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  • 1.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Töpel, Mats
    Göteborg University.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    First Dating of a Recombination Event in Mammalian Tick-Borne Flaviviruses2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, e31981- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group (MTBFG) contains viruses associated with important human and animal diseases such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. In contrast to mosquito-borne flaviviruses where recombination events are frequent, the evolutionary dynamic within the MTBFG was believed to be essentially clonal. This assumption was challenged with the recent report of several homologous recombinations within the Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). We performed a thorough analysis of publicly available genomes in this group and found no compelling evidence for the previously identified recombinations. However, our results show for the first time that demonstrable recombination (i.e., with large statistical support and strong phylogenetic evidences) has occurred in the MTBFG, more specifically within the Louping ill virus lineage. Putative parents, recombinant strains and breakpoints were further tested for statistical significance using phylogenetic methods. We investigated the time of divergence between the recombinant and parental strains in a Bayesian framework. The recombination was estimated to have occurred during a window of 282 to 76 years before the present. By unravelling the temporal setting of the event, we adduce hypotheses about the ecological conditions that could account for the observed recombination.

  • 2.
    Broniarczyk, Justyna
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Virology, Adam Mickiewicz University.
    Wigerius, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    The NS1 protein of Influenza A virus targets human Scribble in asubtype specific mannerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ellencrona, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Syed, Asim
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Flavivirus NS5 associates with host-cell proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis-2 (RIMS2) via an internal PDZ binding mechanism2009In: Biological chemistry (Print), ISSN 1431-6730, E-ISSN 1437-4315, Vol. 390, no 4, 319-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue virus (DENV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses, which can cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the TBEV-NS5 and DENV-NS5 proteins use an internal binding mechanism to target human PDZ proteins. TBEV-NS5 has high affinity to regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis-2 (RIMS2) and Scribble, whereas DENV-NS5 binds primarily to the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Targeting of TBEV-NS5 to the plasma membrane is stabilised by ZO-1; however, DENV-NS5 co-localises with ZO-1 in the nucleus. These interactions have potential important roles in the ability of flaviviruses to manipulate cell proliferation, junction permeability and the interferon pathways.

  • 4.
    Elväng, Annelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Bertrand, Yann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    Sequencing of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Ixodes ricinus Reveals a Thermosensitive RNA Switch Significant for Virus Propagation in Ectothermic Arthropods.2011In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 6, 649-658 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus with major impact on global health. The geographical TBEV distribution is expanding, thus making it pivotal to further characterize the natural virus populations. In this study, we completed the earlier partial sequencing of a TBEV pulled out of a pool of RNA extracted from 115 ticks collected on Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. The total RNA was sufficient for all sequencing of a TBEV genome (Torö-2003), without conventional enrichment procedures such as cell culturing or suckling mice amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the genome of TBEV has been sequenced directly from an arthropod reservoir. The Torö-2003 sequence has been characterized and compared with other TBE viruses. In silico analyses of secondary RNA structures formed by the two untranslated regions revealed a temperature-sensitive structural shift between a closed replicative form and an open AUG accessible form, analogous to a recently described bacterial thermoswitch. Additionally, novel phylogenetic conserved structures were identified in the variable part of the 3'-untranslated region, and their sequence and structure similarity when compared with earlier identified structures suggests an enhancing function on virus replication and translation. We propose that the thermo-switch mechanism may explain the low TBEV prevalence often observed in environmentally sampled ticks. Finally, we were able to detect variations that help in the understanding of virus adaptations to varied environmental temperatures and mammalian hosts through a comparative approach that compares RNA folding dynamics between strains with different mammalian cell passage histories.

  • 5.
    Melik, Wessam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Ellencrona, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Wigerius, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hedström, Chister
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Two PDZ binding motifs within NS5 have roles in Tick-borne encephalitis virus replication2012In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 169, no 1, 54-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flavivirus genus includes important human pathogens like Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DV) and West-Nile virus (WNV), that can cause severe disease e.g. encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. The NS5 protein is a multifunctional RNA dependent RNA polymerase indispensable for the flavivirus replication. We have previously shown that TBEVNS5 contains a unique internal PDZ binding motif (YS223) for specific targeting of the PDZ protein Scribble. This interaction has impact on both viral down regulation of host cellular defense systems and neurite outgrowth. Putative C-terminal PDZ binding motifs present in TBEVNS5 (-SII903) and WNVNS5 (-TVL905) have also previously been highlighted.

    To determine whether the PDZ binding motifs of TBEVNS5 has an effect on virus replication we constructed a DNA based sub-genomic TBEV replicon expressing firefly luciferase. The motifs within NS5 were mutated individually and in concert and the replicons were assayed in cell culture. Our results show that the replication rate was impaired in all mutants, which indicates that PDZ dependent host interactions influence flavivirus replication.We also find that the C-terminal PDZ binding motif present in TBEVNS5 and WNVNS5 are targeting various human PDZ domain proteins. TBEVNS5 has high affinity to Zonulaoccludens-2 (ZO-2),GIAP C-terminus interacting protein (GIPC), Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) and Interleukin 16 (IL-16).A different pattern was observed for WNVNS5 as it associated with IL-16, and several other putative interaction partners.

  • 6.
    Wigerius, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    SCRIBBLE SCAFFOLDS KEY COMPONENTS IN NEURITE OUTGROWTHIMPLICATING DIRECT INVOLVEMENT IN CYTOSKELETON REGULATIONManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Wigerius, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    Rac1 and Scribble are targets for the arrest of neurite outgrowth by TBE virus NS52010In: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1044-7431, E-ISSN 1095-9327, Vol. 44, no 3, 260-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes extensive CNS disease in humans known as TBE, however, relatively little is known of the molecular mechanisms for its progress. Here, we now show that TBEV produces defects in neuronal development of PC12 cells through a function of the viral NS5 protein. The methyltransferase domain of NS5 is critical and sufficient for restriction of nerve growth factor induced neurite outgrowth. This effect is reversed by expression of NS5 mutants unable to bind Scribble and unexpectedly, in Scribble depleted cells with binding-competent NS5. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Rho GTPase Rac1 and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor, beta PIX are outcompeted by NS5 for binding to Scribble, linking to effects on neurite outgrowth by TBEV. Together, these findings provide the first experimental evidence that Rac1 and beta PIX are indirect targets of NS5 acting through the multifunctional polarity protein Scribble to oppose neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, our results offer a potential mechanism by which TBEV alters neuronal circuitry and opens new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

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