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  • 1.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Microfinance in the Global South: Examining Evidence on Social Efficacy2020Ingår i: Handbook of Feminist Economics / [ed] G. Berik and E. Kongar, Routledge, 2020Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, J.
    Umeå University.
    Lundberg, S.
    Umeå University.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    The Swedish Post and Telecom AuthorityStockholm.
    Interactions Across Firms and Bid Rigging2019Ingår i: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate whether an econometric technique that is used in the spatial econometrics and network effects literatures can be adopted as a test for collusive bidding in public procurement auctions. The proposed method is applied to the Swedish asphalt cartel that was discovered in 2001. Our dataset covers the period 1995–2009, which makes it possible to test for conditional independence between complementary cartel bids before and after 2001. Our estimates show a significant positive correlation between complementary cartel bids during the cartel period, whereas a non-significant correlation is shown during the later period. The variance of the parameter estimate of interest also differs between the periods, which suggests a structural change in bidding behavior among cartel members between the two periods.

  • 3.
    Rampal, Priya
    et al.
    M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, India.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppsala University.
    Food Security, agriculture and malnutrition in India2019Ingår i: Hunger and Malnutrition as major challenges of the 21st Century / [ed] R. Jha, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, s. 241-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that combating malnutrition for women is central not only for their own health but also for the attainment of nutritional adequacy for future generations, including infants, children and adolescents. Attaining adequate nutrition for women is necessary throughout their life, but particularly so before, during and after pregnancy, if intergenerational nutritional adequacy is to be attained. Adequacy of nutrition also helps an individual become more productive and saves medical treatment costs that may otherwise have occurred. However, India’s less than satisfactory record of female, infant and child nutrition underscores the need to take urgent steps, particularly if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be attained. With this as the background the present chapter focuses on the role of agriculture in providing adequate nutrition for women and the methods through which women in the rural sector can leverage existing institutions and programs to ameliorate nutritional inadequacy. This would require the design of informative indices of nutritional attainment and close cooperation in policy between governments, civil society organizations and international advisory groups. The chapter reviews some ways in which these can be attained.

  • 4.
    Konrad, Maria Theresia
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Branth Pedersen, Anders
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. SLU.
    Drivers of Farmers' Investments in Nutrient Abatement Technologies in Five Baltic Sea Countries2019Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adoption of new manure and fertiliser technology is considered an effective tool to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution from agriculture, and policy instruments to encourage technology uptake are therefore widespread. But policy makers need to understand farmers' reasons for adoption of such technologies to design policies that actually work. Using data from a survey with responses from 2439 farmers in five countries around the Baltic Sea, we identify the drivers of technology adoption for three different abatement technologies: manure spreading equipment, slurry tanks, and precision technology for fertiliser application. We compare drivers for technology investments across technologies with a particular focus on the role of the scale of farm operations, neighbour relations, environmental concerns and innovation readiness. The results show that the scale of farm operation is important for the uptake of all three technologies, while we find no evidence that neighbour relations are important for technology investments. Environmental concerns for soil quality and other on-farm environmental qualities do drive investment; however, the impact of environmental concerns differs across technologies. Innovation readiness is a driver of investments in relation to some technologies, suggesting that the novelty or sophistication of the technology matters to the investing farmers.

  • 5.
    Widman, Marit
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Steen, Margareta
    Swedish Centre for Animal Welfare, SCAW; wedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Indirect Costs of Sheep Depredation by Large Carnivores in Sweden2019Ingår i: Wildlife Society bulletin, ISSN 0091-7648, E-ISSN 1938-5463, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 53-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore depredation gives rise to direct costs for killed and injured animals as well as indirectcosts due to productivity losses and additional labor requirements. Our aim was to investigate indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence. We estimated these costs using surveydata describing conditions in 2013. Reproduction and time spent on fence maintenance and taking care of animals were analyzed to isolate effects of carnivore exposure from other factors that affect these variables. Results indicate that both high carnivore densities and attacks are associated with comparatively lower sheep reproduction. Farmers who experienced an attack spent much more on labor for maintaining fences, searching for lost animals, and bringing the animals in for the night. Results suggest that the indirect cost per adult female sheep is EUR23 for nonattacked herds in areas with high carnivore densities; EUR71 in herds that were attacked and where sheep are kept on fenced grazing land; and EUR100 on attacked summer-pasture farms, where free-range grazing is applied. A flat rate compensation per adult female sheep, differentiated between herds in areas with high carnivore density that have not been attacked and herds that have been attacked could be used to compensate sheep farmers for these costs.

  • 6.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Shoot, fence or feed? Managing agricultural crop damages by twoecologically interdependent deer species2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife such as large grazers are associated with positive hunting values, but also with negative effects in terms of browsing damage to agricultural and forest crops. Hunters’ and land owners’ decisions on wildlife management and land use therefore affects the total gains from the management of the resources. Several tools are available to these decision-makers, such as population control, crop choice, diversion feeding and fencing. The issue is further complicated by the presence of multiple deer species that differ with respect to hunting values and crop damages, while also being ecologically interdependent, i.e. through interspecific competition for food. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economically optimal management of land use and wildlife, in a situation with two ecologically interdependent deer species causing browsing damage to agricultural crops. Using a numerical optimization model, the Nash equilibrium for two separate agents is compared with the socially optimal outcome. Conditions are identified for diversion feeding and fencing being included in the solutions. Results suggest that fencing is included in the socially optimal solution for fencing investment costs being up to 3.5 times reference values obtained from business calculations. For diversion feeding to be included, the diversion effect needs to be 500 to 600 times the reference value, which was calculated based on species energy intake. The Nash equilibrium implies minor deviations from the socially optimal solution as long as fencing is reasonably cheap. If fencing is expensive, and therefore not applicable, the Nash equilibrium scenario implies an 8 percent reduction in the joint net present value, together with a 38 percent reduction in yield, and a doubling of fallow deer harvests and population.

  • 7.
    Kiessling, Anders
    et al.
    SLU.
    Futter, Martyn
    SLU.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. SLU.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    SLU.
    Musselodling i Östersjön som miljöåtgärd: nya positiva data från tre pågående EU-projekt2019Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya resultat visar att musselodlingar i Östersjön har en betydande potential att bidra till att minska övergödningen samtidigt som förutsättningar skapas för en cirkulär ekonomi/produktion. För att ta musselodling till nästa nivå krävs dels ytterligare förfining av den nya tekniken, men framförallt fler och i förlängningen också större odlingar samtidigt som vi måste vidareutveckla alla de initiativ som nu pågår hur näringen kan återanvändas i livsmedelssystemet på ett effektivt och ekonomiskt lönsamt sätt.

  • 8.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 287-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 9.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Häggmark Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    The impact of lynx and wolf on roe deer huntingvalue in Sweden 2002-20122019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large carnivores provide ecosystem and cultural benefits but also impose costs on livestock owners, due to predation, and on hunters, due to the competition for game. The benefits as well as the costs that accrue to livestock owners have been studied, but this is not the case for the costs that accrue to hunters. The aim of this paper was to identify the impact of lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunting value. We applied a production function approach, using a bioeconomic model where the number of roe deer harvested was assumed to be jointly determined by hunting effort, abundance of predators, availability of other game, and climatic conditions. The impact of the predators on the roe deer harvests was estimated econometrically, and carnivore impacts for a constant and adjusted, steady state hunting effort were derived. The results showed that the marginal cost in terms of hunting values foregone varied between the counties and ranged between 18,000 and 58,000 EUR for lynx and 79,000 and 336,000 EUR for wolf. Larger costs were found in counties where the hunting effort was high, mainly located in south Sweden. The regional variation in costs has implications for decisions on policies affecting the regional distribution of wolf and lynx.

  • 10.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 11.
    Brockwell, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The role of water quality for local environmental policy implementation2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine the role of surface water quality for the decisions by Swedish municipalities to adopt environmental targets and action plans, as well as allocating these decisions to a responsible authority. To this end, we assess how environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as the availability of environmental expertise, affect these municipal decisions. Questionnaire data from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, in combination with environmental monitoring data and official statistics, are used for the econometric analysis. Results show that: (i) municipalities with bad water quality, greater coastal length, and higher income are more inclined to adopt local policies; (ii) collaboration with interest groups increases the likelihood of adopting local policies; and (iii) municipalities with high Center Party representation tend to set responsibility for environmental policy with the municipal council board.

  • 12.
    Häggmark Svensson, T.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The Ex-Post Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Load Reductions From Nine Countries to the Baltic Sea Between 1996 and 20102019Ingår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 5119-5134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy efforts to improve Baltic Sea water quality will be expensive if the ambitious targets agreed are to be achieved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ex-post cost-effectiveness of nitrogen load reductions to the Baltic Sea made between 1996 and 2010. We first calculate the counterfactual change in nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea and compare to observed loads. The costs of the net reductions are evaluated using a Baltic-wide cost-effectiveness model, which includes a wide set of nitrogen abatement measures in the littoral countries. Results show that the net nitrogen reductions achieved through environmental policy, about 145,000 tons total nitrogen, could have been obtained at 12% of the realized cost, through reallocation of abatement between countries. The total budget spent on abatement could, if used in a cost-effective manner, be sufficient for a doubling of the net nitrogen load reduction. Milestone targets, in combination with a compensation scheme between countries, could help to reduce policy costs. 

  • 13.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, artikel-id 101942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 14.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Surry, Yves
    Ngabitsinze, Jean
    Income and food Engel curves in Rwanda: A household microdata analysis2019Ingår i: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are still major challenges for large proportions of households in Sab-Saharan Africa. The empirical literature on food demand, however, suggest mixed evidence on the roles of income and other socio-economic attributes on food demand. This study analyses the food demand amongst households in Rwanda, based on nationally representative household expenditure and demographic (EICV4, 2013/14) survey data. The results show that poor households consume food containing higher carbohydrates and starches. Further, the study finds that majority of rural households spend sparingly on micronutrients from animal products, suggesting that effective targeted food policy interventions for poor and rural households may play important role in reducing incidence of malnutrition through improving food diets.… Read more

  • 15.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Karimu, A.
    University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Ghana.
    Renewable Electricity and Sustainable Development Goals in the EU2019Ingår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 125, artikel-id 104693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy (RE) has a strong synergy with some of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), thus its successful deployment can potentially result in an impact on these SDGs. In this study, we examine the synergy effect of renewable electricity on selected SDGs via the electricity prices for the European Union (EU) countries. Using panel data and a two-step estimation approach, our findings indicate a strong synergy effect between renewable electricity prices, SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth). The results further reveal that SDG 12 (responsible production and consumption) accounts for most of the future renewable electricity price variation (excluding self-effect), whereas future variation in SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG 13 (climate action) are explained mostly by SDG 8 and SDG 12, respectively.

  • 16.
    Engberg, E.
    et al.
    Ratio Institute.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Halvarsson, D.
    Ratio Institute.
    Direct and indirect effects of private- and government-sponsored venture capital2019Ingår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the discourse on the impact of private and governmental venture capital investments, we examine the effects of different types of venture capital on firms’ sales, employment and investment. Our results show that both private and governmental venture capital investments boost firm sales with a delay of 2–3 years. The results suggest that VC impacts sales primarily through efficiency gains and to some extent, investments in physical capital investments, whereas no employment effects can be traced. Finally, we find indications of governmental VC investors being more prone to make follow-up investments in stagnating, non-growing firms than private investors. 

  • 17.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder2018Ingår i: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 12-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

  • 18.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research, WIFO, Austria.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Sensitivity of winter tourism to temperature increases over the last decades2018Ingår i: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 71, s. 174-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides new evidence on the impact of temperatures on tourism demand in the winter season. The analysis is based on time series data spanning from 1960 to 2015 for the South Tyrolean mountains in Italy. Since 1960, winter temperatures have increased by 0.4 degrees Celsius per decade, on average. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is employed for the estimations. This model allows two separate coefficients to impact tourism demand, following temperature changes (decreases or increases). Results reveal that an increase in winter temperatures by one degree Celsius leads to a decline in the number of accommodation guests (arrivals) by eight per cent, while temperature decreases have no effect on the number of arrivals. However, sensitivity to temperature increases has been declining since the early 1990s, probably due to the widespread usage of snowmaking facilities. The number of these facilities has increased by almost 10 per cent per year on average over the same period. In recent years (1986-2015), and as a consequence of these measures, temperature increases no longer have an effect on winter tourism demand. Conversely, decreases in temperatures lead to small increases in arrivals (by four per cent increase due to a one degree Celsius decrease).

  • 19.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    On the Pathology of Money and Credit: Policy Responses to the Large-Scale Crises of 1929 and of 20082018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Falk, M.
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Austria.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The declining dependence of ski lift operators on natural snow conditions2018Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 662-676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for a structural shift in the relationship between revenues of ski lift operators and natural snow conditions. The analysis is based on time series data for the Swedish ski lift industry spanning from 1980 to 2017. Since 1970, snow depth in winter sport destinations has decreased markedly by about 5 cm per decade. Estimations based on the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model show that revenues (in constant prices) of ski lift operators are significantly positively related to natural snow conditions, given the impact of relative prices and real GDP. However, ARDL estimations with rolling windows reveal that the sensitivity of revenues from ski lift ticket sales to variations in snow depth is declining over time. For the subsamples starting at the end of 1980s onward, revenues no longer significantly depend on natural snow depth. This is likely due to the implementation of adaptation measures such as investments in snowmaking facilities. © 2018, The Author(s) 2018.

  • 21.
    Bjuggren, P. -O
    et al.
    Jönköping University / Ratio Institute.
    Nordström, L.
    Jönköping University.
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    Are female leaders more efficient in family firms than in non-family firms?2018Ingår i: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 185-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate whether female leaders are more efficient in family firms than in non-family firms. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a unique database of ownership and leadership in private Swedish firms that makes it possible to analyze differences in firm performance due to female leadership in family and non-family firms. The analysis is based on survey data merged with micro-level data on Swedish firms. Only firms with five or more employees are included in the analysis. The sample contains more than 1,000 firms. Findings: The descriptive statistics show that there are many more male than female corporate leaders. However, the regression analysis indicates that female leadership has a much more positive impact on the performance of family firms than on that for non-family firms, where the effect is ambiguous. Originality/value: Comparative studies examining the impact of female leadership on firm-level performance in family and non-family firms are rare, and those that exist are most often either qualitative or focused on large, listed firms. By investigating the role of female directors in family and non-family firms, the study adds to the literature on management, corporate governance and family firms.

  • 22.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals - Evidence from 1303 Swedish markets.2018Ingår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 61, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months within a reference-price system. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little scope for non-price competition and where simultaneity problems can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package size is increased from 1 to 10. Nearly only competition at this fine-grained level matters; the effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenths as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower.

  • 23.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–20102018Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, s. 1-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 24.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Videnord, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Regional differences in effects of publicly sponsored R&D grants on SME performance2018Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores regional variation in the effects of publicly sponsored R&D grants on SME performance. The results suggest that there is no guarantee that the grants will impact firm growth, either positive or negative. Positive growth effects are most likely to be found for publicly sponsored R&D grants targeting SMEs located in regions abundant with skilled labor, whereas the opposite is found for SMEs located in regions with a limited supply of skilled labor.

  • 25.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The History of Money and Monetary Arrangements: Insights from the Baltic and North Seas Region2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    A Critical Analysis of the Sustainable Development Goals2018Ingår i: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Leal Filho, Walter, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 341-356Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious UN-adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being inconsistent, difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. Disparaging analysis suggests that there exists a potential inconsistency in the SDGs, particularly between the socio-economic development and the environmental sustainability goals. Critiques also raise questions on the measurability and monitoring of the broadly framed SDGs. The goals are non-binding, with each country being expected to create their own national or regional plans. Moreover, the source(s) and the extent of the financial resources and investments for the SDGs are ambiguous. This chapter quantifies and examines the inconsistencies of the SDGs. It further inspects which of the underlying social, economic or environmental pillars are that most effective for achieving sustainable development. Analyses of the data reveal that the developed countries need to remain focused on their social and environmental policies. The developing countries, on the other hand, are better off being focused on their economics and social policies in the short run, even though environmental policies remain significant for sustainable development.

  • 27.
    Kar, Ashim Kumar
    et al.
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Are microfinance markets monopolistic?2018Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.

  • 28.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sustainable Development and global emission targets: A dynamical systems approach to aid evidence-based policy making2018Ingår i: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 812-821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad scientific consensus that increasing global emissions at current rates will result irreversible climate change. The global commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement tries to address this concern with policy changes. But top-down approaches including voluntary emission cuts do not seem politically feasible in all countries. In this paper, we show that moderate voluntary emission cuts (policy) supplemented by technological developments and changes in consumption tastes and preferences induced by educating individuals (stakeholder engagement) could help achieve emission targets. We use a novel dynamical systems modeling approach based on economic theory to show the quantitative tradeoffs between these different approaches. Using this model, we also show how economic development may be balanced by global emissions reductions so that, initially, developing economies can continue along their current growth trajectories and eliminate poverty, and eventually bear more of the emissions reduction burden.

  • 29.
    Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economic.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2018Ingår i: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 842-870Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition in microfinance has been blamed for multiple borrowing, over-indebtedness and loan repayment crisis in recent times. Using the Boone indicator as a proxy for competition, we investigate how competition impacts microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio in this paper. The analysis is based on data from 568 MFIs in 10 vibrant microfinance markets (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru and Philippines) for the period 2003-2014. We control for potential endogeneity of MFI performance, competition and other covariates by employing the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. We find that increased competition leads to higher profitability and better loan portfolio quality of the sampled MFIs, but worsens depth of outreach to the poor, which is an indication of mission drift.   

  • 30.
    Falk, M.
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO), Austria.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Income elasticity of overnight stays over seven decades2018Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 1015-1028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides new evidence on the stability of the long-run income elasticity of tourism and travel demand by use of the recently developed smooth time-varying cointegration regression model. The estimations control for relative purchasing power parity of the source country and make use of a specific country dataset where domestic and foreign overnight stays are available over a longer period of time (Switzerland, 1934–2015). Results show that the income elasticity of foreign overnight stays peaks at approximately two in the early 1960s, drops to around one in the early 1980s and from then on remains stable until the end of the sample. Domestic income elasticity reaches its highest levels in the 1930s, then steadily falls towards one in the mid-1960s, and therefrom remains stable until 2015. Different phases in the tourism area life cycle might be a major explanatory factor for variation in income elasticities over time. © The Author(s) 2018.

  • 31.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    An Analysis of Permission Processes for Wind Power in Sweden2017Ingår i: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, s. 173-199Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Money and Capital2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    A Sequence Analysis of Money, Savings, and Investments under Negative Interest Rates2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Felländer, Anna
    KTH.
    Åsbrink, Erik
    Handelns betydelse: då, nu och i framtiden2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå universitet.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Högskolan Dalarna.
    Squeezing the Last Drop Out of Your Suppliers: An Empirical Study of Market-Based Purchasing Policies for Generic Pharmaceuticals2017Ingår i: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 969-996Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 36.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Evaluating quality or lowest price: Consequences for small and medium-sized enterprises in public procurement2017Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 1143-1169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of evaluating the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT) in public procurement rather than lowest price. According to the European Union (EU), evaluations based on MEAT, rather than lowest price, give an advantage to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in winning public procurement contracts because such firms are viewed as sources of innovation. Thus, MEAT as an evaluation criterion is recommended throughout the EU. Using procurement data from Sweden, I find no significant effect on SME participation in procurement calls for tender as a result of the use of MEAT in firm evaluations. However, large firms significantly increase their participation when MEAT is evaluated. Even more importantly, micro, small and medium-sized firms' probability of winning procurement contracts significantly decreases when MEAT rather than lowest price is used as an evaluative criterion. Thus, evaluation in terms of MEAT increases large firms' bids and success rates; hence, this policy is counterproductive. The reasons SMEs are disadvantaged as a result of evaluations based on MEAT are, however, not examined in this paper and require further research.

  • 37.
    Söderlund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Ratio.
    Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China2017Ingår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 764-787Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a strictly regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom and financial development are associated with both higher income and growth rates. In particular, we find that the marketisation of financial institutions and strengthening of legal and government institutions have a particularly strong impact on income and growth in low-income provinces.

  • 38.
    Lundberg, S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Tendering design when price and quality is uncertain2017Ingår i: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 310-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements. Findings: More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia. Practical implications: The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance. Social implications: Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender. Originality/value: Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

  • 39.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results2017Ingår i: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, nr 4, s. 431-464, artikel-id 1567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

  • 40.
    Spaiser, V.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Ranganathan, S.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The sustainable development oxymoron: quantifying and modelling the incompatibility of sustainable development goals2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 457-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 41.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme2017Ingår i: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 684-699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 42.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Attitudes Towards Paying for Environmental Protection in the Baltic Sea Region2017Ingår i: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, s. 201-220Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

  • 44.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppala University / Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management.
    Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: An Introduction2017Ingår i: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, s. 1-3Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA .
    Nicolis, Stamatios C
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Uppsala University.
    Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e0171560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  • 46.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Örebro universitet.
    Organizing for Efficiency: Essays on merger policies, independence of authorities, and technology diffusion2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Dalarna University.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016Ingår i: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 201-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 48.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016Ingår i: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, nr 1, s. 20-36Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 49.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016Ingår i: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, s. 31-49Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 50.
    Mai Thi Van, Anh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies how the 2004 merger policy reform affected the probability of a merger being challenged by the European Commission. I use a probit model to assess how economic factors drive decisions and to isolate differences between policies before and after the reform. The net sample consists of 341 horizontal mergers from 1990 to 2012. Overall, I find robust evidence of policy shifts due to the reform. By some measures, the policy appears to have slightly softened. There is also an indication that mergers reviewed under the unilateral-effects theory are more likely to be challenged than are those reviewed under the coordinated-effects theory. Market shares and entry barriers are found to influence decisions before and after the reform. However, market shares appear to play a somewhat smaller role after the reform.

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