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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Attitudes and Factual Considerations of Regional Actors Towards Experience Industries and The Tourism Industry: A Swedish Case Study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 3, 225-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the attitudes towards experience industries and tourism in the Gnosjö region of Sweden. The investigation is based on a questionnaire and follow-up interviews with politicians and chief executive officers (CEOs) within manufacturing industries. The results show that the politicians have more knowledge of experience industries and a more positive attitude towards these new types of industries than the CEOs. Both groups consider both these industries of significance for the region's future. While the politicians believe in experience industries as a whole, and particularly suggest more active work in favour of tourism and design, the second group just welcomes directly and indirectly a possible cooperation with design companies. A minor share of the CEOs is interested in either running businesses with features of experience industries or having a sense of it in their businesses. Despite differences, these attitudes facilitate cross-fertilisation between the manufacturing industry and experience industries in the future. The study suggests that the region needs to develop more knowledge and competence directed towards the experience industries, in particular tourism and design, and a cooperation between the manufacturing industry, local political parties, and enterprises within tourism, design and culture in this respect.

  • 2.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Attitudes towards competence development among employees in Tourism Industry: A Swedish pilot study2016In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, 28-30 September 2016, Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, 2016, 14-14 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate empirically what attitudes employees in tourism industry have towards participation in publicly funded competence development programmes. Such investigations are lacking in the research on Tourism industry. By competence development here means participation in personal competence development programmes that might have a positive impact on the staff’s learning and on their work places. This impact will be found out through the employees’ subjective perceptions. In this study the terms “competence development programmes” “training programmes” and “skills development programmes” are used as synonyms. Also in accordance with Statistics Sweden terms of “business” and “work place” are used as synonym. The methodological approach used in this study is email-interviews with 12 employees (four women, eight men) that have participated in these programmes during recent years. This includes CEOs, owners, employees and one instructor that also is a business owner himself. A majority of them have academic education and their average working years in the industry is 17. They represent various sub-industries. Their average age is 46 and they mostly come from small sized firms. They participated in different courses that were offered by public organizations for employees and employers, or by private organizations. The courses were paid either by public means, by the firm or by a combination of both. The courses were mostly organized by public organizations but in some cases also by private organizations or a mix of private and public. They expressed that their participation in general had a positive or very positive impact on their workplace, and among others resulted to better knowledge, to acquire a wider network, new ideas, new experiences and opportunities and gave more inspiration, motivation and self-confidence. Concerning effectiveness of courses offered by the public organization the opinions are different; some had no comments about it, some found them very effective, some believed that these courses are effective in some but not in all cases, and finally some believed that courses organized by private organizations are more effective. The largest problems for competence development in the industry are lack of time and money and lack of tailored courses.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm: Slutgiltig redovisning till Huddinge kommun2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport slutredovisas uppdraget ”Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm”. Undersökningen är utförd på uppdrag av Huddinge kommun. En sammanfattande slutsats för denna studie är att ett stort intresse finns för hundägande och hundsport idag. I Stockholms län finns 80 tusen hundägare och 102 tusen hundar. I Huddinge kommun finns fyra tusen hundägare och 5 tusen hundar1. Utifrån rapportens resultatredovisning per frågeområde kan både idéer och konkreta förslag utläsas om hur hundsporten kan utvecklas både i Stockholms län och i Huddinge kommun. En generell slutsats är att det finns en en stark efterfrågan på professionella hundanläggningar (hundcenter), egna familjens hundaktiviteter på allmänna platser, lokala hunddagis, kurser, hundomvårdnadsprodukter, mat- och hundutrustningsprodukter och hundägararnas egna trivselprodukter.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mellanlägesrapport i forskningsprojektet "utveckling av exportmogna destinationer": en litteraturstudie av forskningsfronten hösten 20122013Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of Tourism Department Partners: A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI2014In: Proceedings from The 23rd Nordic Symposium On Tourism And Hospitality: THE VALUES OF TOURISM 2 - 4 O c t o b e r  2 0 1 4 / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Copenhagen: Copenhagen business school , 2014, 71-72 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of

    Tourism Department Partners

     

    – A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI

     

    GÖRAN ANDERSSON

     (Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, Stockholm, Sweden[1])

     

    Universities are not isolated from society. Throughout the world and at the highest political level, there are pressures on the higher education sector to network with its surrounding society. This whole idea of networking is supported by the European Bologna process in connecting academia more closely with business and society and in new and innovative ways. Nevertheless, at universities there is a lack of knowledge on how to structure societal networks and a lack of experiences in network building. This causes problems with regard to effective co-operation between the university and its societal partners. The fact that universities are not isolated from society can also be recognised by the public debates on education, research and community engagement. Nevertheless, there are almost no research articles written about universities' societal networks.

           The purpose of this research is to investigate university networks critically and to develop an analysis model for strategic partner relations and the underlying network structure within a Tourism Department's network.

           A case study methodology has been used with the Tourism Department at the author's university being the object studied, in order to study the network building process since it was established in 1999. Experiences from the EU-project TARSI (Tailored Applied Research and Implementation) have been triangulated with the results from the case study.

           Furthermore, a literature review has been conducted in order to identify which stakeholders appear in the literature of higher education-society interrelations and to find underlying dimensions to the university network structure. The theoretical framework is based on network theories, where network strategy, network partners, relation purpose, networks' formality, individual and organisational networks, network principles and obstacles are important themes.   

           For the Tourism Department, the following strategic partner types with associated relation purposes have been identified: the academic staff, current students, alumni, the tourism industry, public tourist organisations, non-profit tourist organi­sa­tions, macro-environment partners and the higher education sector. Every main stakeholder group has been organised into partner groups at the Tourism Department. The benefit of this approach is that special university objectives can be reached more easily if the Tourism Department has known part­ners in formal sub-groups already in place. In every sub-group there are typically questions depending on the Department's relation purpose.

           A relation structure network model has been developed, where the dimensions of formal-informal and organisational-individual have been found relevant in order to structure the network. The model is based on the four main opportunity building principles of permanency, openness, motivation and trustfulness. However, there are also corresponding main obstacles of cost-benefit misunderstanding, relation burden, strategic unconformity and non-network opportunities.

           There is a challenge in increasing the community engagement activities when using more resources. However, the benefits for the university and the surrounding world will be positive in total. It is of great importance for European university academies to use network strategies in their overall planning in order to be a natural part of society, which is summarised as the Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN). Finally, the interaction of universities with society is regarded as a never-ending journey in a global world.

     

    KEYWORDS: Strategic network, Tourism Department, Community engagement, Network partners, Networks' formality, Individual-organisational stakeholders

     

    [1] For correspondence: Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, 141 89  HUDDINGE, Sweden; e-mail: goran.andersson@sh.se

  • 6.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry2016In: Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, ISSN 2286-3745, Vol. 4, no 1, 5-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society today there is a heated debate about sustainable development. It is argued that event organisations must take responsibility for sustainability, although they may lack appropriate development tools. The purpose of this article is to study how event companies and organisations can develop a sustainability process in a societal system context and the need for certification in their events. The analysis was based on the study of relevant literature, an investigation in Sweden and a systems analysis. A triangulation technique was used to combine the different methods. It is argued that there is a sustainability event system in a societal context, within which event organisations have a central role. A model of sustainability and certification process for an event organisation and its events is developed, which consists of criteria, activities, certification, effects and obstacles. This recognised certificate could be a motivator and guideline for sustainable event development. The certification's focus has to be on the event organiser's management. However, event organisers need to certify their own organisations, either including all future events or only some specific events. This would give the organisations and the event industry a positive image and recognised role in a sustainable world.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project2016In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 16, no 3, 195-212 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop an analysis model of a tourism department network using an explorative approach. Strategic stakeholders have been identified for the tourism department and organised into partner groups. An analysis model has been developed based on four network types: formal organisation, informal organisation, formal individual and informal individual. For every type, the following six network content dimensions were found relevant to analyse: stakeholders, reciprocal relations, relation exchange, network driving forces, network management and network purpose. The investigations have shown some focused network strengths such as network permanency, with corresponding weaknesses such as rigid relations. Some typical implications of the strengths and weaknesses for the department have been identified, and some network techniques to handle the implications have been proposed. An annual network development process for a tourism department is suggested. The resulting network is summarised as the Professional Tourism Academic Network (PTAN).

  • 8.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: A Study of Stockholm City2015In: Integrating City Tourism into the Urban Research Agenda: 15-16 June 2015, GSSI, L’Aquila / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, L’Aquila, Italy: Gran Sasso Science Institute , 2015, 25-26 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm hosts nearly eleven million commercial guest nights annually, and is ranked as one of Europe’s top ten destinations.The county population is 2.1 million (Stockholm Visitors Board,

    2014). In order to pursue economic, effective, and sustainable tourist destination development, it is important to understand its characteristics. In this study “city destinations” are focused on using sub-characteristics such as “visitor attraction clusters”. For understanding these characteristics, a clear definition of destination has to be used (Framke, 2002). The following components can be used to conduct an analysis of a destination: geographical place, visitor, image, complete tourist product, and interacting business and public sector (Andersson, 2013). Tourist destinations can be studied at the following different geographical place levels: the regional (e.g. the Stockholm region), the local (e.g. the old town) and the attraction-based destination point (e.g. Friends arena). The Stockholm Tourism Strategy 2020 project group has proposed a number of criteria that must be fulfilled before a destination can be considered mature. In order to gain an understanding of the demand (and revenue) side of destinations, unique criteria can be used for visitor segmentation in the city, such as visitor purpose. There are changing patterns of visitor streams in Stockholm, however, such as the dramatic increase in the number of cruise passengers (Stockholm harbour, 2015). Therefore the visitor stream planning has to be up-dated. By using criteria for visitor segmentation and characterization of the destination, economically strong and reachable visitor segments such as city-breakers can be identified. Visit Sweden has identified a number of segments, such as “double income no kids” (DINKs), that can serve as an overall category for citybreakers. Research purpose: To obtain deeper understanding of how regional, local, and point destinations can be developed using knowledge of the destination character and visitor streams within the destination. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of destination, the characteristics of city tourism, visitor segments, and streams. Methodology: As a starting point, approximately 150 destination plans have been written by my undergraduate students, and a pilot study and a literature review have been conducted. The next step will be a main case study on regional, local, and point destination levels in Stockholm and the associated visitor streams. The final step will be to draw conclusions about the model of visitor streams in city destinations.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?2016In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, 18-18 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a paradigm shift from heritage being only preserved, to also being shown as a tourist attraction. One of two diverse approaches amongst scholars to define heritage tourism is to use a visitor-experience perspective (Apostolakis, 2003). Different segments of tourists have their own unique experiences of the heritage. Specific aspects can be used to explain the experience, such as the “classical” aspects by Pine & Gilmore (1999). In addition, in the last few years other experience aspects have been identified, such as kick, comfort, competence and contact (Kairos Future, 2011). The concept of “the experience room” (Mossberg, 2003) is used to present an experience context. The assumption of this study is that the experience landscape is made up of perceptive signals that cover the human senses. Although one can ask how this approach supports the development of attractions. Cognitive and affective experiences were discussed at conferences on memory tourism in Estonia 2013-14, used in the pilot study to this research. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge about how tourist's experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and secondly, how the human senses influence the tourist's cognitive and affective experiences. An overall case study method will be used to study four maritime tourist attractions. The study consists of unstructured ethnographical interviews, experimental observation of tourists, and tourist's own evaluations during the experience. The research contribution is to shed light to how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on an analysis on whether tourist experience aspects can emerge from the sensory impressions of tourists' experi­ences (Agapito et. al, 2014). Another contribution is to figure out how the sense perception can be connected to affective and cognitive aspects that result in a joint experience of an attraction. The pilot study showed that enhanced customer investigations of tourist's experiences are needed, which will be further more analysed. In the end this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to generate innovative and well-attended heritage attractions.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations2015In: Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015 / [ed] Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2015, 113-113 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about responsible and sustainable development in tourist destinations. One could argue that event companies have a responsibility for sustainability, but they lack the analyses tools. The purpose is to investigate and analyse how companies working with events could develop a certification process of sustainability, and how decisions about an event’s sustainability certification could be supported. The analysis is based on both the study of relevant literature and investigations carried out and by using multi-criteria decision-making systems. A sustainable certification process is developed which consists of external company sustainability criteria, such as social, cultural, economic and ecological dimension, and also internal criteria such as using a sustainability plan. However, in this study certification obstacles have been found, for example certification costs. When developing the sustainability certification process a need is recognised for a decision support tool. Therefore a triangulation multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed consisting of six steps: 1. Problem formulation, 2. Computer criteria definition, 3. Definition of measures and rules, 4. Data collection and registering, 5. Total evaluation of the alternatives' results and 6. Final analysis and choice. When using the model there is a need for an integrated manual assessment by the evaluator and the computerbased expert system support. Therefore, triangulation of mainly qualitative research methods is used starting with qualitative interviews with an inductive approach by the evaluator, continuing with computer-based expert system analysis (the DEXi-system) with a logical interpretation approach and ending with the evaluator's deep interpretation of both manual and computer-based results.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism2016In: Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, 147-161 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City destinations are central in the study of tourism. But how can visitor streams related to the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed as a basis for improvement of the destination? This research used statistical data and qualitative information as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”. The research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, and a literature review. It resulted in the development of the visitor stream concept, which can be used in future research on the integration of various visitor segment streams. A method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: (1) defining “focused destination” and its characteristics, (2) investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, (3) identifying visitor segments, and (4) analysing streams with new destination tools. The knowledge gained will introduce and address new issues concerning statistics for measuring, monitoring and assessing the actual value of tourism, particularly urban tourism.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations2016In: Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo turismakademi , 2016, 19-19 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All tourism destinations have unique characteristics that constitute their identity (Valls et al., 2012). Tourism companies, in turn, exploit these when planning and marketing product concepts for different market segments. In recent decades, the cities in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) have undergone a change considering their profiles as more well-known tourism destinations. Meanwhile, even the degree of professionalism in the tourism industry has increased. This opens opportunities for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). In order to understand city tourism better a comparison between urban and rural tourism will be made. Each destination and the associated companies have to develop their products and marketing campaigns in order to effectively promote themselves to various tourist segments. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the characteristics of city destinations, and how tourist segments translate them into destination images, and further how the image influences motivations for travel choice. Our theoretical framework consists of city destination concepts, destination characteristics and images, tourist segments' motivations and destination branding. In our pilot study, typical characteristics and tourist segments were found in the case of destination Stockholm. This result will be used when investigating how different tourist segments translate characteristics to an image perception. The planned research will take a multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose. A case study of two typical BSR-cities will be conducted, using interviews, statistical data, web site analysis and destination document studies. The knowledge contribution relates primarily to new forms of city destination characteristics and their impact on visitor travel motivators. Furthermore, a model for investigating segments' “image positions” will be developed based on a new kind of demand of city tourism and a more professional tourism industry, even though it is a complex task to determine image positions (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Our hypothesis is that tourist segments are more interested in what city destination can offer today, but the supply side needs more knowledge how to influence the segments' travel motivators. We hope that the acquired knowledge will support destination organisations (DMO) and tourism companies to develop their tools for image marketing.

  • 13.
    Blomberg, Victoria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Wolf, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Värna Vårda Visa!: Bevarandet av kulturarv och dess roll inom upplevelseturismen ur ett producentperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay revolves around the local history associations and the actors within it as part of the tourism sector. We have researched the driving-forces that these actors possess, their view on modernization and digitalization within the association. With this paper we also want to highlight that local history associations works as a cradle for our cultural heritage. These actors want the life of past times to go hand-in-hand with the digital lifestyle of modern times, which will contribute with historical knowledge for future generations.Furthermore,we discuss how these driving-forces are an important part of the balance between the conventional view on tourism from a management perspective, and the non-profit association’s psycho-social view. Our purpose is to define how local history works within tourism and how big of a role it has within the associations. We discuss different tools at hand and explore what driving-forces that get the actors to use digitalization in certain projects. The method of our essay is to use a theory as a framework for thestatements and arguments that are introduced in our empirical data. With the support of our theory and the results of the interviews, it is our hope to clarify the meaning of cultural heritage site tourism and how the actors work within it.We have used qualitative interviews to discuss the concept of heritage sites and to explain its meaning in a concrete way. We have met with elderly people and made it possible for them to share their memories from past times while also exploring their role within heritage site tourism. In this essay we described the heritage site through local history associations, where we analyze the underlying driving-forces behind the work of individual actors as they attempt to preserve the history of Sweden. This essay also presents the concept of interactive digital storytelling where technology functions as a tool that simplify development of the tourism product . As a conclusion our results show that the actors agreed upon that our history in terms of local history associations and heritage sites needs to be preserved, so that future generations do not lose the feeling of safety and a sense of belonging that comes from being part of a community in their local home environment. The cultural heritage site can be used as a tool to present knowledge to different generations through the means of digital development, the heritage sites can reach a wider audience in the future by presenting interactive modern day solutions.In our essay, we have also found that cultural heritage sites plays an important role in leisure tourism on many different levels through driving-forces of the individuals that offer their surrounding something memorable that will last for eternity.

  • 14.
    Knutas, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Johansson, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Etablering av kommersiell rymdfart i Sverige: En undersökning om möjligheten att etablera kommersiell rymdfart i samarbete med Sveriges enda rymdbas Esrange Space Center2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to explore Sweden’s opportunities to establish commercial spaceflight and whether this is a realistic or unrealistic possibility in the future. We also looked at whether efforts should be made as a complement to this, for example through virtual experiences from Earth. One of our starting points was to investigate the opportunities and potential for Kiruna to develop to a more established tourist- and urban space town. To achieve this, we are primarily focusing on the development opportunities and current plans for the future of Sweden´s only spaceport Esrange Space Center.

    In this paper, we mainly used qualitative methods in the form of structured and unstructured interviews. We had interviews with five relevant parties for our research, both verbally and via email. The quantitative method we used consisted of a survey we did with one hundred respondents during a period of one week. The theories that have been used are four different theoretical frameworks which have helped us to investigate and strengthen our purpose by applying these into the context of space. They include how the use of future scenarios as a method of investigation could help scientists to predict a certain future outcome. Also the human need of total fulfillment and the longing for new experiences together with the aspects that can affect whether a person accepts a new innovation or decides to reject it. The theories also examines the threats, strengths, weaknesses and possibilities that commercial spaceflight is facing.

    The commercial space sector is facing curtain difficulties in terms of safety, environmental and economic issues. But if the development follow the same curve as for the regular air traffic it might be possible to travel to space for a reasonable price 50 years from now. Where space organizations ultimately choose to establish commercial spaceflight depends on the customers, since their demand will determine where they want to fly out from. For Kiruna, which is already hosting Sweden´s only spaceport it will be crucial to work hard to show ambition and provide attractive offers for their potential clients. Until technology provides us with the solutions preventing commercial spaceflight cyber Tourism (virtual reality) can be a substitute for visitors to experience space without the need to take account of time, location, security and economy.

  • 15.
    Lidman, Adam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Rönninger, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hållbart resande?: En kvalitativ studie av den svenska utlandsresenärens syn på hållbart resande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Om att styra självständighet2014In: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, 113-132 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Det turistiska fältet och dess aktörer, Josefin Syssner & Lars Kvarnström (red.). Studentlitteratur, 2013.2014In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 51, no 2, 184-186 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Urban Tourism from a Swedish Perspective, case Stockholm2017In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine the urban tourism from a Swedish perspective. The study focuses on the tourism system and tries to find out how it operates now and how it might change in the future. Furthermore, the study investigates the possibility for cooperation between tourism firms and how that will develop. If there will be a change within the tourism system, will tourist companies be prepared for new trends? How does the tourist industry, in Sweden, use the concept 'urban tourism'?

    How will the tourist industry manage the transition into the future?

  • 19.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies. Strömstad Academy.
    From Global to Intra-Regional Tourism2016In: UTMS Journal of Economics, ISSN 1857-6974, Vol. 7, no 2, 149-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of how society has evolved, travel and tourism have had a positive development since the end of Second World War. But now it seems that the perception of risk and danger is accentuated and the tourists choose destinations based on more safety and security for tourists.

    Risks often seem to be based on different global activities and actions from different groups, which the individual can not affect or influence over. These perceived risks thus affect the development of tourism and travel in a global perspective.

    This article would discuss the new threats to the global tourism due to the terrorist attacks that target different countries and in many cases the popular tourist destinations. With the result that travel has become more intra-regional again.

    The article makes a review of the slightly incomplete statistics available in the area and discuss possible strategies for overcoming the existing terrorist attacks.

    The conclusions of the article points to a more concrete cooperation between international and national organizations, governments, as well as NGOs, tour operators and civil society in general.

  • 20.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies. Strömstad akademi, Nordiskt institut för avancerade studier.
    Turism: Om att sälja drömmar2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turism handlar om att få en upplevelse av annorlunda karaktär. Turist är man på sin fritid, efter det att man utfört alla de uppgifter man har i form av arbete - avlönat eller av ideell karaktär. En del av denna fritid kan användas för att göra en semesterresa. Man kanske reser till någon annan plats i det egna landet, eller till någon plats i ett annat land.

    ----

    De teman som diskuteras är fritid och rekreation, upplevelseturism, resandets determinanter samt köpprocessen, kvalitetsutveckling och hållbarhetsaspekter med utgångspunkt i turismindustrin.

    Framtiden är svår att sia om, men boken gör avslutningsvis ett försök att belysa en trolig utveckling inom turismindustrin. Studier påområdet pekar generellt sett påen ljus framtid, både för nationella och internationella aktörer. Men hållbarhetsaspekter kommer att kräva ökad hänsyn.

  • 21.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Treacherous Grin Reflex: Commemorating the 1912 Olympics2014In: International Journal of the History of Sport, ISSN 0952-3367, Vol. 31, no 5, 516-525 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The centenary of the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm included an array of diverse events. By the use of Maurice Halbwachs' concept of 'collective memory,' this essay takes a critical look at a few of the major events and official accounts pertaining to the commemorations of 2012. Methods used are ethnographic observations, at events, and qualitative analyses of texts, videos and photographs from the official records on events. A number of recurring and salient tropes used during the centenary resulted in an overall merry picture of the 1912 Olympics. Investigations on collective memory in Sweden usually tend to focus on party politics, especially the era of the hegemonic Swedish Social-Democrats. According to these studies the influence of sports seems negligible. In this study it is argued that the collective memory of major sports events, like the 1912 Olympics, in Sweden work as influential mental structures that can both confirm and challenge conventional Swedish meta-narratives.

  • 22.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Amerikansk statsvetarprofessor dömer ut OS som kalaskapitalistiskt rikemansspektakel finansierat av skattebetalarna2013In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224, no 10 decemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Introduction: The Summer Olympics of 19122014In: International Journal of the History of Sport, ISSN 0952-3367, Vol. 31, no 5, 509-518 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Studie av satsningar på kultur i anslutning till olympiska spel2014In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224, no 19 augustiArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Idrottens kvarlåtenskap genomlyses med varierande resultat2015In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 18 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Bråttom för politikerna att hoppa av OS-tåget2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 15 decemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Heritage, Emotional Communities, and Imaginary Childhood Landscapes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing examples from maritime heritage attractions in Sweden this paper aims to analyze how heritage stakeholders situate their enterprises through unreflective references to childhood. 

    A pioneer in the business of shipwreck tours started a heritage project by trying to convince investors and to create general interest in the planned tours by thoroughly referring to the thrilling documentary films about the Titanic by James Cameron. In contrast to the logistically complex and not-so-dramatic shipwreck tours that were eventually realized, the pioneer’s almost boyish appreciation of the adventurous qualities of Cameron’s documentary conveys feelings of childhood. Another stakeholder in the same project recalled a media event from his childhood when he talked about his early interest of old warships at the bottom of the sea. Thus he told me in an interview about how he absorbed the live television broadcast in the early 1960s of the rescue of the seventeenth-century warship Wasa in Stockholm. A third stakeholder, involved in another maritime heritage attraction, referred to his seemingly happy childhood as a contrast to contemporary selfishness and gentrification that, in his view, seem to threaten the surrounding landscapes of his heritage project located on a an island where he spent his childhood summers. 

    One of several hot-tempered arguments in David Lowenthal’s classic work The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (1998) highlights the importance of childhood in the discourses of heritage. Since heritage merely seems to be a conspiratorial celebration of the past for Lowenthal, the childhood dimension is treated as a tool that the advocates of a specific heritage deliberately use to legitimize their version of bygone days. My research on heritage attractions confirms Lowenthal’s claim that childhood is a crucial element in heritage. Through analyses of texts and interviews pertaining to the maritime heritage attractions in Sweden, however, I contend that the use of more or less salient references to childhood could be understood as unreflective and habitual articulations. Nonetheless, even though the forms of heritage attractions may vary and the stakeholder’s so-called personality may differ, the imaginary landscapes of childhood appear to function as central prerequisites in the enterprises of heritage. However, to offer a deeper understanding of how the uses of childhood work within the logics of heritage, I propose that we move beyond Lowenthal’s critique. I propose that the references to childhood could be related to the concept of emotional communities, introduced by the historian Barbara Rosenwein (2006). The emotional community for her is a group in which people have a common stake, interests, values, and goals. These are reached through representations of emotion within in a system of norms and convention. The analysis focuses on the fabric of a social community and how emotions are discursively expressed; not unmediated feelings or emotions, which is the case in psychology. I believe that an analytical approach that makes use of the concept of emotional community with the focus on the different uses of the feeling of childhood is a way to deconstruct naturalizations, hierarchies, temporality, and spatiality within heritage.

  • 28.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Entreprenörer, varumärken och nationalism2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg och Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, 1, 107-124 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att producera och läsa mikrofilmad samt digitaliserad dagspress: ett forskarperspektiv2014In: Återkopplingar / [ed] Marie Cronqvist, Patrik Lundell & Pelle Snickars, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2014, 329-347 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Winell, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Romanov, Richard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att varumärka en destination: Fallet Vaxholm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in tourism for as well Sweden and Stockholm’s archipelago leads to a heightened competition between the different destinations in the archipelago. There’s also an increase in branding cities and places around the word as well as creating an identity for tourist to recognize themselves in a destination. The creation of a place brand and identity may be one of the most important factors for destinations competitiveness. This study examines how Vaxholm tries to create an identity to influence the destinations current image. The aim of the study is to examine how a destination brands itself to mediate an unified image. The aim is answered by three different question formulations, which contains how Vaxholm brands itself by the cooperation between different stakeholders and how this cooperation is working. The data has been gathered by seven different interviews in a qualitative fashion with members from the organisation “Destination Vaxholm”. The respondents where both members in the destination as well some of them hade a more leading role. The empirical evidence has later been analysed through previous theories written in the field, which makes the study deductive. The results show that Vaxholm is branding their destination through the organisation “Destination Vaxholm”. Through this forum the different stakeholders are allowed to develop and reinforce events and activities, which currently exist on the destination. The members have a will to create an identity and image, which tells a visitor that, its possible to travel to the destination all year around, not just during the summer. The organisation is newly created which makes the cooperation between stakeholders new and the trust between them hasn’t been questioned yet. The result also shows that the organisation is democratic and the will to cooperate between the different members is vital.

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