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  • 1.
    Afework, Alexander
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ormeno, Maximiliano
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Val av K-regelverk, hur kan detta förklaras?: En kvantitativ studie som ämnar undersöka huruvida fastighetsbolags val av K-regelverk kan förklaras utifrån Institutionell Teori och Positive Accounting Theory.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: K-regelverkets införande 2014 innebar för de flesta mindre svenska bolag en förvirring kring vilka val av redovisningsmetoder som skulle tillämpas för räkenskapsår 2014. Från detta år var det nämligen tvunget att utgå från ett K-regelverk med sina specifika regler. För fastighetsbolag som räknas som mindre bolag enligt ÅRL (SFS 1995:1554) fanns det härefter tre regelverk som de kunde utföra sin redovisning efter. I denna undersökning undersöker vi K2 och K3 regelverket. I det ena regelverket, K3, behöver en komponentindelning av byggnaden göras medan det i det andra regelverket, K2, inte är nödvändigt. Detta nya sätt att redovisa med en komponentindelning som ett val av K3 leder till skulle enligt vissa branschorganisationer leda till att K2 väljs i större utsträckning då tillämpning av K3 kräver mer administrativt arbete och därför blir mer kostsamt. Dock menar vissa forskare att en sådan förklaring inte är tillräcklig för att förklara redovisningsregelverk, speciellt inte i större organisationer. I större organisationer tenderar snarare det regelverk väljas som leder organisationen åt ett visst håll. Inom den vetenskapliga litteraturen finns det främst två teorier som behandlar val av redovisningsregelverk. I denna undersökning vänder vi oss till dessa två teorier: Institutionell Teori och Positiv Accounting Theory, och frågar oss om de också kan förklara svenska fastighetsbolags val av regelverk.

    Forskningsfråga: Kan fastighetsbolags val av K-regelverk förklaras genom någon av teorierna Institutionell Teori eller Positive Accounting Theory?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om fastighetsbolags val mellan redovisningsregelverken K2 och K3 kan förklaras med hjälp av IT och PAT.

    Resultat: I studiens resultat påvisas ett samband mellan kategorivariabeln Revisionsbyråer och valet av K3 samt för kategorivariabeln Storstad och valet av K3.

  • 2.
    Akay, Daniella
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Miko, Ilona
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Valet mellan K2 och K3: En studie om mindre onoterade aktiebolags val av regelverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: BFN started a project in 2004 in order to simplify for companies in Sweden. The project is called K-project. In the year of 2014 smaller unlisted limited companies was forced to choose between K2 and K3.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine whether differences in the amortization and development costs between K2 and K3 has been crucial for the choice of regulation. The aim is also to examine who has had the biggest influence in the choice and if any problems has occurred in the implementation of the selected regulatory framework.

    Conclusions: Differences in methods of depreciation and development costs has been conclusive in the choice between K2 and K3. Real estate companies wanted to avoid applying the component method and development intensive companies wanted to avoid the expensing model. The ability to be financed and continue to grow in K3 has also affected the choice of regulatory framework. Mainly auditors but also accountants has had the biggest influence in the choice of regulation, but in some cases the board has had the biggest impact. The problems that has occurred has been a consequence of the shortage in the frameworks, which is the possibility in K2 and the simplicity in K3.

  • 3.
    Alam, Afsana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Juth, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motivation i läraryrket: En studie i vad som motiverar lågstadielärare och hur nya skolreformer påverkar deras motivation.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund - Enligt Statistiska centralbyrån kommer det saknas så mycket som 40 000 lärare inom de närmsta åren och det är endast fem procent av lärarna som anser att yrket är uppskattat av samhället. Med en utgångspunkt i svenska elevers försämrade resultat i internationella kunskapsmätningar och att detta i sin tur ses som ett resultat av den svenska skolans kunskaps- och disciplinproblem. Har man för att lösa dessa problem genomfört ett stort antal skolreformer och man har gjort en stor satsning på lärares professionella utveckling. Om dessa reformer påverkar lärares motivation är dock ett högst relevant men outforskat ämne.

    Syfte - Syftet med den här studien är att få djupare förståelse i vilka faktorer som motiverar lågstadielärare i sitt dagliga arbete och om dessa faktorer skiljer sig beroende på om de börjat arbeta innan eller efter implementeringen av de nya skolreformerna, samt studera hur skolreformerna, införandet av lärarlegitimation och den nya professionen förstelärare, som trätt i kraft de senaste fem åren har påverkat dem.

    Metod - Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsansats för att skapa en djupare förståelse över ett redan existerande fenomen. Som forskningsdesign används en komparativ studie tillsammans med semi-strukturerade intervjuer.

    Slutsats - Studien har visat på att det både finns skillnader och likheter mellan vad som motiverar lågstadielärare som har arbetat olika länge inom yrket. Alla som medverkade i den här studien ansåg först och främst att det var eleverna och att se dem lyckas som främst motiverade dem i deras yrke. Det som skilde grupperna åt var att de nya lärarna motiverades mer utav de yttre faktorerna, så som lön, vilket inte var lika viktigt för de gamla lärarnas motivation. Studien har även visat på att de nya skolreformerna inte påverkat lågstadielärare särskilt märkbart. Det råder dock delade meningar huruvida skolreformerna är av positiv eller negativ karaktär för lärarna.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Effekten av K3: En studie om hur införandet av K3 har påverkat fastighetsbolagens resultat och finansiella ställning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of a new framework can have a large impact on the companies due to the effects on the financial ratios. This despite the fact that the change in the accounting framework doesn't always result in any significant changes in the company's financial position. Since financial ratios are one of the primary ways to evaluate a company this becomes slightly problematic.

    Since 2014-01-01 the regulatory framework "K3" has been mandatory for larger companies in Sweden. The implementation of K3 has resulted in some essential differences in the depreciation of fixed assets, which could affect real estate companies extensively.

    The purpose of this study is to find out how the implementation of K3 has affected the result and the financial position in real estate companies.

    Some of the conclusions this study was able to draw is that K3 has had both positive, zero and negative effect on the real estate companies included in the selection. Many of the effects are directly related to the different way of dealing with the depreciation of fixed assets.

  • 5.
    Angelova, Ida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Pasini, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Reglernas och systemens påverkan på farmaceuternas arbetsmotivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen omfattar apoteksmarknaden och dess regler samt farmaceuterna och deras arbetsmotivation. Syftet med undersökningen var att undersöka hur farmaceuterna upplever att regelverken på apoteksmarknaden påverkar deras arbetsmotivation. Farmaceuterna har idag en begränsad möjlighet till att göra sitt arbete på bästa sätt. Istället är farmaceuterna tvingade till att agera utifrån ett strikt regelverk som inte helt möjliggör en individuell farmaceutisk bedömning.

    Till undersökningen har ett kvalitativt synsätt blivit applicerat för att kunna uppnå syftet samt ge svar på undersökningens frågeställning. Det kvalitativa synsättet hjälpte till med att skapa en uppfattning kring arbetsmotivation hos farmaceuterna. En deduktiv ansats har blivit applicerat då forskarna till undersökningen har utgått från teori. Forskningsmetoden som har använts till undersökningarna för undersökningen var semistrukturerade intervjuer. Totalt genomfördes sju stycken intervjuer med farmaceuter från olika apotek samt ett fackförbund.

    Den teoretiska referensramen presenterar fyra teorier. Dessa är Motivation hos farmaceuter av Rajan och Phil, Herzbergs tvåfaktorteori, Maccobys fyra R och Self Determination Theory (SDT). Dessa fyra teorier är sammankopplade för att presentera den teoretiska referensram som anses vara mest lämplig till att kunna analysera den data som blev insamlad.

    Undersökningens slutsats blev att farmaceuternas arbetsmotivation blir påverkad av de regelverk som finns på apoteksmarknaden till en viss grad. Det är kundernas kunskap om dessa regelverk som påverkar arbetsmotivationen mest på ett negativ t sätt.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sandström, Therese
    Skattefinansierad sjukvård- är marknad och konkurrens svaret?: En analys av kostnaderna i upphandlad sjukvårdsverksamhet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, the structural reforms of the public sector has created incentives for legislation that is meant to stimulate competition between operators acting in the health care market. A raised attention to this type of market which is characterized by increased privatization has led to the study's purpose which is to investigate the correlation between the proportion of the net cost (the tax-funded health care) performed by private firms and net costs per medical visit (tax-funded activities / visits) in the two health care branches primary care and "specialized somatic care”. Further on, this study describes the impact of the increased market orientation in the public sector the past ten years. The theoretical framework deals with areas around quasi-markets, cost-benefit, the system of choice and the New Public Management. The study is based on a quantitative bivariate analysis where the variables “percentage of private providers of net cost” (independent variable) and the “net cost divided by the number of visits” (dependent variable) is investigated between 2005 and 2014. The statistics has been collected from the Municipality and county database Kolada for the total sample which consists of the 21 regions and counties in Sweden. A regression and correlation analysis was conducted in both the “specialized somatic care” and primary care to ascertain whether there is a linear numerical relationship between the two variables and to what extent the independant varible affects the dependent one. A negative correlation was found in both of the study groups for the whole period, where a strong correlaton can be proved for some of the years where net costs per visit in health care generally drops for each percentage county council purchases of private activity increases. The result also shows that there are regional differences where the share of private providers in large extent can be reflected in the population density.

  • 7. Batavia, B.
    et al.
    Nandakumar, P.
    Wagué, Cheick
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Export stagnation and budget deficits in the peripheral EU nations with EMU membership2013In: Journal of Economic Asymmetries, ISSN 1703-4949, Vol. 10, no 2, 94-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretical model of the economic and financial implications of EMU entry for the peripheral nations of the Euro area, the so-called PIGS nations. The model derived shows that EMU membership initiates huge capital inflows into the PIGS nations, driving up prices and wage costs. The rise in prices reduces international trade competitiveness, reducing net exports, while the rise in wage costs leads to greater government budget outlays, deteriorating the government budget. Without exchange rate adjustments, export stagnation, further exacerbated by the economic downturn in the Euro area as a whole, has been the price paid by the peripheral Euro nations. Examining the data for the recent decade suggests that the arguments against laying the blame for the economic and financial crises in the PIGS nations squarely on bad domestic policy-making and practices need to be taken seriously.

  • 8.
    Batavia, Bala
    et al.
    DePaul University, USA.
    Parameswar, Nandakumar
    Indian Institute of Management, Calicut, India.
    Sree, Rama Murthy
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Wagué, Cheick
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Avoiding a Liquidity Crunch: Do Pre-Bear Phase Bank Ratios Matter? Evidence from a World-Wide Sample2013In: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1927-033X, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 3, no 1, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Axel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nilsson, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Operationell leasing och effekten av IFRS 16: En studie som undersöker effekten av IFRS 16 på svenska företag med hjälp av en internationell jämförelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion:1 januari 2019 är tanken att IFRS 16 ska användas som en ny standard för redovisning av leasingavtal. Det här styrs i dagsläget av IAS 17 som möjliggör för företag att formulera sina leasingavtal så att de kan klassas som antingen operationella eller finansiella. Ett operationellt leasingavtal behövs ej redovisas i balansräkningen vilket gör att företag med mycket leasing medvetet skriver sina leasingavtal så att de klassas som operationella, vilket leder till dolda skulder och tillgångar. Dessa redovisas sedan enbart i not, i företagens finansiella rapporter.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att bredda kunskapen om vilken effekt införandet av IFRS 16 kommer få för svenska företag inkluderade på Large Cap och ställa den i relation med effekten i andra länder.

     

    Forskningsfrågor:

    - Hur kommer en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal påverka svenska företag?

    - Skiljer sig effekten av en kapitalisering i Sverige med en kapitalisering i andra länder i                     Europa?

     

    Metod: Undersökningen är kvantitativ och använder en kapitaliseringsmodell utvecklad av Imhoff et al (1991) och Fülbier et al (2008) för att beräkna en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal. Vidare har statistiska metoder använts för att mäta skillnaden i förändring mellan Sverige och de två övriga länderna, Tyskland och Storbritannien.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: I Sverige noteras signifikanta förändringar i nyckeltal efter en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal, vilket även skedde i Tyskland och Storbritannien. Storbritannien som var mest leasingtungt upplevde största skillnaden i siffror, följt av Tyskland och Sverige. Vid en statistisk jämförelse länderna emellan var Storbritannien det enda land som hade en statistiskt signifikant förändring i ett av nyckeltalen, totalt kapital. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att en effekt av kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal i Sverige går i linje med resultaten i andra länder då skillnaden mellan länderna inte var statistiskt signifikanta.

  • 10.
    Birksjö, David
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Undervisningsdebuten – som man frågar gråter svaren2014In: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, 57-69 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Thailands kulturelle und medizinische Voraussetzungen zur Aufnahme internationaler Patienten2017In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbranche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch; Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, 1, 251-287 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ganzheitliche und avancierte, doch teure medizinische Dienstleistungen.: Beobachtungen in renommierten US-amerikanischen Krankenhäusern.2017In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbranche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch; Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, 1, 213-250 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Collective brand strategy, entrepreneurship, and regional growth: The role of a protected designation of origin (PDO)2013In: Journal of World Economic Research, ISSN 2328-7748, Vol. 2, no 3, 26-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to interconnect entrepreneurship theories with brand theories. The study analyzes how this can be accomplished in the context of smaller agricultural firms, considering how intellectual property rights can be used strategically in entrepreneurial activities, ultimately creating regional growth. A firm has several options to protect its brands. Producers of similar products within a limited geographical area can protect the shared designated origin. Use of a collective brand, such as Champagne and Roquefort in France or Parmeggiano Reggiano in Italy, has been studied as a strategy to protect products from a given region. In the case analyzed here, a particular Austrian collective brand – Gailtaler Almkäse – was safeguarded within a protected designation of origin (PDO), providing producers a safe haven from which to enhance their collective brand in competitive markets. The PDO registration of the brand represents a central entrepreneurial strategy for manufacturers. To the region where the brands originate, the PDO has become a specific aspect of entrepreneurship that leads regional development.

  • 14.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Interpreting Brand Development as Entrepreneurship: The Role of Brand Strategies2013In: GSTF Business Review (GBR), ISSN 2010-4804, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research has been driven by the apparent lack of rigorous theory within the branding literature. Theoretical concepts have seldom been linked to business theory. This article presents an approach to branding which links branding to different approaches to entrepreneurship and uncovers the essential role of brand strategies when connecting branding to the management literature. Strategy and branding overlap and strategy links contemporary branding and entrepreneurship literature. There are various approaches to entrepreneurship which is relevant to the analysis of brand strategies. For the sake of simplicity we have divided them into two strands, the business school approach and the Schumpeter school. Essential to our understanding of brands is the ability of brands to decrease the transaction cost and reduce the information asymmetries between consumers and producers in the market. By relying on brands the actors in the market can reduce their search and information cost and the total cost of performing a market transaction.

  • 15.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Theories of Brands and Entrepreneurship: Conceptualizing brand strategies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— Research into entrepreneurship has previously paid little attention to the role of brands. This article synthesizes theories of entrepreneurship, branding, transaction cost, and strategy. By developing a strong brand, managers distinguish their companies, products, or services from those of competitors. Brand theories can be linked to various entrepreneurship research perspectives. Brands can be regarded as innovations that reduce transaction costs for the buyer who can better make purchase decisions. The management literature defines brands in two main ways, using business-oriented and consumer-oriented definitions. The strategy literature encompasses both these approaches, linking the entrepreneurial function and brand development. It is through the use of strategy that entrepreneurs can develop their brands, making them integral to a modern definition of entrepreneurship.

  • 16.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe2014In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014), Singapore: GSTF , 2014, 47-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health service industry is becoming increasingly internationalized. People are travelling increasingly longer distances for medical treatment. A new rapidly expanding medical tourism industry has emerged. For health service providers to compete they have to specialize and become more innovative. These innovative strategies are not limited to technical innovation, but also organizational- and service-related innovations. Treatment costs which influence the price paid for treatment are becoming a major factor influencing competition. We have looked at recent changes made within the European health care sector, to find evidence of a new innovative climate for the provision of medical treatment to patients. The emergence of Centers of Excellence is an example of responses to a new competitive climate in a global industry.

  • 17.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kirsch, Frank-Michael
    Mångkulturellt Centrum.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Destination Schweden: Medizintourismus durch regionale Gesundheitsdienstleister2014In: Materialien der 4. Medizintourismus-Konferenz an der Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin: Fachhochsch. Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Fachbereich Wirtschaft , 2014, 99-111 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Harris, Christopher
    Hospitals with Hospitality: The adaptation of hospitality management, concepts and training to the management of hospital services, a tri-continental case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This paper focuses on contemporary applications of hospitality expertise, concepts and training to the management of hospitals. When viewed at one end of the Product-Service Continuum, traditional hospitals may be argued to resemble a factory assembly line where medical treatments are produced as rationally as possible. However, given the complexities of job roles, variability of personal relationships, perishability of beds, and intangibilities associated with patient experiences, hospitals are nowadays increasingly being perceived and managed as services, where the service is provided to individual patients. By defining the hospital as a service provider new insights into how individual care is offered from different service industries can shed new light on the treatment of hospitalized patients. We have studied service systems in hospital settings. The paper seeks to demonstrate the ways in which hospitals are using expertise and training from organizations within the hospitality sector across the whole hospital organisation. Research presented from 3 international high-end hospitals shows that intensive care and nutrition treatment are seen as examples of areas in which a service orientation can potentially improve treatment outcome. Our method is a qualitative tri-continental case study with semi-structured interviews from three countries, the United States, Sweden and Singapore.

  • 19.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rao, PM
    Long Island University, C.W. Post Campus, Brookville, New York, USA.
    Four Models for the Globalisation of Health Care: Alternative Approaches to International Marketing2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to describe and analyse four different strategies for the internationalisation of healthcare. We have looked at four major international hospitals that have taken alternative routes to reach a global health care market. The Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital are all receiving international patients, but are pursuing different approaches to the international marketing of healthcare. We have conducted a large number of in-depth interviews with representatives for these hospitals and present four comparative case studies of the internationalisation of health care and what has become described as medical tourism. A growing number of patients are today seeking healthcare outside their country of residence. International health care is today one of the fastest growing industries with an annual growth rate of more than 20 per cent. Understanding the dynamics of this potent globalization is essential to researchers of international business. We have identified three modes of services offshoring development and two variables that have been essential to the understanding of hospitals internationalisation. First, the price range they are operating which determines which international markets they can penetrate. Secondly, the stage to which they have come in their internationalisation which influences movements into international markets. The four internationalisation strategies represent four distinct corners in a two by two matrix.

  • 20.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vigerland, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    The co-production of value in an art market: exploring service relationships2013In: Journal of Investment and Management, ISSN 2328-7721, Vol. 2, no 3, 57-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to analyze service dominated relationships and differences in characteristics of these relationships within arts marketing. The appreciation of art is seen as a service and is intertwined with the creation of company identity and thus a subtle kind of marketing, whether this is a conscious or non-conscious strategy from a company perspective. Companies invest in art in order to enhance their image, and establish network relationship with art firms. The data is collected from the Swedish non-profit art market of public and private organizations with focus on Stockholm, an art market place as well as a prime site for company head quarters. The data is analyzed with multivariate correspondence analysis (MCA), which is also known as geometric data analysis (GDA). This method enables analysis of relationships as well as overall characteristics of the participants in these relationships: a part of service as well as a creation of company identity, thus marketing. The research has shown that the service encounter within arts is enhanced within relationships between key actors that can be considered co-producers of art and that multivariate correspondence analysis is a helpful tool to identify these relationships and company characteristics in a structured manner. The methodology is generating visual pictures of the art market that cooperates with profit making ordinary companies in different industries. The graph that is produced with MCA is a visualization of what can be regarded as a map of the companies with connections to the nonprofit art market, whether these connections are formal and a part of regular business activities or informal and relatively weak.

  • 21.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vigerland, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Winroth, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Formal Ties in Financial Networks: Professional Clusters in Financial Services Marketing2016In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 34, no 2, 260-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of formal ties in the marketing of financial services and thus provide evidence concerning the relationship between formal ties and the customer appeal of banks and investment banks.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The article uses correspondence analysis to study formal ties between financial market actors and relates them to customer rankings. The formal ties are described as intra-, inter- and extra-organizational ties.

    Findings

    We find that there are several formal ties between financial market actors and provide compelling evidence illustrating how the attractions between financial service providers are related in several ways to the existence of formal ties between market actors.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research is limited to formal, as opposed to informal, ties. We examine the essential implications of such ties.Practical implicationsIn practice, banks and investment banks should consider the implications of formal ties and market connections to improve their performance.

    Originality/value

    The originality of this study consists in showing the relevance of various attributes in studying networks in financial markets and in contributing to an understanding of social attributes and formal organization.

  • 22.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, 1-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses long-term business entry in the Swedish brewing industry, presenting new data on its organisational historiography. Since 1830, the rate of entry has varied considerably; entries increased progressively from the 1850s, and fell at a decreasing rate from the early twentieth century. An increasing tendency to enter the trade can be observed from the mid-1980s – in particular, there has been a considerable resurgence since the turn of the millennium. The article elaborates on explanations that are both exogenous and endogenous. Above all, the results provide support for the role of endogenous conditions. The results should be viewed as complementary to previous analyses of the (Swedish) brewing industry, which either have employed shorter analytical time-frames or have mainly focused on the role of exogenous conditions, such as changes in the institutional framework.

  • 23.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, no 1, 20-36 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 24.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

  • 25.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, 31-49 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 27.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Internationalization of the Swedish Dairy Industry2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Braidford, Paul
    et al.
    Durham University.
    Stone, Ian
    Durham University.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gender, disadvantage and enterprise support - lessons from women´s business centers in North America and Europe2013In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 20, no 1, 143-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Celis, Sonia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sveriges image som varumärkesstrategi: En studie om hur bageriföretag använder sig av Sveriges image för att förstärka sitt varumärke2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur bageriföretag använder sig av Sveriges image och vilka egenskaper kopplas till deras varumärke. Vidare vill denna studie skapa förståelse på hur ett lands image kan användas som en varumärkesstrategi.

    Studiens resultat visar att svenska bageriföretag använder sig av olika svenska egenskaper som den svenska flaggan, svensk text och svenska symboler som älgar för att kommunicera deras svenska ursprung i utländska marknader. De intervjuade företag visar att det mest direkta sättet att påverka kommunikationen av deras svenska ursprung är genom förpackningar av deras produkter. Det svenska ursprunget av företagets varumärke och produkter kan ge konkurrensfördelar och hjälpa deras produkter att sticka ut från mängden i marknader som har en positiv respons för svenska livsmedelsprodukter. 

  • 30. Dar, Ravi
    et al.
    Schultz Nybacka, Pamela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Re-casting Legitimacy: Validation and Criticality as Contemporary Art Joins Cultural Business2016In: Arts and Business: Building a Common Ground for Understanding Society / [ed] Elena Raviola & Peter Zackariasson, Routledge, 2016, 1, 118-131 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Duvdahl, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Willebrand Vinnberg, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konsten att motiveras: En kvalitativ studie om vad säljare anser vara viktigt för deras motivation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of what motivates salespeople, the study aims to investigate how the motivation of salespeople is influenced by reward systems and social interaction in the form of; competitions, interaction with colleagues and development opportunities.

    Methodology: To collect material for the study semi-structured interviews has been used. Eight salespersons were interviewed.

    Conclusions: The study has shown that for our study’s respondents colleagues and feedback is the most important source of motivation in the workplace. The will to go to work is influenced by relationships with colleagues while the feedback is important for the motivation to work. Colleagues' feedback is warming while the manager's feedback acts more as an incentive to work harder. Commissions, competitions and development is something that motivates the majority of our respondents. The commission is a carrot for the majority and competitions make it more fun for employees. Development opportunities are important for the majority of the study respondents.

  • 32.
    Eiron, Pernilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Stenberg, Josefin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbarhetsredovisningen: Efter uppmärksammade skandaler av “Uppdrag Granskning” eller “Kalla Fakta”2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Ekberg, Espen
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School.
    Myrvang, Christine
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Innledning: Mellom næaringsliv og historie2014In: Næringsliv og historia / [ed] Espen Ekberg, Mikael Lönnborg & Christine Myrvang, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2014, 1, 7-33 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Ekberg, Espen
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School.Myrvang, ChristineBI Norwegian Business School.
    Næringsliv og historie2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Eliesson, Oscar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Halén, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motiverad i mitten: En studie om mellanchefers motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates what motivates middle managers as their downward influence on employees have been shown to have a great impact on their performance. To direct motivational efforts towards middle management seem to be an effective tool in stimulating  employee motivation as middle managers motivation tend to spillover on lower level employees. Understanding what motivates employees has also shown to be important in reaching effectiveness and ultimately in a company´s success. Motivation has been studied throughout history and a large number of theories explaining what motivates have been presented. The subject has been studied by Taylor, Maslow and Herzberg and later Hackman and Oldham who have presented different theories about what motivates humans.

    The purpose of this study is to provide a broader understanding of what motivates middle managers. To achieve this purpose, the question “Which factors create motivation among middle managers?” has been asked and answered. To fulfill this purpose, and answer the question, 10 interviews were held with middle managers from Compass Group AB. The empirical data collected was then analyzed against motivational theories.

    The result and conclusion that emerged from the collected empirical data was that the middle managers, in many aspects, were motivated by the same things. Varying and challenging work tasks, growth, to see the outcome of the work, that the work has an impact on others, autonomy and responsibility, feedback and belongingness was all motivating factors according to all of the middle managers. Most of the middle managers were also motivated by factors such as advancement, completion of a whole task and salary. A few of the middle managers were motivated by working conditions.

  • 36.
    Franzén, Djuna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Södertörn University Library.
    Schultz Nybacka, Pamela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Grönvall, Karin
    Södertörn University, Södertörn University Library.
    Wennbrink, Ann-Sofie
    Södertörn University, Södertörn University Library.
    Biblioteksbesökets värde: En studie av besökarna vid Södertörns högskolebibliotek, Huddinges huvudbibliotek och Flemingsbergs områdesbibliotek2014Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Färdigs, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lignell, Ingrid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Påverkar företagens storlek upplysningsgraden av marknadsrisker: En studie om IFRS 72012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företagen riskerar att utsättas för förlustbringande värdeförändringar i tillgångar och skulder, eftersom de exponeras för olika marknadsrisker som fluktuationer i räntor, växelkurser, råvaru- och aktiepriser. För att skydda sig mot dessa fluktuationer och för att minimera exponeringen av marknadsriskerna, använder företag sig av olika typer av finansiella instrument. IFRS 7 är den standard som behandlar finansiella instrument och riskupplysningar. Standarden infördes år 2007, med avsikten att intressenten ska kunna tillgodoses relevant information om företagets hantering och exponering av finansiella risker.

    Syftet är att genomföra en studie på finansiella företag inom segmenten Large- och Small Cap och undersöka till vilken grad de efterföljer upplysningskraven beträffande marknadsrisker enligt IFRS 7, samt huruvida det förekommer något samband i upplysningsgrad och Cap-tillhörighet.

    Studien behandlar samtliga finansiella företag inom Large- och Small Cap-segmenten. Punkter i IFRS 7 som berör marknadsrisker har valts ut och företagens årsredovisningar har granskats för att undersöka upplysningsgraden och om det finns ett samband mellan upplysningsgrad och Cap-tillhörighet. 

    Resultatet visar att företagen inom Large Cap-segmentet upplyste helt enligt kriterierna i 36 fall av 64 och företagen inom Small Cap upplyste helt enligt kriterierna i 9 fall av 32. Resultatet indikerade således att det fanns ett samband mellan upplysningsgrad och Cap-tillhörighet, de större företagen efterföljde standarden till en högre grad än vad de mindre företagen gjorde. 

  • 38.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Social Enterprises in Sweden: Intertextual Consensus and Hidden Paradoxes2015Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Illusionen om det goda civilsamhället2016In: Kurage: Idétidskrift för det civila samhället, ISSN 2001-175X, no 20, 20-22 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Chameleons Through Times and Values2016In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear, New York and London: Routledge, 2016, 41-57 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Sweden: Tracing Social Enterprise Across Different (Social) Spheres: The Dynamic Interplay Among Institutions, Values, and Individual Engagement2017In: Shaping Social Enterprise: Understanding Institutional Context and Influence / [ed] Janelle Kerlin, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Spear, Roger
    Open University, UK.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises in the Nordics: Narratives Emerging from Social Movements and Welfare Dynamics2016In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear, New York and London: Routledge, 2016, 1-21 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lundgaard Andersen, LindaRoskilde University, Denmark.Spear, RogerOpen University, UK.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle. These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way for the Nordic solicaristic welfare state.

    As the welfare state grew, civil society organizations and co-operatives lost ground, to a certain extent. But in recent decades, the welfare state has been restructured and, simultaneously, the concepts social entrepreneurship and social enterprises have gained attention. The Nordic context, with extensive public welfare structures and a high degree of citizens’ participation in public affairs, might affect the emergence of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises.

  • 44.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Mittuniversitetet.
    Pierre, Anne
    Mittuniversitetet.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Boundary Force for Regional and Local Development Cherished for Multiple Reasons.2014In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 18, no 4, 109-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gawell, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Entrepreneurship Invited Into the (Social) Welfare Arena2016In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear, New York and London: Routledge, 2016, 215-231 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Golubeva, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Business climate in Russia: Swedish investors' perspective2015In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VIII, no 3-4, 76-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article addresses the issue of the business climate in Russia from the Swedish investors' perspective and relates its to a general theoretical debate in the field. Statistical tests suggests that the majority of variables relating to the business climate has deteriorated between 2012 and 2014. The findings support several mainstream theories regarding the business climate but also demonstrate some contradictions that would require further investigation. These include the reaction of Swedish business to the escalation of political tensions between Russia and the West and the factor of corruption, which is not viewed as serious enough to fully discourage foreign investors from staying in Russia.

  • 47.
    Golubeva, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Strategy under uncertainty: empirical evidence from Swedish companies operating in Russia2015In: Conference Proceedings “GSOM Emerging Markets International Conference: Business and Government Perspectives, 15-17 October, 2015, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University, Russia”, St. Petersburg: GSOM St. Petersburg, Russia , 2015, 168-181 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to describe and explain company strategies under uncertainty. It attempts to examine more closely the interaction of research on strategic management with internationalization theory and the dimension of uncertainty. This study builds on the empirical data from a survey conducted in 2015 among 73 Swedish companies operating in Russia. The findings support several concepts of strategic management and internationalization theory, but also reveal some phenomena that would require further investigation. These include a domination of expansion strategy chosen by Swedish firms during the current escalation of uncertainty in Russia.

  • 48.
    Golubeva, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Strategy under Uncertainty: Empirical Evidence from Swedish Companies Operating in Russia2016In: International Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 1833-3850, E-ISSN 1833-8119, Vol. 11, no 5, 44-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The objective of this paper is to describe and explain company strategies under uncertainty. The study attempts to examine closer interaction between research on strategic management and internationalization theory. Recent escalation of conflict between Russia and the EU/USA in combination with economic recession increased the level of uncertainty. The article explores how this deterioration is reflected in a strategy of Swedish companies operating in Russia. This study builds on the empirical data from a survey conducted in 2015 among 73 Swedish firms. The findings of the study contribute to knowledge regarding diversity in commitments shown by different companies at one particular point of time under the same circumstances. The study reveals a domination of expansion strategy chosen by Swedish firms during the current escalation of uncertainty in Russia. A growing strategy under uncertainty has seldom been reported and analyzed by scholars. The study demonstrated that uncertainty is not only a threat to companies operating on the market, but can lead to expanding strategies attempting to exploit the opportunities that uncertainty might offer. Appraising the risk concept, the study provides implications for companies’ managers on the importance of a commitment decision to face the deterioration caused by the uncertainty. Empirical data from this study also suggest that uncertainty is handled by companies better than one might expect. The article questions whether companies and managers are really risk-averse in their behaviour.

  • 49.
    Golubeva, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Is It Possible To Govern Foreign Investments?: Balancing Between Klondike And Poltava2016In: Journal of Business Case Studies (JBCS), ISSN 1555-3353, E-ISSN 2157-8826, Vol. 12, no 2, 83-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FDI (foreign direct investment) of Swedbank in Ukraine is an example of unsuccessful investment in transition economies. The Case Study is presented in relation with Swedbank’s internationalization strategy and rapidly changing investment environment in transition economies and globally. Learning objectives include helping students to develop analytical skills in order to understand how political, economic, financial and social factors effect internalization strategy through FDI. The Case Study should help students to understand the importance of an appropriate long-term strategy of a firm entering transition economies, understand the investment environment of a foreign country and choose the best course of action for a distressed firm considering alternative scenarios. Lessons learned from the Case Study can be beneficial for students studying international business, but also for future decision-makers that would be acting in complex environments under rapidly changing situations. The author developed the Case from secondary sources: Swedbank’s annual reports and press-releases, information published by multilateral organizations and government agencies, research from investment banking houses and reputable news agencies. This Case is written solely for educational purposes and is not intended to analyze successful or unsuccessful internalization strategy through FDI in transition economies.

  • 50.
    Golubeva, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Determinants of Swedish Foreign Direct Investments (FDI): How Important is Profitability?2016In: Economics and Finance Review, ISSN 2047-0401, E-ISSN 2047-0401, Vol. 4, no 10, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have been undertaken regarding FDI, its determinants and impact on beneficiary countries, but very few papers directly examined profitability and its importance for the FDI. The study addresses this gap by including return on capital into determinants of Swedish FDI alongside the variables that are traditionally assumed to have an impact on FDI. Regression analysis suggests that the predictive role of profitability is significantly superior to that of other variables, explaining 85% of the variation of FDI stock. Market size, geographical location and economic freedom in the beneficiary country are other variables that have statistical support for their roles. Conversely, the study refutes the significance of several variables which are commonly believed to be important determinants of FDI. The findings of the article will have certain implications for company managers, policy-makers and academicians. The study also indicates that the reforms aimed at improving investment climate in beneficiary countries may not be efficient if we fail to understand the connection between the business environment and the profitability of a particular project.

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