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  • 1.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Medieteknik.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Medieteknik.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att inventera de utmaningar och möjligheter som före­tagarna i Stockholms skärgård står inför. Rapporten har skrivits inom ramen för Interreg-projektet Archipelago Business Development och omfattar en inventering av skärgårdsföretagarnas behov, utmaningar och möjligheter i Stockholms skär­gård.

    Undersökningen har bland annat gjorts genom gruppintervjuer med företagare på Dalarö, Ornö, Sandhamn och Utö. Därutöver har enskilda in­ter­vjuer genomförts med företagare i fem olika kommuner. Geo­grafiskt fördelas urvalet på Stockholms södra och mellersta skärgård.

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    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård
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    presentationsbild
  • 2.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Barndomsminnen och den (o)politiska idrotten2019Ingår i: Ikaros, ISSN 1796-1998, nr 1, s. 45-47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Onn, Gustaf
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Supply side perception of Halal tourism: A Swedish pilot study2019Ingår i: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, s. 40-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halal tourism – where tourists with Muslim norms are considered in that there is no alcohol, no gambling, food adheres to Muslim religious requirements, and that there is a separation of men and women in public spaces – is considered a growing market, especially when considering the wealthier populations, e.g. in Saudi and United Arab Emirates. However, some of these requirements may seem at odds with some western norms, and may hence require both investments, and dealing with ethical issues if one would cater to this demand. Nevertheless, Halal tourism can also be provided by non- Muslim countries to Muslim tourists. This justifies a research (e.g. Henderson, 2016; Yasuda, 2017; Razzaq et al, 2016) for the multicultural Sweden as well.  A pilot study with 15 questions to assess perception of Halal tourism is being carried out with an open- ended questionnaire been sent out with 4 reminders to 250 persons working in government, organisations and enterprises linked to tourism in Sweden from four e-mail lists between June 2018 and January 2019. As of now, 22 have returned forms. The responses will be broadly thematically analysed as it is a survey of opinions. Possibly the investigation may turn to deep interviews and in that case a deep thematic analysis may show useful.  Only a minor part of the interviewees has a good grip on which exact dimensions are considered in definition of Halal tourism and have some knowledge of the adaptations required to it. Most of them have mentioned oral sources and Internet as their information source. A majority thinks Halal tourism may be of significance in Swedish tourism, if Muslims are targeted, while the rest are either doubtful or sceptic. Concerning pros of going after this target group, the majority report diversification of demand, general increase in demand, cultural exchange and general benefits to consumers, while a minority report having too little knowledge, or do not see any advantages or in a couple of cases have unclear answers. On the cons they point to the association between the concept of Halal to slaughter specifically, to the inability to deliver appropriate hospitality, to the possible detrimental effects on other target groups, point out the organisational adaptations necessary, put forth economic costs as well as cultural hinderances, or saw no downsides. A minority had either no ideas nor answers atall.  Whether one should go ahead and pursue this target audience or not, the answers totally varied. Some did agree, while others thought more thorough analysis of the target group was needed, or thought that all customers should be catered to as long as it does not adversely affect other target markets, or believed that this should not be a public responsibility, that invest is not on the proper level, or that at present no investments should be made, but if it turned out to be a high demand, it may be profitable. A minor part found it economically not defensible. When it comes to marketing Sweden as a Halal destination, several of them either mentioned Muslim nations or Muslim VFR tourists or specific geographic regions, while the rest either emphasizes need of more analysis, or claimed that they knew too little, answered irrelevant or gave no answer. On problems that may arise from marketing Sweden as a Halal destination, a majority either mentioned cultural difficulties or feared confused identity, leading to blurred destination image. Several of the interviewees found no problem while the rest either thought further analysis was needed or had no idea or answer. To the question if they were willing to pursue the target group, most of the interviewees was positive while several of the interviewees had negative opinion on it and few persons either did not know, answered unclear or gave no answer. As to under which conditions they could see Halal tourism being undertaken in Sweden, the answers are very varying. Nine persons either gave no answer or did not know while the rest either were against the idea or any necessary adaptions or required respect to equal value of people, to sustainability and fairtrade.

  • 4.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Arnautovic, Denis
    Does Over-tourism really exist in Dubrovnik?: A perception study of local tourism employees2019Ingår i: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark, 2019, s. 48-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-tourism has become a frequently used term in Urban Tourism research, during last years. By it means over-saturation of tourists (e.g. Stanchev, 2017) i.e. when the number of tourists at a certain time and at a certain place exceeds powerfully the number of locals in the place (see e.g. Artal-Tur et al, 2018). Such situation creates a series of problems for the host destinations (Postma and Schmuecker, 2017) because of the limited service facilities available (Butler, 2018). The pressure on the host destination results in conflict and tension among hosts and tourists, and in long term antagonism, and tourism phobia among locals (Alexis, 2017). The overall aim of this research is to get a deeper understanding of Dubrovnik’s tourism employees’ perception of Over-tourism in their town. The chosen method has been field observation during peak season (July 2018) and 18 email- interviews with local tourism employees between 2018-2019.   Results  The employees who answered to 14 questions have positions such as manager, receptionist, owner, and represent different tourism and hospitality sectors like hotels and restaurants, tourist bureaus, etc. They have been working within tourism industry between 3 and 30 years. They show small difference in their views on low- respectively high season of tourism in the town. They define Over- tourism in general, believe it exists in Dubrovnik in some short periods, and describe in detail how and when it happens there. The reason behind Over-tourism in Dubrovnik is summarized by them in big demand that exceeds the supply side i.e. too many tourists by ships, aircrafts, cars and buses arriving at the same time in peak season. They claim that the Over-tourism creates a series of problems such as traffic, damage and pollution, and confirm that the local authorities are aware of the problems. A powerful reduction of number of cruisers, better management, organization and schedule of arrivals, better information to tourists, reduction of taxis from rest of the country, forbid foreigners come by car to the city, etc. are among their own suggestions to solutions for the problems. Some of them talk about attracting quality/luxury/elite tourists instead of mass tourists. Several of them also confirm that the local tourism industry firstly tries to reduce the number of cruisers and partly flights, and then find a better coordination of activities, and other regulations for people coming by cars. The interviewees prefer mostly tourists coming by charter flights, then cruise tourists specially luxury such, and they believe that Dubrovnik and its surrounding region is not at all suitable for car transport and cartourists.

  • 5.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Strömberg, Per
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Perspectives of Over-tourism in four Pre-Industrial Historical City Centers: A research idea2019Ingår i: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, s. 46-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-tourism has become a new subject for research, particularly on urban sustainable tourism, during recent years (Novy, 2018). The term refers to when the number of tourists at a certain time in an extreme way exceeds the number of locals in the destination (Goodwin, 2017). This phenomenon creates a series of problems for the host destinations and puts pressure on them and their attractions, on the local service facilities and the genuine urban culture (Postma and Schmuecker, 2017; Trancoso Gonzalez, 2018; Weber et al, 2017; Montanari & Staniscias, 2010). Earlier research has shown how this phenomenon results in tension/conflict between locals and tourists and creates phobia among host people towards tourists(Postma and Schmuecker,2017; Martins, 2018; Milano et al, 2018). Recent research (Koens et al, 2018) shows that tourism stakeholders in many European cities show great awareness on the issue in their cities. Earlier research has mostly focused on locals while a focus on the visitors has beenlacking.  The purpose of the research is to get more empirical insights in over-tourism in four European city centers, Dubrovnik, Visby, Stockholm, and Riga, from both perspectives of locals and visitors/tourists, and thereby get knowledge through the challenges to, and opportunities for, both constituencies that are created in this learning process. This is in consistence with earlier research with same purpose (Costa et al, 2018). The research is justified by the fact that the topic is still new, and there are not too many studies published as of now. The first common characteristic between these four cities is that they all are cruising ports. The two first cities are rather towns than cities, almost of same size and natural preconditions, while the latters are much larger, capital cities in the Baltic Sea region with almost similar preconditions i.e. Over-tourism in the downtown area during peakseason.  The overall methodological approach in this project will be qualitative consisting of triangulation (mixed methods) based on comparative case studies. The data collection methods will consist of: field observations during the peak season in July-August in the four cities, face to face interviews and email interviews

  • 6.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Anna
    National Theatre.
    How the Iranian Fire Festival in Stockholm is perceived by the visitors?2019Ingår i: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, s. 45-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, a Tuesday in the middle of March and after 5:00 pm the Iranian Fire Festival (Eldfesten in Swedish, Chaharshanbe Suri in Persian) is celebrated outdoors in the center of Stockholm and ends before 10:00 pm. This event has its roots in ancient Persia, but now it is celebrated by several nations in the Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia. The Stockholm festival is arranged and financed by The Swedish National Theatre and several times earlier it has been opened by Swedish ministers. The event visitors are mostly of Middle Eastern background coming from Stockholm area. Since 2016 it can also be watched live through Swedish and foreign TV stations and through Social media. During the earlier years the event was held in Kungsträdgården (The Royal Garden) but this year it was arranged in the amusement park of Skansen.  Ethnic cultural events in major urban areas create good images for cities and countries but also for immigrants and their neighborhoods in the city of issue (McClinchey, 2008; Loukaitou-Sideris and Soureli, 2012), and a sense of belonging among immigrants (Chacko, 2013). Many stakeholders are involved in such events (Getz et al 2007; Getz And Andersson, 2010) but perhaps the most important stakeholder is the visitors of the event. Therefore, it is of high relevance to study the visitors’ visit motivations, their perceived experience in terms of satisfaction level and their level of loyalty i.e. if they intend to visit the event next year (Savinovic et al, 2012). The aim of this research is to get insights on the visitors of the Fire Festival, their motives behind participation and how they perceive their participation afterwards. The main methods chosen in this research is participant observation and 257 completed surveys online until April 11th, 2019.  Preliminary results The respondents are 63% men and 37% women, and they are mostly older than 40 (44% are older than 50). More than half of them have been living in Sweden less than 21 years of which 17% less than 5 years. 83% of the respondents call themselves Swedish-Iranians. More than 80% of the respondents have academic education (of which 7% with PhD education) and most of them are employed either by public or private sector. A considerable number of them are also either self- employed, students or retirees. They have come from different districts of Greater Stockholm while a minor part has come from municipalities outside the county. A pre-dominant majority of them have come there with friends and family members, and most of them have been participating in the festival for third times or more. Also, more than half of them have visited the Skansen park three or more times earlier. The main reasons why they celebrate the festival is to keep the old tradition and culture alive. The celebration creates feelings like happiness, pride, community, belonging, nostalgia, childhood, the Spring. Concerning the question what the place or arena means to you they either like Skansen or prefer other places in Greater Stockholm or do not care about the place but the festival and other issues such as security and safety. To the question “what do you think about celebrating the festival at Skansen” they give positive answers and to the question “are your expectations on the festival fulfilled” the majority are totally or partly agreed. They also believe that this event must be celebrated every year and give many improvement suggestions and additional critical comments such as more food trucks, better and cheaper food, more professional artists and happy songs and music.

  • 7.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Idrottsfeministisk klassiker som tiden sprungit förbi: Recension av Jennifer Hargreaves, Sporting Females: Critical issues in the history and sociology of women’s sports2019Ingår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. Nov 21Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    City tourist destination planning and visitor streams2019Ingår i: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, s. 43-44Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Destinations and their visitors are crucial to study in city tourism. Valls et al. (2013) proposed that identifying destination characteristics related to visitor segments and their holiday can help in the interpretation of contemporary urban tourism flows in Europe, facilitating city strategic planning in order to boost competitiveness. It is a challenge to identify the destination attributes and their benefits that the individual market segments value the most (Reisinger, Mavondo, & Crotts, 2009).

    Within destinations in Sweden there is a lack of knowledge about visitor streams. For example, there are no available official statistics for detailed tourism streams in Stockholm (The statistical analyst at Swedish Agency for Eco­nomic and Regional Growth, 2018). The problem, though, is how qualitative information and statistics can be collected and analysed with the limited resources available. In addition, the statistics are too static, because they are not connected to a tourist’s whole trip. New approaches will be demanded for tourism statistics and study techniques. Exploring tourist spatial behaviour based on social media big data is a new research field (Tang & Li, 2015).

    There is a discussion how to use mobile data points in Sweden in order to understand pattern of travel to destinations and concentration of people at a destination during a specific time. In addition, there are difficulties such as the lack of knowledge of a person's background. However, the use of mobile data and other Internet sources is rapidly developing.

    The purpose of this study is how visitor streams can based on the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed in order to improve the destination by destination organisations? This is an ongoing research project about visitor streams.

    This research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, tourist segments studies, in-depth interviews and a literature review. Statistical data and qualitative information in this research are used as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”.

    The case study of the visitor segment “cruise passengers” to Stockholm has been chosen as an empirical example. During the high season, there could be between 2,000 and 16,000 cruise passengers in the centre of Stockholm on any given day. These sightseeing tours mostly use just three or five activity points, which are based on visitor attractions, restaurants, shopping, guided tours, outlooks and exploring independently. This means that a very small city area is used by cruise passengers.

     In order to develop the tourist products and marketing there is a need for the destination organisations to understand the most important tourist segments and their segment streams within the regional and local destinations, using statistics and qualitative indicators. For example, the DMOs and local incoming companies need to coordinate the marketing, attraction development and logistics regarding their cruise products in the central of Stockholm. The stream content could be: defined visitor segment, visitor data, spatial destination data such as points and routes, time information and tourism product. However, there is also a need for understanding overall city people streams in order to plan the city's infrastructure, where big data could be used. As a result this will hopefully improve the destination logistics and reduce overcrowding.

    The streams can be of different types, which demand different investigation and presentation techniques. The cruise passenger’s visitor stream routes are of regular character. But the segment “private car travellers” are of irregular character, where the tourists can be analysed in visitor sectors connected to an investigation technique, when moving around individually.

    Finally, this research propose the visitor stream concept and future research of various visitor segment streams and the city's people movement pattern. A basic method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: defining “regional and local destination” and its characteristics, investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, identifying important visitor segments, analysing segment streams and overall movement patterns of people with new destination tools.

  • 9.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Solo travellers to city destinations: an exploratory study in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Journal of Tourism Cities, ISSN 2056-5607, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 35-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations and attain more knowledge on the topic.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study employed a questionnaire consisting of qualitative and quantitative items. In all, 21 individuals (12 women, 9 men) responded.

    Findings

    The most important reason for solo travel was their own free choice and in some cases, difficulty finding companions. Their activities at the destinations were mostly visiting attractions followed by visiting friends, shopping, walking, eating at restaurants, learning the language, working, etc. They mostly mentioned advantages but also some disadvantages with solo travelling. Their experiences, especially with the people in the host destinations, have been positive and they show overall satisfaction with their visit. A predominant share of the interviewees showed a kind of loyalty to one or more specific city destinations and wished to revisit them again and again.

    Practical implications

    The current study might have some implications for city tourism developers/destination developers, travel agencies, national or regional tourism boards and tour operators in major urban areas and cities. Especially, this study has a practical contribution to the city tourism practitioners and gives them more insight in what values, attitudes, perceptions, expectations and motivations the solo travellers might have before or while they visit their cities. The study also has implications for potential solo travellers seeking more knowledge and information on the issue.

    Originality/value

    The phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations is an unresearched topic in Sweden. This exploratory study is the first in Sweden to focus on solo travellers visiting city destinations.

  • 10.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå universitet.
    Displaced diaspora second-home tourism: an explorative study of Swedish-Iranians and their second-home purchases in Turkey2019Ingår i: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 239-252, artikel-id 225739Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This explorative study aims to gain more insight into Swedish-Iranians' purchase of second homes in Turkey. The study is based on 22 questionnaires (19 of them from owners and buyers), field observation, and participant observation. Motives behind owners' and buyers' purchases are: other Swedish-Iranian friends/relatives bought there; cultural proximity; absence of visa restriction for Iranian citizens; geographical proximity to Iran and relatives living in Iran; economic factors, including the low prices and costs and investment for retirement; and the climate. The respondents are well-integrated into Swedish society and have access to different types of resources which facilitate the purchase, but they also show the potential to partially become integrated socioculturally into their Turkish communities. A meaningful proportion of them are seriously planning to live permanently in Turkey after retirement, but the majority stay there for longer periods or semi-permanently. Despite some limitations, this study makes an important contribution to the area of diaspora second-home tourism and to the field of diaspora studies.

  • 11.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Medieteknik.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Medieteknik.
    Facing business challenges with the Stockholm Archipelago as a context: A comparative study of entrepreneurial responses and local development on three islands2019Ingår i: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. XII, nr 2, s. 74-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a comparative qualitative and systematic study of the local (island) pre-conditions for creating sustainable socio-economic development through entrepreneurship, here defined as a process of identifying, evaluating, and exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities, this study aims to shed light on entrepreneurial responses to challenges and opportunities on three islands in the Stockholm Archipelago and how context influences these responses.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Entrepreneurship in the Stockholm Archipelago: A Historical Perspective2019Ingår i: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 57-60Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Basebollens pastorala dimensioner i USA och Sverige2018Ingår i: Mellan Malmö och Minneapolis: Kulturhistoriska undersökningar tillägnade Lars Edgren / [ed] Victor Lundberg & Cecilia Riving, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2018, s. 69-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Swedish solo travellers to city destinations: an exploratory study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People travel solo to a destination due to different push–pull pre-travel motivators (Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Travel to a city destination brings a series of positive or negative experiences (Walls et al., 2011) and creates a sense of overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the destination and the travel itself. Also, several functional and psychosocial characteristics of a destination such as hosts, locals, services, prices (Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005), contribute to satisfaction with a trip, but also create destination loyalty among visitors (Chi and Qu, 2008; Zhang et al., 2014) and this loyalty in its turn leads to a return to the same destination. The phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations is an un-researched topic in Sweden. This exploratory study is the first in Sweden to focus on solo travellers visiting city destinations. The study aims to gain more insight into the phenomenon and attain more knowledge on the topic. The study employed a questionnaire consisting of qualitative and quantitative items. In all, 21 individuals (12 women, 9 men) responded. They were mostly well-educated, the majority were younger than 35, more than half were single and more than half reported travelling alone once or twice a year. The majority had a travel budget of SEK 10–20,000 per trip and the rest had a budget below SEK 10,000. They normally took flights and the majority went away for more than one week up to several weeks. The most important reason for solo travel was own free choice and in some cases difficulty finding companions. This result is coherent with earlier studies (e.g. Heimtun and Morgan, 2012; Mehmetoglu, 2004). Their loneliness gave rise to forced but positive socialization (e.g. Chiang and Jogaratnam, 2006; Laesser et al., 2009). Their activities at the destinations were mostly visiting attractions and they mostly mentioned advantages with solo travelling. They showed overall satisfaction with their travels, destination loyalty to one or several city destinations and wished to revisit them again and again. This finding is also partly or fully coherent with many earlier studies (e.g. Walls et al., 2011; Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004).

  • 15.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Kulturarv och imaginära barndomslandskap: Reflektioner kring historiebruk och turismentreprenörers drivkrafter2018Ingår i: Turismhistoria i Norden / [ed] Wiebke Kolbe, Uppsala: Kungliga Gustav Adolfs Akademien, 2018, s. 283-294Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    City, Ethnicity, Diversity and the origin of Fire Festival in Swedish major cities: A research idea2018Ingår i: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: Book of Abstract, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Ethnic festivals have positive impacts on the image of cities and countries (McClinchey, 2008) and create a sense of belonging among immigrant groups (Chacko, 2013). Every year, a Tuesday in the middle of March and after 17:00, Iranian Fire Festival is held outdoors in the center of Stockholm and Göteborg. It is financed and organized by Riksteatern (The Swedish National Theatre). In Stockholm it is held in the King’s Garden park, 500 meters from the parliament, and it is used to be opened either by some Swedish ministers or by the Prime minister. This is not a big event in international comparison; it can be classified as local event and it is held when it is still very cold in Sweden. The event lasts in 4-5 hours but draws thousands of audiences (mostly from the same city region) to these two simultaneous arrangements. The audiences as well as the artists are mostly of Middle Eastern background (mostly Iranians, Kurds, Afghans) and there has been no report on ethnic Swedes among them over the years. This event, however, gets a huge attention from the Swedish media but also from some international media (Like Voice of America, Persian section) and Iranian diaspora media worldwide. In accordance with Getz et al (2007), many stakeholders are involved in this event; the Swedish governments, the event organization, municipality offices, many ethnic associations in Sweden, media, invited artists from Sweden and other countries, participants, sellers and volunteers.

    The aim of this research is to get insight into this event, incentives behind it and the expected outcome of it from different stakeholders. Especially it is important to find out what interest different Swedish governments have since they support the event financially regardless of ideological belonging while the event’s own preconditions are not the best one.

  • 17.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Development in the Stockholm Archipelago: institutions, traditions and responses to local development initiatives2018Ingår i: Challenged Ruralities: Welfare States under Pressure : Conference Book – Fifth Nordic Rural Research Conference / [ed] Hanne W. Tanvig and Lise Herslund, Frederiksberg: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen , 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Archipelago is classified as one of the less developed rural areas in Sweden. Although the Archipelago is located close to Stockholm, local inhabitants and businesses live in the shadow of the capital city. Over the last decades, a number of policy initiatives and development projects have been launched to support a sustainable socio-economic development in the Stockholm Archipelago, not the least by trying to decrease the dependence on the summer season for the creation of local income. But results have not been as positive as expected. In addition, it seems that inhabitants in some islands have managed to create a more dynamic environment and have achieved some successes, while inhabitants in other islands are still struggling with the same problems as they were 20 years ago. These differences cannot easily be dismissed as a result of differences in physical infrastructure.

    By conducting a comparative qualitative and systematic study of the conditions for creating a sustainable socio-economic development in various islands in the Stockholm Archipelago this study will answer the following questions: What makes some communities in the archipelago vibrant and resilient and others less so? Which are the variations in pre-conditions for a vibrant and resilient development? What have previous policy initiatives and projects succeeded with? And when have they failed?

    The article is based in an on-going case study in which project and policy evaluation reports have been analysed. In addition, a large number of in-depth interviews with business owners in the Archipelago, with policy officers in various involved municipalities and project coordinators have been conducted.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Smart City Tourist Segmentation: How can aspects of heritage experience be used in city tourist segmentation?2018Ingår i: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: 24-26 September 2018: UiT The Artic University of Norway, Alta, Norway: Book of Abstract, Alta, Norway: UiT , 2018, s. 70-70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most tourists to Sweden come to urban areas, but a dilemma is that there is a lack of visitor attractions to offer experiences in the cities. Therefore, the shift from heritage being only preserved to also being experienced by different tourist segments is welcome.

    Different tourist segments have their own unique heritage experiences. The “classical” experience aspects proposed by Pine & Gilmore (1999) can be used to explain the experience. However, special aspects of experience at heritage sites have been pointed out, such as Must See, Must Learn, Must feel and Must evolve (Poria, 2012).

    Visit Sweden (2018) focuses on three tourist segments, such as Active family. Our empirical studies show that the experience-related motives of visit are somewhat different for these three segments. The study also shows that human senses are strongly connected to the experience, but the importance of the senses differ. Another empirical implication is that smart cities give prerequisites for what Mossberg (2007) call experiencescape.

    The purpose of the present study is to clarify how tourists' experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and how this may be further applied in the market segmentation. An overall case study method will be used to study three maritime tourist attractions.

    The research contribution is to show how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on that aspects of tourist experience can emerge from the sensory impressions (Agapito et. al, 2014). Ano­ther contribution is how these aspects of experience can be used in marketing segmen­tation using the smart city tourism concept. Finally, this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to market well-attended and efficiently marketed heritage attractions.

  • 19.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Student Involvement as a Tool for Nurturing Business Model Development in Tourism Businesses in the Stockholm Archipelago2018Ingår i: Academica Turistica - Tourism and Innovation Journal, ISSN 2335-4194, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism consumption in Sweden is booming, but it seems to be at a standstill in the Stockholm archipelago, and most businesses of all kinds in it are small. Therefore, an eu-Interreg-financed educational community engagement project aiming at business model development in the archipelagos of Turku, Åland (both in Finland), and Stockholm was launched, as Finland has a similar situation. In this paper, the foundations of the project, the literature on the issues of being rural and in the archipelago, and business models are reviewed and put in perspective through preliminary empirical results of the project, in while municipality and some business representatives have been interviewed. The rationale is that there is a weak scientific understanding of business models in use in the archipelagos. Methodologically, action research is being used in addition to document studies, with unstructured interviews and observations as the primary empirical methods. The primary results for which the empirical findings put light on the intersection of the abovementioned literature bodies are the impact of infrastructural and access problems due to isolation, as well as indications of a community split between second homes and permanent residents. The lifestyle-entrepreneurship jeopardises the economic well-being but enriches the social well-being of the population. The primary conclusions are that seasonality and second homers provide entrepreneurs with large output markets in season, but small ones in the off-season. The business equation cannot omit place since it is part of the social well-being of the lifestyle-entrepreneurs, which calls for further research into configurational approaches to strategy in an archipelago context.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Political crises and destination choice: An exploratory study of Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers2018Ingår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 205-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Political crises, which have a known impact on the choice of tourism destination, can also negatively affect the choice of second-home destination and purchase. The purpose of this study is to investigate why some Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers prefer Spain to Turkey for political reasons. More than 30 short dialogues were conducted with Swedish-Iranian buyers at the exhibition "Buying Properties Abroad" in Kista, September 2015, following the start of a series of political crises in Turkey. A simple question was asked: Why are you choosing Spain rather than Turkey? The most important category of reasons were political factors, followed by cultural reasons. Political anxiety, instability, and insecurity in Turkey, the risk of civil war, a police society, lack of democratic order, the fact that Turkey is not a member of the European Union, the government's negative attitudes towards Kurds, and the emergence of Islamic State were the political reasons most mentioned. One conclusion that can be drawn is that political crises affect second-home tourism/tourists in the same way that they do ordinary tourism/tourists. The research has some important implications for Turkish policymakers, tourism stakeholders at a macrolevel, their competitors, especially in Spain, and potential buyers. Based on this research, some suggestions for future studies are also given. 

  • 21.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Analysis Dimensions of City Destination Character and Image Positioning2018Ingår i: Almatourism, ISSN 2036-5195, Vol. 9, nr 17, s. 33-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    City tourism, with its unique character and image, has increased considerably over the last decades. At the same time, the complexity of destination development and image marketing has increased, and there is a lack of analysis tools for image positioning. The purpose is to investigate city destination image and character as prerequisites for destination mar­keting and development and how the image and character position can be analysed. City destination character, visitor destination image and visitor segments are used as the main theoretical framework.  An exploratory qualitative study approach has been chosen with an image case study of destination Stockholm. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the visitor segment international students and destination specialists. The study shows that desti­nation specialists have assessed a combination of city destination characteristic areas, which can be developed. Furthermore, visitors have a mind­set of several image aspects and holistic expressions for city destinations that can be used in destination marketing to change the current image position into the desired one. In order to determine a desired position, six analysis dimensions have been found useful: Desired positioning, Demand and supply, Visitor segmentation, Destination generalisation, Visit process and Expression type. The analysis dimensions are based on relevant dichotomous aspects. The effects of the used dimensions are called “positioning leverage effects”, and their main aim is to obtain a competitive advantage and to differentiate to other destinations.

     

  • 22.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Participants’ perception of training programmes in the tourism industry: A Swedish pilot study2018Ingår i: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, ISSN 2514-9792, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 309-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to deal mainly with the participants’ perception of their attendance in publicly funded training programmes in the tourism industry.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The investigation is based on e-mail interviews with 12 employees in the Swedish tourism industry who have actively participated in such courses as well as some courses offered by private organisations.

    Findings

    The results show that the interviewees have a positive perception of their participation and they believe that their attendance has had an overall positive impact on them or on their businesses. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether their participation has had an extraordinarily positive impact on business outcomes in terms of subsequent increased turnover, greater productivity or sales, or an expanded customer base. Lack of time and money and the prevalence of unsuitable courses prevent business owners and their employees from attending such courses.

    Originality/value

    This research is the first Swedish qualitative investigation on the issue.

  • 23.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Heritage and Imaginary Childhood Landscapes: On the Impetus of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Stockholm Archipelago2017Ingår i: Reformer og ressourcer / Reforms and Resources: Rapporter til det 29. Nordiske Historikermøde / Proceedings of the 29th Congress of Nordic Historians. (1 udg.) Aalborg. (Studier i historie, arkiver og kulturarv, Vol. 7): Reformer og ressourcer / [ed] Martin Dackling, Poul Duedahl & Bo Poulsen, Aalborg, 2017, Vol. 2, s. 184-207Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå universitet.
    Second Home purchase in Turkey by Swedish Iranians: An Explorative Study2017Ingår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Second home tourism is often discussed in the context of the western world. Other groups and their motivations, in this case people of Iranian background who are a large ethnic group in Sweden, are often neglected, although the group has shown interest in purchase of second home in Turkey.The aim of this study is to get more insight on Swedish Iranians’ purchase of second home in Turkey. 19 e-mail interviews (with Broker companies, owners, and potentially buyers) have been conducted. Also participant observation in Antalya region in June 2015 and at the exhibition of “Buying Properties Abroad” in Kista in September 2015 has been done.The interview results reveal that the Swedish Iranian second home buyers collect information through friends and relatives, various web sites, exhibitions, brokers, and real estate companies before buying apartment. Their motives have been: following other friends/relatives who bought apartments there, cultural proximity including the Turkish language and food, geographic proximity to Iran, relatives living in Iran do not need Turkish visa, economic factors including prices, the climate, and investment for the retirement. They stay in their apartments at least once a year up to 4 times a year and the duration of their stay each time is at least one week. A part of them might choose to live partly or permanently in Turkey after the retirement. Their motives are similar to many other second home owners elsewhere but there are also aspects related to the political context of this mobility.

  • 25.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    The impact of political crises on the choice of second-home destination: A study of Swedish-Iranian second home buyers2017Ingår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, 2017, s. 81-82Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Political crises which have negative impact on the choice of a tourism destination can also affect the choice of a second-home destination negatively. The purpose of this study is to investigate why a part of Swedish-Iranian second home buyers prefer Spain than Turkey due to the politics. The group has shown interest in second-home purchase in the two countries during recent decade. More than 30 short dialogues were made with Swedish-Iranian buyers at the exhibition of “Buying Properties Abroad” in Kista, September 2015, after the start of a series of political crises in Turkey. A simple question was asked: Why do you choose Spain before Turkey? Most of the respondents gave more than three reasons.82The most important category of reasons were political factors followed by cultural factors. Political anxiety, instability and insecurity in Turkey, risk for civil war, police society, lack of democratic order, the fact that Turkey is not EU member, the government’s negative attitude towards Kurds, and the origin of Islamic state were the most mentioned political reasons. Cheating among some shopkeepers, negative attitudes by authorities towards Iranians, general perception of foreign women/female tourists, lack of a modern culture in Turkey, and better mentality among Spanish people have been among the cultural reasons. Among the economic reasons they mentioned lack of good infrastructure in Turkey, insecurity for invested capital, lower living costs in Spain, it is safer to buy house in Spain as EU country. Other less mentioned reasons were natural preconditions and knowledge on Spanish language.

  • 26.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Roddsporthistoria och radiosporthistoria – två böcker i en: [[Recension av] Michael J. Socolow. Six Minutes in Berlin: Broadcast Spectacle and Rowing Gold at the Nazi Olympics]2017Ingår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. 28 septemberArtikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    City destination image- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image2017Ingår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Ioanna Farsari, PhD, Dalarna, Sweden, 2017, s. 29-30Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract from the presentation of:

     

    City destination image

    - How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image

     

    Göran Andersson & Saeid Abbasian

    Tourism Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden

    Email: goran.andersson@sh.se

     

    Destination Management Organisations (DMO) package the city image into a clear brand in order to attract foreign visitors (Eringa & Zhou, 2015). Still it is a complex task to analyse visitor segments' image experiences (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Unique characteristics of tourism destinations are exploited by DMO:s and tourism companies, such as their identity (Valls et al., 2012), in planning and marketing products for different visitor segments. Besides, big cities are typically more well-known and organised destinations which opens for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011).

    The purpose of the research project is to investigate the characteristics and interconnected images of a city destinations; and visitor segments' experiences of city images based on image attributes. A multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose is used. The theoretical framework consists of city destination characteristics and images, image experiences, and visit motivators.

    Typical characteristics and visitor segments were identified in the case of destination Stockholm in our pilot study. The results have been used in a qualitative investigation about the city image and its attributes, and also visitor's image expectations and experiences. Furthermore, an overall case study of Stockholm city will be conducted.

    The knowledge contribution relates to new city destination characteristics connectivity to images. Furthermore, the image impact on visitor travel motivators before and after visiting the destination. A model will be developed about “visitors' image positions”, based on the visitors' assessment of destination image attributes. This knowledge will support tourism companies and DMO:s to develop image marketing tools.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    City destination image
  • 28.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Student Involvement as a Tool for Nurturing Business Model Development in Tourism Businesses in the Stockholm Archipelago2017Ingår i: 6th International Tourism Conference ENCUENTROS / AIRTH 2017 : Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality – Preparing for the Future: Final Proceeding : Portorož, Slovenia, 23 – 25 March 2017 / [ed] Dejan Križaj; Florian Zach, AIRTH , 2017, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism consumption in Sweden 2015 was SEK 263 billion, an increase by 7% from 2014 and 46,7% from 2005 (Tillväxtverket, 2016, p. 16). For Stockholm Archipelago, no statistics are available, but guest nights in the guest harbours can be a proxy for tourism development. In 2015 there were 172,531 overnight guests in private yachts, a decrease by 31% from 2014 and 29% from 2005. During the same period, the other types of commercial lodging in the country as a whole has had a monotonous increase in over night guests totalling 40,7% in the past decade. According to Löfmarck & Wolgast (2010) more than 50% of employees worked for businesses with 6 employees or less, while 10 companies supplied about a quarter of the jobs in the tourism sector and the seven largest companies constituted the top quartile in terms of revenue; there were few rather large companies and many small businesses. The archipelago is considered a good tourist amenity, but obviously there is dire need for rethinking how things are done in the region in, order to catch up, and one reasonable point of departure is assessing the business models in use. For this reason an EU-Interreg financed project was launched on October 1st, 2016. A first issue to settle is updating the situation on businesses active in the archipelago, where after comes the assessment of their business models, in which businesses are to be linked to students, where the former get access to up to date tools for business model assessment in collaboration between Drivhuset, a foundation coaching incubator activities at many Nordic universities, Södertörn university in Sweden, and Åbo Akademi University and Novia university of applied sciences in the Finnish archipelagos of Turku and Nyland. Student participation is planned in two ways: In course work students in work groups assess the situation each participant enterprise is in, analyse their business models and suggest alterations. Also, students will do thesis work on bachelor’s and master’s levels. The course work will be assessed on academic as well as practical utility merits, while the theses are assessed on academic merits only. Researchers will follow the development of participant enterprises as well as the project’s impact on quality of education. The project is based on Osterwalder’s business model canvas approach to innovation utilising hypothesis driven design methods, where academic staff guides the process. Going through the literature on business models, it seems that on the one hand, little consensus is about when it comes to the exact definition of the term, while a rather broad one is about, when it comes to that somehow involves value creation – and often value capture, and what the necessary means of doing so are (e.g. Osterwalder, 2004; Teece, 2010; Zott et al. 2011), i.e. it is on how businesses are blue printed in order to sustain themselves, In that sense, it is related to business strategy. (c.f. Teece, 2010). Often there is a presumption on entrepreneurial activity, especially when it comes to business model innovation. In the entrepreneurship literature, there is a distinction between entrepreneur by nature and entrepreneur by necessity. Many of the inhabitants of the Stockholm archipelago are lifestyle entrepreneurs, and hence maximum profit is not self-evident as objective, even though better earnings are welcome; there is not really an option of taking place out of the configuration the business model is based in. The lifestyle entrepreneur is characterised by being able to lead the life at hand as motivation for activities, while the ‘normal’ corporation are taking on economic activity in order to maximise value added, often implying the building of shareholder wealth. The difference implies that the corporation is expected to pursue all businesses that are above the internal rate of interest on investments, while the lifestyle entrepreneur shuns any option that is not relevant to her/his lifestyle. Commonly this means enduring low profitability requirements. These rather atypical businesses open the possibility of widening the scope of the literature to alternatives to entrepreneurial orientation towards strategy, other forms of packaging, and through that, further exploration of the relation between networks and alliances and business models.

    References:

    Löfmarck A & Wolgast H. (2010). Studie av turismrelaterad näring i åtta skärgårdskommuner, Unpublished report to Stockholm County.Osterwalder, A. (2004). The Business Model Ontology – A Proposition in a Design Science Approach, Doctoral Thesis, l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de l’Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Teece, D.J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation, Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 172-194. Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. (2011). The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research, Journal of Management, 37(4), 1019-1042.

  • 29.
    Zalamans, Dennis
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Green Tourism BARCamp: Beyond All Recognition or the Emperor’s New Clothes?2017Ingår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017, s. 61-62Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A BarCamp is a “non-conference” where neither speaker, program events nor seminars are predetermined. The starting point is just a common theme on which the participants shape the content and the setup of the event. The actual agenda is decided on the spot on issues agreed among the participants. Everyone participates equally in conversations and discussions and they are supposed to generously share their knowledge and experience. This paper aims to evaluate if a BarCamp actually is a NEW type of meeting or if it just a face-lift of all already well-known meeting forms in the literature. The study is based on observations and empirical material from three BarCamps that took place in Sigtuna, Sweden, between 2013 and 2016. Although nominations and votes on different topics suggestions and/or interesting issues in the initial plenary-meeting will decide what to be brought up on the BarCamp, it can be questioned how objective and “free minded” such determination actually is? As in every field based on social relations; professions, titles and experience might have a crucial effect on how the agenda will be set. Economic and/or political intentions might play a role as well, and perhaps the personality of the participants. However, result points out that there is a difference between such meetings where the participants creates the agenda without preparation on beforehand and more traditional meetings as for example company-meetings, conferences, congresses, incentives and events.

  • 30.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Using educational community engagement to understand the archipelago tourist2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background of the study While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. A central feature of the project is also student participation, where university students om Finland and Sweden work with the problems in courses. Purpose of the study In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the onstructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). Also, the specific characteristics of the customers to the archipelago need to be addressed. The purpose of the study is to understand the entrepreneurs’ conception of tourist behaviour and its consequences for strategy. Methodology In an initial step, entrepreneurs are being tapped on their perceptions of customer behaviour through interviews and register data on actual tourist behaviour. For example in a course on business intelligence, students interview entrepreneurs, and then use the customers’ utilization of web based resources of one of the destinations is being used as base for students’ suggestions on destination approach to development issues. The project thus generates behavioural data, that can be assessed directly as well as indirectly through the entrepreneurs’ understanding. Results The project is not finished, so conclusive results are not at hand as of yet. Indications so far point in the direction that the rather large share of second home tourists are sceptical towards costly or peace- disturbing projects, which is in line with earlier findings (e.g. Löfgren, 1999), whereas occasional events have substantial attraction value. So far there has been limited data on occasional tourists, du to that high season has not been covered by the project yet. Expectations are here that it is more relevant to understand consumer behaviour from Belk’s (1988) idea that consumption patterns are best understood as identity building processes. Here preference for well-being is a hypothesised top candidate of travel motivation, based in preliminary interview data with entrepreneurs. The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model, as well as customer characteristics. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs. Conclusions, research implications and limitations As the project is not finished, there is not really grounds for drawing conclusions, and implications and limitations should also await the increased robustness available when the whole project is finished before evaluation. Of course, the shortcomings of idiosyncratic studies, like unclear representativeness of case studies, and volatility of values as well as memory problems affect on interview trustworthiness. References References Belk R.W. (1988). Possessions and the Extended Self. Journal of Consumer Research. 15(2), 139-168. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016a). Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types. Journal of Business Research. 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016b). Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981). On the measurement of organizational slack. Academy of Management Review. 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C., Gimeno-Gascon, F.J., & Woo, C.Y. (1994). Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing. 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1991). A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall, 7-25. Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B., & Snow, C.C. (1993) Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches. Academy of Managent Journal. 36(6), 1278–1313. Löfgren, O. (1999). On holiday: A history of vacationing, California studies in critical human geography, 6. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press Miller, D. (1987a). Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance. Academy of Managent Journal. 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b). The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy. Strategic Management. Journal. 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016). Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation. Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696. Tillväxtverket (2016). Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund, J. & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing. 20, 71–91.

  • 31.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Educational Community Engagement – a chance for students in tourism to get closer to the chaos of the archipelago entrepreneur?2017Ingår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017, s. 63-64Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While Tourism in Sweden is booming, the Stockholm Archipelago seems to be at a standstill at best (Tillväxtverket 2016) Attempts at seasonal prolongation show no clear results. Archipelago Business Development is a 3-years EU-Interreg project commenced October 2016 aiming at business model improvement. At Södertörn University, students from Tourism studies, Business Studies and Media Technology are enrolled. The project is on the Swedish side currently recruiting businesses to participate in the project. Pilots using course work, where students find their own empirical objects include intermediate level projects in Net-based Information Systems, Tourism innovation projects pursuing improvements in business models. Several bachelor, and master essays are under way. Students are to interact with entrepreneurs through business clinics –speed-dating like consultancies where the business bring their problems and students collaborate in teams to suggest solutions to the problems, possibly backed up by experts. Also, there is to be an accelerator programme where a selected number of entrepreneurs are in for a long term business model development project of longitudinal character, where students may join at a certain point or follow the process. In April 24th, there will be a student kick-off at Södertörn University with participants from the business side, municipalities and Swedish project partners and on April 26th, the corresponding event will be in Turku with all project partners. Expectations are that students will get a closer grip on the reality of businesses. At the time of the conference, experience from this pedagogical experiment will have some results to discuss.

  • 32.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Stockholm Archipelago – arena for goose feeding entrepreneurs with solutions to non-prioritised problems or entrepreneurs in dire need of help?2017Ingår i: Nordic Geographers Meeting, Stockholm 18th –21st June 2017, Session L3: Rural entrepreneurship: Knowledge, innovations, diversification and value creation – strategies for coping with a changing world, 2017, s. 5-6Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the constructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs.

    References Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016a) ”Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types”, Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016b) ”Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations”, Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981) “On the measurement of organizational slack”, Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C. Gimeno-Gascon, F.J. & Woo, C.Y. (1994) “Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance”, Journal of Business Venturing, 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1991) “A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior”, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall 1991, 7-25. Ketchen et al., (1993) Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B. & Snow, C.C. (1993) “Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches” Academy of Managent Journal, 36(6), 1278–1313. Miller, D. (1987a) “Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance”, Academy of Managent Journal, 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b) The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy” Strategic Management. Journal, 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016) “Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation.” Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696.Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) “Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach”, Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 71–91.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?2016Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, s. 18-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a paradigm shift from heritage being only preserved, to also being shown as a tourist attraction. One of two diverse approaches amongst scholars to define heritage tourism is to use a visitor-experience perspective (Apostolakis, 2003). Different segments of tourists have their own unique experiences of the heritage. Specific aspects can be used to explain the experience, such as the “classical” aspects by Pine & Gilmore (1999). In addition, in the last few years other experience aspects have been identified, such as kick, comfort, competence and contact (Kairos Future, 2011). The concept of “the experience room” (Mossberg, 2003) is used to present an experience context. The assumption of this study is that the experience landscape is made up of perceptive signals that cover the human senses. Although one can ask how this approach supports the development of attractions. Cognitive and affective experiences were discussed at conferences on memory tourism in Estonia 2013-14, used in the pilot study to this research. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge about how tourist's experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and secondly, how the human senses influence the tourist's cognitive and affective experiences. An overall case study method will be used to study four maritime tourist attractions. The study consists of unstructured ethnographical interviews, experimental observation of tourists, and tourist's own evaluations during the experience. The research contribution is to shed light to how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on an analysis on whether tourist experience aspects can emerge from the sensory impressions of tourists' experi­ences (Agapito et. al, 2014). Another contribution is to figure out how the sense perception can be connected to affective and cognitive aspects that result in a joint experience of an attraction. The pilot study showed that enhanced customer investigations of tourist's experiences are needed, which will be further more analysed. In the end this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to generate innovative and well-attended heritage attractions.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism2016Ingår i: Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, s. 147-161Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    City destinations are central in the study of tourism. But how can visitor streams related to the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed as a basis for improvement of the destination? This research used statistical data and qualitative information as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”. The research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, and a literature review. It resulted in the development of the visitor stream concept, which can be used in future research on the integration of various visitor segment streams. A method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: (1) defining “focused destination” and its characteristics, (2) investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, (3) identifying visitor segments, and (4) analysing streams with new destination tools. The knowledge gained will introduce and address new issues concerning statistics for measuring, monitoring and assessing the actual value of tourism, particularly urban tourism.

  • 35.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap. Strömstad Academy.
    From Global to Intra-Regional Tourism2016Ingår i: UTMS Journal of Economics, ISSN 1857-6974, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 149-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of how society has evolved, travel and tourism have had a positive development since the end of Second World War. But now it seems that the perception of risk and danger is accentuated and the tourists choose destinations based on more safety and security for tourists.

    Risks often seem to be based on different global activities and actions from different groups, which the individual can not affect or influence over. These perceived risks thus affect the development of tourism and travel in a global perspective.

    This article would discuss the new threats to the global tourism due to the terrorist attacks that target different countries and in many cases the popular tourist destinations. With the result that travel has become more intra-regional again.

    The article makes a review of the slightly incomplete statistics available in the area and discuss possible strategies for overcoming the existing terrorist attacks.

    The conclusions of the article points to a more concrete cooperation between international and national organizations, governments, as well as NGOs, tour operators and civil society in general.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, ISSN 2286-3745, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 5-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In society today there is a heated debate about sustainable development. It is argued that event organisations must take responsibility for sustainability, although they may lack appropriate development tools. The purpose of this article is to study how event companies and organisations can develop a sustainability process in a societal system context and the need for certification in their events. The analysis was based on the study of relevant literature, an investigation in Sweden and a systems analysis. A triangulation technique was used to combine the different methods. It is argued that there is a sustainability event system in a societal context, within which event organisations have a central role. A model of sustainability and certification process for an event organisation and its events is developed, which consists of criteria, activities, certification, effects and obstacles. This recognised certificate could be a motivator and guideline for sustainable event development. The certification's focus has to be on the event organiser's management. However, event organisers need to certify their own organisations, either including all future events or only some specific events. This would give the organisations and the event industry a positive image and recognised role in a sustainable world.

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    Sustainability Process and Certification
  • 37.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Heritage, Emotional Communities, and Imaginary Childhood Landscapes2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing examples from maritime heritage attractions in Sweden this paper aims to analyze how heritage stakeholders situate their enterprises through unreflective references to childhood. 

    A pioneer in the business of shipwreck tours started a heritage project by trying to convince investors and to create general interest in the planned tours by thoroughly referring to the thrilling documentary films about the Titanic by James Cameron. In contrast to the logistically complex and not-so-dramatic shipwreck tours that were eventually realized, the pioneer’s almost boyish appreciation of the adventurous qualities of Cameron’s documentary conveys feelings of childhood. Another stakeholder in the same project recalled a media event from his childhood when he talked about his early interest of old warships at the bottom of the sea. Thus he told me in an interview about how he absorbed the live television broadcast in the early 1960s of the rescue of the seventeenth-century warship Wasa in Stockholm. A third stakeholder, involved in another maritime heritage attraction, referred to his seemingly happy childhood as a contrast to contemporary selfishness and gentrification that, in his view, seem to threaten the surrounding landscapes of his heritage project located on a an island where he spent his childhood summers. 

    One of several hot-tempered arguments in David Lowenthal’s classic work The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (1998) highlights the importance of childhood in the discourses of heritage. Since heritage merely seems to be a conspiratorial celebration of the past for Lowenthal, the childhood dimension is treated as a tool that the advocates of a specific heritage deliberately use to legitimize their version of bygone days. My research on heritage attractions confirms Lowenthal’s claim that childhood is a crucial element in heritage. Through analyses of texts and interviews pertaining to the maritime heritage attractions in Sweden, however, I contend that the use of more or less salient references to childhood could be understood as unreflective and habitual articulations. Nonetheless, even though the forms of heritage attractions may vary and the stakeholder’s so-called personality may differ, the imaginary landscapes of childhood appear to function as central prerequisites in the enterprises of heritage. However, to offer a deeper understanding of how the uses of childhood work within the logics of heritage, I propose that we move beyond Lowenthal’s critique. I propose that the references to childhood could be related to the concept of emotional communities, introduced by the historian Barbara Rosenwein (2006). The emotional community for her is a group in which people have a common stake, interests, values, and goals. These are reached through representations of emotion within in a system of norms and convention. The analysis focuses on the fabric of a social community and how emotions are discursively expressed; not unmediated feelings or emotions, which is the case in psychology. I believe that an analytical approach that makes use of the concept of emotional community with the focus on the different uses of the feeling of childhood is a way to deconstruct naturalizations, hierarchies, temporality, and spatiality within heritage.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations2016Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, s. 19-19Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All tourism destinations have unique characteristics that constitute their identity (Valls et al., 2012). Tourism companies, in turn, exploit these when planning and marketing product concepts for different market segments. In recent decades, the cities in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) have undergone a change considering their profiles as more well-known tourism destinations. Meanwhile, even the degree of professionalism in the tourism industry has increased. This opens opportunities for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). In order to understand city tourism better a comparison between urban and rural tourism will be made. Each destination and the associated companies have to develop their products and marketing campaigns in order to effectively promote themselves to various tourist segments. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the characteristics of city destinations, and how tourist segments translate them into destination images, and further how the image influences motivations for travel choice. Our theoretical framework consists of city destination concepts, destination characteristics and images, tourist segments' motivations and destination branding. In our pilot study, typical characteristics and tourist segments were found in the case of destination Stockholm. This result will be used when investigating how different tourist segments translate characteristics to an image perception. The planned research will take a multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose. A case study of two typical BSR-cities will be conducted, using interviews, statistical data, web site analysis and destination document studies. The knowledge contribution relates primarily to new forms of city destination characteristics and their impact on visitor travel motivators. Furthermore, a model for investigating segments' “image positions” will be developed based on a new kind of demand of city tourism and a more professional tourism industry, even though it is a complex task to determine image positions (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Our hypothesis is that tourist segments are more interested in what city destination can offer today, but the supply side needs more knowledge how to influence the segments' travel motivators. We hope that the acquired knowledge will support destination organisations (DMO) and tourism companies to develop their tools for image marketing.

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  • 39.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Attitudes and Factual Considerations of Regional Actors Towards Experience Industries and The Tourism Industry: A Swedish Case Study2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 225-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the attitudes towards experience industries and tourism in the Gnosjö region of Sweden. The investigation is based on a questionnaire and follow-up interviews with politicians and chief executive officers (CEOs) within manufacturing industries. The results show that the politicians have more knowledge of experience industries and a more positive attitude towards these new types of industries than the CEOs. Both groups consider both these industries of significance for the region's future. While the politicians believe in experience industries as a whole, and particularly suggest more active work in favour of tourism and design, the second group just welcomes directly and indirectly a possible cooperation with design companies. A minor share of the CEOs is interested in either running businesses with features of experience industries or having a sense of it in their businesses. Despite differences, these attitudes facilitate cross-fertilisation between the manufacturing industry and experience industries in the future. The study suggests that the region needs to develop more knowledge and competence directed towards the experience industries, in particular tourism and design, and a cooperation between the manufacturing industry, local political parties, and enterprises within tourism, design and culture in this respect.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project2016Ingår i: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 195-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop an analysis model of a tourism department network using an explorative approach. Strategic stakeholders have been identified for the tourism department and organised into partner groups. An analysis model has been developed based on four network types: formal organisation, informal organisation, formal individual and informal individual. For every type, the following six network content dimensions were found relevant to analyse: stakeholders, reciprocal relations, relation exchange, network driving forces, network management and network purpose. The investigations have shown some focused network strengths such as network permanency, with corresponding weaknesses such as rigid relations. Some typical implications of the strengths and weaknesses for the department have been identified, and some network techniques to handle the implications have been proposed. An annual network development process for a tourism department is suggested. The resulting network is summarised as the Professional Tourism Academic Network (PTAN).

  • 41.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Attitudes towards competence development among employees in Tourism Industry: A Swedish pilot study2016Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, 28-30 September 2016, Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, 2016, s. 14-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate empirically what attitudes employees in tourism industry have towards participation in publicly funded competence development programmes. Such investigations are lacking in the research on Tourism industry. By competence development here means participation in personal competence development programmes that might have a positive impact on the staff’s learning and on their work places. This impact will be found out through the employees’ subjective perceptions. In this study the terms “competence development programmes” “training programmes” and “skills development programmes” are used as synonyms. Also in accordance with Statistics Sweden terms of “business” and “work place” are used as synonym. The methodological approach used in this study is email-interviews with 12 employees (four women, eight men) that have participated in these programmes during recent years. This includes CEOs, owners, employees and one instructor that also is a business owner himself. A majority of them have academic education and their average working years in the industry is 17. They represent various sub-industries. Their average age is 46 and they mostly come from small sized firms. They participated in different courses that were offered by public organizations for employees and employers, or by private organizations. The courses were paid either by public means, by the firm or by a combination of both. The courses were mostly organized by public organizations but in some cases also by private organizations or a mix of private and public. They expressed that their participation in general had a positive or very positive impact on their workplace, and among others resulted to better knowledge, to acquire a wider network, new ideas, new experiences and opportunities and gave more inspiration, motivation and self-confidence. Concerning effectiveness of courses offered by the public organization the opinions are different; some had no comments about it, some found them very effective, some believed that these courses are effective in some but not in all cases, and finally some believed that courses organized by private organizations are more effective. The largest problems for competence development in the industry are lack of time and money and lack of tailored courses.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations2015Ingår i: Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015 / [ed] Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2015, s. 113-113Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about responsible and sustainable development in tourist destinations. One could argue that event companies have a responsibility for sustainability, but they lack the analyses tools. The purpose is to investigate and analyse how companies working with events could develop a certification process of sustainability, and how decisions about an event’s sustainability certification could be supported. The analysis is based on both the study of relevant literature and investigations carried out and by using multi-criteria decision-making systems. A sustainable certification process is developed which consists of external company sustainability criteria, such as social, cultural, economic and ecological dimension, and also internal criteria such as using a sustainability plan. However, in this study certification obstacles have been found, for example certification costs. When developing the sustainability certification process a need is recognised for a decision support tool. Therefore a triangulation multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed consisting of six steps: 1. Problem formulation, 2. Computer criteria definition, 3. Definition of measures and rules, 4. Data collection and registering, 5. Total evaluation of the alternatives' results and 6. Final analysis and choice. When using the model there is a need for an integrated manual assessment by the evaluator and the computerbased expert system support. Therefore, triangulation of mainly qualitative research methods is used starting with qualitative interviews with an inductive approach by the evaluator, continuing with computer-based expert system analysis (the DEXi-system) with a logical interpretation approach and ending with the evaluator's deep interpretation of both manual and computer-based results.

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  • 43.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: A Study of Stockholm City2015Ingår i: Integrating City Tourism into the Urban Research Agenda: 15-16 June 2015, GSSI, L’Aquila / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, L’Aquila, Italy: Gran Sasso Science Institute , 2015, s. 25-26Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm hosts nearly eleven million commercial guest nights annually, and is ranked as one of Europe’s top ten destinations.The county population is 2.1 million (Stockholm Visitors Board,

    2014). In order to pursue economic, effective, and sustainable tourist destination development, it is important to understand its characteristics. In this study “city destinations” are focused on using sub-characteristics such as “visitor attraction clusters”. For understanding these characteristics, a clear definition of destination has to be used (Framke, 2002). The following components can be used to conduct an analysis of a destination: geographical place, visitor, image, complete tourist product, and interacting business and public sector (Andersson, 2013). Tourist destinations can be studied at the following different geographical place levels: the regional (e.g. the Stockholm region), the local (e.g. the old town) and the attraction-based destination point (e.g. Friends arena). The Stockholm Tourism Strategy 2020 project group has proposed a number of criteria that must be fulfilled before a destination can be considered mature. In order to gain an understanding of the demand (and revenue) side of destinations, unique criteria can be used for visitor segmentation in the city, such as visitor purpose. There are changing patterns of visitor streams in Stockholm, however, such as the dramatic increase in the number of cruise passengers (Stockholm harbour, 2015). Therefore the visitor stream planning has to be up-dated. By using criteria for visitor segmentation and characterization of the destination, economically strong and reachable visitor segments such as city-breakers can be identified. Visit Sweden has identified a number of segments, such as “double income no kids” (DINKs), that can serve as an overall category for citybreakers. Research purpose: To obtain deeper understanding of how regional, local, and point destinations can be developed using knowledge of the destination character and visitor streams within the destination. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of destination, the characteristics of city tourism, visitor segments, and streams. Methodology: As a starting point, approximately 150 destination plans have been written by my undergraduate students, and a pilot study and a literature review have been conducted. The next step will be a main case study on regional, local, and point destination levels in Stockholm and the associated visitor streams. The final step will be to draw conclusions about the model of visitor streams in city destinations.

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    Visitor streams in city destination - Göran Andersson Rome research conference 2015
  • 44.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Idrottens kvarlåtenskap genomlyses med varierande resultat2015Ingår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, nr 18 novemberArtikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of Tourism Department Partners: A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI2014Ingår i: Proceedings from The 23rd Nordic Symposium On Tourism And Hospitality: THE VALUES OF TOURISM 2 - 4 O c t o b e r  2 0 1 4 / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Copenhagen: Copenhagen business school , 2014, s. 71-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of

    Tourism Department Partners

     

    – A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI

     

    GÖRAN ANDERSSON

     (Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, Stockholm, Sweden[1])

     

    Universities are not isolated from society. Throughout the world and at the highest political level, there are pressures on the higher education sector to network with its surrounding society. This whole idea of networking is supported by the European Bologna process in connecting academia more closely with business and society and in new and innovative ways. Nevertheless, at universities there is a lack of knowledge on how to structure societal networks and a lack of experiences in network building. This causes problems with regard to effective co-operation between the university and its societal partners. The fact that universities are not isolated from society can also be recognised by the public debates on education, research and community engagement. Nevertheless, there are almost no research articles written about universities' societal networks.

           The purpose of this research is to investigate university networks critically and to develop an analysis model for strategic partner relations and the underlying network structure within a Tourism Department's network.

           A case study methodology has been used with the Tourism Department at the author's university being the object studied, in order to study the network building process since it was established in 1999. Experiences from the EU-project TARSI (Tailored Applied Research and Implementation) have been triangulated with the results from the case study.

           Furthermore, a literature review has been conducted in order to identify which stakeholders appear in the literature of higher education-society interrelations and to find underlying dimensions to the university network structure. The theoretical framework is based on network theories, where network strategy, network partners, relation purpose, networks' formality, individual and organisational networks, network principles and obstacles are important themes.   

           For the Tourism Department, the following strategic partner types with associated relation purposes have been identified: the academic staff, current students, alumni, the tourism industry, public tourist organisations, non-profit tourist organi­sa­tions, macro-environment partners and the higher education sector. Every main stakeholder group has been organised into partner groups at the Tourism Department. The benefit of this approach is that special university objectives can be reached more easily if the Tourism Department has known part­ners in formal sub-groups already in place. In every sub-group there are typically questions depending on the Department's relation purpose.

           A relation structure network model has been developed, where the dimensions of formal-informal and organisational-individual have been found relevant in order to structure the network. The model is based on the four main opportunity building principles of permanency, openness, motivation and trustfulness. However, there are also corresponding main obstacles of cost-benefit misunderstanding, relation burden, strategic unconformity and non-network opportunities.

           There is a challenge in increasing the community engagement activities when using more resources. However, the benefits for the university and the surrounding world will be positive in total. It is of great importance for European university academies to use network strategies in their overall planning in order to be a natural part of society, which is summarised as the Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN). Finally, the interaction of universities with society is regarded as a never-ending journey in a global world.

     

    KEYWORDS: Strategic network, Tourism Department, Community engagement, Network partners, Networks' formality, Individual-organisational stakeholders

     

    [1] For correspondence: Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, 141 89  HUDDINGE, Sweden; e-mail: goran.andersson@sh.se

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  • 46.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Om att styra självständighet2014Ingår i: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, s. 113-132Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Om att styra självständighet
  • 47.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Att producera och läsa mikrofilmad samt digitaliserad dagspress: ett forskarperspektiv2014Ingår i: Återkopplingar / [ed] Marie Cronqvist, Patrik Lundell & Pelle Snickars, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2014, s. 329-347Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Det turistiska fältet och dess aktörer, Josefin Syssner & Lars Kvarnström (red.). Studentlitteratur, 2013.2014Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 184-186Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    The Treacherous Grin Reflex: Commemorating the 1912 Olympics2014Ingår i: International Journal of the History of Sport, ISSN 0952-3367, E-ISSN 1743-9035, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 516-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The centenary of the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm included an array of diverse events. By the use of Maurice Halbwachs' concept of 'collective memory,' this essay takes a critical look at a few of the major events and official accounts pertaining to the commemorations of 2012. Methods used are ethnographic observations, at events, and qualitative analyses of texts, videos and photographs from the official records on events. A number of recurring and salient tropes used during the centenary resulted in an overall merry picture of the 1912 Olympics. Investigations on collective memory in Sweden usually tend to focus on party politics, especially the era of the hegemonic Swedish Social-Democrats. According to these studies the influence of sports seems negligible. In this study it is argued that the collective memory of major sports events, like the 1912 Olympics, in Sweden work as influential mental structures that can both confirm and challenge conventional Swedish meta-narratives.

  • 50.
    Widholm, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Studie av satsningar på kultur i anslutning till olympiska spel2014Ingår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224, nr 19 augustiArtikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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