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  • 1.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme2016In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 2.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Svensk marknads- och konkurrenspolitik2014In: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz och Hans Tson Söderström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2014, 11.[omarb.], 253-289 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Upphandling och kundval av välfärdstjänster: en teoribakgrund2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Upphandling och kundval av välfärdstjänster och hur dessa bör utformas diskuteras utifrån ett teoretiskt och generellt ekonomiskt perspektiv, med fokus på entreprenader. Insikter ger den nationalekonomiska forskningen om hur upphandling och kundval kan förväntas fungera på marknader som dessa sammanfattas. Metoder för val av leverantör och kontraktsmodeller som är mer ändamålsenliga än andra beskrivs. Valet mellan upphandling och kundval diskuteras.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. HUI Research.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Dalarna University.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016In: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, no 3, 201-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 5.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Johansson, P.
    Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, S.
    Umeå University.
    Spagnolo, G.
    Stockholm School of Economics / University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Italy.
    Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates – an important and not easily contractible quality dimension – using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. © 2016

  • 6.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Using spatial econometrics to test for collusive behavior in procurement auction dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University.
    Tender evaluation and supplier selection methods in public procurement2013In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 19, no 2, 73-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality, lowest price is the preferable supplier selection method, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bid distribution and transaction costsIn: Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 1514-0326, E-ISSN 1667-6726Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för näringslivsforskning.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet.
    Tendering Design when Price and Quality Is Uncertain: Theory and Evidence from Public Procurement2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of local and central authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 contracting entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 651 public procurements and collect data on supplier selection methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules with theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 275 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality, in accordance with our hypotheses. However, authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partially driven by local habits or institutional inertia.

  • 11.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Sourcing for government goods and services: Theory and evidence from Swedish Cities and Municipalities2013In: Charting a Course in Public Procurement Innovation and Knowledge Sharing / [ed] Gian Luigi Albano, Keith F. Snider and Khi V. Thai, Boca Raton, Florida: PrAcademics Press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of cities and authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 procuring entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 650 public procurements and collect data on award methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules against the theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 100 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when framework agreements are procured and less so when the procuring authority reports that they experience significant uncertainty about the delivered quality. Low weight given to price in the bid award process is associated with low perceived uncertainty concerning delivered quality.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: Consequences for costs per defineddaily dose2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policygoals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden.

    Prices and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals have beencollected, and a log-linear regression model was used to estimate how the policy changes affected thecost per defined daily dose.

    The estimated effect is a 19 percent cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail leveland a 35 percent reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices). Theempirical results suggest that half of the retail-level price reduction is due to the introduction of a pricecap for products going off patent and half is due to other components of the reform. Measured at thewholesale level the latter effect is larger than the former.

    The reforms reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while beingadvantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase due to the reform.However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction inthe price received for their products.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The anatomy of public procurement in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An evaluation of the weighting method in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender-neutral job evaluation has become a key method for confirming the presence of value discrimination when accounting for job-related factors such as required skills, responsibility levels, effort and working conditions, and for correcting for a gender-biased pay setting. However, this extensive use of gender-neutral job evaluation tools makes it important to examine the validity of these tools.

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the validity of a weighting method stated in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool that is recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO). The purpose of the ILO tool is to function as a general and worldwide guideline for gender-neutral job evaluations. The evaluation starts from the basic validity requirement that a weighting method has to be based on a correct interpretation of the weights in additive value models, which are used as “measures” of the value of jobs. The conclusion of the evaluation is that the ILO weighting method does not fulfill this basic validity requirement. The conclusion is reached in the following way:

    First, I show that the meaning of the weights in additive value models is to determine so-called compensatory relations between job-related factors, which have an important impact on the results of job evaluations.

    Second, by analyzing the weighting instructions in the ILO tool, I find that this weighting method is based on so-called direct rating of the relative importance of the job-related factors.

    Third, I show that direct rating is based on an incorrect interpretation of the weights. Thus, users of the ILO tool will probably misinterpret the consequences of their weighting decisions. This, in turn, might give rise to a biased weighting, i.e. a weighting that the users would reject when they come to know the correct meaning of the weights.

  • 15.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, no 1, 20-36 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 16.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

  • 17.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, 31-49 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 19.
    Brandsma, Nils
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Krönby, Olle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Economic Inequality and Voting Participation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper assesses a statistical relationship between Economic Inequality and

    Voting Participation among a sizable amount of nations across the world representing all

    continents. With an deductive approach, three theoretical standpoints of interest are

    presented: one that describes a negative, another inconclusive, and one with a positive

    relationship between the variables of interest. Through panel data analysis the study finds

    support in favour of a negative relationship in that as economic inequality rises, voting

    participation in parliamentary elections decreases.

  • 20. Carlsson, Kenny
    et al.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Konkurrenslagen: en kommentar2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna / Handelns Utredningsinstitut.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Ratio.
    Statliga innovationsstöd till små och medelstora företag: har de någon effekt?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 1, 6-19 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har under de senaste åren sett ett allt större intresse för innovationsdriven tillväxt. Några exempel på denna trend utgörs av EU:s tillväxtstrategi för perioden 2012-2020 (the Europe 2020 Strategy) där innovationer identifieras som nyckeln till framtida hållbar tillväxt. Ökade insatser på FoU förväntas leda till fler innovationer, stärkt konkurrenskraft, grönare tillväxt och även stärkt tålighet mot problemen som orsakats av finanskrisen (European Commission, 2013).

     Tanken på innovationsdriven tillväxt finns även i Sverige och det blir alltmer vanligt att beslutsfattare och forskare föreslår en mer aktiv roll för staten när det gäller att stimulera innovationer och företagstillväxt och ett vanligt förekoomande instrument är olika typer av direkt stöd riktat mot innovativ verksamhet.

    I syfte att studera om denna inriktning har ett empiriskt stöd analyserar vi effekterna av två selektiva företagsstöd, VINN NU och Forska & Väx, som båda riktas mot innovativa små och medelstora företag i Sverige. Den kontrafaktiska effektutvärderingen är möjlig genom tillgång till en unik mikrodatabas över utbetalda företagsstöd. Resultaten indikerar inga statistiskt säkerställda effekter av stöden på antal anställda, arbetskraftsproduktiviteten, omsättningstillväxten, andelen högutbildade arbetstagare eller andelen forskare efter det att stödperioden upphört. Vi finner således inget stöd för att riktade stöd till innovationsbenägna små – och mellanstora företag är en effektiv politik för att få fler växande företag.

  • 22.
    Dovrin, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bistånd och dess effekt på den ekonomiska tillväxten i utvecklingsländer: En empirisk analys av sambandet mellan bistånd och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Hajjaj, Rayan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Winge, Jonatan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt: En tvärsnittsanalys av sambandet mellan utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk tillväxt intresserar såväl politiker som forskare och definieras som ökningen av ett lands bruttonationalprodukt (BNP) från en period till en annan. Då BNP anses vara ett mått på välstånd är ekonomisk tillväxt önskvärt (Investopedia, 2016). Forskningen kring sambandet mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och andra samhällsfenomen är gedigen. Ämnet har intresserat forskare länge och är än idag ett aktuellt forskningsområde. Utbildningens påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten är ett samband som analyserats flitigt inom nationalekonomin. Enligt teorin bör utbildning ha en positiv påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten. Empiriska studier har dock inte visat några konsekventa resultat och slutsatserna är skilda och många (Kyriacou, 1991; Pritchett, 2001).

    I dagsläget skiljer sig de ekonomiska förutsättningarna och levnadsstandarden mellan världens länder avsevärt. Skillnaderna bland annat i ekonomisk utveckling delar in länderna i industriländer respektive utvecklingsländer där det sistnämnda har sämre förutsättningar. Detta är problematiskt ur en rad olika synpunkter såväl ekonomiskt som socialt (Sida, 2009; Unicef, 2016).

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera om det finns ett positiv samband mellan utbildning och den ekonomiska tillväxten i utvecklingsländer under en tioårsperiod. Hypotesen är att ju högre utbildningsnivå mätt i antal skolår desto högre tillväxt. Sambandet förväntas därför vara positivt. Utifrån uppsatsens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

     

    • Finns det ett positiv samband mellan antalet skolår oavsett utbildningsnivå och den ekonomiska tillväxten?
    • Finns det ett positivt samband mellan antalet skolår på eftergymnasial nivå och den ekonomiska tillväxten?

     

    För att besvara frågeställningen användes en regressionsanalys av typen Minsta kvadratmetoden. Data som inhämtades var tvärsnittsdata och analysen är därmed en tvärsnittanalys. Enligt regressionsresultatet finns det delvis positivt signifikanta samband redovisade som är kopplade till första frågeställningen. Även positivt signifikanta samband som är kopplade till andra frågeställningen är funna i denna undersökning.

  • 24.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning / Lunds universitet.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    The Dynamics of Offshoring and Institutions2015In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 15, no 4, 1975-2016 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that weak institutions can hamper investment and alter patterns of trade. However, little is known about the impact of institutional quality on offshoring. This lack of knowledge is surprising, given that offshoring has become an important part of many firms’ internationalization strategies. This study uses detailed firm-level data for the period 1997-2005 to examine the relationship between institutional quality in 113 source countries and offshoring by Swedish firms. The results suggest that weak institutions are negatively related to offshoring in general and to offshoring of R&D- and relationship specificity-intensive inputs in particular. Analysis of learning effects suggests that the impact of weak institutions on offshoring of relationship specificity-intensive inputs vanish when firms return to countries from which they have previous market experience. Our results are robust to various measures of institutional quality.

  • 25.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Service offshoring and corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2015In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 15, no 4, 363-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how service offshoring by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in source countries. The results suggest that firms avoid corrupt countries and that corruption reduces the volume of service offshoring. Analyzing firm heterogeneity, we find that large and internationalized firms are the ones that are the most sensitive to corruption. In addition, sensitivity to corruption tends to increase with falling income in source countries. These results suggest that the gains from reduced corruption may be the greatest for poor countries. 

  • 26.
    Kokko, Ari
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala university / Ratio Institu.
    The Growth Effects of R&D Spending in the EU: A Meta-Analysis2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

  • 27.
    Kokko, Ari
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala university / Ratio Institute.
    The Growth Effects of R&D Spending in the EU: A Meta-Analysis2015In: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 9, 2015-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the authors conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

  • 28.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences / Ningbo University, China.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2016In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, Vol. 2, no 4, 1650022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for di¤erent parameter con…gurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We fi…nd that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the e¤ect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained

  • 29.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 30.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2015In: China economic review, ISSN 1043-951X, E-ISSN 1873-7781, Vol. 36, 11 p.272-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 31.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Hanseatic Monetary Arrangements and the Functional Separation of Money2013In: The 25th EAEPE annual Conference Website [online], 2013, -27 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics andsociallearning,theevolution of monetary arrangementswith functional separation of money,thispaperanalyzes the history of Hanseatic monetary arrangements and the functional separationof money in the Baltic and North Seas region, that is, the evolution of units of account andmedia of exchangealong the East-West trade routes of the Hanseatic League. Focusing on thecognitive aspect of money as social institution, the evolution of units of account and media ofexchange are studied as adaptive responses by human minds. The emphasis will be on theheuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, considering theexchange of commodities and of monies.Going beyond the emergence of money as mediumof exchange, this paper studies the emergence of unitsof account and of media of exchange,that is, the emergence of monetary arrangements as co-evolution of units of account, in theMiddle Ages called monies of account, and media of exchange, in which the value of moneyis given by its purchasing power, be it money of account or money as medium of exchange.This paper views institutions as having both a cognitive and a behavioral component. Associal institution, money has a cognitive dimension, which represents the way traders thinkabout money as unit of account and medium of exchange, respectively, in the form ofmonetary heuristics, translating the unit of account to a particular worth, using a social scriptto which market agents attribute a specific worth.When the value of the underlyingcommodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviationof that bundle, attributing that to changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundleaccordingly. As social institution, money also has a behavioral dimension, which is expressedin the purchasing power of money; what commodity bundle could be bought for a certainamount of one currency, a medium of account with its associated media of exchange, foranother currency, thus establishing exchange rates. Exchange rates between currencies wereestablished according to relative perceived purchasing power, some kind of classifier system.Along the cognitive dimension, long-distance tradersformed beliefs about the relativepurchasing power of their currencycompared with the foreign one; along the behavioral onethey exchanged money at the rates so specified.The Hanseatictrade was organized along theline Novgorod-Reval-Lübeck-Hamburg-Bruges-London, whereBruges is of particularinterest as meeting place between Italian and Hanseaticmerchants, an interface ofMediterranean and Baltic commerce.In Bruges,Italianmerchant-bankers operated, usingbillsof exchange to meet the requirements of trade by correspondence, while Hanseatic traderelied on the exchange contract adopted to traveling trade. Hanseatic merchants openedtransitory accounts with Flemish money-changers to be used as means of settlement.Amonetary market orderevolved through the exchange of money and of commodities.

  • 32.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Interwar Monetary Fragmentation and the Gold Standard Restored: The Crisis of 1929 Compared with the Crisis of 20082015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Emergence of the Gold Standard and the Unification of Monetary Functions: What Happened to the Functioning of the Cashless Payments Systems Using Bills of Exchange?2015In: EAEPE 2015 Online proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Seventeenth Century Banking: Amsterdamsche Wisselbank, Stockholms Banco, and Their Consequences for Monetary Evolution2015In: On conference website, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Social Dynamics, Evolution, and the Unity of Social Sciences: Kenneth Boulding in the Light of Friedrich von Hayek and John Searle2013In: Interdisciplinary Economics: Kenneth E. Boulding's Engagement in the Sciences / [ed] Wilfred Dolfsma & Stefan Kesting, London & New York: Routledge, 2013, 88-109 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Santana, Diana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Is the Economic Growth in Developing Countries affected by Free Trade?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the relationship between free trade and the economic growth in developing countries. The developments of a more integrated and globalized world challenges countries in new ways by easier access to information and technology, intensified competition and larger requirements on economic efficiency and increased productivity. It is important to examine if trade can induce economic growth, since long-run economic growth determine how living standards change, and provides an opportunity to improve the welfare and reduce the worlds poverty rates. Trade affects countries in different ways and developing countries have diverse growth experiences, where some countries have managed to increase their economic growth compared to others. The thesis presents trade policies and theories, and a brief overview of the controversies regarding trade. The relationship between economic growth and trade is dynamic and complex and trade can be used as a mean to benefit from technological transfers and knowledge spillovers, factors that have a substantial influence on economic growth, along with investments. A cross-section regression analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between trade openness and economic growth. The empirical results show a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries. High initial GDP and population growth are negatively correlated with GDP per Capita growth, while Rule of Law has a positive impact on GDP per Capita growth.

  • 37.
    Sjölin, Carin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The impact of governance on inequality: An empirical study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of governance on inequality, specifically if improvements in the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators affect inequality as measured by two Gini coefficients: Market Gini, before taxes and redistribution, and Net Gini, after taxes and redistribution.

    The data for the Gini measurements was taken from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID) and the data for the Worldwide Governance Indicators was taken from the World Bank. Data for fifteen (15) years, from the start of the Worldwide Governance Indicators until 2013, was combined with data from SWIID for the same years. In all, data from one hundred fifty-six (156) countries with a full set of six (6) indicators for the years that had at least one corresponding Gini measurements were used in this study: in total one thousand seven hundred and forty-seven (1747) observations.

    In a pooled OLS regression, controlling for growth with the variable GDP per Capita expressed as a per cent (%) change on an annual basis, the individual indicators gave the following results, where a positive sign indicates increased inequality and vice versa: Control of Corruption and Regulatory Quality showed a positive sign for both Gini measurements. Rule of Law, Government Effectiveness, Political Stability and the Absence of Violence/Terrorism, gave a negative sign for both Gini measurements. Voice and Accountability showed a positive sign for Market Gini and a negative sign for Net Gini.

    The fact that an improvement in Control of Corruption increased inequality both before and after taxes and redistribution was unexpected and should be further researched.

  • 38.
    Spaiser, V.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Ranganathan, S.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The sustainable development oxymoron: quantifying and modelling the incompatibility of sustainable development goals2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 39.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Evaluating quality or lowest price: Consequences for small and medium-sized enterprises in public procurementIn: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Causes of litigation in public procurementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Essays on quality evaluation and bidding behavior in public procurement auctions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate how different aspects of the procurement process and evaluation affect bidding behavior.

    In essay 1, we attempt to map public procurements in Sweden by gathering a representative sample of procurements. We find that framework agreements and multiple-contract procurements represent a very large share of total government spending. The total value procured by government authorities, municipalities and counties accounts to 215 BSEK yearly, which we believe is an underestimate due to data issues.

    Essay 2 suggests a simple method for of estimating bidding costs in public procurement, and are empirically estimated to be approximately 2 percent of the procurement value using a comprehensive dataset and approximately 0.5 percent for a more homogeneous road re-pavement dataset. Our method provides reasonable estimates with, compared to other methods, relatively low data requirements.

    Essay 3 investigates the effect of quality evaluation on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Contrary to common belief, SMEs’ participation does not increase when evaluating quality, and their probability to win procurements decreases compared with that of large firms.

    In essay 4, the bidders’ decision to apply for a procurement review “appeal” is investigated. Contrary to procurers’ beliefs, evaluating quality is found not to have any statistically significant effect on the probability of appeals. Instead, I empirically confirm theoretical prediction of the 1st runner-up’s decision to claim the evaluation to be redone, as well as free-riding in appealing.

    In essay 5, we test whether spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusion in procurement data. We apply this method on a known cartel and test during and after the period the cartel was active. Our estimates support the proposition that spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusive behavior.

  • 42.
    Söderlund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio.
    Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China2016In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a strictly regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom and financial development are associated with both higher income and growth rates. In particular, we find that the marketisation of financial institutions and strengthening of legal and government institutions have a particularly strong impact on income and growth in low-income provinces.

  • 43.
    Uzel, Tuba
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Clark, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Utbildning och Ekonomisk tillväxt: - En empirisk tvärsnittsanalys av sambandet mellan utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt inom OECD2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet kapital har under det senaste årtiondet kommit att syfta till mer än bara fast kapital i form av rena pengar. Idag inrymmer detta begrepp även humankapitalet som är något individer kan bygga upp genom att utbilda sig. Detta humankapital har visat sig vara lukrativt att investera i. En investering i utbildning leder alltså till ett ökat humankapital vilket i sin tur leder till ekonomisk tillväxt. Denna studie ämnar att empiriskt bevisa om detta stämmer med hjälp av data från 2010-2015 för OECD- länderna. En tvärsnittsstudie genomförs med hjälp av en regressionsmodell som kontrollerar för variablerna utbildning, hälsa, investering i teknologi, populationstillväxt, initial BNP, handel. Teorierna om det positiva sambandet mellan utbildning och tillväxt konfirmeras iochmed denna studie, vilken bygger på de allra senaste siffrorna gällande OECD-länderna. Studien visar att det finns ett samband mellan antalet utbildningsår ekonomisk tillväxt per capita. 

  • 44.
    Wallström, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Värdering av god vattenkvalitet i Brunnsviken: Effekten av närhet till vattnet på betalningsviljan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För höga halter av näringsämnen och miljögifter i sjöar och vattendrag kan orsaka algblomningar, försämrat siktdjup, förändrade ekosystem, svårigheter att bada och oätlig fisk. Brunnsviken är en av de vattenförekomster som i dagsläget inte uppnår Vattenmyndighetens kriterier för god ekologisk status. För att uppnå målet krävs att åtgärder genomförs och därmed att det finns uppgifter om de kostnader och nyttor som åtgärderna leder till. I den här uppsatsen redovisas resultatet från en enkätstudie som undersöker betalningsviljan bland boende i Stockholms kommun för att genomföra åtgärder som leder till att Brunnsvikens ekologiska status går från otillfredsställande till god innan år 2027. Därutöver genomförs en regressionsanalys för att undersöka huruvida betalningsviljan är högre bland de invånarnare som bor i Brunnsvikens närområde än i övriga Stockholm. Resultatet visar att hushållen i genomsnitt är beredda att betala 465 - 552 kr årligen (i tio år) för en förbättring av vattenkvaliteten i Brunnsviken. Nuvärdet av nyttan skattas till ca 1,7 – 2 miljarder kronor, vilket kan jämföras med åtgärdskostnaderna som skattas till ca 90 miljoner kronor. Detta indikerar att åtgärderna är samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma att genomföra. Resultatet från regressionsanalysen visar att det finns ett positivt samband mellan att bo nära vattenförekomsten och viljan att betala. Däremot påverkar avståndet inte hur stort belopp respondenten är beredd att betala. Personer som anser att det är viktigt med bra fiske i Stockholms sjöar och vattendrag har både signifikant högre sannolikhet att vilja betala och är beredda att betala mer än andra.

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