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  • 1.
    Allan, Kadir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gemvall, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    En empirisk granskning av korrelationen mellan handelsliberalism och ekonomisk tillväxt: Finns ett samband mellan handelsliberalism och ekonomisk tillväxt i länder i Mellanöstern & Asien?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis has been to investigate whether there is a link between trade liberalism and economic growth in the Asian countries. Previous research has pointed out that correlation exists between these variables, but there have also been other researchers who criticized such a relationship. We discovered that economic growth studies had previously been conducted where countries in Asia were included. This motivated us to carry out our study as our research hopefully helps to replenish existing knowledge gap. In the study, we have used cross-sectional regression analysis for 30 Asian countries where data were collected for 1990-2000. Our dependent variable in our regression is average GDP per capita, which also defines growth. We have used two independent variables as main variables, trade volume and economic freedom index. Our analysis shows that the majority of the variables in the study have a positive significant relation to economic growth.

    Keywords: economic growth, trade liberalism, trade, GDP / capita, EFI, direct investment, import, export.

  • 2.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A Critical Analysis of the Sustainable Development Goals2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Leal Filho, Walter, Springer, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppala University / Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management.
    An Introduction to the Baltic Sea Region Environment2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Sea Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme2017In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, no 5, 684-699 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 6.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Svensk marknads- och konkurrenspolitik2014In: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz och Hans Tson Söderström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2014, 11.[omarb.], 253-289 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Upphandling och kundval av välfärdstjänster: en teoribakgrund2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Upphandling och kundval av välfärdstjänster och hur dessa bör utformas diskuteras utifrån ett teoretiskt och generellt ekonomiskt perspektiv, med fokus på entreprenader. Insikter ger den nationalekonomiska forskningen om hur upphandling och kundval kan förväntas fungera på marknader som dessa sammanfattas. Metoder för val av leverantör och kontraktsmodeller som är mer ändamålsenliga än andra beskrivs. Valet mellan upphandling och kundval diskuteras.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. HUI Research.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Dalarna University.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016In: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, no 3, 201-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 9.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå universitet.
    Rudholm, N.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Squeezing the Last Drop Out of Your Suppliers: An Empirical Study of Market-Based Purchasing Policies for Generic Pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Johansson, P.
    Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, S.
    Umeå University.
    Spagnolo, G.
    Stockholm School of Economics / University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Italy.
    Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates – an important and not easily contractible quality dimension – using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. © 2016

  • 11.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Using spatial econometrics to test for collusive behavior in procurement auction dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University.
    Tender evaluation and supplier selection methods in public procurement2013In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 19, no 2, 73-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality, lowest price is the preferable supplier selection method, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bid distribution and transaction costsIn: Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 1514-0326, E-ISSN 1667-6726Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för näringslivsforskning.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet.
    Tendering Design when Price and Quality Is Uncertain: Theory and Evidence from Public Procurement2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of local and central authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 contracting entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 651 public procurements and collect data on supplier selection methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules with theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 275 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality, in accordance with our hypotheses. However, authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partially driven by local habits or institutional inertia.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Sourcing for government goods and services: Theory and evidence from Swedish Cities and Municipalities2013In: Charting a Course in Public Procurement Innovation and Knowledge Sharing / [ed] Gian Luigi Albano, Keith F. Snider and Khi V. Thai, Boca Raton, Florida: PrAcademics Press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of cities and authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 procuring entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 650 public procurements and collect data on award methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules against the theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 100 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when framework agreements are procured and less so when the procuring authority reports that they experience significant uncertainty about the delivered quality. Low weight given to price in the bid award process is associated with low perceived uncertainty concerning delivered quality.

  • 17.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: Consequences for costs per defineddaily dose2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policygoals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden.

    Prices and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals have beencollected, and a log-linear regression model was used to estimate how the policy changes affected thecost per defined daily dose.

    The estimated effect is a 19 percent cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail leveland a 35 percent reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices). Theempirical results suggest that half of the retail-level price reduction is due to the introduction of a pricecap for products going off patent and half is due to other components of the reform. Measured at thewholesale level the latter effect is larger than the former.

    The reforms reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while beingadvantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase due to the reform.However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction inthe price received for their products.

  • 18.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The anatomy of public procurement in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bladh, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Firm innovation and productivity: A regional analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the effect of innovation activities and productivity by using the CDM-model and extend the existing knowledge by using the CIS-dataset in combination with official statistics performing a such detailed regional analysis that have not been done before. By using the different labour market codes interacted with the industry codes I can capture informative deviations between different industries in different regions. The results show a significant variation between the different regions and industries, and that the urban and metropolitan areas are more innovative and more productive than the rural areas. However, the financial sector and health sectors showed a steady innovation input activity across most regions while the metropolitan areas showed to invest less in innovation inputs in the real estate sector compered to rural and urban areas.

  • 20.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An evaluation of the weighting method in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender-neutral job evaluation has become a key method for confirming the presence of value discrimination when accounting for job-related factors such as required skills, responsibility levels, effort and working conditions, and for correcting for a gender-biased pay setting. However, this extensive use of gender-neutral job evaluation tools makes it important to examine the validity of these tools.

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the validity of a weighting method stated in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool that is recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO). The purpose of the ILO tool is to function as a general and worldwide guideline for gender-neutral job evaluations. The evaluation starts from the basic validity requirement that a weighting method has to be based on a correct interpretation of the weights in additive value models, which are used as “measures” of the value of jobs. The conclusion of the evaluation is that the ILO weighting method does not fulfill this basic validity requirement. The conclusion is reached in the following way:

    First, I show that the meaning of the weights in additive value models is to determine so-called compensatory relations between job-related factors, which have an important impact on the results of job evaluations.

    Second, by analyzing the weighting instructions in the ILO tool, I find that this weighting method is based on so-called direct rating of the relative importance of the job-related factors.

    Third, I show that direct rating is based on an incorrect interpretation of the weights. Thus, users of the ILO tool will probably misinterpret the consequences of their weighting decisions. This, in turn, might give rise to a biased weighting, i.e. a weighting that the users would reject when they come to know the correct meaning of the weights.

  • 21.
    Bodin, Saskia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    WTO Membership and Trade: A Study of the Effect of China's WTO Accession on Chinese Trade2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The remarkable development of China’s economy is often attributed to China’s accession to the WTO and the volume and value of world trade has increased dramatically since the creation of the GATT/WTO. Yet, the efficiency and relevance of the organization in increasing trade are questioned. This study provides an empirical examination of the impact of China’s WTO accession on the Chinese trade, based on country-level trade data during the period 1962-2014. Using the gravity model of trade and several estimation methods the results of this study suggest that China’s accession to the WTO has increased the Chinese trade with the member countries substantially. The findings are in line with theory and consistent with previous literature on the trade effect of China’s WTO accession. The study contributes to advance the knowledge of the WTO’s impact on trade flows in general and to the limited econometric literature on the effect of China’s WTO accession on Chinese trade in particular.

  • 22.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

  • 23.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, 20-36 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 24.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, 31-49 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 25.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Brandsma, Nils
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Krönby, Olle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Economic Inequality and Voting Participation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper assesses a statistical relationship between Economic Inequality and

    Voting Participation among a sizable amount of nations across the world representing all

    continents. With an deductive approach, three theoretical standpoints of interest are

    presented: one that describes a negative, another inconclusive, and one with a positive

    relationship between the variables of interest. Through panel data analysis the study finds

    support in favour of a negative relationship in that as economic inequality rises, voting

    participation in parliamentary elections decreases.

  • 27. Carlsson, Kenny
    et al.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Konkurrenslagen: en kommentar2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Cederborg, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Snöbohm, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Is there a relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna / Handelns Utredningsinstitut.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Ratio.
    Statliga innovationsstöd till små och medelstora företag: har de någon effekt?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 1, 6-19 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har under de senaste åren sett ett allt större intresse för innovationsdriven tillväxt. Några exempel på denna trend utgörs av EU:s tillväxtstrategi för perioden 2012-2020 (the Europe 2020 Strategy) där innovationer identifieras som nyckeln till framtida hållbar tillväxt. Ökade insatser på FoU förväntas leda till fler innovationer, stärkt konkurrenskraft, grönare tillväxt och även stärkt tålighet mot problemen som orsakats av finanskrisen (European Commission, 2013).

     Tanken på innovationsdriven tillväxt finns även i Sverige och det blir alltmer vanligt att beslutsfattare och forskare föreslår en mer aktiv roll för staten när det gäller att stimulera innovationer och företagstillväxt och ett vanligt förekoomande instrument är olika typer av direkt stöd riktat mot innovativ verksamhet.

    I syfte att studera om denna inriktning har ett empiriskt stöd analyserar vi effekterna av två selektiva företagsstöd, VINN NU och Forska & Väx, som båda riktas mot innovativa små och medelstora företag i Sverige. Den kontrafaktiska effektutvärderingen är möjlig genom tillgång till en unik mikrodatabas över utbetalda företagsstöd. Resultaten indikerar inga statistiskt säkerställda effekter av stöden på antal anställda, arbetskraftsproduktiviteten, omsättningstillväxten, andelen högutbildade arbetstagare eller andelen forskare efter det att stödperioden upphört. Vi finner således inget stöd för att riktade stöd till innovationsbenägna små – och mellanstora företag är en effektiv politik för att få fler växande företag.

  • 30.
    Dovrin, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bistånd och dess effekt på den ekonomiska tillväxten i utvecklingsländer: En empirisk analys av sambandet mellan bistånd och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Fristedt, Sebastian Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Exchange-rate regimes and economic recovery: A cross-sectional study of the growth performance following the 2008 financial crisis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies a cross-sectional regression analysis of 83 countries over the period 2009-11 in order to examine the role played by the exchange-rate regime in explaining how countries fared in terms of economic growth recovery following the recent financial crisis. After controlling for income categorization, regime classification, using alternative regime definitions, and accounting for various other determinants, the paper finds a significant relationship between the regime choice and the recovery performance, where those countries with more flexible arrangements fared better. These results were conditional on the regime classification scheme and the income level, implying an asymmetric effect of the regime during the recovery period between high and low income countries. The paper also finds that proxies for initial conditions as well as trade and financial channels were highly significant determinants of the growth performance during the recovery period. 

  • 32.
    Hajjaj, Rayan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Winge, Jonatan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt: En tvärsnittsanalys av sambandet mellan utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk tillväxt intresserar såväl politiker som forskare och definieras som ökningen av ett lands bruttonationalprodukt (BNP) från en period till en annan. Då BNP anses vara ett mått på välstånd är ekonomisk tillväxt önskvärt (Investopedia, 2016). Forskningen kring sambandet mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och andra samhällsfenomen är gedigen. Ämnet har intresserat forskare länge och är än idag ett aktuellt forskningsområde. Utbildningens påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten är ett samband som analyserats flitigt inom nationalekonomin. Enligt teorin bör utbildning ha en positiv påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten. Empiriska studier har dock inte visat några konsekventa resultat och slutsatserna är skilda och många (Kyriacou, 1991; Pritchett, 2001).

    I dagsläget skiljer sig de ekonomiska förutsättningarna och levnadsstandarden mellan världens länder avsevärt. Skillnaderna bland annat i ekonomisk utveckling delar in länderna i industriländer respektive utvecklingsländer där det sistnämnda har sämre förutsättningar. Detta är problematiskt ur en rad olika synpunkter såväl ekonomiskt som socialt (Sida, 2009; Unicef, 2016).

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera om det finns ett positiv samband mellan utbildning och den ekonomiska tillväxten i utvecklingsländer under en tioårsperiod. Hypotesen är att ju högre utbildningsnivå mätt i antal skolår desto högre tillväxt. Sambandet förväntas därför vara positivt. Utifrån uppsatsens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

     

    • Finns det ett positiv samband mellan antalet skolår oavsett utbildningsnivå och den ekonomiska tillväxten?
    • Finns det ett positivt samband mellan antalet skolår på eftergymnasial nivå och den ekonomiska tillväxten?

     

    För att besvara frågeställningen användes en regressionsanalys av typen Minsta kvadratmetoden. Data som inhämtades var tvärsnittsdata och analysen är därmed en tvärsnittanalys. Enligt regressionsresultatet finns det delvis positivt signifikanta samband redovisade som är kopplade till första frågeställningen. Även positivt signifikanta samband som är kopplade till andra frågeställningen är funna i denna undersökning.

  • 33.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning / Lunds universitet.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    The Dynamics of Offshoring and Institutions2015In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 15, no 4, 1975-2016 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that weak institutions can hamper investment and alter patterns of trade. However, little is known about the impact of institutional quality on offshoring. This lack of knowledge is surprising, given that offshoring has become an important part of many firms’ internationalization strategies. This study uses detailed firm-level data for the period 1997-2005 to examine the relationship between institutional quality in 113 source countries and offshoring by Swedish firms. The results suggest that weak institutions are negatively related to offshoring in general and to offshoring of R&D- and relationship specificity-intensive inputs in particular. Analysis of learning effects suggests that the impact of weak institutions on offshoring of relationship specificity-intensive inputs vanish when firms return to countries from which they have previous market experience. Our results are robust to various measures of institutional quality.

  • 34.
    Ingvaldson, Arild
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Näsström, Sophie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Humankapitalets påverkan på ett lands ekonomiska tillväxt: Finns det någon effekt av humankapitalet på ett lands ekonomiska tillväxt inom OECD?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Humankapital är idag ett väl omtalat begrepp. Investering i Humankapital har visat sig vara kostsamt i det kortsiktiga perspektivet men en god investering på lång sikt. I Uppsatsen diskuteras betydelsen av att investera i Humankapital som leder till ekonomisk tillväxt. Denna studie syftar till att empiriskt pröva hur väl detta stämmer och det med hjälp av data från 2006-2010 för OECD-länderna. I uppsatsen används en tvärsnittsstudie som genomförs med hjälp av en regressionsmodell som kontrollerar för variablerna initialt BNP, hälsa, populationstillväxt, utbildning, handel och teknologi. För att besvara frågeställningen används en teoretisk analys genom att utgå från endogena och exogena tillväxtmodeller där effekterna av humankapital och teknologi på ekonomisk tillväxt behandlas. Teknologins effekt visar en positiv korrelation med ekonomisk tillväxt, med ett signifikant samband. Vi kan även avläsa att handel har en positiv effekt, medan hälsa, utbildning, populationstillväxt och det initiala BNP har en negativ effekt på den ekonomiska tillväxten, däremot utan signifikans.

  • 35.
    Kar, Ashim Kumar
    et al.
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Are microfinance markets monopolistic?2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.

  • 36.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Service offshoring and corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2015In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 15, no 4, 363-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how service offshoring by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in source countries. The results suggest that firms avoid corrupt countries and that corruption reduces the volume of service offshoring. Analyzing firm heterogeneity, we find that large and internationalized firms are the ones that are the most sensitive to corruption. In addition, sensitivity to corruption tends to increase with falling income in source countries. These results suggest that the gains from reduced corruption may be the greatest for poor countries. 

  • 37.
    Khezerian, Peiman
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Exploring theoretical models with an agent-based approach in two sided markets2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing computational power and more elaborate software comes greater opportunities to complement traditional research methods with alternative methods. In this paper we argue for why the area of two-sided markets could benefit from this alternative approach and attempt to implement a theoretical model in an agent-based framework. By first replicating the theoretical findings in this framework we expand the model in increments in different directions through introducing different set of heterogeneity and behavioral limitations on our actors to see how the theoretical model develops. Only changing the model in increments found the analytical outcome to be robust for many of our changes, in this regard we have not managed to successfully take advantage of the full potential of the agent-based framework.

  • 38.
    Kokko, Ari
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala university / Ratio Institute.
    The Growth Effects of R&D Spending in the EU: A Meta-Analysis2015In: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 9, 2015-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the authors conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

  • 39.
    Kokko, Ari
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala university / Ratio Institu.
    The Growth Effects of R&D Spending in the EU: A Meta-Analysis2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

  • 40.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences / Ningbo University, China.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2016In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, Vol. 2, no 4, 1650022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for di¤erent parameter con…gurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We fi…nd that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the e¤ect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained

  • 41.
    Ljung, Mathilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lund, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    "Behöver befolkningen vara frisk för att landet ska få ekonomisk tillväxt?": En tvärsnittsstudie om hälsans effekt på ekonomisk tillväxt i världens minst utvecklade länder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health has long been referred to as a contributing development factor for economic growth, and health investments have been implemented as a strategy for achieving economic development. However, several countries have reached economic growth before improving health status, which raises questions of the significance of public health related to economic growth. The economic inequalities between countries tend to increase along with enlarged differences in health status, is there possibly a correlation between these occurrences?

    The purpose of this essay is to make a theoretical contribution by examining the impact of health on economic growth based on the world’s least developed countries (LDCs). This relationship has not been studied within these countries before and the essay intends to find out if basic health is a prerequisite for economic growth. The hypothesis of the study is a positive correlation between improvement of health status in a population within a country and its economic growth.

    Quantitative approach through a cross-sectional study of the independent variables health investments, initial GDP per capita, life expectancy and HIV along with the dependent variable of GDP per capita growth. Data from 48 LDCs during the period 1995 – 2015 was obtained. A regression analysis of Ordinary Least Squares, VIF-test and QQ-plot was performed through the computer program Gretl 2016c. 

    The variation in GDP per capita growth can be explained to 75 % by changes in the health-related variables. Previous theories regarding the positive effect on economic growth from increased health investments, lower initial GDP per capita and increased life expectancy were supported in this study. Health investments and initial GDP per capita showed a statistically significant correlation to economic growth. Life expectancy lacked significance, but was supported by previous research. The variable for HIV showed a positive correlation to economic growth, contrary to previous theories. The relationship can although be explained by insufficient data and low significance.

  • 42.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 43.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2015In: China economic review, ISSN 1043-951X, E-ISSN 1873-7781, Vol. 36, 11 p.272-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 44.
    Lundberg, Nathalie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An econometric analysis of the electricity price: And a further analysis on the deciding factors for increased renewable energy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this thesis is to investigate various variables that are pre-assumed to be of importance of the electricity price. With econometric analysis estimation on their influence of the electricity price are made. This is important when consider the electricity market and its future challenges towards renewable energy that are intermittent energy. The market and supply primarily need to consider the competitiveness, the environmental impact from the production of the electricity and delivery. These three consideration depend on which energy that are evaluated which means that instruments to achieve different goals are needed. The results from the econometric analysis is that the included variables have a significant impact of the electricity price. Rainfall and nuclear power produce about 80 percent of the electricity. Temperature and fossil fuel are of importance as well, during periods with stricter weather conditions it is demanded more electricity for our households and the continuously match of supply and demand at the market sometimes requires coal as input good for production of electricity. The increased renewable energy, also give some explanation towards increased fossil fuel combustion when supply becomes insufficient. But increased wind and solar also increase the supply of electricity with a lower cost of production compared to coal and nuclear power. Earlier studies have estimated that a decreased electricity supply from nuclear power will affect the price negative which means that the price of electricity will increase. In this thesis that assumption is a strong assumption and the suggestion is that it depend on the development of new hydro, wind and solar power proceed. 

  • 45.
    Lundberg, S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Tendering design when price and quality is uncertain2017In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 30, no 4, 310-327 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements. Findings: More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia. Practical implications: The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance. Social implications: Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender. Originality/value: Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

  • 46.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Social Dynamics, Evolution, and the Unity of Social Sciences: Kenneth Boulding in the Light of Friedrich von Hayek and John Searle2013In: Interdisciplinary Economics: Kenneth E. Boulding's Engagement in the Sciences / [ed] Wilfred Dolfsma & Stefan Kesting, London & New York: Routledge, 2013, 88-109 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Hanseatic Monetary Arrangements and the Functional Separation of Money2013In: The 25th EAEPE annual Conference Website [online], 2013, -27 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics andsociallearning,theevolution of monetary arrangementswith functional separation of money,thispaperanalyzes the history of Hanseatic monetary arrangements and the functional separationof money in the Baltic and North Seas region, that is, the evolution of units of account andmedia of exchangealong the East-West trade routes of the Hanseatic League. Focusing on thecognitive aspect of money as social institution, the evolution of units of account and media ofexchange are studied as adaptive responses by human minds. The emphasis will be on theheuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, considering theexchange of commodities and of monies.Going beyond the emergence of money as mediumof exchange, this paper studies the emergence of unitsof account and of media of exchange,that is, the emergence of monetary arrangements as co-evolution of units of account, in theMiddle Ages called monies of account, and media of exchange, in which the value of moneyis given by its purchasing power, be it money of account or money as medium of exchange.This paper views institutions as having both a cognitive and a behavioral component. Associal institution, money has a cognitive dimension, which represents the way traders thinkabout money as unit of account and medium of exchange, respectively, in the form ofmonetary heuristics, translating the unit of account to a particular worth, using a social scriptto which market agents attribute a specific worth.When the value of the underlyingcommodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviationof that bundle, attributing that to changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundleaccordingly. As social institution, money also has a behavioral dimension, which is expressedin the purchasing power of money; what commodity bundle could be bought for a certainamount of one currency, a medium of account with its associated media of exchange, foranother currency, thus establishing exchange rates. Exchange rates between currencies wereestablished according to relative perceived purchasing power, some kind of classifier system.Along the cognitive dimension, long-distance tradersformed beliefs about the relativepurchasing power of their currencycompared with the foreign one; along the behavioral onethey exchanged money at the rates so specified.The Hanseatictrade was organized along theline Novgorod-Reval-Lübeck-Hamburg-Bruges-London, whereBruges is of particularinterest as meeting place between Italian and Hanseaticmerchants, an interface ofMediterranean and Baltic commerce.In Bruges,Italianmerchant-bankers operated, usingbillsof exchange to meet the requirements of trade by correspondence, while Hanseatic traderelied on the exchange contract adopted to traveling trade. Hanseatic merchants openedtransitory accounts with Flemish money-changers to be used as means of settlement.Amonetary market orderevolved through the exchange of money and of commodities.

  • 48.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Seventeenth Century Banking: Amsterdamsche Wisselbank, Stockholms Banco, and Their Consequences for Monetary Evolution2015In: On conference website, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Emergence of the Gold Standard and the Unification of Monetary Functions: What Happened to the Functioning of the Cashless Payments Systems Using Bills of Exchange?2015In: EAEPE 2015 Online proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Interwar Monetary Fragmentation and the Gold Standard Restored: The Crisis of 1929 Compared with the Crisis of 20082015Conference paper (Other academic)
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