This article analyses long-term business entry in the Swedish brewing industry, presenting new data on its organisational historiography. Since 1830, the rate of entry has varied considerably; entries increased progressively from the 1850s, and fell at a decreasing rate from the early twentieth century. An increasing tendency to enter the trade can be observed from the mid-1980s – in particular, there has been a considerable resurgence since the turn of the millennium. The article elaborates on explanations that are both exogenous and endogenous. Above all, the results provide support for the role of endogenous conditions. The results should be viewed as complementary to previous analyses of the (Swedish) brewing industry, which either have employed shorter analytical time-frames or have mainly focused on the role of exogenous conditions, such as changes in the institutional framework.
Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi analyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolkningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.
Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.
Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle. These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way for the Nordic solicaristic welfare state.
As the welfare state grew, civil society organizations and co-operatives lost ground, to a certain extent. But in recent decades, the welfare state has been restructured and, simultaneously, the concepts social entrepreneurship and social enterprises have gained attention. The Nordic context, with extensive public welfare structures and a high degree of citizens’ participation in public affairs, might affect the emergence of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises.
According to Buchanan and Congleton (1998. Politics by Principle, Not Interest: Towards Nondiscriminatory Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), the generality principle in politics blocks special interests. Consequently, the generality principle should thereby promote economic efficiency. This study tests this hypothesis on wage formation and labor markets, by investigating whether generality defined as state neutrality could explain employment performance among OECD countries during 1970–2003. We identify three types of non-neutrality concerning unemployment. These include the level or degree of government interference in the wage bargaining process over and above legislation which facilitates mutually beneficial wage agreements, the constrained bargaining range (meaning the extent to which the state favors or blocks certain outcomes of the bargaining process), and the cost shifting (which relates to state interference shifting the direct or indirect burden of costs facing the parties on the labor market). Our overall hypothesis is that non-neutrality or non-generality increases unemployment rates. The empirical results from the general conditional model suggest that government intervention and a constrained bargaining range clearly increase unemployment, while a few of the cost shifting variables have unexpected effects. The findings thus give some, but definitely not unreserved, support for the generality principle as a method to promote economic efficiency. One implication may be that the principle should be amended by other requirements if the political process shall indeed be able to promote economic efficiency.
The purpose of the reinsurance industry is to provide insurance for primary insurers. Primary insurers have fairly standardised policies, whereas those of reinsurers are often less so, more internationally oriented and likely to cover very large risks. There is little doubt that primary insurance policies, as well as an insurance market based on fixed premiums, would be difficult to sustain over the long run without reinsurance. Reinsurance enables portfolio diversification by the primary insurer in order to avoid the kinds of devastating losses that could threaten its survival (Kopf 1929; Golding 1930; Doherty & Smetters 2005; James et al. 2014; Borsheid & Haueter 2012).
This paper discusses the emergency of the Swedish life reinsurance market from the mid 19th century and describe the development until the 2010s. In the wake of the founding of the first joint stock corporations in the middle of the 1850s, insurers set rather limited risk maximums and signed reciprocal treaties with mainly foreign insurers to limit their risks. During the following six decades the life reinsurance was handled by individual corporations but in 1914 a commonly owned life reinsurance company was organised to deal with the issue for reinsurance for the entire market. This continued until the end of the 1980s when most of the individual insurers preferred to set up their own corporations for dealing with the issue of life reinsurance and Sweden Re was transformed into a completely different organisation.
This study demonstrates that the presence of diversified corporate forms within the insurance industry does not always lead to the dominance of what is, according to theory, the most efficient business form, the joint-stock corporation. Swedish mutual insurance companies have often been connected to various popular movements, and have thus obtained quasi-monopoly rights for writing certain kinds of insurance. This has been important as a means of obtaining economies of scale and creating efficient organisations, and has allowed them to compete with their joint-stock rivals. Mutuals have also remained important players in the insurance market by keeping policyholders’ interests in focus through creative product diversification and by expanding nationally to reach customers outside of their original base. Mutuality also protected them against hostile take-overs that weakened the stock corporations. Mutual insurers not only survived as independent companies but also were a success.
Finanskriser i sverige
Den 15 september 2008 tvingades Lehman Brothers ställa in sina betalningar, vilket startade den mest omfattande internationella finansiella krisen sedan depressionen på 1930-talet. Krisens orsaker, bankernas agerade och statens roll i det finansiella systemet har diskuterats livligt. Men finansiella kriser är inte unika för vår tid utan har varit en del av ekonomins utveckling under de senaste århundradena.
Denna bok fokuserar främst på de finansiella kriser som drabbat Sverige under de senaste 150 åren, det vill säga sedan landet började industrialiseras och den ekonomiska tillväxten ta fart. Finansiella kriser har ofta inträffat i samband med perioder med snabb tillväxt och ändrade förutsättningar för näringsliv och finansmarknad. I framställningen analyseras krisernas bakgrundsfaktorer, utveckling hur kriserna har lösts och framför allt vilken roll staten har spelat i denna process. Interaktionen mellan stat, marknad och aktörer har varit viktiga för framväxten men även för att lösa finansiella kriser. Boken ger en överblick över svenska finanskrisers drivkrafter, utveckling, räddningsaktioner och konsekvenser.
Innovationer och entreprenörer betraktas ofta som nödvändiga faktorer för att skapa nya företag och marknader. Varumärken har med tiden fått en allt större betydelse i näringslivet, eller kanske är det mer rättvist att säga att vi blivit mer medvetna om deras ekonomiska värde för producenter och sociala värde för konsumenter. Denna bok illustrerar att det finns många intressanta forskningsfrågor i skärningspunkten mellan entreprenöriella aktiviteter och uppbyggnaden och vidmakthållandet av välkända varumärken.
Some twenty years after the fall of the communist dictatorships that divided the European continent the European Union in late 2009 adopted its first ever macroregional strategy – the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a Mare Dividum to a European Mare Nostrum is indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes. However, at the same time the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there is more to be wished for with regard to this region.
It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we thus approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to investment and trade flows during the last twenty years.
We ask ourselves whether these developments are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region and whether it makes economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to trade and investment flows.
Over the last decades a remarkable process of rural development based on the revival of local culinary heritage has been set in motion all over Sweden. In Västernorrland and Jämtland, two counties that share the same culinary heritage and history and at least in some parts, have common geographical features, the shift towards this culinary place based development has been quite different. Differences can partly be explained through institutional explanations. But as will be showed by this study, there are also important historical and other reasons behind different patterns. What was left of a once common culinary heritage has been decisive for the possibility of economic success. In this article the main emphasis is put on how the nature and character of culinary heritage influences the possibility of promoting rural development.
This article highlights the impact of the of the hydro-power plant Alto Maipo, on a localized agri-food system (LAFS) in Cajón del Maipo (Chile). Although extensive research was done before starting the construction of Alto Maipo, the possible impact on transhumance and thereby on the ancient LAFS in the area that carries important elements of the cultural heritage and national identity has until now been neglected. Results show how an exogenous impact on the local institutions that linked landscape, people, animals and products together in the conformation of a LAFS have been disturbed through the creation of alternative income opportunities and enforced change. Current events generated alternative short term income opportunities, but also a long term negative impact on livelihoods and nature.
Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World was the title of the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems. The contributions in this volume are written by conference participants. The themes highlighted relate to four topics. The first topic refers to various aspects of the articulation of the New Rurality and its challenges and opportunities, with a specific focus on the Nordic countries, the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, and the Eastern European Countries. Also in focus is the role of knowledge in the promotion of rural development and ‘glocal’ links as enablers of opportunities and sources of challenges in relation to entrepreneurship and rural development – in theory and practice in particular Europe and the Americas. The second topic highlights various aspects of territorial governance and localized agri-food systems in particular Europe, North and South America. The third topic relates to the impact of the market on localized agri-food systems, with a special focus on short food chains, public procurement and tourism. The fourth and final topic highlights questions related to the connection between localized agri-food systems and the environment. Special interest was devoted to possible synergies, (organizational) innovations and challenges between localized agri-food systems and environmental benefits, proposing agroecology as a framework for action in the transition from conventional production to more sustainable agro-food production systems.
Landsbygden står inför stora utmaningar. I en allt mer konkurrensutsatt värld utmanas etablerade modeller i välfärdssamhället och bland annat har serviceutbudet och möjligheterna till försörjning minskat på den svenska landsbygden. Samtidigt vill många bo kvar då landsbygden upplevs bidra med livskvalitet samt närhet till kulturella och sociala sammanhang. Därför engagerar sig många människor för att skapa förutsättningar för att det ska vara möjligt att arbeta och bo även utanför större städer. Samhällsentreprenörskap har kommit att bli ett attraktivt alternativ för att bryta nedåtgående trender i lokalsamhället och för att finna nya lösningar för en hållbar utveckling. Inom ramen för forskningsprojektet Societal Entrepreneurship in Sparsely Populated Areas (SESPA), som bedrivits vid Mittuniversitetet mellan åren 2010- 2014, har forskare från olika ämnesdiscipliner studerat samhällsentreprenörskapets roll i den lokala utvecklingen. SESPA:s forskning har kunnat genomföras med hjälp av stöd från EU:s regionala strukturfondsprogram samt Mittuniversitetet och Länsstyrelserna i Jämtland och Västernorrland. Forskningen har bedrivits i nära samspel med företrädare från det lokala näringslivet, ideella organisationer samt offentliga institutioner. De studier som presenteras i denna antologi visar att samhällsentreprenörskapet kan ta sig många olika uttryck. Det rör sig dock genomgående om människors engagemang, idérikedom och aktiva handlingar. Det rör sig om individer, kreativitet och organiserande processer. Och att alla initiativ har sin egen kontext. Syftet med den här boken är dels att sprida resultat från den forskning om samhällsentreprenörskapets roll för den lokala utvecklingen som utvecklats inom ramen för SESPA men även att bidra till en ökad förståelse om fenomenet samhällsentreprenörskap ur ett välfärdssamhälles perspektiv. Vår förhoppning är att boken ska bidra till reflektion men även fungera som inspiration till fler samhällsentreprenöriella initiativ.