An effective, inclusive democracy requires maximal transparency of ‘public information’ while, on the contrary, limiting transparency of ‘personal information’ to the minimum. However, these two transparencies have an intricate relationship: they may be independent of each other, complementary to each other, or antinomical. Additionally, the development of an information society that leads to the fusion of the private and public spheres, the cross-utilization by the public and private sectors of their respective data, and to an increase in the dangers common to both sectors, further complicates the picture. In weakening individuals as human beings and citizens, the digital era generates threats for democracy and the Rule of Law. There is, therefore, a need for an adequate protective framework and for the main legal protagonists to face the new informational and societal challenges. The obligation to preserve underlying, foundational democratic values lies also with the business sector and with citizens themselves.