an unbalanced hierarchy between the two nations.An understanding of the pipeline's impact on the border region is shown in part by an analysis of the city of Szczecin's theoretical potential in its hinterland, with special reference to the impact of the state boundary before and after Poland's entry into the European Union and the Schengen regime.Other contributions to the outline of this thesis deal partly with Medialisation and Framing, as the media-investigation in the study handles concerns, arguments and opinions about the pipeline-project, highlighted by the media. Another subject deals with risk assessment, as no one can be certain what will happen in case of an accident to the pipeline.A general concluding comment to the results of the media-investigation is that they are too parsimonious. However there are some assumptions to be made: In the resulting discussion it is argued, among other things, that from the political aspect both Poland and Sweden share a negative opinion towards the pipeline, while the opinion of German people appears positive to the project, according to the media viewpoints. From the environmentalaspect the over-all picture is that the opinions of the whole of Poland and the local levels of Germany and Sweden respectively (i.e. people living near the Nord Stream pipeline) are negative also – feel unsafe according to the project, due to the media viewpoints.A second assumption is that the media location does not play a major role in the way media coverage highlights the views of those for the pipeline or those against the pipeline.The overall impression is that the media coverage largely follows state affinities, in the sense that the relative openness of the argument that every state seems to represent, seems also to be reflected through media coverage in each state.The Nord Stream natural gas pipeline has been a controversial project. The debate was primarily escalated by Poland's strong negative reaction to the project in the spring of 2006 over safety and security and then alternated back and forth in Europe until the approval by the nations most concerned in the Baltic region during the autumn of 2009.In the case study an approach is used that primarily maps out the media image of the various viewpoints that deal with the pipeline and how these viewpoints position themselves, primarily through political and environmental dimensions. Simultaneously there’s an attempt to map out the spatial spread of the media image views as to the proximity and distance to the pipeline in Sweden, Poland and Germany. A key question is whether distance or proximity to a large facility can affect people's attitudes.A parallel focus of the study is to explore the role of the Nord Stream natural gas pipeline in the cross-border hinterland region of Szczecin-Świnoujście. The complex cross-border relationship between Germany and Poland is characterized by the opportunities and obstacles to mobility & the potential of conflict between the needs of the individual vs. the state, partly due to an unbalanced hierarchy between the two nations.An understanding of the pipeline's impact on the border region is shown in part by an analysis of the city of Szczecin's theoretical potential in its hinterland, with special reference to the impact of the state boundary before and after Poland's entry into the European Union and the Schengen regime.Other contributions to the outline of this thesis deal partly with Medialisation and Framing, as the media-investigation in the study handles concerns, arguments and opinions about the pipeline-project, highlighted by the media. Another subject deals with risk assessment, as no one can be certain what will happen in case of an accident to the pipeline.A general concluding comment to the results of the media-investigation is that they are too parsimonious. However there are some assumptions to be made: In the resulting discussion it is argued, among other things, that from the political aspect both Poland and Sweden share a negative opinion towards the pipeline, while the opinion of German people appears positive to the project, according to the media viewpoints. From the environmentalaspect the over-all picture is that the opinions of the whole of Poland and the local levels of Germany and Sweden respectively (i.e. people living near the Nord Stream pipeline) are negative also – feel unsafe according to the project, due to the media viewpoints.A second assumption is that the media location does not play a major role in the way media coverage highlights the views of those for the pipeline or those against the pipeline.The overall impression is that the media coverage largely follows state affinities, in the sense that the relative openness of the argument that every state seems to represent, seems also to be reflected through media coverage in each state.

  • 4. Agianian, Bogos
    et al.
    Lesch, Christine
    Loseva, Olga
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Preliminary characterization of hemolymph coagulation in Anopheles gambiae larvae2007In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 31, no 9, 879-888 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to injury, impeding infection, and ending bleeding. Little is known about its molecular basis in insects, but clotting factors have been identified in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we have begun to study coagulation in the aquatic larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae using methods developed for Drosophila. A delicate clot was seen by light microscopy, and pullout and proteomic analysis identified phenoloxidase and apolipophorin-I as major candidate clotting factors. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed clot formation and revealed it contains fine molecular sheets, most likely a result of lipophorin assembly. Phenoloxidase appears to be more critical in clot formation in Anopheles than in Drosophila. The Anopheles larval clot thus differs in formation, structure, and composition from the clot in Drosophila, confirming the need to study coagulation in different insect species to learn more about its evolution and adaptation to different lifestyles.

  • 5.
    Agnarson, Lars
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Estonia's health geography: West versus east - an ethnic approach2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to explore the social changes in relation to changes in mortality for the two largest ethnic groups in Estonia; ethnic Estonians and the Russian minority. Since this is a geographical essay, my purpose is also to explore these changes in relation to the country’s internal geography. As these changes appear over time in space, the content is partly rooted in a time geographical point of view. It is also rooted in a regional geographical point of view, since I have been comparing the mentioned changes between different areas in Estonia (with considerations on developments abroad).

    Two different development lines can be seen as a consequence of the social changes taking place in the 1990s. While the ethnic Estonians situation has improved, the Russian minority’s situation has instead declined regarding to social existence and health. As a result the mortality has increased enormously for the Russian minority. The ethnic Estonians had also a mortality increase in practically all studied causes of death in all studied areas, but this increase wasn’t as high as for the Russian minority. Nevertheless, when comparing two different counties with each other as well as with the country as whole, the pattern seems to be more complicated. The Russians living in the western county of Läänemaa, have been affected more favourably by the social change than those living in the north-eastern county of Ida-Virumaa. Except for mortality by alcohol poisoning, the Russians living in Läänemaa had a much lower mortality increase than those living in Ida-Viruma and even compared with the country as whole.

    It seems as those Russians living in the western parts of Estonia have been affected more favourably than those living in the north-eastern parts. These structures are very much depending on the history, since most of the Russians living in the north-eastern area immigrated during the Soviet era, while the western parts had a much earlier immigration of Russians. Considering the time and place of the Russian immigration, one can divide the Russian minority in two groups; those in the west, and those in the east.

  • 6.
    Ahlsén, Susanne
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Nyborg, Agnes
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kapitalstrukturpåverkande faktorers inverkan på skuldsättningsgraden: - En branschjämförelse2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Capital structure is without doubt one of the most frequently studied and controversial areas of modern financial theory, and will certainly continue to receive considerable attention from researchers worldwide. There is still no universal explanation of how an optimal capital structure would be designed for maximum appreciation, despite the development of several theories focusing on the subject. Equity and debt are the two main financing options that in combination explain the business's capital structure. The results of several research studies conducted in the subject has many times pointed out that there are specific factors that are directly related to the company's capital structure, and that there are clear sectoral differences in corporate debt. A study of the capital structure is considered important and interesting to implement due to the reasons above and the purpose of this study is to analyze and try to explain the similarities and differences between different industries in terms of how growth, profitability and size affect the debt level. The choice of these industries was with the intention to create large industry differences and with the expectation to find characteristics in the capital structure at a later comparison. 

    To achieve the study's aim, quantitative methods applied in which data was gathered from each company's financial statements. This was after statistical processing formed the basis for the study results and analysis. The results of the empirical data came to confirm the image depicted in publications and theories; the complexity of the subjects complicates the determination of the specific correlations. Factor impact and significance is often ambiguous and fails in its attempt to explain a relationship. However, what can be confirmed based on survey results, which also finds support from previous research, are the industry's internal influences prevailing at the factors influencing capital structure context.

  • 7.
    Ahlén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Rural Member-Based Microfinance Institutions: A field study assessing the impacts of SACCOS and VICOBA in Babati district, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance has spread rapidly since the 1970s and gained a lot of international attention. Advocates mean it is a good way to reduce poverty, but still there is no consensus within the research about the impacts of microfinance and its contribution to poverty reduction.The aim of this study is to assess the members’ perceptions about the impacts of the rural member-based microfinance institutions (MFIs), Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) and Village Community Bank (VICOBA), on members’ socio-economic situation as well as their perceptions about the contribution to poverty reduction and to identify potential obstacles. The study is mainly based on individual semi-structured interviews with members of SACCOS and VICOBA conducted between February and April 2012 in Babati district Tanzania and earlier research and studies within the area of microfinance and poverty reduction make up the theoretical framework. There is a general agreement among the members interviewed that these MFIs have positive impacts on their socio-economic situation. The results show that it helps to meet consumption needs, pay school fees, run small businesses, increase and diversify the income and the majority also believes that it can be a useful tool for poverty reduction. However, it doesn’t lead to poverty reduction automatically, it depends on how the loans are used and this study identifies several obstacles for SACCOS and VICOBA to be more effective and contribute more to poverty reduction. The main obstacles found are low repayment status, lack of capital and lack of education in both entrepreneurship and how these MFIs operate.

  • 8.
    Al, Roza
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Klimatneutrala företag - kan IT minska utsläppen?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attention on environmental issues has never been as huge as today. The climate is changing and more and more evidence suggest that the cause behind climate changes is an increase of carbondioxide into the atmosphere. The increase in turn is considerd to be an act of human activity. Therefore some companies have decided to become climate neutral and implement information technology in their business in order to reduce their emissions. This thesis has three aimes: to calculate a small company´s carbondioxide emissions, study whether or not information technology could help to reduce these emissions and furthermore find out why some companies decided to become climate neutral and describe the concept climate neutral. The results show that if information technology is used properly and effectively there are great potential to reduce the emissions, especially emissions from transportation sector. Now that the environment issues has become number one in the news and in the political agenda many companies try to cut their emissions, which is why some companies decided to take one step further and become climate neutral. Most of the companies see this action as a necessity in order to survive in a high competitive market. By doing so, they get more PR and more credit from both their investers and custumers. That is also why GreenIT´s carbondioxide emissions where calculated here. GreenIT have intentions in becoming climate neutral and in order to becoming one they have to reduce their remaining emissions by investing in projects in developing countries. As GreenIT is a small company they don´t have large emissions to reduce. This action will not cost them much but will probably give them an advantage in the market and credit from other investors and customers.

  • 9.
    Alam, Sadaf Sakina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Determination of gp120 & Trx80 dependent production of hydrogen peroxide in cell free & cell-dependent systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen specie (ROS), is most commonly associated with oxidative stress causing cytotoxic effects on living cells. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. In addition H2O2 is produced as a defense mechanism against pathogens, as being released by activated phagocytes. In recent years, H2O2 has become established as an important regulator of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Hydrogen peroxide is generated both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to various stimuli including cytokines and growth factors. There are different mechanisms by which H2O2 is generated, facilitating signal transduction in cells; through NOX-system in miyochondria, via singlet oxygen, receptor/ligand interaction or by redox active metal ions. The HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) is associated with HIV dementia and it is known as a neurotoxin that causes neuronal damage. It has been proposed that free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis caused by gp120. In addition the truncated form of thioredoxin (Trx80) is known to stimulate HIV replication in HIV infected cells, however, the exact mechanism is not known. A possible way both proteins may mediate their activity is by inducing H2O2 production. The aim of this study was to investigate H2O2 production induced by the proteins gp120 and Trx80. In order to detect H2O2 production an assay based on the fluorescent compound Amplex Red, was established. The assay was used to detect H2O2 released by gp120 and Trx80 in a cell-free environment, in a cell-system and in the presence of metal ions (copper ions) with a physiological reductant (ascorbate). We did not detect H2O2 production induced by gp120 and Trx80 respectively, using our assay, however, other ROS such as hydroxyl radicals may have been generated although they were not detectable with our method. Hence, further studies are needed in order to fully understand how gp120 and Trx80 mediate their activity.

  • 10.
    Alersjö, Anneli
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Myndigheter för hållbar utveckling: En studie av myndigheters miljölednignssystem 20052006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agencies towards Sustainable Development – A Study of Environmental Management Systems in Governmental Agencies 2005

    A vision of the Swedish government is to build an ecologically sustainable society. A tool in this effort is to implement environmental management systems (EMS). The aim of the thesis is to present in which phase of the implementation of EMS Swedish governmental agencies are. This will be done by compilation and evaluation of agencies’ yearly environmental reports.

    The thesis is written in co-operation with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Swedish EPA). Swedish EPA has the responsibility to coordinate and drive forward the development of environmental management systems. The thesis is therefore a scientific tool to evaluate how the government’s decision, that governmental agencies have to implement an EMS, is fulfilled.

    Keywords: Sustainable development, environmental management systems, governmental agencies, environmental report.

  • 11.
    Ali, Fatma
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Eritreaner och etiopier i Kairo2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Ali, Fuad
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Developing electroporation as a method to obtain Stable Transformation in Drosophila melanogaster2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project I have tried to obtain stable transformants of Drosophila melanogaster flies using electroporation. I have completed approximately 200 tests using different DNA concentrations, voltages and cuvettes, including a novel Petri dish cuvette which I developed and manufactured myself. I also developed new and more efficient procedures of egg collection and egg dechorionation. Although I was not  successful in obtaining true stable transformants, control experiments indicate that electroporation of DNA into embryos could be accomplished under the conditions used. The lack of stable transformants was probably due to failure of the electroporated DNA to integrate into the host genome. The reasons for why the DNA did not integrate was not further investigated in this study.

  • 13.
    Alkemar, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ribosome and ribosomal RNA Structure: An experimental and computational analysis of expansion segments in eukaryotic ribosomal RNA2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes which incorporate amino acids into peptide chains during translational process in all types of living cells. The eukaryotic ribosome is larger compared to its prokaryotic counterpart. The size differences are due to a larger protein part and that the rRNA contains eukaryote specific expansion segments (ES). Cryo-EM reconstruction has visualized many ES on the ribosomal surface which have given clues about function and structural features. However, the secondary structures of most ES are unknown or ill defined. In this thesis, the secondary and also to a certain extent the tertiary structures of several ES are determined by using computational methods and biochemical experimental techniques. The juxtaposition of ES6 close to ES3 in the Cryo-EM image of the yeast ribosome suggested that ES3 and ES6 might interact. A computational analysis of more than 2900 sequences shows that a complementary helical region of seven to nine contiguous base pairs can form between ES3 and ES6 in almost all analyzed sequences. Biochemical in situ experiments support the proposed interaction. Secondary structure models are presented for ES3 and ES6 in 18S rRNA and ES39 in 28S rRNA, where homologous structural elements could be modeled in the experimentally analyzed ribosomes from fungi, plants and mammals. The structure models were further supported by computational methods where the ES6 structure and the ES39 structure could be formed in more than 6000 and 900 sequences respectively. A tertiary structure model of ES3 and ES6 including the helical interaction is presented. An in vitro transcribed and folded ES6 sequence differed from that observed in situ, suggesting that chaperones, ribosomal proteins, and/or the tertiary rRNA interaction could be involved in the in vivo folding of ES6. An analysis of the similarities between ES39 structures suggests that it might be under selective constraint to preserve its secondary structure.

  • 14.
    Alkemar, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Probing the secondary structure of expansion segment ES6 in 18S ribosomal RNA2006In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 45, no 26, 8067-8078 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion segment ES6 in 18S ribosomal RNA is, unlike many other expansion segments, present in all eukaryotes. The available data suggest that ES6 is located on the surface of the small ribosomal subunit. Here we have analyzed the secondary structure of the complete ES6 sequence in intact ribosomes from three eukaryotes, wheat, yeast, and mouse, representing different eukaryotic kingdoms. The availability of the ES6 sequence for modification and cleavage by structure sensitive chemicals and enzymatic reagents was analyzed by primer extension and gel electrophoresis on an ABI 377 automated DNA sequencer. The experimental results were used to restrict the number of possible secondary structure models of ES6 generated by the folding software MFOLD. The modification data obtained from the three experimental organisms were very similar despite the sequence variation. Consequently, similar secondary structure models were obtained for the ES6 sequence in wheat, yeast, and mouse ribosomes. A comparison of sequence data from more than 6000 eukaryotes showed that similar structural elements could also be formed in other organisms. The comparative analysis also showed that the extent of compensatory base changes in the suggested helices was low. The in situ structure analysis was complemented by a secondary structure analysis of wheat ES6 transcribed and folded in vitro. The obtained modification data indicate that the secondary structure of the in vitro transcribed sequence differs from that observed in the intact ribosome. These results suggest that chaperones, ribosomal proteins, and/or tertiary rRNA interactions could be involved in the in vivo folding of ES6.

  • 15.
    Alkemar, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Comparative analysis of rRNA sequences from the large ribosomal subunit of more than 900 eukaryotic species reveals structural similarities in expansion segment ES39.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16. Alonzo, Frederic
    et al.
    Hertel-Aas, T.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilbin, R.
    Oughton, D. H.
    Garnier-Laplace, J.
    Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, 1464-1473 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h(-1)). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h(-1). In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h(-1)), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  • 17.
    Anderson, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Women's education at The Open University of Tanzania - a road to development?:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the importance of higher education for women of Babati, Tanzania. The research has been carried out by focusing three research questions; What does an education at the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) mean for the female students on a personal level? What is the female students’ perception on the importance of women’s higher education for development? How can the female students’ perceptions on the importance of women’s higher education be analyzed within the context of the term women empowerment?

    In order to answer these questions semi-structured interviews were conducted in Babati town, Tanzania in February 2012 with female students and graduates of the Open University of Tanzania. Out of these interviews is concluded that higher education has significant personal effects for the women interviewed such as increased happiness, independence and self-esteem, which in turn have effects on development. Also it can be shown that the definition of the term women empowerment is disputed and thereby insufficient as a mean for development.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Annika
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Studies on neurogenesis in the adult human brain2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies on neurogenesis in adult dentate gyrus (DG) have been performed on rodents and other mammalian species, but only a few on adult human DG.  This study is focusing on neurogenesis in adult human DG. To characterize the birth of cells in DG, the expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 was examined using immunohistochemistry. Ki67-positive labelling was indeed observed in the granular cell layer and the molecular layer of dentate gyrus and in the hilus of hippocampus, as well as in the subgranular zone (SGZ). The Ki67 positive nuclei could be divided into three groups, based on their morphology and position, suggesting that one of the groups represents neuronal precursors. Fewer Ki67 positive cells were seen in aged subjects and in subjects with an alcohol abuse. When comparing the Ki67 positive cells and the amount of blood vessels as determined by anti factor VIII, no systematic pattern could be discerned. To identify possible stem/progenitor cells in DG a co-labelling with nestin and glial fibrillary acid protein was carried out. Co-labelling was found in the SGZ, but most of the filaments were positive for just one of the two antibodies. Antibodies to detect immature/mature neurons were also used to investigate adult human neurogenesis in DG. The immature marker βIII-tubulin showed a weak expression. The other two immature markers (PSA-NCAM and DCX) used did not work, probably since they were not cross-reacting against human tissue. In summary, this study shows that new cells are continuously formed in the adult human hippocampus, but at a slower pace compared to the rat, and that some of these new cells may represent neuronal precursors.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Järnåldersboplatser och historiska byar: En studie av agrara bebyggelsemönster i mälarbygder under 1500 år2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following paper deals with the questions about prehistorian and medieval settlements in the Mälar Valley and their relations to the historically known hamlets or single farmsteads from the 17th- and 18th-century cadastral maps. Models over settlement development through the period A.D 200 to 1700 done by geographers Ulf Sporrong and Dan Carlsson are tested and compared to the knowledge won by recent archaeological excavations. Is there a connection between the older settlements linked together by dry-stone walls and the late Iron Age settlements? Does the picture differ from the one presented for the Gotland region? How well are the general theories about different settlement development depending on basic natural conditions as for the potentials for cultivation and topography, corresponding to the physical remains?  Are there other factors involved when the settlement structure takes its form?

    The methods that are used here constitutes mainly of a comparison between different locations in the Mälar Valley that has got a well known prehistory thanks to extensive archaeological excavations. Cadastral maps, soilmaps, topography maps and maps over ancient monuments are intertwined to the same map and analyzed through works in Geographical information systems.

    The results of this study reveal an interesting suspicion in the continuity-question through the Iron Age. Certain settlements seem to be more stable than what was earlier assumed in the general models. This occurrence of continuous use of sites must also be seen in a spatial context and not only a pattern formed by randomly chosen locations. The research has shown that it may be connected to the local political power in the Iron Age community. Related to this are also the different settlement forms where more than one unit occurs on a site. Concerning the different natural landscapes both disparities and similarities are found when it comes to the development that precedes the given situation on the cadastral maps. The conclusion is that the recent archaeological excavations definitely have shown us a more complex situation than what was once outlined in the early years of landscape archaeology.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Impact of the European Water Framework Directive on local-level water management: Case study Oxunda Catchment, Sweden2012In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 29, no 1, 73-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union provides a common framework for water policy that focuses on holistic and integrated water management in river basins. In many member states, implementation of the WFD has shifted the main responsibility for local water issues from the municipal level to the regional or supra-regional levels. In this study, we investigated how the implementation of the WFD has influenced local-level water management including the interpretation of the new environmental quality standards. Specifically, we considered Sweden, which has traditionally had relatively strong governance at the municipal level. Because a sufficient amount of time has now passed for evaluation of WFD-related effects on operational water handling, we interviewed individuals directly involved in water planning and land use planning at the municipal level in one sub catchment in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District of Sweden, as well as representatives for superior levels and associations. Despite divergent views regarding the priority of water issues in physical planning among the local-level planners interviewed, they had all participated in successful inter-municipal pre-WFD collaboration projects. Although such collaborations could help increase the understanding and acceptance of WFD-related goals and costs, as well as facilitate conflict solving, as shown in the Oxunda Catchment, they have not gained much attention in the WFD implementation process. Additionally, physical planners have generally been reluctant to accept new environmental quality standards resulting from WFD implementation, in part because they lack precise definitions, but also because they could challenge the municipal routine of weighing various objectives against each other. Furthermore, despite WFD-related increases in ambition levels, lack of resource improvements at the municipal level were identified as potential problems by local environmental planners.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, Lärarutbildningen.
    Öhman, Johan
    Östman, Leif
    A business to change the world: Moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics2011In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 20, no 1, 79-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for the environment and society. The purpose is to analyze the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility in order to obey laws and respond to consumer demands, a second and third meanings imply that, a business can make demands, to different extents, on subcontractors. A fourth meaning include that a business (apart from making profit) also can be a tool for change. The different meanings are discussed in relation to different functions of education (Biesta 2008, Säfström 2005) and Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument is that a tool for change-meaning, contributing to a subjectification function of education, ought to have an increased space in education, if we want students who are engaged in sustainability issues regarding the environment and the society also to see a future working within the business world. This is equally important if we want business students to see a future working for sustainable development.

  • 22.
    Andersson Wargert, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    GIS - A Potential Tool for Development in Babati2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Geographical Information System (GIS) is a popular tool among landscape plannersas well as administration departments on both local as well as national level. It is asystem that can store and manipulate spatial data and its potential has increased ascomputers have grown to be more and more sophisticated. However the system is notwithout its controversy. Maps and geographical information has been accused of helpinggovernment maintaining its power thus leading to increased surveillance in society. As arespond to this critique Public Participatory Geographical Information System (PPGIS)was developed. PPGIS quickly grew and has been implemented in a wide variety ofprojects. The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent these aspect plays a partin the implementation of GIS and PPGIS in Babati, Tanzania. More specifically, couldBabati handle a complex and resource demanding system such as GIS? To clarify howGIS could play a beneficial part in Babati development, a high rate in population growthas well as department clashes will be illustrating examples. In Babati there have beenrepeatedly conflicts between the water department and the Babati town council and someof them are directly related to communication issues. A hypothesis suggests that GIS haspotential in creating cohesion and a communication tool operating through geographicaldata. In generally results show that GIS could lead to better development, but at the sametime risk alienating people from participating in the decision making. Consequently ifGIS would be effective in Babati, it would have to be adapted to the region it is appliedto, funded on the towns’ resources and knowledge. If it does not it risks failing in thelong term as well as not living up to expected standard. PPGIS could possibly avoid someof the issues that might appear when implementing GIS but it is unlikely that it has all theanswers. PPGIS can improve the situation for marginalized people but a societyundemocratic issue is more likely to stem from several of different aspects.

  • 23.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Reflektioner från BERINGIA 2005: en svensk polarforskningsexpedition till Kamtjatka2008In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, 113-151 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Clarke, Annemarie
    Telford, Richard
    Weckström, Kaarina
    Vilbaste, Sirje
    Aigars, Juris
    Conley, Daniel
    Johnsen, Torbjørn
    Juggins, Steve
    Korhola, Atte
    Defining Reference Conditions for Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of DEFINE is to provide a methodology to define reference conditions for nutrient concentrations in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. This will aid the national authorities that surround the Baltic basin in implementing the EU's Water Framework Directive (WFD) by providing decision-makers with a methodology to assess reference conditions and the degree of past and present departure from this state, such that appropriate policy and management measures can be taken at national and European levels. DEFINE adopts a palaeoecological approach grounded on diatom-based transfer functions, which can then be applied to define background total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in estuaries and coastal areas over the entire Baltic Sea. All transfer functions and necessary supporting documentation will be publicly available as a coherent management tool and accessible via the MOLTEN/DEFINE web page (http://craticula.ncl.ac.uk/Molten/jsp/).

  • 25.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Baltic Sea Basin, since the latest deglaciation2012In: Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs / [ed] Lars Bengtsson, Reginald W. Herschy, Rhodes W. Fairbridge, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, 95-102 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Berglund, Björn E.
    Lund University.
    Yu, Shi-Yong
    University of Minnesota.
    New insights on the Yoldia Sea low stand in the Blekinge archipelago, southern Baltic Sea2007In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, Vol. 129, no 4, 277-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One sediment core from the Jarnavik bay in Blekinge archipelago has been investigated for its content of pollen and diatoms and its chemical properties. Two levels were also dated by radiocarbon. Based on the results the sediment sequence analysed has been divided into three environmental units largely corresponding to the lithology of the sequence. A lowermost unit consisting of weakly varved and homogeneous clay was deposited during the end of the brackish phase of the Yoldia Sea at a moderate water depth. On top of this unit a gyttja-clay unit was deposited. The onset of the deposition of this unit has been dated to c. 11 100 cal. yrs. BP. An increasing organic production and increased terrestrial influence is recorded in the chemical data and a very shallow water depth is indicated in the pollen and diatom flora. These results point to conditions in a bay probably isolated from the Yoldia Sea. A local tentative shore displacement curve have been constructed and it is proposed that this unit represents the low stand at c. -18 m during the Yoldia Sea stage in this part of the Baltic Sea basin. The uppermost unit consists of homogeneous clay with a low content of organic carbon. An increasing water depth is indicated by the composition of both pollen and diatoms. The diatom flora also displays an increase in freshwater species. This environmental change was probably the result of a transgression in the beginning of the Ancylus Lake stage.

  • 27.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Omstedt, Anders
    Östersjön förändras ständigt2005In: Upsala nya tidning, ISSN 1104-0173, no 8/6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Barker Jørgensen, Bo
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Cotterill, Carlo
    British Geological Survey, UK.
    Morgan, Sally
    University of Leicester, UK.
    IODP Expedition 347:Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle2012In: ECORD Newsletter, ISSN 2264-1556, no 19, 14-15, 23 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Björck, S
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Conley, D J
    Lambeck, K
    Zillén, L
    The development of the Baltic Sea basin during the last 130 000 years2011In: The Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] Jan Harff, Svante Björck, Peer Hoth, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 75-97 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jørgensen, B. B.
    Aarhus Universit, Denmark.
    Cotterill, C.
    British Geological Survey, UK.
    Baltic Sea Basin Paleoenvironment: paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle2012Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Vinlandet Sverige - konsumtionen, produktionen och framtida förutsättningar2011In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, 121-146 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ansari, Saadia
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Konkursprediktioner inom olika branscher: Nyckeltal som verktyg för att föturse en konkurs2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Antonsson, Rositha
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Nucleophilic aromatic substitutions using ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate as nucleophile: Scope and limitations2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The scope and limitations of nucleophilic substitutions of aryl halides have been studied using ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate as nucleophile and microwave heating. A diversity of aromatic compounds have been investigated according to different types of leaving groups, regio isomers and substituents. Experimental design has been used as a tool to optimize the reaction. An electron-withdrawing group in ortho or para position of the leaving group proved to be necessary for a positive outcome of the reaction. Fluorine was, without competition, the best leaving group. Some examples of how the synthesized aryl sulfanyl propionates can be used as starting material for producing aryl thio ethers, sulfoxides and unique benzothiophenes are described.

  • 34.
    Anyango, Carren
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Klamydiainfektioner i Sverige : Kan en geografisk analys förklara det rumsliga mönstret?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection. The infection rates have increased in the last decade. During 2008 the trend rates declined in all counties and regions in Sweden. Chlamydia infections have a geographical spatial pattern differences. This is seen from the national surveillance data report from the Swedish Institute for infectious disease control (SMI). The overall aim with the study is to conduct a geographical analysis of Chlamydia infections and explain the differences in the spatial pattern. The study is limited to the counties and a region that have been using Becton Dickinson laboratorial analysis methods. The study is based on statistics on Chlamydia infections incidence rates, from the SMI. The statistics did raise questions regarding the spatial patterns differences. Therefore some of the chosen counties and region were contacted through both telephone and email. Further information search was conducted on internet sites for some of the government authorities: The National Board of Health and Welfare, Swedish National Institute of Public Health etc. The mentioned authorities along with the SMI, play important roles in the area of sexually transmitted infections (STI).

    Geographical spatial pattern differences of Chlamydia in the chosen counties and region can be explained on the basis of several factors. Statistics have been influenced by the fact that individuals have tested themselves in other areas/locations and not the locations where they have their permanent addresses (home areas). The quantities of taken samples and the effectiveness regarding the processes taken to reduce Chlamydia infections have led to detection of several cases and control of further infections. The public has more place access and opportunities of carrying out the tests (both in the region, the counties and through internet). The possibility to conduct detailed geographical studies has been limited because of the missing data at the municipality level. However, the study has raised questions that need further analysis. The previous research of Chlamydia infections has shown that other countries for example USA have succeeded in conducting detailed research studies of Chlamydia infections by using  geographic information systems (GIS) methods. Are there possibilities to conduct such research in Sweden with the current Swedish statistics on Chlamydia infections?

     

  • 35.
    Arabi, Azadeh
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Regulation of the ribosomal RNA transcription by c-MYC oncoprotein2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor c-Myc is a key regulator of growth and proliferation. c-Myc levels are tightly controlled and deregulated c-Myc is often associated with human cancers. In our initial studies we observed that upon inhibition of proteasomes, excess c-Myc accumulates primarily in the nucleoli. After further investigation we could show that c-Myc binds to and activates RNA polymerase I-mediated transcription of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes located in the nucleoli and that proteasomes are involved in this process. We demonstrate that upon an increase in c-Myc levels through either inhibition of the proteasomes or high expression, c-Myc accumulates in the nucleoli. The dynamics of the nucleoplasmic and the nucleolar c-Myc was studied in living cells expressing GFP-fused cMyc using the Fluorescent loss in photo-bleaching and the Fluorescent recovery after photobleaching techniques. We show that c-Myc is relatively stably associated with the nucleoli. In addition, we show that proteasomes accumulate and co-localise with nucleolar c-Myc. We further investigate the function of c-Myc in the nucleoli and show that c-Myc and Max interact in the nucleoli and are associated with the ribosomal DNA. Upon mitogenic stimulation of quiescent human lymphocytes c-Myc is recruited to the rRNA genes together with pol I. Association of c-Myc with the rDNA is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA histone acetylation and activation of rRNA transcription. Inhibition of c-Myc inhibits rRNA transcription. These results suggest that c-Myc plays a key role in regulating ribosome biogenesis and thus cell growth. We also show that proteasomes are required for activation of rRNA transcription, even though c-Myc levels increase in response to reduced proteasome activity. The role of proteasomes in rDNA transcription remains to be determined. We also investigate the role of c-Myc in regulation of the nucleolar organisation and induction of nucleolar alterations in cancer cells. Several types of human cancers with nucleolar alterations including cancers of blood, prostate and breast are also associated with deregulated levels of c-Myc. However, it is not known whether c-Myc contributes to the induction of nucleolar changes in these cancers. We show that despite high levels, c-Myc does not accumulate in the nucleoli in lymphoma and breast cancer cell lines. This is intriguing since nucleolar accumulation of excess c-Myc in other cell lines is associated with inhibition of rRNA transcription.

  • 36.
    Arabi, Azadeh
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Berkson, Rachel
    Wright, Anthony P.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Regulation of the nucleolar structure by the oncoprotein c-Myc and proteasomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Arabi, Azadeh
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Wu, Siqin
    SLU.
    Ridderstråle, Karin
    SLU.
    Bierhoff, Holger
    German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Shiue, Chiounan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Fatyol, Karoly
    German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fahlén, Sara
    SLU.
    Hydbring, Per
    SLU.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Uppsala universitet.
    Grummt, Ingrid
    German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    SLU.
    Wright, Anthony P H
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    c-Myc associates with ribosomal DNA and activates RNA polymerase I transcription2005In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, E-ISSN 1476-4679, Vol. 7, no 3, 303-310 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The c-Myc oncoprotein regulates transcription of genes that are associated with cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis(1). c-Myc levels are modulated by ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation(1). Proteasome inhibition leads to c-Myc accumulation within nucleoli(2), indicating that c-Myc might have a nucleolar function. Here we show that the proteins c-Myc and Max interact in nucleoli and are associated with ribosomal DNA. This association is increased upon activation of quiescent cells and is followed by recruitment of the Myc cofactor TRRAP, enhanced histone acetylation, recruitment of RNA polymerase I (Pol I), and activation of rDNA transcription. Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against c-Myc and an inhibitor of Myc - Max interactions, we demonstrate that c-Myc is required for activating rDNA transcription in response to mitogenic signals. Furthermore, using the ligand-activated MycER ( ER, oestrogen receptor) system, we show that c-Myc can activate Pol I transcription in the absence of Pol II transcription. These results suggest that c-Myc coordinates the activity of all three nuclear RNA polymerases, and thereby plays a key role in regulating ribosome biogenesis and cell growth.

  • 38.
    Aram, Miriam
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Maternal care and mortality: Measuring quality and access in Babati2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies women’s experience of maternal care in Babati, Tanzania and possible reason for Tanzania’s high level of maternal mortality. Globally, every year more than 500,000 women die during pregnancy or deliveries, and 90 percent of these deaths occur in Africa and Asia. The deaths are often of the preventable kind. The purpose is to investigate what makes the maternal care result in high mortality and if under registration of deaths could affect it somehow. The study’s empirical part is conducted through a fieldwork in Babati during the spring semester in 2009 where mothers and health personnel were interviewed. The interviews consisted of semi-structured one on one and group sessions. The interviewed mothers were satisfied with the care received and stated that both accessibility and availability of maternal care was good. One of the possible solutions to the high ratio of maternal mortality is that Tanzanian women visit antenatal services later than recommended and that the access to emergency obstetric care is not always good. Further, it is likely that underregistration of maternal death is present in Tanzania, an issue that must be dealt with in order to receive accurate statistics and by that enable interventions targeted into lowering the maternal mortality.

  • 39. Archer, Amena
    et al.
    Lauter, Gilbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Mode, Agneta
    Gustafsson, Jan-Ake
    Transcriptional activity and developmental expression of liver X receptor (lxr) in zebrafish2008In: Developmental Dynamics, ISSN 1058-8388, E-ISSN 1097-0177, Vol. 237, no 4, 1090-1098 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian liver-X-receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors activated by oxysterols. They play an essential role in lipid and glucose metabolism. We have cloned the open reading frame of zebrafish lxr and describe its genomic organization. Zebrafish lxr encodes a 50-kDa protein with high sequence similarity to mammalian LXR alpha. In transfection assays, the encoded protein showed transcriptional activity in response to LXR-ligands. Treatment of adult zebrafish with the synthetic LXR ligand, GW3965, induced expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol and lipid pathways. Using qPCR and in situ hybridization, we found ubiquitous expression of lxr mRNA during the first 24 hr of development, followed by more restricted expression, particularly to the liver at 3dpf and the liver and intestine at 4dpf. In adult fish, all examined organs expressed lxr. In addition to a metabolic role of lxr, the temporal expression pattern suggests a developmental role in, e.g., the liver and CNS.

  • 40.
    Archer, Amena
    et al.
    BioNut, Karolinska Institutet.
    Srinivas Kitambi, Satish
    BioNut, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Pedrelli, Matteo
    BioNut, Laboratoriemedicin, Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Mode, Agneta
    BioNut, Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Åke
    BioNut, Karolinska Institutet; Dept. Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston.
    The Liver X-Receptor (Lxr) Governs Lipid Homeostasis in Zebrafish during Development2012In: Open journal of endocrine and metabolic diseases, ISSN 2165-7424, Vol. 2, no 4, 74-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liver-X-receptors (LXRs) act as cholesterol sensors and participate in the regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the role of LXR during development using the zebrafish model. By in situ hybridization we showed distinct expression of lxr in the brain and the retina in the developing and adult zebrafish. Lxr ligand activation affected the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in zebrafish adult brain and eye as well as in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino knock down of lxr resulted in an overall impaired lipid deposition as determined by oil red O staining particularly in the head and around the eyes, and to significantly elevated levels of both total and free cholesterol in the yolk of lxr morphant embryos. The expression of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism was also changed in the lxr morphants. Furthermore, alcian blue staining revealed malformation of the pharyngeal skeleton in the lxr morphant. Our data show that Lxr is an important component of the regulatory network governing the lipid homeostasis during zebrafish development, which in turn may support a role of Lxr for normal development of the central nervous sytem, including the retina.

  • 41. Arnqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Persson, Mattias
    Jonsson, Lisbeth
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Dutta, Paresh C.
    Sitbon, Folke
    Overexpression of CYP710A1 and CYP710A4 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants increases the level of stigmasterol at the expense of sitosterol2008In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 227, no 2, 309-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sitosterol and stigmasterol are major sterols in vascular plants. An altered stigmasterol:sitosterol ratio has been proposed to influence the properties of cell membranes, particularly in relation to various stresses, but biosynthesis of stigmasterol is poorly understood. Recently, however, Morikawa et al. (Plant Cell 18:1008-1022, 2006) showed in Arabidopsis thaliana that synthesis of stigmasterol and brassicasterol is catalyzed by two separate sterol C-22 desaturases, encoded by the genes CYP710A1 and CYP710A2, respectively. The proteins belong to a small cytochrome P450 subfamily having four members, denoted by CYP710A1-A4, and are related to the yeast sterol C-22 desaturase Erg5p acting in ergosterol synthesis. Here, we report on our parallel investigation of the Arabidopsis CYP710A family. To elucidate the function of CYP710A proteins, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated overexpressing CYP710A1 and CYP710A4. Compared to wild-type plants, both types of transformant displayed a normal phenotype, but contained increased levels of free stigmasterol and a concomitant decrease in the level of free sitosterol. CYP710A1 transformants also displayed higher levels of esterified forms of stigmasterol, cholesterol, 24-methylcholesterol and isofucosterol. The results confirm the findings of Morikawa et al. (Plant Cell 18:1008-1022, 2006) regarding the function of CYP710A1 in stigmasterol synthesis, and show that CYP710A4 also has this capacity. Furthermore, our results suggest that an increased stigmasterol level alone is sufficient to stimulate esterification of other major sterols.

  • 42. Arup, Ulf
    et al.
    Ekman, Stefan
    Fröberg, Lars
    Frödén, Patrik
    Knutsson, Tommy
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lindblom, Louise
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Thell, Arne
    Westberg, Martin
    Professor Ingvar Karnefelt - a birthday tribute2009In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 41, 453-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Arup, Ulf
    et al.
    Ekman, Stefan
    Grube, Martin
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Wedin, Mats
    The sister group relation of Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)2007In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 99, no 1, 42-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) is possibly the largest, best known and most thoroughly studied lichen family within its order. Despite this fact the relationship between Parmeliaceae and other groups in Lecanorales is still poorly known. The aim of the present study is to contribute to finding the sister group of Parmeliaceae as an aid in future studies on the phylogeny and character evolution of the group. We do this by sampling all potential relatives to the Parmeliaceae that we have identified, i.e. Cypsoplaca, Japewia, Mycoblastus, Protoparmelia, and Tephromela, a good representation of the major groups within the Parmeliaceae s. lat. and a good representation of other taxa in the core Lecanorales. We use molecular data from two genes, the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nrLSU) and the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (mrSSU), and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The results show that the closest relatives to Parmeliaceae are the two genera Protoparmelia and Gypsoplaca, which are crustose lichens. Parmeliaceae in our sense is a well supported group, including also the family segregates Alectoriaceae, Hypogymniaceae, Usneaceae and Anziaceae.

  • 44.
    Ashkan Far, Mino
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    The Joint Forest Management of Ufiome Forest Reserve and Sustainable Development: A case study in Babati District, Tanzania2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this Bachelor Thesis is to study the participatory forest management of Ufiome Forest Reserve in Babati, Tanzania. Further the aim is to determine whether the Joint Forest Management of Ufiome can be considered as a part of a sustainable development. The concept of Sustainable Development is discussed in relation to the forest management of Ufiome. Through the method of semi-structured interviews during a 3 week field study in Babati District, Tanzania, came the conclusion that the Joint Forest Management of Ufiome was considered successful in conserving the forest and the ecosystem of which it holds in an effective way. Benefits such as access to water and more fodder and fruits are brought up. However in relation to the concept of the three spheres of Sustainable Development, the ecologic, social and economic, the success was not as apparent. Development of a sustainable character needs to exist in all the spheres. Economically, little to no financial gain or stimulation was evident. Although the social status has gone up in general in the District and in the villages, the process is slow. People are starting to notice a change in the villages due to the forest management. With this in mind the Joint Forest Management of Ufiome, although successful, has its flaws and needs to further develop. Informants for this thesis consist of local villagers in the area of Ufiome forest and District Officials, the majority of which share hope and a strong belief that such conservation strategies as that of the Joint Forest Management of Ufiome is a clear step in the right direction for a sustainable future.

  • 45.
    Ask, Katarina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunikationens påverkan på Natura 2000-processen: en fallstudie av sjön Båven2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arbetet med att bevara världens biologiska mångfald befinner sig fortfarande i sitt inledningsskede. Den Europeiska Unionen har upprättat ett projekt, Natura 2000, för att säkerhetsställa statusen av hotade arter och habitatstyper inom unionens gränser.

    I denna uppsats utvärderas kommunikations- och informationstillgången för berörda parter, samt resultaten därav, för Natura 2000-arbetet inom Båven i Södermanlands län, Sverige. Underliggande åsikter och konflikter i området lyfts fram för att förklara svårigheterna med att implementera direktivet i en region med många motstridiga intressen och involverade parter. Vidare strävar undersökningen att avslöja om implementeringsfasen har lett till svårigheter i det fortsatta arbetet med Natura 2000-processen i området.

    Resultatet från undersökningen påvisar vikten av att kommunikation och information fungerar tillfredsställande så att onödiga konflikter kan undvikas samt att förtroende kan byggas upp för beslutsfattarna och för processen i sin helhet.

  • 46.
    Askarian Nameghi, Shahnaz
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Genotyping Escherichia coli isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission of bacterial strains between patients is a serious problem in hospitals and with the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance the problem has farther escalated. Enterobacteriaceae produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamses (ESBLs), especially Escherichia coli (E-coli), are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens (7, 8). These bacteria are often multiple resistant and are responsible for many intestinal infections and urinary tract infections (2, 5). With the more frequent use of invasive devices in hospital care, these types of nosocomial infections have increased, particularly in seriously ill patients.

    In order to diminish transmission of bacterial strains between patients and to study the epidemiology of these bacteria, it is of great importance to develop rapid and specific methods to be able to subtype on strain-level, i.e. to create a fingerprint of the isolates. The method may be based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics of the microorganism. Any typing method must have high reproducibility and discrimination power to differentiate unrelated strains and also to demonstrate relationship of organisms deriving from the same source. In the present project, a Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) assay for genotyping clinical E. coli isolates was used. PFGE can be used as a genotyping tool and is widely used to type bacteria and trace nosocomial infection. However, the method is time-consuming and relatively expensive in compare with other methods like PCR. In this study, a total of 93 strains were collected. The study was aimed to investigate the genotypes of the collected isolates and to identify and potential the outbreak strains.

    The isolates investigated were genotypically diverse shown by a variety of PFGE banding patterns. However, clusters of closely related isolates involved in outbreaks were also identified.

    In conclusion, when analyzing a large number of strains, a combination of a rapid phenotyping or genotyping method and a powerful genotyping method like PFGE would be an appropriate strategy for studying clonal relationship among isolates e.g. for detecting cross-transmission of nosocomial pathogens.

  • 47.
    Asklöf, Josefin
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Trängselskatt: En studie om invånares attityder till trängselskatten i Stockholm2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this paper is the congestion tax in Stockholm, Sweden. The study has been conducted with the purpose to examine of how public attitudes towards congestion charging looks and the reason behind the attitude. And also to examine if there are any differences in attitudes between those living inside and outside the payment zones, between men and women and between car owners and those who do not own a car or have a driver's license. The study used a questionnaire sent out electronically to a group of friends of friends and of friends’ family members. The respondents think it´s very important to present a better option if price incitements are to be used; in this case the better option is public transportation. Revenues should be spent so that large amounts go to the public transportation. There were no attitude differences between residents living inside the payment zones and those living outside the payment zones and between men and women. There is an attitude difference between those who own a car and those who do not own a car or have a driver's license. Those who own a car are more negative to the congestion charge than those who do not own a car or have a driver's license. This is believed to diminish if information is given to the public on how the revenue is spent and if congestion charge is introduced in several of the larger cities in Sweden.

  • 48.
    Axelsson, Sarah
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Risk för malaria i Sverige på grund av klimatförändringen?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringen är en aktuell fråga och ett förändrat klimat kommer att inverka på  utbredningen av vektor-burna sjukdomar såsom malaria. Malaria är en sjukdom som är extremt klimatkänslig och det dör miljontals människor i sjukdomen varje år. Syftet med studien är att se vilka samband som finns mellan malaria och klimatförändringen i Sverige. Finns någon risk för malariaspridning i Sverige år 2100 på grund av den pågående klimatförändringen. Studien baseras på fem intervjuer med forskare som är insatta i malaria och klimatförändringen. I studien har ett scenario valts ut där Sveriges klimat kommer att öka med 5oC till år 2100 enligt en modell från SMHI. Resultatet visar att det finns samband mellan olika klimatvariabler och malariaspridning där de viktigaste variablerna är temperatur, nederbörd och fuktighet. Övriga faktorer som studien ser på är migration, urbanisering, demografi, import av malaria, flygplansmalaria och malariakontroll som alla inverkar på malariaspridningen. Det finns idag stora kunskapsluckor om hur klimatförändringen kan påverka malaria i Sverige. Det är svårt att ta fram data över de variabler som malaria påverkas av som behövs för att göra en analys av framtiden. Studiens slutsats är att malaria är geografiskt begränsat av klimatet. Det finns en risk att malaria kan komma att spridas i Sverige i och med importerade fall. Men att det är osannolikt fram till år 2100 på grund av ett för kallt klimat för malariaparasiten samt Sveriges socioekonomiska standard.

  • 49.
    Backlund, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Förslag till kväverening i Forsåsystemet genom våtmarksetablering2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last hundred years humans have drastically changed the amount of available nitrogen in nature. Today human activities release twice as much available nitrogen as all natural processes are doing together. We also have degraded nature´s possibilities to take care of nitrogen through the draining of wetlands and straightening of rivers. In order to regain the potential of nitrogen retention in the water systems there now requires a reshape of the landscape we live in. A planned expansion of the mining activities in Garpenberg, Dalarna, would double the content of nitrogen in the waters below the mine. Water that already contains a high amount of nitrogen. To reduce the risk of eutrophication and increased pressure on the content of oxygen in the watercourses, in this study I investigate where a wetland with refine of nitrogen as a purpose can be located and constructed in the system of Forsån. By topographic studies one appropriate area where the river of Garpenberg flows past Krommetsbo is found. The potential of the area is supported by an inventory of species which are likely to colonize the wetland. The Krommetsbo-wetland will be able to contribute to the reduction of nitrogen in the lower parts of the system. However, additional measures are needed to change the situation in the upper parts of the system.

  • 50. Balogun, H. A.
    et al.
    Vasconcelos, N. -M
    Lindberg, Robert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Haeggström, M.
    Moll, K.
    Chen, Q.
    Wahlgren, M.
    Berzins, K.
    Immunogenicity and antigenic properties of Pf332-C231, a fragment of a non-repeat region of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf3322009In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 28, no 1, 90-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen Pf332, a megadalton protein has been shown to be associated with the membrane of infected erythrocytes Detailed functional studies on the antigen have remained hampered by the cross-reactive nature of antibodies generated to Pf332 PB32-C231, identified in the C-terminal region of Pf332 was cloned and antibodies against the C231 fragment were shown to react with intact Pf332 antigen by both immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses Antibodies to C231 inhibited in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth efficiently In addition. human sera from malaria-exposed individuals reacted with recombinant C231 We show that Pf332-C231 represents a functional domain and is expected to facilitate further studies on Pf332 as a potential target for protective immune responses and the function of the antigen.

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