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  • 1. Abe, Sarah Krull
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Richardson, Erica
    Abbott, Pamela
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 11, 1924-1932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sur, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lee, Alex
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Marczak, Laurie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Rome, Italy..
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.;Dr Mohans Diabet Special Ctr, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Arnlov, Johan
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Baye, Estifanos
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia.;Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England..
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Dept Community Med & Global Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Univ Porto, Dept Ciencias Biol, Fac Farm, Oporto, Portugal..
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Coll Hlth Sci & Med, Wolaita, Ethiopia..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Fac Biotechnol, Oporto, Portugal..
    Furst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA USA..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Ambo Univ, Ambo, Ethiopia..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England..
    Horino, Masako
    Bur Child Family & Community Wellness, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson, CA USA..
    Islami, Farhad
    Amer Canc Soc, Surveillance & Hlth Serv Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Endrocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med, Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Ctr, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun J.
    Southern Univ Coll, Fac Chinese Med, Johor Baharu, Malaysia..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Natl Inst Hlth Res & Dev, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Ku, Tiffany
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Publ Hlth Res Inst, Sch Publ Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Univ Ibadan, Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Pediat, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Preventat Med, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea.;Hlth Sci Fdn & Study Ctr, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Maragheh, Iran..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Marshall Univ, Joan C Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sartorius, Benn
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Publ Hlth Med, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Durban, South Africa..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Huntington, WV USA..
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Food & Agr Org, Global Perspect Studies Unit, Rome, Italy..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Hamadan Univ Med Sci, Dept Med Surg Nursing, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL USA..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.;Western Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Schulich Sch Med & Dent, London, ON, Canada..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia..
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;James Cook Univ, Cairns, Qld, Australia..
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia.;Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Ctr Appl Hlth Res & Delivery, Div Hlth Sci, Warwick Med Sch Coventry, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Bergen, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Population Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wesana, Joshua
    Univ Ghent, Fac Biosci Engn, Ghent, Belgium..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yonga, Gerald
    Aga Khan Univ, East Africa, NCD Res Policy Unit, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, no 1, 13-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

  • 3. Andreev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Bogoyavlensky, Dmitri
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Comparing Alcohol Mortality in Tsarist and Contemporary Russia: Is the Current Situation Historically Unique?2013In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 48, no 2, 215-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to 'drunkenness' were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist 'European Russia': an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870-1894, the male death rate from 'drunkenness' in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher-23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.

  • 4.
    Barber, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bollyky, Thomas
    Council Foreign Relat, Washington, DC USA..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Nolte, Ellen
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Observ Hlth Syst & Policies, London, England..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abdurahman, Ahmed Abdulahi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Hohenheim, Food Secur, Stuttgart, Germany.;Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abreha, Girmatsion Fisseha
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adane, Kelemework
    Mekelle Univ, Dept Med Microbiol & Immunol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adelekan, Ademola Lukman
    Publ Hlth Promot Alliance, Osogbo, Nigeria.;Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.;KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;CSIR, Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, Delhi, India.;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Internal Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Agarwal, Sunilkumar
    Natl Inst Occupat Hlth ICMR, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India..
    Agrawal, Anurag
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Orthoped Clin Epidemiol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Ahmed, Kedir Yimam
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, ICT & E Learning, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Newcastle Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Univ Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Alam, Noore
    Dept Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Alexander, Lily
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Ali, Syed Danish
    Univ London, London, England.;SIR Management Consultants, Oxford, England.;Inst & Fac Actuaries, Oxford, England..
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Allen, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Martin, Elena Alvarez
    Spanish Observ Drugs, Govt Delegat Natl Plan Drugs, Minist Hlth Social Policy & Equal, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amo-Adjei, Joshu
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.;Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amoako, Yaw Ampem
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Dept Med, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Anderson, Benjamin O.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Androudi, Sofia
    Univ Thessaly, Larisa, Greece..
    Ansari, Hossein
    Zahedan Univ Med Sci, Hlth Promot Res Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Zahedan, Iran..
    Ansha, Mustafa Geleto
    West Hararghe Zonal Hlth Dept, Chiro, Ethiopia..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aernloev, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran..
    Astatkie, Ayalew
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Atey, Tesfay Mehari
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Atnafu, Niguse Tadele
    Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Atre, Sachin R.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, BJ Med Coll, Clin Trials Unit, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin IRCB, Cotonou, Benin.;LERAS Afr, Parakou, Benin..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Ayele, Nebiyu Negussu
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Saleem, Huda Omer Ba
    Aden Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Aden, Yemen..
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    CCSS, Hosp Dr Rafael Calderon Guardia, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basu, Sanjay
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Baye, Kaleab
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw
    Jhpiego Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Burgundy, Univ Hosp & Med Sch Dijon, Dijon, France..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhan Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Bernal, Oscar Alberto
    Univ Andes, Bogota, Colombia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Tariku Jibat
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bikbov, Boris
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    GBS CIDP Int Fdn, Menemen, Turkey..
    Birungi, Charles
    UCL, London, England..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia..
    Bose, Dipan
    World Bank, Washington, DC 20433 USA..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Car, Josip
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore, Singapore..
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Casey, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Caso, Valeria
    Univ Perugia, Stroke Unit, Perugia, Italy..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.;Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chen, Alan Z.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chibalabala, Mirriam
    Crowd Watch Africa, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
    Minist Hlth, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Univ Salerno, Baronissi, Italy..
    Coggeshall, Megan S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
    Mayo Clin, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Cortinovis, Monica
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Crump, John A.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Injury Prevent & Safety Promot, Orebro, Sweden. Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, I3S Inst Invest Inovacao Saude, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Med, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Oporto, Portugal..
    Davey, Gail
    Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Ctr Global Hlth, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Davitoiu, Dragos V.
    Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Republican Inst Cardiol & Internal Dis, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.;Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.;Univ Colorado, Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA..
    Deribe, Kebede
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Deribew, Amare
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dicker, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Dokova, Klara
    Med Univ Varna, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Social Med, Varna, Bulgaria..
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Ehrenkranz, Rebecca
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ellingsen, Christian Lycke
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Eijkman Oxford Clin Res Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Enayati, Ahmadali
    Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Sci Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Social & Econ Studies Populat, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fuerst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Faghmous, Imad D. A.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines.;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
    DGS Directorate Gen Hlth, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Gen Vulnerable Populat & Hlth Dis, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Feigl, Andrea B.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    German Hosp Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Sci, Sao Paulo, Brazil.;Catholic Univ Portugal, Fac Biotechnol, CBQF Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Oporto, Portugal..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Ethiopia..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Sch Publ Hlth, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98104 USA..
    Fleming, Thomas D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Acad Med Sci, Inst Gerontol, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Seattle Genet, Seattle, WA USA..
    Franklin, Richard C.
    James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Frostad, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde G.
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gambashidze, Ketevan
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.;Natl Ctr Dis Control Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Gao, Wayne
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
    Manhica Hlth Res Ctr, Manhica, Mozambique.;Barcelona Inst Global Hlth, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gebre, Teshome
    Task Force Global Hlth, Decatur, GA USA..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich, Germany..
    Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gelaye, Amha Admasie
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Genova-Maleras, Ricard
    Reg Hlth Council, Directorate Gen Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain.;Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain..
    Gibney, Katherine B.
    Univ Melbourne, Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Melbourne Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Giussani, Giorgia
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Godwin, William W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Goldberg, Ellen M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient & Serv Alta Tecnol INDICASAT AI, Cuidad Del Saber, Panama..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Div Epidemiol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Griswold, Max
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Guban, Peter Imre
    Stockholm Cty Council Surveillance & Anal Ctr Epi, Solna, Sweden..
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Quarter, Anguilla.;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Quarter, Anguilla..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Tanush
    Montefiore Med Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Haile, Demewoz
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hakuzimana, Alex
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Euclid Univ, Banjul, Gambia..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Wayne Cty Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Detroit, MI USA..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia.;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Hao, Yuantao
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Hareri, Habtamu Abera
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Haro, Josep Maria
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England.;Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Bentley, WA, Australia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.;Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA..
    Horino, Masako
    Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Int Relat Div, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.;Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Huang, John J.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Huntley, Bethany M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Huynh, Chantal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Innos, Kaire
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Irenso, Asnake Ararsa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    James, Peter
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    James, Spencer Lewis
    Univ Colorado, Denver Hlth, Denver, CO 80202 USA..
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Jayaraman, Sudha P.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Surg, Richmond, VA USA..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka..
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India.;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Guragon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurgaon, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.;George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    John, Denny
    Int Ctr Res Women, New Delhi, India..
    Johnson, Catherine
    Johnson, Sarah C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Juel, Knud
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Soc Educ Act & Res Community Hlth, Gadchiroli, India..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland.;Qual & Equity Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Karimi, Seyed M.
    Univ Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA USA..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA..
    Kastor, Anshul
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya.;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.;Univ Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kerbo, Amene Abebe
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Coll Med Hlth Sci, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah
    Mohammed Ibn Saudi Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kibret, Getiye Dejenu
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Pauline
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Skudai, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kolk, Anneli
    Univ Tartu, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Tartu, Estonia..
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Brown Univ, Div Cardiol, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    NIHRD, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Kashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kuipers, Ernst J.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR USA..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Guragon, India..
    Kumsa, Fekede Asefa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lager, Anton Carl Jonas
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Lal, Aparna
    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Rockville, MD USA..
    Langan, Sinead M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Help Me See Inc, New York, NY USA.;Inst Mexicano Oftalmol, Queretaro, Mexico..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Laryea, Dennis Odai
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Latif, Asma Abdul
    Lahore Coll Women Univ, Dept Zool, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz
    Inst Nacl Epidemiol Dr Juan H Jara, Mar Del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lind, Margaret
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel..
    Lipshultz, Steven E.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA.;Childrens Hosp Michigan, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Yang
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Lo, Loon-Tzian
    UnionHealth Associates LLC, St Louis, MO USA.;Alton Mental Hlth Ctr, Alton, IL USA..
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lorch, Scott A.
    Univ Penn, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Swansea Univ, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd
    Aswan Univ Hosp, Aswan Fac Med, Aswan, Egypt..
    Mahdavi, Mahdi
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Social Secur Org Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mantovani, Lorenzo G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy..
    Manyazewal, Tsegahun
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, Div Populat & Patient Hlth, London, England..
    Marks, Guy B.
    Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Marquez, Neal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardinal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Spain..
    Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
    Univ East Ramon, Magsaysay Mem Med Ctr, Quezon City, Philippines..
    Massano, Joao
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal.;ULS Matosinhos, Hosp Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal..
    Mathur, Manu Raj
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth India, New Delhi, India..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McNellan, Claire
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Mehari, Alem
    Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA..
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Janakpuri Superspecialty Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mengistie, Mubarek Abera
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Menota, Bereket Gebremichael
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mereta, Seid Tiku
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Micha, Renata
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Millear, Anoushka
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mills, Edward J.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Minnig, Shawn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Hunger Act Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Univ Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Mohanty, Sanjay K.
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Univ Papua New Guinea, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Reprod Hlth & ObGyn, Boroko, Papua N Guinea..
    Molokhia, Mariam
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Montico, Marcella
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran..
    Moraga, Paula
    Queensland Univ Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mori, Rintaro
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Moses, Mark
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sci Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Nagata, Chie
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naldi, Luigi
    Azienda Osped Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nascimento, Bruno Ramos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Hosp Univ Ciencias Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Negoi, Ionut
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Newton, Charles R.
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Minist Hlth & Social Welf, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Taipei, Taiwan.;Semarang State Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Semarang City, Indonesia..
    Nolte, Sandra
    Deakin Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Nomura, Marika
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Saitama, Japan..
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Norrving, Bo
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Lund, Sweden..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Univ Western Sydney, Ctr Hlth Res, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Okoro, Anselm
    Soc Family Hlth, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, Durban, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Olagunju, Andrew Toyin
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Opio, John Nelson
    Lira Dist Local Govt, Lira Municipal Council, Lira, Uganda..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Osborne, Richard H.
    Deakin Univ, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Osman, Majdi
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;YBank, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria. JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pain, Amanda W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pakhale, Smita
    Ottawa Hosp, Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Castillo, Elizabeth Palomares
    Minist Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Papachristou, Christina
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    UK Dept Int Dev, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Paul, Vinod K.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Pearce, Neil
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, REQUIMTE LAQV, Lab Farmacognosia, Oporto, Portugal..
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Natl Inst Resp Dis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
    Hop Univ Cruces, OSI EE Cruces, Baracaldo, Spain.;Biocruces Hlth Res Inst, Baracaldo, Spain..
    Perico, Norberto
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pigott, David M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa..
    Pinho, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia..
    Prakash, V.
    Charotar Univ Sci & Technol, Anand, Gujarat, India..
    Purwar, Manorama
    Intergrowth 21st Study Res Ctr, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Quistberg, D. Alex
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rankin, Zane
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya
    Diabet Res Soc, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.;Diabet Res Ctr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Rao, Puja C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Fac Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Reitsma, Marissa
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.;Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N. N.
    Univ Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Univ New South Wales, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vis Sci, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sari, Iran..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Roba, Hirbo Shore
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Rokni, Mohammad Bagher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Roy, Nawal K.
    Holmusk, Singapore, Singapore.;Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Prince Wales Hosp, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Sackey, Ben Benasco
    World Hlth Org, Accra, Ghana..
    Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
    Dev Res & Projects Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Sandar, Logan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Internal Med Dept, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Joao Vasco
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal..
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia.;Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Ciencias Aplicadas & Ambient, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa.;SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Saylan, Mete I.
    Bayer Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Ageing Res, Heidelberg, Germany.;FOM Univ, Inst Hlth Care & Social Sci, Essen, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team HART, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Seid, Abdulbasit Musa
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Seifu, Canaan Negash
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Serdar, Berrin
    Univ Colorado, Aurora, CO USA..
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Setegn, Tesfaye
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Shackelford, Katya Anne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Shaheen, Amira
    Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Palestine..
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Tufts Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Shamsipour, Mansour
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sharma, Jayendra
    Minist Hlth, Thimphu, Bhutan..
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Rupnagar, India..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Zhongshan Hosp, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shi, Peilin
    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan.;Sandia Natl Labs, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Grad Sch, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shoman, Haitham
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Sibamo, Ephrem Lejore Sibamo
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sindi, Shireen
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singh, Abhishek
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.;Birmingham Vet Affairs Med Ctr, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Om Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Singh, Prashant Kumar
    Inst Human Dev, New Delhi, India..
    Singh, Virendra
    Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Sinke, Abiy Hiruye
    Ethiopian Med Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Sinshaw, Aklilu Endalamaw
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.;Columbia Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Sliwa, Karen
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Smith, Alison
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon.;Yaounde Cent Hosp, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Soneji, Samir
    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Inst Invest Hosp Univ Princesa, Madrid, Spain..
    Sousa, Tatiane Cristina Moraes
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Western Univ, Dept Clin Neurol Sci, London, ON, Canada..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Steel, Nicholas
    Publ Hlth England, London, England.;Univ East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Steiner, Caitlyn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Steinke, Sabine
    Univ Hosp Muenster, Dept Dermatol, Munster, Germany..
    Stokes, Mark Andrew
    Deakin Univ, Burwood, Vic, Australia..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Strong, Mark
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Hlth & Related Res, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Alexandra Gen Hosp Athens, Athens, Greece.;Ctr Hosp Publ Cotentin, Cherbourg, France..
    Sturua, Lela
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Sun, Jiandong
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sch Publ Hlth & Social Work, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Inst Resilient Regions, Springfield, Qld, Australia..
    Sur, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Sociol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Publ Hlth, Irvine, CA USA..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain..
    Tabb, Karen M.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Social Work, Champaign, IL USA..
    Taffere, Getachew Redae
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
    Minist Hlth, MINSANTE, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Tarajia, Musharaf
    Inst Conmemorativo Gorgas Estudios Salud, Panama City, Panama..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    New York Med Ctr, Valhalla, NY USA..
    Taveira, Nuno
    Inst Super Ciencias Saude Egas Moniz, Almada, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, Faulty Pharm, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Teeple, Stephanie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Tekelab, Tesfalidet
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Ethiopia.;Univ Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Tekle, Dejen Yemane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Shifa, Girma Temam
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia..
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India..
    Thomson, Alan J.
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Tillmann, Taavi
    UCL, Inst Epidemiol & Hlth, London, England..
    Tiruye, Tenaw Yimer
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland..
    Tortajada, Miguel
    Hosp Univ Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain..
    Troeger, Christopher
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Uchendu, Uche S.
    Washington DC, Dept Vet Affairs, Washington, DC USA..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Undurraga, Eduardo A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Ebonyi State Univ, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Van Dingenen, Rita
    Joint Res Ctr, European Commiss, Ispra, Italy..
    Varughese, Santosh
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wagner, Joseph A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wakayo, Tolassa
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Waller, Stephen G.
    Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci, Bethesda, MD 20814 USA..
    Walson, Judd L.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Nat Hist Museum, London, England..
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Univ Sao Paulo, Med Sch, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Watkins, David A.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Tromso, Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Wen, Chi-Pang
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Hlth Policy, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortality Follow Up German Natl Co, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wesana, Joshua
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.;Mt Moon Univ, Ft Portal, Uganda..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.;German Natl Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Wilkinson, James D.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA..
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;Cochrane South Africa, South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Woldeyes, Belete Getahun
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England.;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Comprehens Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, London, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Won, Sungho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Workie, Shimelash Bitew
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. St Pauls Hosp, Millenium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Wubshet, Mamo
    Xavier, Denis
    St Johns Med Coll & Res Inst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Jinling Hosp, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Yaghoubi, Mohsen
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada..
    Yakob, Bereket
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Discipline Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa..
    Yan, Lijing L.
    Duke Kunshan Univ, Global Hlth Res Ctr, Kunshan, Peoples R China..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Yimam, Hassen Hamid
    Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Coll Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Global Hlth Inst, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos
    EcoHlth Alliance, New York, NY USA.;Inst Ecol Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia..
    Zapata, Tomas
    World Hlth Org, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Gurgaon, India..
    Zoeckler, Leo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Red Cross War Mem Childrens Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, 231-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r= 0.88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r= 0.83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r= 0.77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time. Findings Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28.6 to 94.6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40.7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39.0-42.8) in 1990 to 53.7 (52.2-55.4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21.2 in 1990 to 20.1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73.8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015. Interpretation This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-systemcharacteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

  • 5.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Stockholm University.
    Duntava, Aija
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala University.
    Putting the pieces together: 40 years of fertility trends across 19 post-socialist countries2017In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 33, no 5, 389-410 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic change has been a key consequence of transition, but few studies trace fertility trends across countries over time. We describe fertility trends immediately before and after the fall of state socialism across 19 Central and Eastern European and Central Asian countries. We found a few common patterns that may reflect economic and political developments. The countries that experienced the most successful transitions and integration into the EU experienced marked postponement of parenthood and a moderate decline in second and third births. Little economic change in the poorest transition countries was accompanied by less dramatic changes in childbearing behavior. In western post-Soviet contexts, and somewhat in Bulgaria and Romania, women became more likely to only have one child but parenthood was not substantially postponed. This unique demographic pattern seems to reflect an unwavering commitment to parenthood but economic conditions and opportunities that did not support having more than one child. In addition, we identify countries that would provide fruitful case studies because they do not fit general patterns.

  • 6.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholm University.
    Puur, A.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Sakkeus, L.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-20062014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 30, no 1, 1733-1768 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Method: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became more important in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s. © 2014 Sunnee Billingsley, Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus.

  • 7.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Jönköping University.
    Education level explains participation in work and education later in life2017In: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 43, no 10, 511-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prolonged working life is crucial for sustaining social welfare and fiscal stability for countries facing ageing populations. The group of older adults is not homogeneous; however, differences within the group may affect the propensity to continue working and to participate in continuing education. The aim of this paper is to explore how participation in work and education vary with gender, age, and education level in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in Sweden, a context characterized by high female labour-market-participation rates and a high average retirement age. The participants were 232 members of four of the major senior citizens’ organizations. We found no differences in participation in work and education based on gender. People older than 75 years were found to be as active as people 65–75 years old in education, but the older group worked less. There were positive associations between education level and participation in both work and education. Hence, this study implies that socio-economic inequalities along these dimensions are widened later in life. This highlights the importance of engaging workers with lower education levels in educational efforts throughout life. It also emphasizes the need for true lifelong learning in society.

  • 8.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Trust and health in Eastern Europe: Conceptions of a new society2016In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, no 1, 69-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    et al.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Unick, Jay
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, USA / Prevention Research Center, Oakland, USA.
    Nam, Boyoung
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries2016In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 42, no 6, 1353-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P < .001) and prevalence of psychotic experiences (P < .001), compared to individuals in middle-income countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis.

  • 10.
    Elmelid, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?2015In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, 174-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  • 11.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Center of Competence / Linnaeus University.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    Lund University.
    Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Jönköping University.
    Everyday Health among Older People: A Comparison between Two Countries with Variant Life Conditions2017In: Journal of Aging Research, ISSN 2090-2204, E-ISSN 2090-2212, -8 p., 2720942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study described health factors of importance for everyday health, such as pain, tiredness, and sleeping problems, in a cross-national context. Data for persons 60+ years were obtained from the Poverty and Health in Aging study, Bangladesh, and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Blekinge. The strongest associations with everyday health in Sweden were found for pain and tiredness, while in Bangladesh they were financial status, tiredness, and sleeping problems. As similarities were found regarding the associations of tiredness on everyday health, tiredness may be a universal predictor of everyday health in older adults irrespective of country context.

  • 12.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, no 1, 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.

    METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.

    RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

  • 13.
    Footman, Katharine
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    East-Ukrainian Foundation for Social Research, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rotman, David
    Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus .
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former soviet union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 9, 1628-1633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Results: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Conclusions: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  • 14.
    Gadeyne, S
    et al.
    Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium / Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, G
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Kulhanova, I
    rasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deboosere, P
    Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Eikemo, T A
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hoffmann, R
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kovács, K
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, E
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rychtarikova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Spadea, T
    Local Health Authority TO3 of Piedmont Region, Italy.
    Strand, B H
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Trewin, C
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Wojtyniak, B
    National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, J P
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The turn of the gradient? Educational differences in breast cancer mortality in 18 European populations during the 2000s2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, no 1, 33-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the association between educational level and breast cancer mortality in Europe in the 2000s. Unlike most other causes of death, breast cancer mortality tends to be positively related to education, with higher educated women showing higher mortality rates. Research has however shown that the association is changing from being positive over non-existent to negative in some countries. To investigate these patterns, data from national mortality registers and censuses were collected and harmonized for 18 European populations. The study population included all women aged 30-74. Age-standardized mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indexes of inequality were computed by education. The population was stratified according to age (women aged 30-49 and women aged 50-74). The relation between educational level and breast cancer mortality was predominantly negative in women aged 30-49, mortality rates being lower among highly educated women and higher among low educated women, although few outcomes were statistically significant. Among women aged 50-74, the association was mostly positive and statistically significant in some populations. A comparison with earlier research in the 1990s revealed a changing pattern of breast cancer mortality. Positive educational differences that used to be significant in the 1990s were no longer significant in the 2000s, indicating that inequalities have decreased or disappeared. This evolution is in line with the "fundamental causes" theory which stipulates that whenever medical insights and treatment become available to combat a disease, a negative association with socio-economic position will arise, independently of the underlying risk factors.

  • 15.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå universitet.
    Meeting the 'organs': The tacit dilemma of field research in authoritarian states2013In: Area (London 1969), ISSN 0004-0894, E-ISSN 1475-4762, Vol. 45, no 4, 426-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To the regret of many scholars, science and politics often overlap, and nowhere as clearly as inside countries ruled by authoritarian governments, where research tends to attract the surveillance of repressive authorities and, more specifically, of the secret services (known as the 'organ' within post-communist space). While such surveillance places significant ethical and methodological challenges on field research, it is rarely discussed in the literature. This paper discusses what may happen when the organ takes interest in fieldwork. Based on the author's experiences in a range of post-communist countries, the aim is to present and discuss the related risks, and to show how these may materialise in relation to the organ's (c)overt activities.

  • 16.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The "soviet" factor: Exploring perceived housing inequalities in a midsized city in the Donbas, Ukraine2015In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 36, no 5, 696-720 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I revisit the role of Soviet legacy factors in explaining todays housing inequalities in a midsized post-Soviet city by investigating social, demographic, economic and geographic determinants of perceived housing quality. Building on a sample survey dataset (n = 3,000) that brings together both Soviet legacy effects and more universal influences on housing inequality, it is shown that various aspects of Soviet housing policy can be traced as well-preserved legacies today. The survey was conducted in 2009 in Stakhanov, Ukraine, and the method of analysis is binomial logistic regression. By capturing both the social costs attributed to the post-Soviet transition crisis as well as the underlying legacy factors inherited from the Soviet epoch, the findings suggest that any analysis of housing inequalities or residential segregation in the post-socialist city must come to terms with the impacts of socialist-era economic priorities on the urban social landscape.

  • 17.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    West oriented in the East-oriented Donbas: a political stratigraphy of geopolitical identity in Luhansk, Ukraine2015In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 31, no 3, 201-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on data from a survey (n = 4000) conducted in the eastern Ukrainian city of Luhansk in late 2013, this article explores the link between national identity and foreign policy preferences in the Donbas, suggesting that they are increasingly conflated in distinct geopolitical identities. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression are used to compare the characteristics of pro-West and uncertain individuals with those of the pro-Russian/Soviet individuals, with preferences on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and European Union (EU) accession underlying this distinction. The results show that geopolitical identities in Luhansk have a complex political stratigraphy that includes demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and attitudinal components. The pro-West constituency is younger, not Russian but often including members of other ethnic groups, well educated, more tolerant toward sexual minorities, generally more satisfied with life, and it also speaks better English. Conversely, those with pro-Russia/Soviet geopolitical identities are older, Russian, low educated, less fluent in English, intolerant, and unsatisfied with their lives. Uncertainty is more randomly distributed among social groups, indicating different underlying causes related to the source of the respondents’ uncertainty.

  • 18.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Helsinki, Finland / Umeå Univsersity.
    Marcińczak, Szymon
    Umeå University / University of Łódź, Poland .
    Housing inequalities in Bucharest: shallow changes in hesitant transition2014In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 79, no 4, 449-465 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been said, yet little remains known, about the impacts of the changes associated with post-socialist transition on housing inequalities in metropolitan Central and Eastern Europe. To some extent, this depends on the scarcity of 'hard evidence' about the socialist epoch against which the subsequent developments may be gauged. Based on a case study of Bucharest, the Romanian capital and one of the region's major cities, this study investigates various lines of housing inequality using data from a 20 % sample of the national censuses of 1992 and 2002. With only minor changes having taken place since the revolutionary events of late 1989, the year 1992 provides an accurate picture of the housing inequalities inherited from the socialist epoch, whereas the new societal order had largely been established by 2002. We use linear regression and binary logistic regression modeling to identify the factors that predict living space and level of facilities. The results suggest that the first decade of transition did not exert any major influences on the housing inequalities inherited from socialism, with the exception of notable improvements at the very top of the social pyramid. This finding is at odds with the literature that highlights the (suggested) effects of socio-economic polarization on the residential structure of cities after socialism. However, the results from 1992 indicate that housing was segmented along socio-economic lines already under socialism, and perhaps more so than one would have expected in the light of the literature on housing inequalities during this period.

  • 19.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Umeå University.
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Housing allocation under socialism: the Soviet case revisited2013In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 29, no 2, 173-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social or public housing is an important component of the housing supply= n most European countries. Nowhere, however, has the notion of social hou= ng been taken as far as in the countries that formerly were ruled by soci= ist regimes, most notably the Soviet Union. For this reason, it may be ar= ed that the development of theorizations on housing has much to learn fro= this large but inconclusively studied example. One of the avowed virtues = socialism was that the system, in theory, guaranteed its subjects equal = ghts to housing. That this was not quite the case is well known in the li= rature, but in fact no robust evidence to support this view (or the contr= y) has been presented so far. Therefore, this paper's aim is to investiga= the functioning of the Soviet system of housing allocation, assessing it= claims to social equity and justice. Based on a detailed case study of ab= t 3500 Soviet-era housing allocation decisions made in Daugavpils, Latvia= at five poin! s in time covering various stages in the development of Soviet power (ful= coverage of decisions made in 1953, 1960, 1970, 1980, and January-April 1= 0), we illustrate how much living space was allocated to whom. In additio= we detail the characteristics of the waiting times involved. We apply bo= descriptive and regression methods on our data-set, making a significant= ontribution to what is known about the outcome of housing allocation unde= socialism and, at a more general level, under strictly supply-constrained= onditions.

  • 20.
    Habicht, Triin
    et al.
    Estonian Health Insurance Fund, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Part II: Country profiles of health system responses to the crisis. Estonia2015In: Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe: Country experiences / [ed] Maresso A, Mladovsky P, Thomson S, Sagan A, Karanikolos M, Richardson E, Cylus J, Evetovits T, Jowett M, Figueras J, Kluge H., Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe / European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies , 2015, 371-374 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hu, Yannan
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Lenthe, Frank J
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Borsboom, Gerard J
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland .
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dzúrová, Dagmar
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Ekholm, Ola
    University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Lahelma, Eero
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Santana, Paula
    Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health in 17 European countries between 1990 and 20102016In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 7, 644-652 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Between the 1990s and 2000s, relative inequalities in all-cause mortality increased, whereas absolute inequalities decreased in many European countries. Whether similar trends can be observed for inequalities in other health outcomes is unknown. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health (SAH) in Europe between 1990 and 2010.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from 17 European countries for the various years between 1990 and 2010. The age-standardised prevalence of less-than-good SAH was analysed by education and occupation among men and women aged 30-79 years. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured by means of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios. Meta-analysis with random-effects models was used to examine the trends of inequalities.

    RESULTS: We observed declining trends in the prevalence of less-than-good SAH in many countries, particularly in Southern and Eastern Europe and the Baltic states. In all countries, less-than-good SAH was more prevalent in lower educational and manual groups. For all countries together, absolute inequalities in SAH were mostly constant, whereas relative inequalities increased. Almost no country consistently experienced a significant decline in either absolute or relative inequalities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trends in inequalities in SAH in Europe were generally less favourable than those found for inequalities in mortality, and there was generally no correspondence between the two when we compared the trends within countries. In order to develop policies or interventions that effectively reduce inequalities in SAH, a better understanding of the causes of these inequalities is needed.

  • 22.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aida, J.
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan / Miyagi Prefectural Government Office, Sendai, Japan.
    Kawachi, I.
    Harvard University, Boston, USAChiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami2017In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

  • 23.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health & Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    December birth is associated with higher mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort.2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, 281-282 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya-ku, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Month of birth is associated with mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort2016In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, no 4, 441-447 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Month of birth (MOB) has been linked to a variety of health conditions in adulthood. This study examined the association between MOB and mortality among the healthy elderly in Japan, where a practice of traditional age reckoning was employed up until the late 1940s. The results showed male participants born in December were more likely to die earlier while those born in January had lower mortality. It is possible that social factors in early life, such as the time period when a birth is officially registered, may have implications for health that stretch across the life course.

  • 25.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Li, D.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Du, J.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Jin, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Chen, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Watanabe, C.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between economic development, lifestyle differentiation, and C-reactive protein concentration within rural communities in Hainan Island, China2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, 186-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Earlier fieldwork in rural areas of Hainan Island, China, demonstrated that during the course of economic development increasing differences had emerged in lifestyles within communities. It is possible that these variations might have stratified residents into subpopulations with different health attributes. This study examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a biomarker of future cardiovascular events, and personal lifestyle parameters and the degree of community-level economic development among rural communities. Methods: A cross-sectional field survey was undertaken in 19 rural communities in Hainan. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 1,744 participants. Dried blood spot samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP concentration. Sex-stratified multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with CRP concentration among the participants. Results: While CRP concentration was negatively associated with being married and (more) education among men, for women CRP concentration was associated with the frequency of poultry consumption (P = 0.014) and the experience of migratory work in the previous year (P = 0.009). In addition, for females, living in communities with a greater degree of inequality, as indexed by the Gini coefficient, was also associated with increased CRP concentration (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Given that CRP concentration is a marker of future CVD risk, this study suggests that within these previously homogenous rural communities, economic development might have stratified people into population subgroups with a different CVD risk. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015.

  • 26.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shirai, Kokoro
    University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
    Amemiya, Airi
    National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Katsunori
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Ojima, Toshiyuki
    Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Hanazato, Masamichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Suzuki, Norimichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Fujiwara, Takeo
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, e0164525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men.

  • 27.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic / .
    The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, no 47, 42-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 28.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Självmord som ett avlägsnande från kommunikation: ett nytt luhmannskt perspektiv på ett gammalt sociologiskt problem2013In: Sosiologi i dag, ISSN 0332-6330, Vol. 43, no 1, 58-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Suicide in Russia: A macro-sociological study2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work constitutes a macro-sociological study of suicide. The empirical focus is on suicide mortality in Russia, which is among the highest in the world and has, moreover, developed in a dramatic manner over the second half of the 20th century. Suicide mortality in contemporary Russia is here placed within the context of development over a longer time period through empirical studies on 1) the general and sex- and age-specific developments in suicide over the period 1870–2007, 2) underlying dynamics of Russian suicide mortality 1956–2005 pertaining to differences between age groups, time periods, and particular generations and 3) the continuity in the aggregate-level relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality from late Tsarist period to post-World War II Russia. In addition, a fourth study explores an alternative to Émile Durkheim’s dominating macro-sociological perspective on suicide by making use of Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems. With the help of Luhmann’s macro-sociological perspective it is possible to consider suicide and its causes also in terms of processes at the individual level (i.e. at the level of psychic systems) in a manner that contrasts with the ‘holistic’ perspective of Durkheim. The results of the empirical studies show that Russian suicide mortality, despite its exceptionally high level and dramatic changes in the contemporary period, shares many similarities with the patterns seen in Western countries when examined over a longer time period. Societal modernization in particular seems to have contributed to the increased rate of suicide in Russia in a manner similar to what happened earlier in Western Europe. In addition, the positive relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality proved to be remarkably stable across the past one and a half centuries. These results were interpreted using the Luhmannian perspective on suicide developed in this work. 

  • 30.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 19, no 1, 117-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 31.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-20052017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

    METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

    RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  • 32.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33. Kaleta, Dorota
    et al.
    Usidame, Bukola
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta
    Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, 583- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 12, 1447-1453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, 773-781 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 36. Kislitsyna, Olga
    et al.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    РОЛЬ СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ В ОБЪЯСНЕНИИ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ РАЗЛИЧИЙ В СОСТОЯНИИ ЗДОРОВЬЯ РОССИЯН [The Role of Social Relations and Explaining Socio-Economic Health Disparities among Russians]2015In: Социальные Aспекты Здоровья Hаселения [Social Aspects of Population Health], ISSN 2071-5021, Vol. 4, no 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Existence of systematic health differences between people with different socio-economic status has been confirmed by many studies. At the same time, social relations have been found to be an important determinant of health. Some scholars consider social relations as mediator between socioeconomic status and health. However, studies on this subject are scattered and inconsistent. At the same time, it remains unclear how social relations are distributed according to socio-economic status. The study, the results of which are presented in this work, is an attempt to examine relationship between socio-economic status, social relations and health.

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are: 1) to explore relationship between socio-economic status and social relations; 2) to confirm association between social relations and health; 3) to reveal whether social relations mediate association between socio-economic status and health.

    Methods: The study is based on data of the European Social Survey, Round 5. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression models. Three indicators were selected to measure social relations: presence of a family partner, confidentiality availability (presence of someone with whom it is possible to discuss intimate and personal matters) and social participation (communication with people for enjoyment rather than for reasons of work or duty). Socioeconomic status was assessed by the level of education, employment and financial situation. Self-rated health on a one-five scale was used as health (illness) indicator.

    Results: It was found out that socio-economically disadvantaged persons are at greater risk of social isolation, which, in turn, has negative effect on health. Social relations explain up to 21% of the socio-economic inequalities in self-rated health of the Russian people.

    Conclusions: The received results show the need to promote social support and social integration especially among people with low socio-economic status, which can contribute to reduce health inequalities.

  • 37.
    Konishi, Shoko
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, USA.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Pollinosis and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese: a population-based cohort study2016In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, no 8, 1083-1089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Having an allergic disease may have health implications beyond those more commonly associated with allergy given that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that both atopy and allergy are linked to mortality. More viable immune functioning among the elderly, as indicated by the presence of an allergic disease might therefore be associated with differences in all-cause mortality.

    OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Japanese cohort, this study examined whether having pollinosis (a form of allergic rhinitis) in a follow-up survey could predict all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort, which at its 1993 baseline recruited residents aged 40-69 years old from two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The current study used information on pollinosis that was obtained from the follow-up survey in 2000. Mortality and migration data were obtained throughout the follow-up period up to December 2008. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.

    RESULTS: At the 2000 follow-up survey, 12% (1 088 out of 8 796) of respondents reported that they had pollinosis symptoms in the past 12 months. During the 76 186 person-years of follow-up, 748 died from all-causes. Among these there were 37 external, 208 cardiovascular, 74 respiratory, and 329 neoplasm deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, pollinosis was associated with significantly lower all-cause (hazard ratio 0.57 [95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.87]) and neoplasms mortality (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.92]).

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having an allergic disease (pollinosis) at an older age may be indicative of more viable immune functioning and be protective against certain causes of death. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the association between pollinosis and mortality.

  • 38.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, USA / Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Oakland, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, J.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Risk and functional significance of psychotic experiences among individuals with depression in 44 low- and middle-income countries2016In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 43, no 12, 2655-2665 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population. Method: Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Results: When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone. Conclusions: This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 39.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Garin, N.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Miret, M.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Leonardi, M.
    Neurological Institute Carlo Besta IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy.
    Koskinen, S.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland .
    Galas, A.
    Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland .
    Haro, J. M.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: A cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, 123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between obesity and back pain has mainly been studied in high-income settings with inconclusive results, and data from older populations and developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess this association in nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America among older adults using nationally-representative data. Methods: Data on 42116 individuals ≥50 years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain in 2011-2012, and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa in 2007-2010 were analysed. Information on measured height and weight available in the two datasets was used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Self-reported back pain occurring in the past 30 days was the outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMI and back pain. Results: The prevalence of back pain ranged from 21.5% (China) to 57.5% (Poland). In the multivariable analysis, compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, significantly higher odds for back pain were observed for BMI ≥35 kg/m2 in Finland (OR 3.33), Russia (OR 2.20), Poland (OR 2.03), Spain (OR 1.56), and South Africa (OR 1.48); BMI 30.0-34.0 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 2.76), South Africa (OR 1.51), and Poland (OR 1.47); and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 1.51) and Poland (OR 1.40). No significant associations were found in the other countries. Conclusions: The strength of the association between obesity and back pain may vary by country. Future studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to differences in the associations observed. © 2015 Koyanagi et al.

  • 40.
    Koyanagi, A
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J M
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic symptoms and smoking in 44 countries.2016In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 133, no 6, 497-505 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychotic symptoms and smoking among community-dwelling adults in 44 countries.

    METHOD: Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) for 192 474 adults aged ≥18 years collected in 2002-2004 were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month psychotic symptoms. Smoking referred to current daily and non-daily smoking. Heavy smoking was defined as smoking ≥30 tobacco products/day.

    RESULTS: The pooled age-sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of psychotic symptoms (i.e., at least one psychotic symptom) for smoking was 1.35 (1.27-1.43). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those with no psychotic symptoms, the ORs (95% CIs) for smoking for 1, 2, and ≥3 psychotic symptoms were 1.20 (1.08-1.32), 1.25 (1.08-1.45), and 1.36 (1.13-1.64) respectively. Among daily smokers, psychotic symptoms were associated with heavy smoking (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92), and individuals who initiated daily smoking at ≤15 years of age were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.05-1.42) times more likely to have psychotic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: An increased awareness that psychotic symptoms are associated with smoking is important from a public health and clinical point of view. Future studies that investigate the underlying link between psychotic symptoms and smoking prospectively are warranted.

  • 41.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-like experiences and disordered eating in the English general population2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 241, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and disordered eating in the general population. We aimed to assess this association in the English adult population. Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey comprising 7403 English adults aged ≥16 years. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to identify the past 12-month occurrence of five forms of psychotic symptoms. Questions from the five-item SCOFF screening instrument were used to identify those with eating disorder (ED) symptoms and possible ED in the past year. The prevalence of any PLE was 5.1% (female) and 5.4% (male), while that of possible ED was 9.0% (female) and 3.5% (male). After adjustment for potential confounders, possible ED was associated with hypomania/mania in females (OR=3.23 95%CI=1.002-10.39), strange experiences [females (OR=1.85 95%CI=1.07-3.20) and males (OR=3.54 95%CI=1.65-7.57)], and any PLE in males (OR=3.44 95%CI=1.85-6.39). An interaction analysis revealed that the association was stronger among males for: auditory hallucinations and uncontrolled eating; and any PLE with uncontrolled eating, food dominance, and possible ED. Clinical practitioners should be aware that PLEs and disordered eating behavior often coexist. When one condition is detected, screening for the other may be advisable, especially among males.

  • 42.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and pain in an English national sample: The role of common mental disorders2016In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 175, no 1-3, 209-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

  • 43.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Japan.
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and suicidal behavior in England: Findings from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey2015In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 168, no 1-2, 62-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

  • 44.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between psychosis and severe pain in community-dwelling adults: Findings from 44 low- and middle-income countries2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 69, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies examining the association between schizophrenia and pain have produced mixed results and data on sub-threshold psychosis or psychotic symptoms and pain are scarce. This study assessed the association between psychosis and severe pain among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where no data exists.Data on 235,370 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month psychotic symptoms was established using four questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on whether they had at least one psychotic symptom and/or a lifetime psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between psychosis and past 30-day severe pain. The prevalence of severe pain among those with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 psychotic symptoms was 8.7%, 16.7%, 21.8%, 30.5% respectively. Compared to those with no psychotic symptoms or diagnosis, the ORs (95%CIs) were: at least one symptom without diagnosis [2.17 (1.99-2.38)]; no symptom with diagnosis [2.33 (1.71-3.17)]; at least one symptom and diagnosis [4.27 (3.20-5.71)]. Associations were partly mediated by chronic physical conditions, anxiety, and depression. Despite some limitations such as the use of a single-item question to assess pain, the results of this study suggest that individuals with psychotic symptoms or a psychosis diagnosis should be systematically assessed for pain, and if necessary, receive treatment for pain and its underlying conditions. Future research on the effect of pain management on psychosis outcome is warranted.

  • 45.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 12, 1875-1885 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged >= 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems.

  • 46.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-Like Experiences and Nonsuidical Self-Injury in England: Results from a National Survey2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, e0145533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the general adult population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association using nationally-representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of 7403 adults aged ≥16 years. Five forms of PLEs (mania/hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. The association between PLEs and NSSI was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Hierarchical models were constructed to evaluate the influence of alcohol and drug dependence, common mental disorders, and borderline personality disorder symptoms on this association.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of NSSI was 4.7% (female 5.2% and male 4.2%), while the figures among those with and without any PLEs were 19.2% and 3.9% respectively. In a regression model adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events, most types of PLE were significantly associated with NSSI: paranoia (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.96-6.52), thought control (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.05-5.74), strange experience (OR 3.13; 95%CI 1.99-4.93), auditory hallucination (OR 4.03; 95%CI 1.56-10.42), and any PLE (OR 2.78; 95%CI 1.88-4.11). The inclusion of borderline personality disorder symptoms in the models had a strong influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI as evidenced by a large attenuation in the ORs for PLEs, with only paranoia continuing to be significantly associated with NSSI. Substance dependence and common mental disorders had little influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Borderline personality disorder symptoms may be an important factor in the link between PLEs and NSSI. Future studies on PLEs and NSSI should take these symptoms into account.

  • 47.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univeristy of Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Close Relationships Matter: Family Well-being and its Effects on Health in Russia2015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, 1635-1655 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatic fluctuations have occurred in population health in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although many factors have been examined in connection with this, there has been little focus on the role of the family, despite evidence from Western studies linking family functioning to individual health. Using data from 1,190 respondents collected during the Moscow Health Survey 2004 we examined the association between family relations and health outcomes. Poorer family functioning was strongly associated with worse self-rated physical health and mental health. Our results suggest that the proximal social environment of the family is important for understanding health outcomes in contemporary Russia.

  • 48. Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Judge, Ken
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Bopp, Matthias
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Assessing the potential impact of increased participation in higher education on mortality: Evidence from 21 European populations2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 117, 142-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health.

  • 49.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Paris, France .
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland .
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland .
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, 1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics.

    METHODS: Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to "Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions". We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests.

    RESULTS: The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.

  • 50.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, Paris, France.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Kulik, Margarete C
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The role of three lifestyle risk factors in reducing educational differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality in Europe2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 2, 203-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios-the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice country scenario.

    METHODS: We used a method based on the population attributable fraction to estimate the impact of a modified educational distribution of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity on educational inequalities in IHD mortality among people aged 30-79. Risk factor prevalence was collected around the year 2000 and mortality data covered the early 2000s.

    RESULTS: The potential reduction of educational inequalities in IHD mortality differed by country, sex, risk factor and scenario. Smoking was the most important risk factor among men in Nordic and eastern European populations, whereas overweight and obesity was the most important risk factor among women in the South of Europe. The effect of physical inactivity on the reduction of inequalities in IHD mortality was smaller compared with smoking and overweight/obesity. Although the reduction in inequalities in IHD mortality may seem modest, substantial reduction in IHD mortality among the least educated can be achieved under the scenarios investigated.

    CONCLUSION: Population wide strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, and overweight/obesity targeted at the lower socioeconomic groups are likely to substantially contribute to the reduction of IHD mortality and inequalities in IHD mortality in Europe.

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