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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Attitudes and Factual Considerations of Regional Actors Towards Experience Industries and The Tourism Industry: A Swedish Case Study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 225-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the attitudes towards experience industries and tourism in the Gnosjö region of Sweden. The investigation is based on a questionnaire and follow-up interviews with politicians and chief executive officers (CEOs) within manufacturing industries. The results show that the politicians have more knowledge of experience industries and a more positive attitude towards these new types of industries than the CEOs. Both groups consider both these industries of significance for the region's future. While the politicians believe in experience industries as a whole, and particularly suggest more active work in favour of tourism and design, the second group just welcomes directly and indirectly a possible cooperation with design companies. A minor share of the CEOs is interested in either running businesses with features of experience industries or having a sense of it in their businesses. Despite differences, these attitudes facilitate cross-fertilisation between the manufacturing industry and experience industries in the future. The study suggests that the region needs to develop more knowledge and competence directed towards the experience industries, in particular tourism and design, and a cooperation between the manufacturing industry, local political parties, and enterprises within tourism, design and culture in this respect.

  • 2.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Attitudes towards competence development among employees in Tourism Industry: A Swedish pilot study2016In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, 28-30 September 2016, Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, 2016, p. 14-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate empirically what attitudes employees in tourism industry have towards participation in publicly funded competence development programmes. Such investigations are lacking in the research on Tourism industry. By competence development here means participation in personal competence development programmes that might have a positive impact on the staff’s learning and on their work places. This impact will be found out through the employees’ subjective perceptions. In this study the terms “competence development programmes” “training programmes” and “skills development programmes” are used as synonyms. Also in accordance with Statistics Sweden terms of “business” and “work place” are used as synonym. The methodological approach used in this study is email-interviews with 12 employees (four women, eight men) that have participated in these programmes during recent years. This includes CEOs, owners, employees and one instructor that also is a business owner himself. A majority of them have academic education and their average working years in the industry is 17. They represent various sub-industries. Their average age is 46 and they mostly come from small sized firms. They participated in different courses that were offered by public organizations for employees and employers, or by private organizations. The courses were paid either by public means, by the firm or by a combination of both. The courses were mostly organized by public organizations but in some cases also by private organizations or a mix of private and public. They expressed that their participation in general had a positive or very positive impact on their workplace, and among others resulted to better knowledge, to acquire a wider network, new ideas, new experiences and opportunities and gave more inspiration, motivation and self-confidence. Concerning effectiveness of courses offered by the public organization the opinions are different; some had no comments about it, some found them very effective, some believed that these courses are effective in some but not in all cases, and finally some believed that courses organized by private organizations are more effective. The largest problems for competence development in the industry are lack of time and money and lack of tailored courses.

  • 3.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    City, Ethnicity, Diversity and the origin of Fire Festival in Swedish major cities: A research idea2018In: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: Book of Abstract, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Ethnic festivals have positive impacts on the image of cities and countries (McClinchey, 2008) and create a sense of belonging among immigrant groups (Chacko, 2013). Every year, a Tuesday in the middle of March and after 17:00, Iranian Fire Festival is held outdoors in the center of Stockholm and Göteborg. It is financed and organized by Riksteatern (The Swedish National Theatre). In Stockholm it is held in the King’s Garden park, 500 meters from the parliament, and it is used to be opened either by some Swedish ministers or by the Prime minister. This is not a big event in international comparison; it can be classified as local event and it is held when it is still very cold in Sweden. The event lasts in 4-5 hours but draws thousands of audiences (mostly from the same city region) to these two simultaneous arrangements. The audiences as well as the artists are mostly of Middle Eastern background (mostly Iranians, Kurds, Afghans) and there has been no report on ethnic Swedes among them over the years. This event, however, gets a huge attention from the Swedish media but also from some international media (Like Voice of America, Persian section) and Iranian diaspora media worldwide. In accordance with Getz et al (2007), many stakeholders are involved in this event; the Swedish governments, the event organization, municipality offices, many ethnic associations in Sweden, media, invited artists from Sweden and other countries, participants, sellers and volunteers.

    The aim of this research is to get insight into this event, incentives behind it and the expected outcome of it from different stakeholders. Especially it is important to find out what interest different Swedish governments have since they support the event financially regardless of ideological belonging while the event’s own preconditions are not the best one.

  • 4.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Participants’ perception of training programmes in the tourism industry: A Swedish pilot study2018In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, ISSN 2514-9792, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 309-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to deal mainly with the participants’ perception of their attendance in publicly funded training programmes in the tourism industry.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The investigation is based on e-mail interviews with 12 employees in the Swedish tourism industry who have actively participated in such courses as well as some courses offered by private organisations.

    Findings

    The results show that the interviewees have a positive perception of their participation and they believe that their attendance has had an overall positive impact on them or on their businesses. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether their participation has had an extraordinarily positive impact on business outcomes in terms of subsequent increased turnover, greater productivity or sales, or an expanded customer base. Lack of time and money and the prevalence of unsuitable courses prevent business owners and their employees from attending such courses.

    Originality/value

    This research is the first Swedish qualitative investigation on the issue.

  • 5.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Political crises and destination choice: An exploratory study of Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers2018In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 205-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political crises, which have a known impact on the choice of tourism destination, can also negatively affect the choice of second-home destination and purchase. The purpose of this study is to investigate why some Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers prefer Spain to Turkey for political reasons. More than 30 short dialogues were conducted with Swedish-Iranian buyers at the exhibition "Buying Properties Abroad" in Kista, September 2015, following the start of a series of political crises in Turkey. A simple question was asked: Why are you choosing Spain rather than Turkey? The most important category of reasons were political factors, followed by cultural reasons. Political anxiety, instability, and insecurity in Turkey, the risk of civil war, a police society, lack of democratic order, the fact that Turkey is not a member of the European Union, the government's negative attitudes towards Kurds, and the emergence of Islamic State were the political reasons most mentioned. One conclusion that can be drawn is that political crises affect second-home tourism/tourists in the same way that they do ordinary tourism/tourists. The research has some important implications for Turkish policymakers, tourism stakeholders at a macrolevel, their competitors, especially in Spain, and potential buyers. Based on this research, some suggestions for future studies are also given. 

  • 6.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Solo travellers to city destinations: an exploratory study in Sweden2019In: International Journal of Tourism Cities, ISSN 2056-5607, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations and attain more knowledge on the topic.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study employed a questionnaire consisting of qualitative and quantitative items. In all, 21 individuals (12 women, 9 men) responded.

    Findings

    The most important reason for solo travel was their own free choice and in some cases, difficulty finding companions. Their activities at the destinations were mostly visiting attractions followed by visiting friends, shopping, walking, eating at restaurants, learning the language, working, etc. They mostly mentioned advantages but also some disadvantages with solo travelling. Their experiences, especially with the people in the host destinations, have been positive and they show overall satisfaction with their visit. A predominant share of the interviewees showed a kind of loyalty to one or more specific city destinations and wished to revisit them again and again.

    Practical implications

    The current study might have some implications for city tourism developers/destination developers, travel agencies, national or regional tourism boards and tour operators in major urban areas and cities. Especially, this study has a practical contribution to the city tourism practitioners and gives them more insight in what values, attitudes, perceptions, expectations and motivations the solo travellers might have before or while they visit their cities. The study also has implications for potential solo travellers seeking more knowledge and information on the issue.

    Originality/value

    The phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations is an unresearched topic in Sweden. This exploratory study is the first in Sweden to focus on solo travellers visiting city destinations.

  • 7.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Swedish solo travellers to city destinations: an exploratory study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People travel solo to a destination due to different push–pull pre-travel motivators (Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Travel to a city destination brings a series of positive or negative experiences (Walls et al., 2011) and creates a sense of overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the destination and the travel itself. Also, several functional and psychosocial characteristics of a destination such as hosts, locals, services, prices (Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005), contribute to satisfaction with a trip, but also create destination loyalty among visitors (Chi and Qu, 2008; Zhang et al., 2014) and this loyalty in its turn leads to a return to the same destination. The phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations is an un-researched topic in Sweden. This exploratory study is the first in Sweden to focus on solo travellers visiting city destinations. The study aims to gain more insight into the phenomenon and attain more knowledge on the topic. The study employed a questionnaire consisting of qualitative and quantitative items. In all, 21 individuals (12 women, 9 men) responded. They were mostly well-educated, the majority were younger than 35, more than half were single and more than half reported travelling alone once or twice a year. The majority had a travel budget of SEK 10–20,000 per trip and the rest had a budget below SEK 10,000. They normally took flights and the majority went away for more than one week up to several weeks. The most important reason for solo travel was own free choice and in some cases difficulty finding companions. This result is coherent with earlier studies (e.g. Heimtun and Morgan, 2012; Mehmetoglu, 2004). Their loneliness gave rise to forced but positive socialization (e.g. Chiang and Jogaratnam, 2006; Laesser et al., 2009). Their activities at the destinations were mostly visiting attractions and they mostly mentioned advantages with solo travelling. They showed overall satisfaction with their travels, destination loyalty to one or several city destinations and wished to revisit them again and again. This finding is also partly or fully coherent with many earlier studies (e.g. Walls et al., 2011; Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004).

  • 8.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The impact of political crises on the choice of second-home destination: A study of Swedish-Iranian second home buyers2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, 2017, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political crises which have negative impact on the choice of a tourism destination can also affect the choice of a second-home destination negatively. The purpose of this study is to investigate why a part of Swedish-Iranian second home buyers prefer Spain than Turkey due to the politics. The group has shown interest in second-home purchase in the two countries during recent decade. More than 30 short dialogues were made with Swedish-Iranian buyers at the exhibition of “Buying Properties Abroad” in Kista, September 2015, after the start of a series of political crises in Turkey. A simple question was asked: Why do you choose Spain before Turkey? Most of the respondents gave more than three reasons.82The most important category of reasons were political factors followed by cultural factors. Political anxiety, instability and insecurity in Turkey, risk for civil war, police society, lack of democratic order, the fact that Turkey is not EU member, the government’s negative attitude towards Kurds, and the origin of Islamic state were the most mentioned political reasons. Cheating among some shopkeepers, negative attitudes by authorities towards Iranians, general perception of foreign women/female tourists, lack of a modern culture in Turkey, and better mentality among Spanish people have been among the cultural reasons. Among the economic reasons they mentioned lack of good infrastructure in Turkey, insecurity for invested capital, lower living costs in Spain, it is safer to buy house in Spain as EU country. Other less mentioned reasons were natural preconditions and knowledge on Spanish language.

  • 9.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lundberg, Anna
    National Theatre.
    How the Iranian Fire Festival in Stockholm is perceived by the visitors?2019In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, p. 45-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, a Tuesday in the middle of March and after 5:00 pm the Iranian Fire Festival (Eldfesten in Swedish, Chaharshanbe Suri in Persian) is celebrated outdoors in the center of Stockholm and ends before 10:00 pm. This event has its roots in ancient Persia, but now it is celebrated by several nations in the Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia. The Stockholm festival is arranged and financed by The Swedish National Theatre and several times earlier it has been opened by Swedish ministers. The event visitors are mostly of Middle Eastern background coming from Stockholm area. Since 2016 it can also be watched live through Swedish and foreign TV stations and through Social media. During the earlier years the event was held in Kungsträdgården (The Royal Garden) but this year it was arranged in the amusement park of Skansen.  Ethnic cultural events in major urban areas create good images for cities and countries but also for immigrants and their neighborhoods in the city of issue (McClinchey, 2008; Loukaitou-Sideris and Soureli, 2012), and a sense of belonging among immigrants (Chacko, 2013). Many stakeholders are involved in such events (Getz et al 2007; Getz And Andersson, 2010) but perhaps the most important stakeholder is the visitors of the event. Therefore, it is of high relevance to study the visitors’ visit motivations, their perceived experience in terms of satisfaction level and their level of loyalty i.e. if they intend to visit the event next year (Savinovic et al, 2012). The aim of this research is to get insights on the visitors of the Fire Festival, their motives behind participation and how they perceive their participation afterwards. The main methods chosen in this research is participant observation and 257 completed surveys online until April 11th, 2019.  Preliminary results The respondents are 63% men and 37% women, and they are mostly older than 40 (44% are older than 50). More than half of them have been living in Sweden less than 21 years of which 17% less than 5 years. 83% of the respondents call themselves Swedish-Iranians. More than 80% of the respondents have academic education (of which 7% with PhD education) and most of them are employed either by public or private sector. A considerable number of them are also either self- employed, students or retirees. They have come from different districts of Greater Stockholm while a minor part has come from municipalities outside the county. A pre-dominant majority of them have come there with friends and family members, and most of them have been participating in the festival for third times or more. Also, more than half of them have visited the Skansen park three or more times earlier. The main reasons why they celebrate the festival is to keep the old tradition and culture alive. The celebration creates feelings like happiness, pride, community, belonging, nostalgia, childhood, the Spring. Concerning the question what the place or arena means to you they either like Skansen or prefer other places in Greater Stockholm or do not care about the place but the festival and other issues such as security and safety. To the question “what do you think about celebrating the festival at Skansen” they give positive answers and to the question “are your expectations on the festival fulfilled” the majority are totally or partly agreed. They also believe that this event must be celebrated every year and give many improvement suggestions and additional critical comments such as more food trucks, better and cheaper food, more professional artists and happy songs and music.

  • 10.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå universitet.
    Displaced diaspora second-home tourism: an explorative study of Swedish-Iranians and their second-home purchases in Turkey2019In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 239-252, article id 225739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This explorative study aims to gain more insight into Swedish-Iranians' purchase of second homes in Turkey. The study is based on 22 questionnaires (19 of them from owners and buyers), field observation, and participant observation. Motives behind owners' and buyers' purchases are: other Swedish-Iranian friends/relatives bought there; cultural proximity; absence of visa restriction for Iranian citizens; geographical proximity to Iran and relatives living in Iran; economic factors, including the low prices and costs and investment for retirement; and the climate. The respondents are well-integrated into Swedish society and have access to different types of resources which facilitate the purchase, but they also show the potential to partially become integrated socioculturally into their Turkish communities. A meaningful proportion of them are seriously planning to live permanently in Turkey after retirement, but the majority stay there for longer periods or semi-permanently. Despite some limitations, this study makes an important contribution to the area of diaspora second-home tourism and to the field of diaspora studies.

  • 11.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå universitet.
    Second Home purchase in Turkey by Swedish Iranians: An Explorative Study2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second home tourism is often discussed in the context of the western world. Other groups and their motivations, in this case people of Iranian background who are a large ethnic group in Sweden, are often neglected, although the group has shown interest in purchase of second home in Turkey.The aim of this study is to get more insight on Swedish Iranians’ purchase of second home in Turkey. 19 e-mail interviews (with Broker companies, owners, and potentially buyers) have been conducted. Also participant observation in Antalya region in June 2015 and at the exhibition of “Buying Properties Abroad” in Kista in September 2015 has been done.The interview results reveal that the Swedish Iranian second home buyers collect information through friends and relatives, various web sites, exhibitions, brokers, and real estate companies before buying apartment. Their motives have been: following other friends/relatives who bought apartments there, cultural proximity including the Turkish language and food, geographic proximity to Iran, relatives living in Iran do not need Turkish visa, economic factors including prices, the climate, and investment for the retirement. They stay in their apartments at least once a year up to 4 times a year and the duration of their stay each time is at least one week. A part of them might choose to live partly or permanently in Turkey after the retirement. Their motives are similar to many other second home owners elsewhere but there are also aspects related to the political context of this mobility.

  • 12.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Arnautovic, Denis
    Does Over-tourism really exist in Dubrovnik?: A perception study of local tourism employees2019In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark, 2019, p. 48-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-tourism has become a frequently used term in Urban Tourism research, during last years. By it means over-saturation of tourists (e.g. Stanchev, 2017) i.e. when the number of tourists at a certain time and at a certain place exceeds powerfully the number of locals in the place (see e.g. Artal-Tur et al, 2018). Such situation creates a series of problems for the host destinations (Postma and Schmuecker, 2017) because of the limited service facilities available (Butler, 2018). The pressure on the host destination results in conflict and tension among hosts and tourists, and in long term antagonism, and tourism phobia among locals (Alexis, 2017). The overall aim of this research is to get a deeper understanding of Dubrovnik’s tourism employees’ perception of Over-tourism in their town. The chosen method has been field observation during peak season (July 2018) and 18 email- interviews with local tourism employees between 2018-2019.   Results  The employees who answered to 14 questions have positions such as manager, receptionist, owner, and represent different tourism and hospitality sectors like hotels and restaurants, tourist bureaus, etc. They have been working within tourism industry between 3 and 30 years. They show small difference in their views on low- respectively high season of tourism in the town. They define Over- tourism in general, believe it exists in Dubrovnik in some short periods, and describe in detail how and when it happens there. The reason behind Over-tourism in Dubrovnik is summarized by them in big demand that exceeds the supply side i.e. too many tourists by ships, aircrafts, cars and buses arriving at the same time in peak season. They claim that the Over-tourism creates a series of problems such as traffic, damage and pollution, and confirm that the local authorities are aware of the problems. A powerful reduction of number of cruisers, better management, organization and schedule of arrivals, better information to tourists, reduction of taxis from rest of the country, forbid foreigners come by car to the city, etc. are among their own suggestions to solutions for the problems. Some of them talk about attracting quality/luxury/elite tourists instead of mass tourists. Several of them also confirm that the local tourism industry firstly tries to reduce the number of cruisers and partly flights, and then find a better coordination of activities, and other regulations for people coming by cars. The interviewees prefer mostly tourists coming by charter flights, then cruise tourists specially luxury such, and they believe that Dubrovnik and its surrounding region is not at all suitable for car transport and cartourists.

  • 13.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Strömberg, Per
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Perspectives of Over-tourism in four Pre-Industrial Historical City Centers: A research idea2019In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, p. 46-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-tourism has become a new subject for research, particularly on urban sustainable tourism, during recent years (Novy, 2018). The term refers to when the number of tourists at a certain time in an extreme way exceeds the number of locals in the destination (Goodwin, 2017). This phenomenon creates a series of problems for the host destinations and puts pressure on them and their attractions, on the local service facilities and the genuine urban culture (Postma and Schmuecker, 2017; Trancoso Gonzalez, 2018; Weber et al, 2017; Montanari & Staniscias, 2010). Earlier research has shown how this phenomenon results in tension/conflict between locals and tourists and creates phobia among host people towards tourists(Postma and Schmuecker,2017; Martins, 2018; Milano et al, 2018). Recent research (Koens et al, 2018) shows that tourism stakeholders in many European cities show great awareness on the issue in their cities. Earlier research has mostly focused on locals while a focus on the visitors has beenlacking.  The purpose of the research is to get more empirical insights in over-tourism in four European city centers, Dubrovnik, Visby, Stockholm, and Riga, from both perspectives of locals and visitors/tourists, and thereby get knowledge through the challenges to, and opportunities for, both constituencies that are created in this learning process. This is in consistence with earlier research with same purpose (Costa et al, 2018). The research is justified by the fact that the topic is still new, and there are not too many studies published as of now. The first common characteristic between these four cities is that they all are cruising ports. The two first cities are rather towns than cities, almost of same size and natural preconditions, while the latters are much larger, capital cities in the Baltic Sea region with almost similar preconditions i.e. Over-tourism in the downtown area during peakseason.  The overall methodological approach in this project will be qualitative consisting of triangulation (mixed methods) based on comparative case studies. The data collection methods will consist of: field observations during the peak season in July-August in the four cities, face to face interviews and email interviews

  • 14.
    Ahlstrand Einar, Vanja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Åkerblom, Kajsa
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    “Vem som helst, kan skriva vad som helst”: En kvalitativ studie om recensioners påverkan på konsumenten och informationssökningsprocessen inom hotellbokningar online2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The authors have found a common interest to investigate how the use and impact of reviews online can be applied within the subject of tourism. The purpose of the study is to investigate how consumers use reviews in their information search process. The purpose is also to investigate how and if consumers are influenced by online reviews regarding hotel stays.

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative method in the form of ten semi structured interviews as primary collection. The study has a support from secondary data consisting of a literature review in the chapter of previous research.

    Theory: The theoretical background is based on three theories. The theories are The PrePurchase-Information process, The Major Influences On Individual Travel Behaviour and the theory From Word-Of-Mouth to Electronic Word-Of-Mouth.

    Empiricism: The empiricism consists of a presentation of ten semi structured interviews with anonymous respondents regarding their own experiences and beliefs about the topic of the study. The chapter also includes an overview of the previous research about the topic to support and enhance the primary empirical interview material.

    Findings: The digital society has led to an increased online presence, critical thinking and interest on how consumers travel and what hotels they choose. Impact is constantly present in their contact with reviews and surroundings. The individuals own interpretation and perception of reality is based primarily on how they use and are influenced by reviews. In combination with critical thinking there is an insight that anyone, can write anything.

  • 15.
    Alenius, Esther
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Brorson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Holmgren, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    “Prova på semestern innan du köper den”: En kvalitativ studie om konsumenters attityd till marknadsföring av turism med VR-teknik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitude of potential customers towards marketing of tourism through virtual reality. Since it is considered a risk to purchase a service it was interesting to see if the implementation of VR could lower the uncertainty. The study was conducted through a qualitative methodology consisting of 15 user tests. The result shows that the market has a positive attitude towards the marketing method since it was considered an exciting way to get information and gave a more honest image of the destination. It was more appreciated to experience a hotel in VR than a destination. However, VR-marketing was not considered necessary but rather a pleasant complement. The result of the study led to a few recommendations to any touristic company aiming to produce a VR-video for marketing purposes.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project2016In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop an analysis model of a tourism department network using an explorative approach. Strategic stakeholders have been identified for the tourism department and organised into partner groups. An analysis model has been developed based on four network types: formal organisation, informal organisation, formal individual and informal individual. For every type, the following six network content dimensions were found relevant to analyse: stakeholders, reciprocal relations, relation exchange, network driving forces, network management and network purpose. The investigations have shown some focused network strengths such as network permanency, with corresponding weaknesses such as rigid relations. Some typical implications of the strengths and weaknesses for the department have been identified, and some network techniques to handle the implications have been proposed. An annual network development process for a tourism department is suggested. The resulting network is summarised as the Professional Tourism Academic Network (PTAN).

  • 17.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations2015In: Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015 / [ed] Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2015, p. 113-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about responsible and sustainable development in tourist destinations. One could argue that event companies have a responsibility for sustainability, but they lack the analyses tools. The purpose is to investigate and analyse how companies working with events could develop a certification process of sustainability, and how decisions about an event’s sustainability certification could be supported. The analysis is based on both the study of relevant literature and investigations carried out and by using multi-criteria decision-making systems. A sustainable certification process is developed which consists of external company sustainability criteria, such as social, cultural, economic and ecological dimension, and also internal criteria such as using a sustainability plan. However, in this study certification obstacles have been found, for example certification costs. When developing the sustainability certification process a need is recognised for a decision support tool. Therefore a triangulation multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed consisting of six steps: 1. Problem formulation, 2. Computer criteria definition, 3. Definition of measures and rules, 4. Data collection and registering, 5. Total evaluation of the alternatives' results and 6. Final analysis and choice. When using the model there is a need for an integrated manual assessment by the evaluator and the computerbased expert system support. Therefore, triangulation of mainly qualitative research methods is used starting with qualitative interviews with an inductive approach by the evaluator, continuing with computer-based expert system analysis (the DEXi-system) with a logical interpretation approach and ending with the evaluator's deep interpretation of both manual and computer-based results.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm: Slutgiltig redovisning till Huddinge kommun2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport slutredovisas uppdraget ”Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm”. Undersökningen är utförd på uppdrag av Huddinge kommun. En sammanfattande slutsats för denna studie är att ett stort intresse finns för hundägande och hundsport idag. I Stockholms län finns 80 tusen hundägare och 102 tusen hundar. I Huddinge kommun finns fyra tusen hundägare och 5 tusen hundar1. Utifrån rapportens resultatredovisning per frågeområde kan både idéer och konkreta förslag utläsas om hur hundsporten kan utvecklas både i Stockholms län och i Huddinge kommun. En generell slutsats är att det finns en en stark efterfrågan på professionella hundanläggningar (hundcenter), egna familjens hundaktiviteter på allmänna platser, lokala hunddagis, kurser, hundomvårdnadsprodukter, mat- och hundutrustningsprodukter och hundägararnas egna trivselprodukter.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mellanlägesrapport i forskningsprojektet "utveckling av exportmogna destinationer": en litteraturstudie av forskningsfronten hösten 20122013Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry2016In: Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, ISSN 2286-3745, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society today there is a heated debate about sustainable development. It is argued that event organisations must take responsibility for sustainability, although they may lack appropriate development tools. The purpose of this article is to study how event companies and organisations can develop a sustainability process in a societal system context and the need for certification in their events. The analysis was based on the study of relevant literature, an investigation in Sweden and a systems analysis. A triangulation technique was used to combine the different methods. It is argued that there is a sustainability event system in a societal context, within which event organisations have a central role. A model of sustainability and certification process for an event organisation and its events is developed, which consists of criteria, activities, certification, effects and obstacles. This recognised certificate could be a motivator and guideline for sustainable event development. The certification's focus has to be on the event organiser's management. However, event organisers need to certify their own organisations, either including all future events or only some specific events. This would give the organisations and the event industry a positive image and recognised role in a sustainable world.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of Tourism Department Partners: A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI2014In: Proceedings from The 23rd Nordic Symposium On Tourism And Hospitality: THE VALUES OF TOURISM 2 - 4 O c t o b e r  2 0 1 4 / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Copenhagen: Copenhagen business school , 2014, p. 71-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of

    Tourism Department Partners

     

    – A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI

     

    GÖRAN ANDERSSON

     (Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, Stockholm, Sweden[1])

     

    Universities are not isolated from society. Throughout the world and at the highest political level, there are pressures on the higher education sector to network with its surrounding society. This whole idea of networking is supported by the European Bologna process in connecting academia more closely with business and society and in new and innovative ways. Nevertheless, at universities there is a lack of knowledge on how to structure societal networks and a lack of experiences in network building. This causes problems with regard to effective co-operation between the university and its societal partners. The fact that universities are not isolated from society can also be recognised by the public debates on education, research and community engagement. Nevertheless, there are almost no research articles written about universities' societal networks.

           The purpose of this research is to investigate university networks critically and to develop an analysis model for strategic partner relations and the underlying network structure within a Tourism Department's network.

           A case study methodology has been used with the Tourism Department at the author's university being the object studied, in order to study the network building process since it was established in 1999. Experiences from the EU-project TARSI (Tailored Applied Research and Implementation) have been triangulated with the results from the case study.

           Furthermore, a literature review has been conducted in order to identify which stakeholders appear in the literature of higher education-society interrelations and to find underlying dimensions to the university network structure. The theoretical framework is based on network theories, where network strategy, network partners, relation purpose, networks' formality, individual and organisational networks, network principles and obstacles are important themes.   

           For the Tourism Department, the following strategic partner types with associated relation purposes have been identified: the academic staff, current students, alumni, the tourism industry, public tourist organisations, non-profit tourist organi­sa­tions, macro-environment partners and the higher education sector. Every main stakeholder group has been organised into partner groups at the Tourism Department. The benefit of this approach is that special university objectives can be reached more easily if the Tourism Department has known part­ners in formal sub-groups already in place. In every sub-group there are typically questions depending on the Department's relation purpose.

           A relation structure network model has been developed, where the dimensions of formal-informal and organisational-individual have been found relevant in order to structure the network. The model is based on the four main opportunity building principles of permanency, openness, motivation and trustfulness. However, there are also corresponding main obstacles of cost-benefit misunderstanding, relation burden, strategic unconformity and non-network opportunities.

           There is a challenge in increasing the community engagement activities when using more resources. However, the benefits for the university and the surrounding world will be positive in total. It is of great importance for European university academies to use network strategies in their overall planning in order to be a natural part of society, which is summarised as the Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN). Finally, the interaction of universities with society is regarded as a never-ending journey in a global world.

     

    KEYWORDS: Strategic network, Tourism Department, Community engagement, Network partners, Networks' formality, Individual-organisational stakeholders

     

    [1] For correspondence: Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, 141 89  HUDDINGE, Sweden; e-mail: goran.andersson@sh.se

  • 22.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?2016In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a paradigm shift from heritage being only preserved, to also being shown as a tourist attraction. One of two diverse approaches amongst scholars to define heritage tourism is to use a visitor-experience perspective (Apostolakis, 2003). Different segments of tourists have their own unique experiences of the heritage. Specific aspects can be used to explain the experience, such as the “classical” aspects by Pine & Gilmore (1999). In addition, in the last few years other experience aspects have been identified, such as kick, comfort, competence and contact (Kairos Future, 2011). The concept of “the experience room” (Mossberg, 2003) is used to present an experience context. The assumption of this study is that the experience landscape is made up of perceptive signals that cover the human senses. Although one can ask how this approach supports the development of attractions. Cognitive and affective experiences were discussed at conferences on memory tourism in Estonia 2013-14, used in the pilot study to this research. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge about how tourist's experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and secondly, how the human senses influence the tourist's cognitive and affective experiences. An overall case study method will be used to study four maritime tourist attractions. The study consists of unstructured ethnographical interviews, experimental observation of tourists, and tourist's own evaluations during the experience. The research contribution is to shed light to how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on an analysis on whether tourist experience aspects can emerge from the sensory impressions of tourists' experi­ences (Agapito et. al, 2014). Another contribution is to figure out how the sense perception can be connected to affective and cognitive aspects that result in a joint experience of an attraction. The pilot study showed that enhanced customer investigations of tourist's experiences are needed, which will be further more analysed. In the end this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to generate innovative and well-attended heritage attractions.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: A Study of Stockholm City2015In: Integrating City Tourism into the Urban Research Agenda: 15-16 June 2015, GSSI, L’Aquila / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, L’Aquila, Italy: Gran Sasso Science Institute , 2015, p. 25-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm hosts nearly eleven million commercial guest nights annually, and is ranked as one of Europe’s top ten destinations.The county population is 2.1 million (Stockholm Visitors Board,

    2014). In order to pursue economic, effective, and sustainable tourist destination development, it is important to understand its characteristics. In this study “city destinations” are focused on using sub-characteristics such as “visitor attraction clusters”. For understanding these characteristics, a clear definition of destination has to be used (Framke, 2002). The following components can be used to conduct an analysis of a destination: geographical place, visitor, image, complete tourist product, and interacting business and public sector (Andersson, 2013). Tourist destinations can be studied at the following different geographical place levels: the regional (e.g. the Stockholm region), the local (e.g. the old town) and the attraction-based destination point (e.g. Friends arena). The Stockholm Tourism Strategy 2020 project group has proposed a number of criteria that must be fulfilled before a destination can be considered mature. In order to gain an understanding of the demand (and revenue) side of destinations, unique criteria can be used for visitor segmentation in the city, such as visitor purpose. There are changing patterns of visitor streams in Stockholm, however, such as the dramatic increase in the number of cruise passengers (Stockholm harbour, 2015). Therefore the visitor stream planning has to be up-dated. By using criteria for visitor segmentation and characterization of the destination, economically strong and reachable visitor segments such as city-breakers can be identified. Visit Sweden has identified a number of segments, such as “double income no kids” (DINKs), that can serve as an overall category for citybreakers. Research purpose: To obtain deeper understanding of how regional, local, and point destinations can be developed using knowledge of the destination character and visitor streams within the destination. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of destination, the characteristics of city tourism, visitor segments, and streams. Methodology: As a starting point, approximately 150 destination plans have been written by my undergraduate students, and a pilot study and a literature review have been conducted. The next step will be a main case study on regional, local, and point destination levels in Stockholm and the associated visitor streams. The final step will be to draw conclusions about the model of visitor streams in city destinations.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism2016In: Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 147-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City destinations are central in the study of tourism. But how can visitor streams related to the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed as a basis for improvement of the destination? This research used statistical data and qualitative information as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”. The research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, and a literature review. It resulted in the development of the visitor stream concept, which can be used in future research on the integration of various visitor segment streams. A method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: (1) defining “focused destination” and its characteristics, (2) investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, (3) identifying visitor segments, and (4) analysing streams with new destination tools. The knowledge gained will introduce and address new issues concerning statistics for measuring, monitoring and assessing the actual value of tourism, particularly urban tourism.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analysis Dimensions of City Destination Character and Image Positioning2018In: Almatourism, ISSN 2036-5195, Vol. 9, no 17, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City tourism, with its unique character and image, has increased considerably over the last decades. At the same time, the complexity of destination development and image marketing has increased, and there is a lack of analysis tools for image positioning. The purpose is to investigate city destination image and character as prerequisites for destination mar­keting and development and how the image and character position can be analysed. City destination character, visitor destination image and visitor segments are used as the main theoretical framework.  An exploratory qualitative study approach has been chosen with an image case study of destination Stockholm. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the visitor segment international students and destination specialists. The study shows that desti­nation specialists have assessed a combination of city destination characteristic areas, which can be developed. Furthermore, visitors have a mind­set of several image aspects and holistic expressions for city destinations that can be used in destination marketing to change the current image position into the desired one. In order to determine a desired position, six analysis dimensions have been found useful: Desired positioning, Demand and supply, Visitor segmentation, Destination generalisation, Visit process and Expression type. The analysis dimensions are based on relevant dichotomous aspects. The effects of the used dimensions are called “positioning leverage effects”, and their main aim is to obtain a competitive advantage and to differentiate to other destinations.

     

  • 26.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    City destination image- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Ioanna Farsari, PhD, Dalarna, Sweden, 2017, p. 29-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract from the presentation of:

     

    City destination image

    - How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image

     

    Göran Andersson & Saeid Abbasian

    Tourism Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden

    Email: goran.andersson@sh.se

     

    Destination Management Organisations (DMO) package the city image into a clear brand in order to attract foreign visitors (Eringa & Zhou, 2015). Still it is a complex task to analyse visitor segments' image experiences (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Unique characteristics of tourism destinations are exploited by DMO:s and tourism companies, such as their identity (Valls et al., 2012), in planning and marketing products for different visitor segments. Besides, big cities are typically more well-known and organised destinations which opens for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011).

    The purpose of the research project is to investigate the characteristics and interconnected images of a city destinations; and visitor segments' experiences of city images based on image attributes. A multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose is used. The theoretical framework consists of city destination characteristics and images, image experiences, and visit motivators.

    Typical characteristics and visitor segments were identified in the case of destination Stockholm in our pilot study. The results have been used in a qualitative investigation about the city image and its attributes, and also visitor's image expectations and experiences. Furthermore, an overall case study of Stockholm city will be conducted.

    The knowledge contribution relates to new city destination characteristics connectivity to images. Furthermore, the image impact on visitor travel motivators before and after visiting the destination. A model will be developed about “visitors' image positions”, based on the visitors' assessment of destination image attributes. This knowledge will support tourism companies and DMO:s to develop image marketing tools.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations2016In: Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 19-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All tourism destinations have unique characteristics that constitute their identity (Valls et al., 2012). Tourism companies, in turn, exploit these when planning and marketing product concepts for different market segments. In recent decades, the cities in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) have undergone a change considering their profiles as more well-known tourism destinations. Meanwhile, even the degree of professionalism in the tourism industry has increased. This opens opportunities for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). In order to understand city tourism better a comparison between urban and rural tourism will be made. Each destination and the associated companies have to develop their products and marketing campaigns in order to effectively promote themselves to various tourist segments. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the characteristics of city destinations, and how tourist segments translate them into destination images, and further how the image influences motivations for travel choice. Our theoretical framework consists of city destination concepts, destination characteristics and images, tourist segments' motivations and destination branding. In our pilot study, typical characteristics and tourist segments were found in the case of destination Stockholm. This result will be used when investigating how different tourist segments translate characteristics to an image perception. The planned research will take a multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose. A case study of two typical BSR-cities will be conducted, using interviews, statistical data, web site analysis and destination document studies. The knowledge contribution relates primarily to new forms of city destination characteristics and their impact on visitor travel motivators. Furthermore, a model for investigating segments' “image positions” will be developed based on a new kind of demand of city tourism and a more professional tourism industry, even though it is a complex task to determine image positions (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Our hypothesis is that tourist segments are more interested in what city destination can offer today, but the supply side needs more knowledge how to influence the segments' travel motivators. We hope that the acquired knowledge will support destination organisations (DMO) and tourism companies to develop their tools for image marketing.

  • 28.
    Andic, Eda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Englund, Kim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    När fantasin om paradis ön möter verkligheten: En studie om de sociokulturella effekter av turismen på Mallorca2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the socio-cultural impacts that tourists and locals in Mallorca are experiencing. We want to study the locals’ and tourists' perceptions and impact they have on each other. Qualitative interviews have been conducted for this thesis, in which two different interview forms were used. One interview form was used to interview locals and another for tourists, and a total of 11 people were interviewed. The study is based on theories that includes socio-cultural impacts, cultural shock, Doxey's irridex model and codes of conduct.

    The result of this study is that both locals and tourists had in general positive perceptions of the socio-cultural effects. The positive effects they experienced was cultural- and knowledge exchange, create networks with tourists from around the world and to have multicultural meetings. It was only locals who felt the negative socio-cultural effects of tourism, and these effects were that tourists litter the streets, drinks a lot of alcohol, creates high noise levels and that tourism affects the traditions and local language.

  • 29.
    Avebäck, Freja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pagan, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Har sociala medier och Influencers betydelse?: En undersökning om resenärernas uppfattning och attityd på marknadsföring av turism genom sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish travelers’ consumption has increased in relation to better economic conditions and demographic changes. In 2017, domestic leisure travelers’ consumption increased and the reason for such a changed tourism industry which is due to a changed behavior among travelers. One major reason is that internet and social media has had a major impact on the tourism industry (TIllväxtverket, 2017). Social media has developed new marketing techniques such as Influencer Marketing (IM) and Viral Marketing. The purpose of this study is to find out how travelers are affected by IM when choosing a destination, as a basis for this research the writers created a web survey where the target group was Swedish travelers who like to travel, the survey was answered by 188 respondents. The writers used netnography to review ten influencers to build their own interpretation of the subject and the result suggests that influencers have a role as an information source (eWOM) but are not the decision-making source for travelers’ consumption.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Väst, Sannah
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    "Detta är ett sponsrat inlägg": En kvalitativ studie om varför och hur företag ska arbeta med influencer marketing inom turism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har skribenterna valt att studera influencer marketing inom turismbranschen för att fylla det vetenskapliga tomrum som finns i dagsläget. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka varför och hur företag inom turismbranschen ska arbeta med influencer marketing. Skribenterna har valt att avgränsa sig till ett företagsperspektiv för att få en nyanserad bild av begreppet influencer marketing.

    För att undersöka studiens syfte har skribenterna tillämpat en kvalitativ metod och använt sig av teoretisk information samt empiriskt material i form av intervjuer samt vetenskaplig litteratur. Dessa intervjuer har genomförts via e-post, telefon samt personliga möten med personer som besitter goda kunskaper inom influencer marketing.

    Med hjälp av empiriskt material har skribenterna sammanställt resultat som visar att företag har stora fördelar av att arbeta med influencer marketing inom turism. Då influencer marketing skapar trovärdighet samt lojalitet för varumärket eller produkten samt når ut till en bred målgrupp. Skribenterna har även tagit fram en egen modell som stegvis presenterar hur företag ska arbeta med influencer marketing.

    Resultaten i denna studie ökar förståelsen om influencer marketing och dess fördelar.

  • 31.
    Bergman, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Staaf, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mörk Turism: När död och lidande blir underhållning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study with the purpose of looking over the pattern of consumption of people visiting tourist attractions associated with war, death and suffering; dark tourism. The demarcation of the work has been to look into attractions inside the Stockholm area which do commercial business with the three aspects of dark tourism. With the help of qualitative and quantitative methods, the authors have collected the material needed for the purpose of the study. These qualitative methods have been interviews with visitors of dark tourism and the commercial business themselves, and with observations on three different attractions in Stockholm. The quantitative method, together with some qualitative aspects, has been a poll, with in-depth questions, to get an understanding of the subject at hand. The places for the observations was Stockholm Ghost Walk, the Vasa museum, and the Army museum. As a result of the study, the authors learned that most visitors didn’t know about dark tourism and that they were, in fact, visiting attractions that was called dark. The phenomena itself was unknown to most of them even though they all had visited at least one place under the dark tourism phenomena.

  • 32.
    Bernhager, Robin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Dernsjö, Victor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Idrottsturism i Kalmar: En studie i hur Kalmar använt sig av idrottsturism i destinationsutvecklingen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the essay, Kalmar's investment in sports tourism is being investigated. It has been a new venture since 2012. The purpose was to find out how the investment has affected Kalmar and what effects have arisen from the investment. In the paper, seven interviews have been conducted with people in Kalmar, and a questionnaire has also been conducted to answer the questions of the essay. The study has shown how Kalmar works with sports tourism, what economic, social and environmental impacts have emerged and in which direction the venture has evolved.

  • 33.
    Betzeki, Christina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Bocokic, Jelena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hotellbranschens kommunikation av CSR i Sverige och Grekland: En komparativ studie om hur hotell kommunicerar CSR och vilken påverkan de lokala omständigheterna har2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competitive environment in popular destinations creates a need for hotels to differentiate. Implementing CSR is an option for added value and better relationships with the surrounding community. Hence, the promotion of CSR has a strategic importance. Hotels can both affect and be influenced by the surrounding community, even when it comes to CSR. For example the society may look different in northern and southern Europe, where the countries have socio-cultural and financial differences. Stockholm and Rhodes are two popular destinations in Sweden and Greece, with different local circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to compare how well-established hotels in Rhodes and Stockholm promote CSR. Furthermore, the survey aims to create an understanding of how local circumstances affect the hotel's CSR initiatives. This study consists of six structured interviews, whereof three in each destination, and a text and image analysis of the hotel's websites and social media accounts. The results showed that the majority of the investigated hotels in Rhodes and Stockholm promote their CSR initiatives primarily through social media, in particular Instagram and Facebook. The content of their CSR promotion is mostly about environment-related initiatives. CSR is not a requirement in the hotel industry, only an advantage for the hotel and the surrounding environment. Local circumstances can affect the hotel's implementation and promotion of CSR. The economic aspect has the greatest impact on local residents and affect how hotels adjust their CSR-initatives, particularly in the greek hotels. Moreover, it was found that a CSR policy can’t be standardized internationally as hotels affect and are influenced by the surrounding community.

  • 34.
    Blomberg, Victoria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Wolf, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Värna Vårda Visa!: Bevarandet av kulturarv och dess roll inom upplevelseturismen ur ett producentperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay revolves around the local history associations and the actors within it as part of the tourism sector. We have researched the driving-forces that these actors possess, their view on modernization and digitalization within the association. With this paper we also want to highlight that local history associations works as a cradle for our cultural heritage. These actors want the life of past times to go hand-in-hand with the digital lifestyle of modern times, which will contribute with historical knowledge for future generations.Furthermore,we discuss how these driving-forces are an important part of the balance between the conventional view on tourism from a management perspective, and the non-profit association’s psycho-social view. Our purpose is to define how local history works within tourism and how big of a role it has within the associations. We discuss different tools at hand and explore what driving-forces that get the actors to use digitalization in certain projects. The method of our essay is to use a theory as a framework for thestatements and arguments that are introduced in our empirical data. With the support of our theory and the results of the interviews, it is our hope to clarify the meaning of cultural heritage site tourism and how the actors work within it.We have used qualitative interviews to discuss the concept of heritage sites and to explain its meaning in a concrete way. We have met with elderly people and made it possible for them to share their memories from past times while also exploring their role within heritage site tourism. In this essay we described the heritage site through local history associations, where we analyze the underlying driving-forces behind the work of individual actors as they attempt to preserve the history of Sweden. This essay also presents the concept of interactive digital storytelling where technology functions as a tool that simplify development of the tourism product . As a conclusion our results show that the actors agreed upon that our history in terms of local history associations and heritage sites needs to be preserved, so that future generations do not lose the feeling of safety and a sense of belonging that comes from being part of a community in their local home environment. The cultural heritage site can be used as a tool to present knowledge to different generations through the means of digital development, the heritage sites can reach a wider audience in the future by presenting interactive modern day solutions.In our essay, we have also found that cultural heritage sites plays an important role in leisure tourism on many different levels through driving-forces of the individuals that offer their surrounding something memorable that will last for eternity.

  • 35.
    Bredlind, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pogulyaylo, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Turismens utveckling i ett instabilt Kiev: En studie om destinationsimage i Ukraina2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to get an idea of how tourism in Ukraine and specifically in the capital, Kiev, changed since the major events in recent years. In 2012 Ukraine and Poland welcomed the big football event Euro 2012 where Kiev was one of the hosting cities. After that the tourist flow increased until the terrible riot that took place at the end of 2013. Among other consequences, it led to Kiev receiving a bad image internationally via mass media, which in turn led to the reduction of the tourist flow. This thesis is a qualitative study, based on interviews with two government officials who had given us an overview of how tourism is today and what government does to improve the city’s image of having poor security and threats to potential tourists in Kiev today. Interviews with both representatives took place on location in Kiev. In addition to that, we conducted an email-survey with 13 Swedish tourists who had not previously visited Kiev to get a picture of their knowledge of Ukraine’s capital. Based on the answers from our respondents, we had worked to obtain the relevant theories and previous research for further analysis. The results of this thesis show that nowadays tourism in Kiev is not a profitable industry and there is too little focus dedicated to this topic as well as the city's marketing, because of the ongoing war in parts of the country. Furthermore, there is no ministry responsible for tourism in Kiev, but only departments that are being constantly moved between different ministries.

  • 36.
    Bäcklund, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Skarke, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Flyget och miljön: En studie om klimatkompensation av flygresor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, carbon offset in the aviation industry has been studied from a customer perspective and a corporate perspective. Through a survey of air passengers as well as qualitative interviews with industry actors, climate compensation and the surrounding problems have been studied. Climate compensation is something a person or company can do to compensate for the environmental emissions caused by a flight. The result of the study shows that a large number of travelers consider themselves well aware of the environmental impact of the aviation industry but the majority still choose not to compensate for the emissions caused. Attitudes towards the emissions caused by flying and its impact on the environment and the associated actions create a dissonance. This dissonance creates discomfort and guilt, that travelers try to reduce by motivate their action through the lack of information on how to compensate their emissions and that they do not trust the companies that offer climate compensation. The lack of information that the private travelers experience is due to the company's focus towards business to business operations. They see a higher profitability by concentrating their efforts towards other companies and this creates a lack in suitable tools for private customers to use while booking, and wanting to compensate for their plane ticket.

  • 37.
    de Vale, Filippa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Zekarias, Eden
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Turkiet efter det senaste politiska kaoset: Har detta påverkat svenskturkarnas resmönster till hemlandet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to investigate whether Turkey's current political situation affects swedish-turks willingness to travel to their country of origin. A qualitative and a quantitative method have been used in this study. The theories used include, among others, B. Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid, Hsu et al.s Hierarchy of destination selection model and Simpson and Siguaw's theories about tourism and risk.  Surveys sent by e-mail have been carried out with thirty swedish-turks and representatives from Ving and TUI. Some of the questions that were asked to the swedish-turks regarded if they still chose to travel to Turkey even though they are aware of the country's political instability. We also asked if the lack of security in Turkey is something that concerns them or matters when choosing a destination. The authors also wondered if their ethnic background influenced the choice to travel to Turkey. The analytical part of the thesis is based on five themes found in the empirical study linked to the theoretical starting points with the purpose of investigating how the latest political chaos in Turkey has affected the swedish-turks travel habits.  We have found that the swedish-turks travel habits to Turkey have not been affected in a greater scale by the political instability. Although because of the political instability, some of them have begun to be more careful about which parts of Turkey they visit but they have not reduced the frequency of their travels to any significant extent. Only nine out of thirty swedish-turks have completely ceased to travel to Turkey and one of the survey respondents mentioned that the reason he stopped traveling there is because he does not want to contribute financially to the Turkish government as he is against their policies. Eight out of thirty of the swedish-turks found that the media portrayed the political instability in Turkey in an excessively negative way and therefore they have not let this affect their travel habits.  

  • 38.
    Engskär, Camilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Vacari, Marina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    ”Världen runt från din soffa”: En kvalitativ studie om virtuell verklighet inom turismmarknadsföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technological innovations are constantly evolving. This opens up new opportunities for various industries to develop and strengthen their brand. In recent years one of the fastest emerging technologies has become virtual reality technology, which attracted different industries. Virtual reality technology is considered to be very effective when it comes to the production of experiences and because of this factor, the tourism industry is expected to benefit from it. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the possible link between the tourism industry and virtual reality technology. In this bachelor thesis we represent a qualitative study on virtual reality in tourism marketing. This study aims to find out what effects application of virtual reality technology in tourism can create. Our focus is to examine the question if virtual reality technology can be considered as a marketing tool for a destination. The study shows that several Swedish travel agencies have shown great interest in this kind of technology. They see virtual reality technology as a tool for PR, communication and marketing. However, this technique is still considered an uncertain investment for generating money in return. Partly because this technique is relatively new on the market, but also that there is no user competence. 

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Archer, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Krokstedt, Alma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att skapa och förmedla en destinationsimage: En undersökning av Sigtunas imagearbete ur ett aktörsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study has examined how Sigtuna with its local businesses works to create a united destination image and what challenges that arise in this creation. The methodological approach to collect data consists of qualitative interviews and text and image analyzes. There have been seven interviews with local businesses operating in Sigtuna and they are included in the same network. Analyzes of websites and social media, such as Facebook and Instagram, as well as videos identified as important in the process of communicating the Sigtuna image have been performed. Three theories have been applied in the study to explain what destination image includes as well as significant factors in the creation of image, networking between companies and how image can be conveyed. The results has shown that there are some improvement areas for the destination's common creation of an image. The areas that need to be developed primarily are communication between businesses and the follow up of its common goals. The presentation of the image is mainly through social media, where the historical aspects are presented as an important part of Sigtuna's image. The results also shows that there are challenges and the greatest challenge for the destination is to find a common approach that all business will work towards.

  • 40.
    Fernandez, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mustafi, Shkodran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Dubai – Ett turistparadis på jorden eller en miljöbov som destination?: En studie om den ekologiska hållbarheten i stadens turistiska utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A destination should work for a future condition of the society with the social-, economic- and ecological sustainability perspectives in mind to be considered as a sustainable destination. We do not intend to explain the impact of the social and economic aspects, but instead we will only examine how Dubai, along with the tourism industry's rapid development, works to maintain environmental sustainability in the destination. The choice of Dubai is based on the fast-growing and productive tourism developmentin the city and its concept of building, including artificial islands and tall luxurious buildings. The new projects and the concept of becoming a leading global tourism destination in the desert not only costs money, but also affect the environment in the community. In this study, we have investigated how these building projects affect the city ecologically, if there is any sustainability thinking in Dubai and how the city actively works for the environment considering the future generations. We have done this by having seven interviews with people who hold relevant qualifications in the field, and then compare the result with what the relevant theories and previous research shows. The final result was a mixture between what the selected respondents said and what previous research concluded, which shows that Dubai still has some work to do when it comes to the environment and its sustainability goal

  • 41.
    Grinde, Jonatan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Larsson-Stålarm, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    (Fu)turistiska upplevelser: En studie om upplevelseaktiviteter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to increase understanding of which factors an experience activity needs to contain to have potential as a tourism activity.

    Method: This study has been conducted through qualitative methodology where interpretative phenomenological analysis constituted the working method, with interviews as basis.

    Theory: The theory deals with experiences focusing on activities, co-creation and motivation as key elements. The theory ends with a theoretical synthesis to summarize and tie the various parts together.

    Empiria: 19 interviews were conducted and these are reported in the empiria. The questions during the interviews were based on the theory chapter with the aim of answering the purpose.

    Conclusion: The conclusion shows that both motivation and co-creation are two factors that play a major role for consumers and are strongly contributing reasons for whether an experience activity can act as a tourism activity. The authors also discovered a correlation between motivation and co-creation in the sense that consumers' motivation for the experience influences the degree of co-creation they experience, which in turn affects how successful the experience is.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Angelica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Frammin, Cornelia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Wangärd, Sofie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Massmedias påverkan på destiantionsimage: En studie om researrangörernas hanterande och agerande gällande destiantionsimage2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourist industry is important to the industry economically. But at the same time it is very vulnerable to negative happenings and events from around the world. Since information and news is spreading faster than ever before, and due to the simplicity there now is to take parts of the information about a destination, it is easy for the destinations image to be affected badly by what is being mediated throughout the media. This study therefore aims to map out in what ways destinations images are affected by negative news, reporting through a producer perspective. This is done by examining what there is that makes an image change. At the same time this study focuses on trying to understand if different strategies are being used by tour operators in order to change the image of destinations and if they are trying to handle the media's effect on such image. Therefore the ambition is to gain knowledge about what can be done to minimize the effect media has on travel patterns and reduce the extent there is today.

     

    In order to do this, the following study focuses on these two research questions:

     

    • How is destinations images affected by negative news reports?
    • Are there any strategies that travel agencies apply in order to change destination images, and in that case which?

     

    The conclusions that can be drawn are following:

     

    • Destinations are affected by negative news reports because people are affected by media reportings.
    • Destinations are affected to various degrees depending on its international status, geographical location, travelers' family feelings towards the place and the nature of the event itself.
    • All individuals are affected differently by the media reportings, depending on previous experience and knowledge of the site.
    • All crises and events require different strategies, both in size and depending on what type of event that has occurred.
    • Tour operators help destinations in the short term rather than the longer term perspective, as tour operators adapt primarily to market demand.
    • It is a tough balance in terms of applying external factors in the process of changing the image of destinations.
    • Based on situation, different marketing strategies are used in the form of campaigns, ads and discounts, which can shortly affect sales and travel patterns.
    • The responsibility lies on each individual and how we get the right information through the right channels, which consequently affects our perceptions and thus the image of destinations.
  • 43.
    Gölcük, Kaan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Willebrand Vinnberg, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Vägen till en förlängd säsong: En studie om samarbete i Stockholms skärgård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how companies in the tourism industry in the Stockholm archipelago cooperate and whether cooperation can lead to longer seasons. As well as if the state-funded development projects in the archipelago have contributed to longer seasons according to the investigated companies.

    Methodology: In this study, a qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews has been used for the gathering of empirical data. Six companies on two archipelago islands have been interviewed and used as main empirical material, but an interview with Värmdö municipality has also formed the basis for some of the empirical material.

    Conclusions: During this study, it has been found that cooperation between local actors is an important part of the development of the destination. Not only is the cooperation a part of the destination development, it can also help extend the season. According to the interviewees, the development projects have not benefited them. It is apparent that the entrepreneurs believe that they themselves that must work hard for any change to happen.

  • 44.
    Hassan, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hasan Ibrahim, Rosnani
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Massmediers inflytelse samt svenska turisters attityder: En kvantitativ studie om mediebevakning och dess verkan hos svenska turister2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s technology allows people to interact at a great distance that could not be imagined before. Through the technology, the media such as news channels and social media which allows people to interact as well as read and gather information from all over the world. For example, a person can gather information from the comfort of his own home, without having to experience it himself.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how the media coverage affects and alters tourist’s attitudes and views of a tourist destination. The study has limited itself to the Greek Island of Lesvos and how its tourism has been affected by the media reports of the refugee movements. The authors of the study have applied a quantitative research method in the form of structured interviews. Secondary data have also been collected such as; news from social media, scientific articles, statistics, and facts from governmental organizations, in order to have a deeper understanding of the subject that is studied.

    The results of the structured interview showed that the majority of respondents gained their knowledge of the island Lesvos through media outlets.  Whilst the majority of those who participated expressed that they could not imagine traveling to the island of Lesvos in Greece for pleasure and relaxation. The study survey shows that the media coverage of the refugee tide and the island of Lesvos had a great influence among the respondents. Based on the information from the media outlet, the island was described as a refugee camp and the respondents traveling for relaxation and fun chose to avoid Lesvos as a tourist destination

    I conclusion; the study indicates that the majority of the Swedish tourists have a negative attitude and view towards Lesvos due to the coverage and information spread by the media. Furthermore, it is important to note that the attitudes and views of the tourists differ from each individual. This is because every individual receives and perceives the information differently, even though it may come from the same source.

  • 45.
    Helena, Olovsson
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sebastian, Öman
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Resekatalogens historia: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur svenska researrangörer jobbat med målgrupper och hur de framställt manligt och kvinnligt.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a historical survey of two swedish tour operators and how they arrange a charter destination for different target groups. The purpose is also to review the material from a gender perspective, starting in the 1950s up until today. The study has been based on a qualitative research approach where text and image analysis was applied as the primary method, which was also supplemented by two interviews. The empirical material has mainly been taken from archives and consisted of travel catalogs issued by swedish tour operators Ving and Fritidsresor. Previous research related to the research field as well as theoretical references on visual communication, gender studies, target groups and semiotics have been used as aid to review and analyze the empirical material. The results show that there were different gestures of men and women and what has historically been considered masculine and feminine. The target groups were initially couples but eventually extended to young people and families with children.

  • 46.
    Hoelstad, Eliza
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Stattin, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att sälja Stockholm till frimärkssamlare: En studie om hur en mötesarrangör kan marknadsföra Stockholm som turistdestination gentemot internationella konventdeltagare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A convent for stamp collectors will take place in Stockholm in 2019, where international visitors will be present. Studies have shown that the convent industry enables an economic growth to the destination at which the convent is being held, unfortunately the scientific research about this topic is limited. There are multiple different actors involved with the implementation of a convent. One of the more commonly used actor is a professional congress organizer (PCO), in this case Meetagain, who is responsible for presenting the visitors with activities and experiences available in Stockholm. In order to market the destination and it’s supply the target group needs to be identified, who are they, what would they like to experience and how is this message best communicated towards them. This study shows that the target group is mainly represented by elderly stamp collectors who travels alone or in the company of a partner, and would appreciate a package solution with activities provided for them. An elderly traveler should not be generalized by his or her age, but should be considered as a city traveler, where the person's interest controls what should be presented in forms of activities and experiences in Stockholm.

  • 47.
    Holmberg, Ellinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Rosengren, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Konferera i skärgården: En studie om konferensanläggningars utvecklingspotential i Stockholms skärgård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present study intends to investigate the potential of development for conference facilities in Stockholm archipelago. The study propose to create a deeper understanding for how the conference facilities in rural environment experiencing its potential of development. To increase the understanding for the conference facilities potential of development the study was completed with public actors experience about development for conference facility in rural areas. The study has a qualitative method there semi structured interviews have been done with seven respondents from the conference facilities and two key persons from public sector. The theories who are used in the study are based in three difference theory fields who are development of professional meetings, rural corporation development and obstacles for development in small business. In the empirical part the conference facilities are separately presented in a deeper current text and the key persons from the public sector are presented through a report of what the project Stockholm Archipelago is and also how the key persons from the public sector are looking at the development for the conference facilities in rural areas. Thereafter the analysis part will present the interconnection between theories and the empiric and the analysis of connection between them. The most prominent aspects were that the conference facilities themselves did not consider that there were any major development disabilities for them, but the authors have been able to identify some obstacles that could be negative for a development of conference facilities in the Stockholm archipelago. The identified obstacles were for example, lack of transport opportunities all year round, lack of knowledge about the archipelago and that conference facilities are isolated from other complementary companies.

  • 48.
    Holmlund, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Donnerberg, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    How does tourism affect the sociocultural aspects of the local community?: A Minor Field Study in Bali2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing rapidly worldwide. In 2016, Bali, Indonesia, had a record year in tourism, and the industry is continuously growing. One can argue that tourism is a culture exploiter and disrupts traditional culture. Nevertheless, it can also revitalize culture. Since the tourism in Bali is based on the Balinese culture and traditions, the writers wanted to acquire a deeper understanding of how the locals look upon - does tourism affect their cultural traditions and can residents preserve their local culture? A qualitative method was used for this study. For the collecting of data the writers conducted semi-structured interviews. The result of the study was, according to the Balinese, that people in Bali have become more money oriented due to the development of tourism and that some ceremonies have lost their spiritual meaning. In addition, the writers found that the locals are continuously working on preserving their culture but the challenge is to preserve what is actually authentic Balinese.

  • 49.
    Holmquist, Isabelle
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sjöberg, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Wirz, Janina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    It’s so popular, in the middle of nowhere: En studie om säsongsberoende turism i Stockholms skärgård.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze actions which businesses in archipelago environments may use to successfully extend the season.

    Method: A qualitative research method approach has been applied through seven interviews. Completion has been made using secondary data.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework is based on Conceptual approaches to seasonality causation from Goulding (2006) and Influences on patterns of tourism seasonalityby Butler (2001).

    Empericism: The empericism consists of four open interviews and three semistructured interviews conducted with representatives from different lodging businesses in the archipelago. Charts consisting information about the referred islands complete the interviews. 

    Conclusions: Businesses in Stockholm archipelago are dependent on natural and institutional factors such as weather, bank holidays and travel habits. Stockholm archipelago is especially attractive to visitors during the summer. Lodging businesses therefore experience a dramatic reduction in the number of visitors during the off-season. The available range is limited to the summer season when several activities are dependant on weather conditions, but some businesses show that they try to find other attractions during the low season to keep up with the declining number of visitors. The actions that the businesses take is mainly focused on increasing growth during the summer season and they are  generally not actively working to extend the seasons. Results show that the greatest limitations that the businesses face in Stockholm archipelago are staff shortages, natural causes and public transport limitations. That is, the extension of seasons being limited as the businesses mainly invest in the summer season, which in turn may lead to sustainability issues.

  • 50.
    Hultqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Carlsson, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Strategier för digital klagomålshantering: En kvalitativ studie av fem utvalda hotell med höga kundbetyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As more hotels are established and that competition in turn increases, it becomes increasingly important to offer a good service to attract customers. If the hotels do not satisfy the guest they may complain. With the Internet's advancement, new approaches were established for dissatisfied guests to raise their complaints and, in other words, the criticism does no longer reach only family and friends. The study aims to create an understanding of how the hotel's complaint management works on the internet. This has been examined by answering the following research questions:

    • What strategies are used in digital complaint management in social networks?

    • How does complaint management affect Word of Mouth?

    To answer the research questions a qualitative approach with five semi-structured interviews and a non-participation observation has been conducted.

    The study indicates that communication has become more digital, but that personal contact is still more important. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the strategies used in digital complaint management are to respond quickly, to be understanding, to apologize to some extent, use a clear and well-formulated language, consider every word, take a direct dialogue from public to private and compensate the guest if necessary. If the strategies are taken into account in digital complaint management the work towards a satisfied guest will be simplified.

    A general conclusion drawn in the study is that the formulated strategies are important to work with to increase customer satisfaction and to successfully reverse the guest before spreading negative WOM or e-WOM. It has also been found in the present study that traditional WOM still has a greater impact than e-WOM, despite the fact that e-WOM reaches a larger audience.

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