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  • 1.
    Hagsten, Eva
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, Sweden.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Digital transformation as a means to attract innovative establishments to municipalities2024Ingår i: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study on regional development investigates if digital transformation is a means to attract innovative establishments to municipalities. By doing so, the relationship between the availability of high-speed broadband close by and the number of innovative establishments (workplaces) across all 290 municipalities in Sweden is explored. Panel data for eleven years (2010-2021) originate from official registers. Results based on Fixed Effects Poisson estimations including spatially weighted variables indicate that the digital transformation in the guise of high-speed broadband access is important for ICT (micro) establishments and those in declining municipalities, although the proportion of highly skilled inhabitants renders stronger estimates. For high technology and R&D establishments, access to high-speed broadband is not a relevant location factor. The estimates are robust to endogeneity as tested by the control function approach. 

  • 2.
    Björnerstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Hannah
    Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), Sweden.
    Lundin, Douglas
    Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), Sweden.
    Zethraeus, Niklas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), Sweden.
    Validation of overall survival extrapolations made by TLV in the assessment of cost-effectiveness of oncology drugs in Sweden: A pilot study comparing extrapolated and observed life-years gained2024Ingår i: Journal of Medical Economics, ISSN 1369-6998, E-ISSN 1941-837X, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 193-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the accuracy of overall survival (OS) extrapolations in cost-effectiveness analysis made by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV) to decide on the reimbursement and use of oncology drugs in Sweden.

    Material and methods: TLV appraisals for oncology drugs were identified during a 5-year period (2013-2017). To be included each appraisal and health economic model must include a TLV base case extrapolation of OS. Further, Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates on OS from the original and follow-up clinical trials must be available. Potential follow-up trials on OS were identified in ClinicalTrials.gov and the Lund University Libraries databases, and in the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) databases. In cases where the KM estimates were not available, data points from figures published in TLV's appraisals were extracted using the semi-automated tools Digitizelt and WebPlotDigitizer. The accuracy of survival extrapolations was assessed by comparing extrapolated and observed life-years (LYs), using three different measures: 1) difference in LYs between the treatment and control group; 2) LYs in the treatment group, 3) LYs in the control group.

    Results: We study TLV's preferred OS extrapolations and show that on average they overestimate the observed mean gain in LYs by 17%, and underestimate observed LYs by 5% and 1% in the treatment and control group, respectively.

    Conclusions: We conclude that it is feasible to validate OS extrapolations by comparing extrapolated and observed life-years. Even if survival extrapolations are reasonably accurate for the treatment and control group, respectively, this may still imply that extrapolations of LYs gained deviates to a larger extent. Follow-up studies on OS should be carried out to an increased extent to be able to validate, update and improve OS extrapolations in cost-effectiveness analysis of oncology drugs.

  • 3.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Spatial influence on the distribution of downhill skiers in Sweden2024Ingår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 535-545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically how natural snow depth affects the number of downhill skiers. Data include the number of skier visits for the 32 largest ski resorts in Sweden from the 1998/1999 to the 2018/2019 seasons. Results of spatial dynamic estimations show that an increase in natural snow depth in the ski area has a significant negative impact on the number of skier visits in the short term, although the magnitude is small. This implies that a snow deficit leads to increased demand for downhill skiing both directly and indirectly (in the neighbouring areas). The variable snow depth in the neighbouring ski areas is not significantly different from zero, indicating that no spatial substitution takes place. There is, however, a strong positive relationship between skier visits to neighbouring areas, revealing that ski resorts are complements rather than substitutes. The long-term influence of snow depth is not significant, implying that the ski business is independent of variations in snow depth. Instead, the number of skier visits is mainly determined by past visits, revealing a high degree of persistence.

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  • 4.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Importance of temporary and permanent snow for new second homes2024Ingår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 589-593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically how natural snow depth and permanent snow affect the number of new second homes in Norway. One out of four Norwegian municipalities is partly covered by glaciers and permanent snow. In the winter seasons of 1983–2020, there is a decline in snow depth from 50 to 35 cm on average (based on 41 popular second-home areas in the mountains). Results of the fixed effects Poisson estimator with spatial elements show that there is a significant and positive relationship between natural snow depth in the municipality and the number of second homes started. There is also a significant and negative relationship between the number of new second homes in the municipality and a scarcity of snow in the surrounding municipalities. However, the magnitude of both effects is small. Estimates also show a strong positive relationship between the proportion of surface covered by permanent snow or glaciers in the municipality and new second homes. This implies that a decline in permanent snow and glaciers may make these areas less attractive for the location of second homes.

  • 5.
    Li, Xiaoying
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Energy Efficiency in buildings in the Baltic states and the Nordic countries2024Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Paper [I] undersöker effekten av krav på energiprestanda i byggnormerna på energieffektiviteten i svenska flerbostadshus. Resultaten, som baseras på specifika användningsdata från energiprestandacertifikat (EPCs), tyder på att implementering av prestationsbaserad reglering resulterar i en 13,5-procentig ökning av energieffektiviteten över en generell trend på 1,69% per år för byggnader med fjärrvärme och en 10,1-procentig ökning över en trend på 0,40% för de med elvärme. De skärpta byggreglerna visar dock inte på starka effekter för att ytterligare öka energieffektiviteten. Effekten av byggregler är blygsam för byggnader med bättre energiprestanda men mer betydande för byggnader där den faktiska energianvändningen överstiger de erforderliga nivåerna. Vidare indikerar en strukturell analys betydligt större effektivitetsökning under perioden med prestationsbaserad reglering än tidigare. Utöver regleringseffekterna indikerar resultaten empiriska bevis på energieffektivitetsgapet. Den uppskattade energianvändningen från tekniska modeller är väsentligt lägre än den uppmätta energianvändningen för jämförbart byggande. Paper [II] uppskattar effekterna av ombyggnadsprogram av den gamla sovjettidens flerlägenhetsbyggnader i Litauen på realiserade dynamiska energibesparingar genom att analysera månatliga energiräkningar. Studien använder en kvasi-experimentell forskningsdesign för att bedöma orsakseffekten av ombyggnad på energibesparingar. Resultaten tyder på att ombyggnader är förknippade med en minskning på 50% till 59% av den genomsnittliga uppvärmningsförbrukningen under olika perioder efter renovering. Dessutom har ombyggnader också en kortlivad effekt på elbesparingen på 3% till 3,6%. Givet de genomsnittliga uppvärmningspriserna i undersökningsurvalet tyder dock kostnads-nyttoberäkningarna på att energibesparingarna inte var tillräckligt stora för att täcka de initiala investeringskostnaderna. Paper [III] bedömer energiprestandagapet – skillnaden mellan realiserade och beräknade energibesparingar som gjorts av ingenjörer. Resultaten visar att de förväntade besparingarna i genomsnitt realiseras fullt ut efter ett renoveringsprogram av flerbostadshus i Litauen. Uppsatsen utforskar också de bestämningsfaktorer som förväntas förklara skillnader i energiprestandagapet mellan olika renoverade byggnader. Resultaten tyder på att byggnader med flera lägenheter som förvaltas av utlokaliserade specialiserade bostadsförvaltningsbolag tenderar att realisera högre energibesparingar efter renoveringar än byggnader som förvaltas av gemenskaper av lägenhetsägare. Jämfört med renoverade byggnader som uppnår den lägsta erforderliga energiklassen C, tenderar dessutom prestandagapet att vara större för de byggnader som är inriktade på en högre energiklass A eller B. Paper [IV] utforskar de marginella effekterna av energiprisinflation på olika inflationsförväntningar i Sverige. De tidsinvarianta marginaleffekterna är rimligt små. Den flexibla maskininlärningsmetoden för kärnbaserade KRLS-uppskattningar indikerar dock signifikanta tidsvarierande mönster i marginaleffekterna. Marginaleffekterna är mycket volatila under den senaste tidens höga energiprisinflation. Ändå tenderar volatiliteten att vara lägre och marginaleffekterna minskar till runt 0 i slutet av urvalsperioden. Bland alla potentiella ekonomiska faktorer kan energiprisinflationen systematiskt förklara variationerna i marginaleffekterna.

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    Energy Efficiency in buildings in the Baltic states and the Nordic countries
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  • 6.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway .
    Hagsten, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Factors with ambiguous qualities for Cultural World Heritage Sites2024Ingår i: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 66, s. 384-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate factors with both beneficial and harmful qualities for Cultural World Heritage Sites. Particular but not exclusive attention is given to aspects relating to tourism and infrastructure. Data from the World Heritage List for North America and Europe, linked to the 2014 UNESCO Periodic Report II, are employed for the analysis. A simultaneous Bivariate Probit model estimation is carried out on the 30,954 observations and 402 Heritage Sites. World Heritage managers assess that certain factors are both beneficial and harmful for their sites. These contradictory perceptions appear most commonly in relation to tourism/visitors/recreation (28% of the sites), ground transport infrastructure (16%) and to the Society's valuing of heritage (12%). Besides this, ambivalent perceptions are also identified for housing, commercial development, land conversion, forestry/timber production and renewable energy facilities, although to a lesser extent. Estimation results reveal that the highest degree of ambivalence occurs in relation to tourism/visitors/recreation, interpretive and sightseeing facilities and ground transport infrastructure when location and specific site characteristics are controlled for. Thus, the results coincide only to some extent with the descriptive statistics. Compared to other groups of Cultural World Heritage Sites (cultural landscapes, religious sites and other sites) managers of cities have a significantly lower probability of perceiving the different factors as harmful.

  • 7.
    Rugina, Sanita
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Ahl, H.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Patriarchy repackaged: how a neoliberal economy and conservative gender norms shape entrepreneurial identities in Eastern Europe2024Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 36, nr 3-4, s. 266-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using positioning analysis we examine how women entrepreneurs construct their entrepreneurial identities in conversations with journalists. The data consists of every interview with women entrepreneurs in every Latvian monthly women’s magazine over a 30-year period. Eleven countries in Eastern Europe, including Latvia, broke away from the communist regime in the 1990s and embraced neoliberal and entrepreneurial values that rely on the use of agency in a free market and where individuals were considered autonomous agents, no longer constrained by gender inequalities and power imbalances. However, an analysis shows that identity constructions by women entrepreneurs have been built on neo-conservative assumptions regarding gender. The default option expressed in the magazines reveals that entrepreneurship is normatively masculine, and the entrepreneurial identity that is on offer for women is either as a ‘secondary entrepreneur’ or a ‘failed woman’. The post-feminist conception of a woman who can have it all, i.e. both a successful business career and a traditional feminine identity with a happy family life, is absent in the interviews. When neoliberalism entered Latvia and merged with neo-conservative gender roles, a specific Eastern European postfeminist regime emerged where neither entrepreneurship nor structural change can be seen as challenging the prevailing patriarchal gender order.

  • 8.
    Gråd, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Do nudges crowd out prosocial behavior?2024Ingår i: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-063X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 107-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both theory on motivational crowding and recent empirical evidence suggest that nudging may sometimes backfire and actually crowd out prosocial behavior, due to decreased intrinsic motivation and warm glow. In this study, we tested this claim by investigating the effects of three types of nudges (default nudge, social norm nudge, and moral nudge) on donations to charity in a preregistered online experiment (N = 1098). Furthermore, we manipulated the transparency of the nudges across conditions by explicitly informing subjects of the nudges that were used. Our results show no indication that nudges crowd out prosocial behavior; instead, all three nudges increased donations. The positive effects of the nudges were driven by the subjects who did not perceive the nudges as attempts to manipulate their behavior, while donations among subjects who felt that the nudges were manipulative remained unaffected. Subjects’ self-reported happiness with their choice also remained unaffected. Thus, we find no indication that nudges crowded out warm glow when acting altruistically. Generally, our results are good news for the proponents of nudges in public policy, since they suggest that concerns about unintended motivational crowding effects on prosocial behavior have been overstated.

  • 9.
    Thomas Falk, Martin
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Commitment of travel and leisure firms to sustainable development goals2024Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the interdependencies of commitments to Sustainable Development Goals as reported by travel and leisure firms active in the United Nations Global Compact Programme. Descriptive statistics reveal that SDG 8 ‘economic growth and decent jobs’ (88%), SDG 13 ‘climate action’ and SDG 5 ‘gender equality’ (SDG 5) (78% each) as well as SDG 12 sustainable production and consumption (75%) are the goals most commonly committed to. Estimation results from the multivariate probit model show that a firm committing to one SDG will likely also dedicate itself to another. Thus, there is a strong positive correlation between the commitments to SDGs 8 and 13, as well as between the SDGs 5 and 8. This indicates that SDG 8 and SDG 13, on the one hand and SDG 5 and SDG 8, on the other, are not seen as contradictory by the firms.

  • 10.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    COVID-19 pandemic waves: Identification and interpretation of global data2024Ingår i: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e25090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mention of the COVID-19 waves is as prevalent as the pandemic itself. Identifying the beginning and end of the wave is critical to evaluating the impact of various COVID-19 variants and the different pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical (including economic, health and social, etc.) interventions. We demonstrate a scientifically robust method to identify COVID-19 waves and the breaking points at which they begin and end from January 2020 to June 2021. Employing the Break Least Square method, we determine the significance of COVID-19 waves for global-, regional-, and country-level data. The results show that the method works efficiently in detecting different breaking points. Identifying these breaking points is critical for evaluating the impact of the economic, health, social and other welfare interventions implemented during the pandemic crisis. Employing our method with high frequency data effectively determines the start and end points of the COVID-19 wave(s). Identifying waves at the country level is more relevant than at the global or regional levels. Our research results evidenced that the COVID-19 wave takes about 48 days on average to subside once it begins, irrespective of the circumstances.

  • 11.
    Strömberg, Per M.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Citizen monitoring in environmental disclosure: An economics perspective2024Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 356, artikel-id 120567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism is mounting that market-led and state-led initiatives for environmental impact disclosure are too limited in scope and that they rest on too strong assumptions about the quality and impartiality of monitoring and enforcement, with resulting insufficient effect on environmental sustainability. It has been proposed that citizen monitoring may contribute to counteract this void. However, to our knowledge, policy analysis in general and economics in particular has not paid much attention to this role of citizen monitoring. This paper aims to bridge that gap from an economics lens, by exploring the dynamics of disclosing local environmental impact and the potential role of citizen monitoring in environmental policy. To this end, the paper addresses monopolistic versus pluralistic environmental disclosure, letting citizen monitoring represent the latter. The study uses the mining industry as an illustrative case, because of that sector's particular transparency challenges in international value chains, typically with strong negative local environmental impact. It is shown how pluralistic information provision such as citizen monitoring can contribute to incentivizing more reliable information provision, especially in countries with weak state institutions, which is particularly important in the case of high-risk environmental impact. The findings should be of use for shaping environmental policy, providing valuable insights for both policymakers and scholars.

  • 12.
    Falk, M. T.
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Persistence of an external shock to domestic tourism demand2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates two aspects of how an external shock in the guise of the Covid-19 pandemic affects domestic tourism demand: (1) If the impact varies across regions and over time or (2) whether a permanent change (hysteresis) occurs anywhere. By doing so, a presumptive change in domestic tourism demand during three summers is quantified based on timely official data for all Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) and Estonia, encompassing a total of 76 NUTS3 regions. These regions are divided into five groups from large metropolitan to remote. Tourism demand is approximated by the number of domestic overnight stays in accommodation establishments in the summer months 2016–2022. Dynamic panel data estimations, including household consumption and hotel price index, reveal that all non-metropolitan regions experience a strong increase in domestic tourism flows in the first summer of the pandemic compared with the three years preceding 2020. In contrast, the largest metropolitan areas encounter a substantial decline. The surge in demand for non-metropolitan areas continues in 2021, while the large metropolitan regions return to their pre-pandemic level. After this, demand no longer deviates from its pre-2020 pattern across regions, confirming that the effects are temporary.

  • 13.
    Bandick, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden; National Board Trade Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karpaty, Patrik
    National Board Trade Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. National Board Trade Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Import, Productivity, and Export Performances2024Ingår i: Economics, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id 20220084Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, we analyze whether the decision of where to import from is affected by firms' ex-ante characteristics. Second, we analyze how the origin of imports affects firms' productivity, export sales, and the number of export markets. Using extensive data on Swedish manufacturing firms from 2007 to 2020, we uncover several significant insights. Nearly 80% of the firms engage in international trade. The smallest firms operate exclusively as exporters, medium-sized firms as importers, and the largest firms engage in two-way trading. While most imports originate from high-wage countries, there has been a gradual shift to low-wage countries over time. Self-selection is evident, with highly productive firms importing from all sources, followed by firms that exclusively import from either low-wage or high-wage countries, and the lowest-productive firms not importing. By controlling for self-selection using the Event Study approach and difference-in-differences matching estimator, we find that large importing firms exhibit no significant differences in productivity and export sales in comparison to their non-importing counterparts. However, small importing firms show increased productivity growth, driven by high-wage imports. Both small and large firms importing from high- and low-wage countries tend to access more high-wage export markets than non-importers.

  • 14.
    Zeleke Aklilu, Abenezer
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Halvarsson, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kjellander, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Höglund, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    A pound for information or a penny for cure: Farmers' economic decisions on testing and treatment of livestock diseases2024Ingår i: Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ISSN 1364-985X, E-ISSN 1467-8489, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 460-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Livestock productivity and profitability are threatened by livestock diseases. In this study, we examine farmers' revealed preferences for testing and treating gastrointestinal parasites in sheep in Sweden, taking into account the sequential structure of these decisions. We control for preventive measures, as well as the potential impact of wildlife–livestock disease transmission on farmers' decisions. A zero-inflated ordered probit model is used to estimate the determinants of farmers' decisions, and we cross-validate the robustness of the results to alternative model assumptions. Results from the regressions are used to calculate the consequences of these choices for farmers' profits. The results show that treatment decisions are informed by faecal testing, while both testing and treatment are influenced by the grazing practices, the size of the operation and access to information. Contrary to expectations from the conceptual framework, preventive management practices are positively correlated with treatment. Farmers take multiple risk factors into account when deciding on testing, but we do not find that the same factors affect the outcome of treatment. The economic impacts are small and suggest that treatment without prior testing is more profitable for the farmer than informed treatment. If widespread treatment increases drug resistance, this could motivate policies that encourage testing.

  • 15.
    Kasteng, J.
    et al.
    National Board of Trade Sweden, Sweden.
    Kokko, A.
    Copenhagen Business School, International Economics, Denmark.
    Norell, N.
    National Board of Trade Sweden, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. National Board of Trade Sweden, Sweden; Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Learning to Use Trade Preferences: A Firm and Transaction Level Analysis of the EU-South Korea FTA2024Ingår i: World Trade Review, ISSN 1474-7456, E-ISSN 1475-3138, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 117-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines imports by Swedish firms and the utilization of the tariff preferences offered by the EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement. To benefit from tariff preferences, the importer must make a formal request to use the preferences and also document the origin of the imported products (with a certificate of origin provided by the foreign exporter). This may be costly, and some importers choose to pay import tariffs even when tariff preferences are available. Hence, the preferences are not fully utilized. Using a detailed firm-transaction level data set on Swedish imports from South Korea, we analyse the determinants of preference utilization and how firms learn to use preferences. The results show that preference utilization is strongly correlated with potential duty savings, which depend on the preference margin and the size of the import transaction. From a learning perspective, we find that preference utilization is closely related to the number of import transactions undertaken by the firm, suggesting a learning-by-doing mechanism. The length of time the firm has been involved in importing activities plays a smaller role.

  • 16.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    A threat to the natural World Heritage site rarely happens alone2024Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 360, artikel-id 121113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes an empirical investigation of the likelihood that different external threats to a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site occur in combination with each other when site characteristics and location are controlled for. For the purpose of the analysis, the World Heritage database and the UNESCO State of Conservation Reports are used and the nine most frequently appearing external threats are identified. These databases include 6852 site-year observations and 3316 threats over the period 1979–2023. The most commonly identified external threats are illegal activities, with eleven percent of all observations and mining with six percent. Transport infrastructure, tourism and visitor pressure are also common threats. Estimation results based on the multivariate Probit (equation system) model demonstrate that there are strong positive correlations between many pairs of the nine external threats. Most apparent are the links between illegal activities and loss of identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, water infrastructure (dams) and farming, as well as illegal activities and land conversion. There are also clear links between tourism and infrastructure. This emphasises that the various threats seldom appear in isolation from each other. Results also highlight that the threats have different drivers. Among the determinants, site characteristics and location are the most important ones. The likelihood of threats is highest for Natural Heritage Sites covered by forests or those in marine and coastal areas, Africa as well as the Arab region. It is also possible to identify a general increase in threats over time, although with a diminishing rate of growth towards the period 2015–2019. Contrary to this development and the general downturn in threats during the Covid-19 pandemic period of 2020–2023, pressure from tourism continues to grow. Methodologically, the results emphasize the need for multivariate Probit models when research goes beyond analyses of descriptive statistics and single equation approaches.

  • 17.
    Kažukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Li, Xiaoying
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Realized dynamic effect of retrofits on energy consumption in Soviet-era multi-apartment buildings2024Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 134, artikel-id 107563Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrofit programs for old and highly energy-inefficient housing stock from the Soviet era are widely believed to offer a rare win-win opportunity for mitigating climate change and addressing acute energy poverty issues in Eastern European urban neighborhoods. However, despite government subsidies and a push for greater energy efficiency, many people do not undertake retrofits. This raises the question: do these retrofits truly deliver the promised returns? This paper aims to examine the effects of retrofit programs on old Soviet-era multi-apartment buildings' realized dynamic energy savings in Lithuania by analyzing monthly energy bills. Our findings suggest that retrofits are associated with a 50% to 59% reduction in average space heating consumption across various post-retrofit periods. Additionally, retrofits have a short-term effect on electricity savings of 3% to 3.6%. However, our cost-benefit analysis indicates that the energy savings were not sufficiently large to cover the initial investment costs. 

  • 18.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics and Economics, Sweden.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    United Nations University-World Institute Development Economics Research, Finland.
    Financial inclusion and nutrition among rural households in Rwanda2024Ingår i: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 506-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Rwandan Integrated Household Living Conditions surveys (2013/2014 and 2016/17), we investigate whether financial inclusion leads to improved nutrition in rural Rwanda. Our empirical evidence shows a robust positive impact of financial inclusion by formal financial institutions, although informal institutions like tontines were ineffective in improving food expenditure or nutrition. Furthermore, the heterogeneous marginal effects of financial inclusion reduce the gender gap between the food expenditure and nutrition of female- and male-headed households. The results, hence, suggest that the country should promote formal financial inclusion to provide wide-ranging welfare effects by improving food security, nutrition and food expenditure in its rural communities.

  • 19.
    Lin, Xiang
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Performance of negatively screened sustainable investments during crisis2024Ingår i: International Review of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1059-0560, E-ISSN 1873-8036, Vol. 93, s. 1226-1247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the market performance of negatively screened environment social and governance (ESG) portfolio or sustainable investments prior to and during crisis. A general and simple method is developed under the ESG Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) framework for the assessment. The novelty is that this method can be employed when the parent portfolio is not a market portfolio. In this situation, both coefficients, alpha and beta, in the reduced form of regression have special interpretations and are informative. This paper examines 24 negatively screened ESG indices from the S&P, DJSI and MSCI data across various regions, firm sizes, and criteria of screening, for 2017 to 2021. Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) model is adopted to identify the crisis regime. Our results show that the negatively screened ESG indices provide positive investors’ surpluses for ESG-motivated investors during the crisis, when the corresponding parent indices are the market portfolios. For ESG investments where market portfolios are not their parent indices, half of ESG indices under consideration still provide positive surplus with similar systematic risks as their parent indices during the crisis. The remaining ESG indices under-performs but has relatively lower systematic risks, implying resilience as compared to the corresponding parent indices during the crisis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity analysis of treating a parent index as a market portfolio.

  • 20.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Self-employment, corruption, and property rights: a comparative analysis of European and CEE economies2023Ingår i: SN Business & Economics, E-ISSN 2662-9399, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the relationship between self-employment, corruption, and property rights in 30 European countries, including 11 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) economies, across the two decades of 1996–2016. In general, relatively little research has focused on the relationship between entrepreneurship and the protection of property rights. Furthermore, past findings show that corruption may have both negative and positive effects on the level of entrepreneurial activity, either “greasing” or “sanding” the wheels for entrepreneurship. Overall, research on how the informal institution corruption and the formal institution property rights are linked to entrepreneurship in post-socialist/transition economies has been limited. We find that stronger protection of property rights increases self-employment ratios, both in Europe in general and in CEE economies. The relationship between self-employment and the control of corruption is not significant. We conclude that neither higher nor lower levels of corruption control affect the share of self-employment. In comparative perspective, the ratio of self-employment in the group of CEE economies does not respond differently to these two key institutions.

  • 21.
    Rapanos, Theodoros
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    What makes an opinion leader: Expertise vs popularity2023Ingår i: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 138, s. 355-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies learning through social networks in which agents update their beliefs by weighting those of their peers. We allow agents to pay little attention to peers with poor information at first, but more later on, as that peer acquires better information from more knowledgeable agents. We derive explicitly how social influence depends on agents' popularity (eigenvector centrality) and expertise (information precision) and show that even completely uninformed agents can contribute to social learning. In certain cases, providing better information to extremely popular agents may distract attention from the views of the experts, and lead society to worse assessments.

  • 22.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Lark, Olga
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Vahter, Priit
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Videnord, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do gender norms travel within corporations?: The impact of foreign subsidiaries on the home country’s gender wage gap2023Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note we study how the share of workers in a corporation located in a high gender wage gap country impacts the wage gap in their home country operations. Our findings support the hypothesis that firms with strong intra-firm linkages to a high gender wage gap country also display a relatively large gender wage gap at home. 

  • 23.
    Karimu, A.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa; .
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Implication of electricity taxes and levies on sustainable development goals in the European Union2023Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 177, artikel-id 113553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current high electricity prices in the European Union (EU) are in part due to the high electricity taxes. United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda with its global vision of attaining sustainable development especially seeks “to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services” (SDG 7). We investigate the synergy and trade-off effects of electricity taxes on sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the EU. Using panel data and panel vector autoregressive estimation approach, we find that higher household electricity taxes reduce both carbon emission and unemployment. Higher levels of industry electricity taxes, increase responsible production and consumption (SDG12) and reduces unemployment (SDG8). Furthermore, there is evidence for a strong synergy effect between electricity taxes, unemployment and carbon emission but a trade-off between tax and SDG9 (innovation and sustainable infrastructure). The taxes contribute more to the future variation of unemployment and responsible production and consumption in the EU, but these contributions are much larger for the industry as compared to the household sector. Our results confirm the double-dividend hypothesis, which implies that the policymakers can achieve environmental goals with higher electricity taxes, especially on household electricity. In the industrial sector, our findings suggest that there is a need for tax reform, to encourage innovation and adopt production processes that are less polluting to the environment.

  • 24.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hiron, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kačergytė, I.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pärt, T.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ecological compensation of stochastic wetland biodiversity: National or regional policy schemes?2023Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 204, artikel-id 107672Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to compare policy schemes for ecological compensation applied at national and regional levels, using exploited inland wetlands as an example. We study whether uncertainty, due to natural variability and measurement difficulties, motivates compensation that is carried out in the same region as that of the exploited site, or whether it rather motivates nationwide compensation schemes. For this purpose, we develop an empirical, chance-constrained programming model of cost-effective wetland management. The model is spatially differentiated and accounts for heterogeneity in wetland quality across wetland types and regions. Wetland quality is defined by three alternative biodiversity indices: species richness, population-weighted species richness, and red-listed species richness, estimated from voluntarily reported data on breeding bird species observations. Results show that regional schemes are more expensive, in particular if the policy maker dislikes uncertainty and wants to prioritize uncommon species. Contrary to expectations from the theoretical analysis, regional schemes would lead to a higher risk-adjusted level of biodiversity at the national level. However, regionalization also implies that targets cannot be achieved if a high safety margin is imposed. Trading ratios are robust to the choice of wetland quality index.

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  • 25.
    Lozano, Julian
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Surry, Y.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Marbuah, G.
    Stockholm Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Game Harvests in Sweden2023Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 85, s. 385-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits and costs of wildlife are contingent on the spatial overlap of animal populations with economic and recreational human activities. By using a production function approach with dynamic spatial panel data models, we analyze the effects of human hunting and carnivore predation pressure on the value of ungulate game harvests. The results show evidence of dynamic spatial dependence in the harvests of roe deer and wild boar, but not in those of moose, which is likely explained by the presence of harvesting quotas for the latter. Results suggest the impact of lynx on roe deer harvesting values is reduced by 75% when spatial effects are taken into account. The spatial analysis confirms that policymakers’ aim to reduce wild boar populations through increased hunting has been successful, an effect that was only visible when considering spatial effects. 

  • 26.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Auditing and compliance in public procurement – an empirical assessment2023Ingår i: Journal of Public Procurement, ISSN 1535-0118, E-ISSN 2150-6930, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 125-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of government auditing of local authorities’ compliance with the procurement rules.

    Design/methodology/approach: A diff-in-diff approach is used where the measure of compliance is (changes in) the incidence of private litigation under the Public Procurement Act, in audited vs non-audited municipalities. Further, semi-structured interviews were conducted with chief procurement officials.

    Findings: No statistically significant effect is found. While strong effects of audits can be ruled out, the statistical results and the interviews do not, however, contradict a modest but long-lasting effect.

    Originality/value: Few studies have addressed the effect of public procurement auditing on compliance. This study develops an empirical framework and presents empirical results.

  • 27.
    Tingvall, Patrik
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. National Board of Trade, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    National Board of Trade, Sweden.
    Economic Perspectives on FDI and Investment Screening2023Ingår i: Weaponising Investments / [ed] Hillebrand Pohl, J.; Warchol , J.; Papadopoulos, T.; Wiesenthal, J., Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland , 2023, s. 117-139Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is proposed that in a future Swedish investment screening mechanism, it will become mandatory for the Inspectorate of Strategic Products to consult with the National Board of Trade. A key role for the Board will be to contribute with analysis regarding the importance of the investment for the economy and the investment climate. We note a gap in the literature in the sense that the broad mass of economic analysis of foreign direct investments (FDI) focuses on the effects of production-oriented activities, while much of the security discourse also embraces ownership such as infrastructure and hospitals. It is shown that uncertainty is harmful to inward FDI. To minimize uncertainty and the potential FDI-dampening effects of an investment screening regulation, the range of affected sectors should be narrowly defined, accompanied by a swift and transparent review process that provides predictability to the transaction parties. Inward FDI in general and high-tech investments in particular can benefit innovation, stimulate investment, promote skill upgrading, improve resource allocation, sharpen competition, create high-wage jobs and increase economic growth. The literature has shown that many positive effects from FDI take place in the form of spillover effects that are difficult to measure directly. Many best practices attracting FDI include general policies rather than selective measures.

  • 28. Kar, A. K.
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Does financial inclusion improve energy accessibility in Sub-Saharan Africa?2023Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the nexus between financial inclusion and energy poverty. Analysing data for 27 energy-poor countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region over 2004–2021, we employ sequential (two-stage), panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) and two-step dynamic system GMM (generalized method of moments) regression models, and control for endogeneity, CSD, slope heterogeneity as well as stationarity and cointegration patterns of the variables. Our empirical results show that financial inclusion significantly reduces energy poverty in the selected energy-poor countries. The study also finds a positive significant association between energy access and GDP per capita, while oil price and energy intensity are inversely associated with energy access. The results are robust to different control variables, estimation methods and subsamples. These findings have strong policy implications for energy-poor countries and point to the need for appropriate policies to promote financial inclusion for reducing energy poverty.

  • 29.
    Gebru, Bahre
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Mekelle University, Ethiopia.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The role of forest status in households’ fuel choice in Uganda2023Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 173, artikel-id 113390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate how households' choice of energy source is influenced by the status of the local forest resource. We assume that households choose between clean fuels (e.g., kerosene, LPG, solar, and electricity), dirty biobased fuels (e.g., firewood, animal dung, crop residues, and charcoal), and mixed fuels. We integrate socioeconomic data with high-resolution satellite data on forest conditions from the Uganda National Panel Survey. The findings from a random-effects multinomial logit model indicate that households in vegetated areas are 6–7% less likely to rely solely on dirty biobased fuels, and 6–8% more likely to use mixed fuels, compared to those in non-vegetated areas. A larger forest stock is more strongly associated with lower use of firewood than charcoal. A possible explanation for the findings is the presence of policies for forest conservation and enhanced forest property rights, which improve forest conditions and limit opportunities to collect firewood. Given households' dependence on forest-based fuels, such policies could need to be modified to secure households’ access to these fuels.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Dimensionering av högre utbildning – vem är det egentligen som styr?2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Uneven domestic tourism demand in times of pandemic2023Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 596-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the short-run impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of domestic overnight stays at the regional level in the summer season 2020. Official data for 65 regions in four countries are used for the analysis (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Switzerland). Dynamic panel data models are employed to estimate a tourism demand equation (real GDP and price fluctuations) augmented by average temperatures. Estimation results reveal that domestic overnight stays evolve unevenly in the first summer after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-run effects show that the number of domestic overnight stays in densely populated regions decreases by 27% in July as well as in August 2020, in comparison with the same months in previous years, ceteris paribus. To the contrary, there is a surge of 27 and 10%, respectively, for sparsely populated areas in the same months. JEL: Z3, R11 and R12.

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  • 32.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, YongyiUnited Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Interlinkages between the sustainable development goals2023Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interlinkages between the Sustainable Development Goals explores the complex relationships between the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by 193 United Nations Member States in 2015. The book provides an in-depth analysis of the interconnections between the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development and the five pillars of the SDGs: peace, people, planet, prosperity, and partnerships. Covering a wide range of topics and themes, this timely book examines interlinkages at the thematic, regional, and country levels. Featuring case studies from across the globe, contributors explore the synergies and trade-offs among the SDGs using a variety of methodological approaches. Chapters also include examples of best practices and applications, demonstrating how interlinkages can be leveraged to achieve multiple SDGs simultaneously. This book will be an essential resource for a diverse range of audiences, including students and scholars in the areas of climate action, gender equality, industry, innovation, and infrastructure, and sustainable cities and communities. It will also be beneficial for policymakers, practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders in both the private and public sectors and civil society. 

  • 33.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, Yongyi
    United Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Preface2023Ingår i: Interlinkages between the sustainable development goals / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Yongyi Min, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, s. xi-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Min, Yongyi
    United Nations Secretariat, USA.
    Interlinkages and interactions among the sustainable development goals2023Ingår i: Interlinkages between the Sustainable Development Goals / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Yongyi Min, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, s. 1-15Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Häggmark, T.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aaruhus University, Denmark.
    The drivers of private and public eco-innovations in six large countries2022Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 364, artikel-id 132628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the contributions to environmental innovation of the public sector and private sector, respectively, and to compare their determinants. We analyze the development over time of triadic patents, classified as environmental technological innovations, for six major patenting countries from 1990 to 2014. This is done using a factor decomposition analysis framework. The analysis is done at both country aggregate level, and for a set of specific technological topics: alternative energy production, energy conservation, agriculture and forestry, and waste management. Results indicate that there has been a shift at an aggregate level towards environmentally sustainable technologies. In the private sector, the shift can be attributed to changes in research priorities and an increased scale of R&D. In the public sector, increased patenting of environmentally sound technologies can be attributed to efficiency gains. The largest difference between the public and private sector is observed in R&D efficiency, where in the private sector, reductions in efficiency have contributed negatively to patent growth, whereas the opposite is true for the public sector. In both sectors, research focus has shifted towards energy-related technologies.

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  • 36.
    Parvin, Nargish
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Coucheney, Elsa
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hans
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jarvis, Nicholas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Keller, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Switzerland.
    On the relationships between the size of agricultural machinery, soil quality and net revenues for farmers and society2022Ingår i: Soil Security, ISSN 2667-0062, Vol. 6, artikel-id 100044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanization in agriculture has greatly improved the efficiency of field operations, but also resulted in heavier agricultural vehicles, which has led to increased risks of soil compaction. Hence, farmers benefit from machinery with higher capacity but may suffer from decreased yields caused by compaction. Compaction may result in further environmental costs to society. We present a framework that relates the machinery capacity to soil compaction and its impacts on crop yields and environmental disservices, and associated revenues and costs for farmers and society. We combined simulations using a soil compaction model and a soil-crop model with simple economic analyses. We applied the framework to a case study of cereal production in Sweden, to derive the optimal combine harvester size that maximizes the farmer's private profit and the societal net benefit, respectively. Increased machinery size decreased harvesting costs, but also reduced simulated crop yields and thus crop revenue as a result of soil compaction. Furthermore, in the model simulations, compaction also increased surface run-off, nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. Intermediate machinery size maximized the farmer's net revenue. Net benefits for society were highest for the lowest possible compaction level, due to the considerable external costs from soil compaction. We show that the optimal machinery size and thus compaction level for maximum farmer revenue would decrease if either producer prices were higher, harvesting costs savings from larger machinery were smaller, or if farmers were charged for (part of the) environmental costs.

  • 37.
    Lin, Xiang
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    Nordic stock market performance of the travel and leisure industry during the first wave of Covid-19 pandemic2022Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 1240-1257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the performance of the stock market and its volatility in the travel and leisure industry for three Nordic countries using daily data from June 2018 to June 2020, a period that includes the first wave of Covid-19 pandemic. The methodology is based on the Markov regime switching model that allows unobservable regime shifts in the stock return relationship between the travel and leisure industry and the overall market in the period before the outbreak of Covid-19 crisis and during the recovery period at the end of the first wave. The results provide strong evidence of regime switching behaviour in the form of idiosyncratic risk as measured by volatility. The period before Covid-19 corresponds to a low/medium idiosyncratic risk, while the period of the pandemic is characterized by a regime with high idiosyncratic risk. Overall, the timing, likelihood and duration of this crisis regime depend on the composition of the travel and leisure firms. Those with a large proportion of online gambling firms perform better, while those consisting of international transportation firms, hotels and restaurants perform negatively. This study shows that the high-frequency data and the model chosen here can provide timely information on the impact of the pandemic on various tourism and leisure businesses that could be useful for policymaking.

  • 38.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    The Informal Sector and the Environment2022Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The informal economy - broadly defined as economic activity that is not subject to government regulation or taxation - sustains a large part of the world's workforce. It is a diverse, complex and growing area of activity. However, being largely unregulated, its impact on the environment has not been closely scrutinised or analysed. This edited volume demonstrates that the informal sector is a major source of environmental pollution and a major reason behind the environmental degradation accompanying the expansion of economic activity in developing countries. Environmental regulation and economic incentive policies are difficult to implement in this sector because economic units are unregistered, geographically dispersed and difficult to identify. Moreover, given their limited capital base, they cannot afford to pay pollution fees or install pollution- abating equipment. Informal manufacturing units often operate under unscientific and unhealthy conditions, further contributing to polluting the environment. The book emphasizes and examines these challenges, and their solutions, encountered in various sectors of the informal economy, including urban waste pickers, small- scale farmers, informal workers, home- based workers, street vendors and more. If the informal sector is to "Leave no one behind" (as the Sustainable Development Goals promise) and contribute to "inclusive growth" (an objective of the green economy), then its impact on the economy as well as the environment has to be carefully considered. This book marks a significant contribution to the literature on both the informal economy and sustainable development, and will be of great interest to readers in economics, geography, politics, environment studies and public policy more broadly.

  • 39.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.
    University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Karimu, A.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Regulation, governance and the role of the informal sector in influencing environmental quality2022Ingår i: The Informal Sector and the Environment / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Uma Kambhampati, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, s. 16-41Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of the informal sector and a range of governance indicators on both global and local pollutants for a panel of 58 countries during 1996–2011. The analysis employs a fixed effects-instrumental variable generalized method of moments approach. We find that the size of the informal sector has a significant impact on environmental quality, which is conditional on the level of economic development. For developing countries, the informal sector has a significant positive impact on local pollutants, whereas for the developed countries the informal sector has a significantly negative effect on global pollutants. The findings also reveal that the impact of governance depends on the type of governance measure, the level of economic development and the type of pollutant. Control of corruption emerges as the single most important factor, especially in the non-OECD countries, in improving environmental quality. We argue that the efficacy of an environmental policy for a country with a large informal sector will be low if the policy measures do not address governance, size of the informal sector and environmental policy targets.

  • 40.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kambhampati, U.
    University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Introduction2022Ingår i: The Informal Sector and the Environment / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Uma Kambhampati, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, s. 1-15Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The informal sector is core to the growth and livelihoods of many economies and is seen as both a highly dynamic sector and a fragile one. It provides significant amounts of employment across the world but the quality of this employment is often problematic, with employment in this sector characterised by ‘small or undefined work places, unsafe and unhealthy working conditions, low levels of skills and productivity, low or irregular incomes, long working hours and lack of access to information, markets, finance, training and technology’. As with all areas of regulatory control, there are two types of environmental regulation policies: command and control policies and economic incentives. Many studies suggest that informal economic activity should be formalised. Since pollution is an externality from production, government attempts to reduce it often take the form of taxes on pollutants and subsidies on the disposal of waste. This chapter presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.

  • 41.
    Nordin, Ida
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jansson, Torbjörn
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Optimal localisation of agricultural biofuel production facilities and feedstock: a Swedish case study2022Ingår i: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 910-941Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies for investment in biofuel production facilities and feedstock may be necessary in order to meet climate and renewable energy targets. These policies entail a trade-off between high transportation costs of biomass and economies of scale of production facilities. We develop a spatial optimisation model and investigate the cost-effective localization of production facilities for ethanol from agricultural land in Sweden. Feedstock costs are found to be most important in determining the location, although high feedstock density motivates locating large facilities in areas with high feedstock costs. At higher production, feedstock from the whole country is preferred despite high transport costs.

  • 42.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Center for Sustainability Research (CSR), Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karimu, Amin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Gråd, Erik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Sustainable development, renewable energy transformation and employment impact in the EU2022Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 695-708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The renewable energy transformation will impact the entire economy. We investigate the impact and interlinkages in employment and non-renewable energy with the renewable energy transition in Europe. We further assess the potential contributions of renewable energy and non-renewable energy to the variability (changes) of future employment, output, and carbon emissions within the European Union (EU). Analyzing recent data from 28 EU countries and Norway, we employ a panel vector autoregressive regression model to estimate the potential interlinkages. Our results suggest that the transition to renewable energy sources has a positive but small and significant net impact on average employment in EU. We further find that renewable energy consumption contributes substantially to the future changes in employment in the short and the medium term. The potential effect of employment on non-renewable fossil-fuel-based energy consumption is relatively lower. Moreover, future renewable energy consumption contributes significantly to variations in non-renewable energy, per capita carbon emissions and GDP per capita in the short and the medium-term. The contribution of non-renewable energy to the future variability in renewable energy consumption is low, reflecting the diminishing impact of fossil-fuel-based energy on renewable energy consumption.

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  • 43.
    Ek, Claes
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Department of Environmental Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,, Sweden.
    Which policy instrument do citizens and civil servants prefer? A choice experiment on Swedish marine policy2022Ingår i: Q Open, E-ISSN 2633-9048, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikel-id qoac002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the choice between alternative environmental policy instruments, economists tend to favor policies capable of attaining cost-efficiency, but other considerations may be more important to stakeholders. We perform a choice experiment modeled on Swedish water and marine policy to estimate preferences for different policy instruments among citizens and municipal civil servants. Both the modal citizen and the modal civil servant prefer direct regulation and subsidies to nutrient trading. Moreover, nutrient trading is unlikely to deliver sufficiently large cost savings for civil servants to prefer it to other instruments. These results are consistent with the apparent reluctance to adopt water quality trading in Europe.

  • 44.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Fredén, Annika
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Collegiality and efficiency in bureaucracy2022Ingår i: Public Policy and Administration, ISSN 0952-0767, E-ISSN 1749-4192, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 492-511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the relation between the design of regulatory agencies and efficiency, arguing that authority concentrated to a single individual outperforms more collegial decision-making when the regulated firms' interests are aligned. The tentative explanation is that concentrated leadership reduces the risk for capture. This argument is developed from an empirical case on the markets for mobile and fixed broadband. In the mobile market, the regulated firms are similarly positioned, whereas in the fixed broadband market, the firms typically have adversarial positions, with an incumbent being challenged by entrants. A statistical analysis of regulatory agencies in 33 European countries lends support to the argument that regulation of mobile broadband benefits from having a single decision-maker whereas a bureaucratic regulation with more collegiality functions as well for the fixed broadband.

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  • 45.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    Univ South Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway..
    Hagsten, Eva
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    High regional economic activity repels domestic tourism during summer of pandemic2022Ingår i: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 1209-1225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically how the regional economic activity, measured as the agglomeration of establishments, affects domestic travel and tourism flows during the COVID-19 summer of 2020. Domestic tourism flows are approximated by the number of overnight stays in all 96 French regions. Results from spatial estimations reveal that lower economic activity attracts more domestic tourists. This relationship becomes inflated if the neighbouring areas are characterized by equally sparse economic activity. In July and August 2020, regions with a 10% lower density of establishments (combined effect of within the same region and surrounding regions) have a between one and two percentage points higher growth rate in domestic overnight stays than others. The share of second homes is also significantly and positively related to domestic tourism. Coastal regions and regions surrounded by national parks have a larger growth in domestic overnight stays in August 2020 (by 15 and 24 percentage points, respectively). The counterfactual estimations based on data for the years prior to the pandemic (2017-2019) reveal that regions with a high establishment density are growing in domestic tourism. The other local characteristics investigated are either insignificant (direct effects) or have the opposite sign (spillover effects).

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  • 46.
    Falk, Martin Thomas
    et al.
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Domestic tourism demand in the North and the South of Europe in the Covid-19 summer of 20202022Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 69, s. 537-553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically changes in domestic summer tourism demand following the Covid-19 pandemic in 305 regions across six European countries (Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Spain and Sweden) based on official data. Five different groups of NUTS 3 regions are identified in accordance with a typology suggested by the OECD where density and connectivity are aspects of importance. Dynamic panel data estimations show that large metropolitan regions experience strong decreases in demand (approximately 30 per cent) both in July and August 2020. There are, however, clear differences between the Northern and Southern European countries. In the North, the remote regions encounter an increased demand that is partially offsetting losses in the large metropolitan regions. This pattern cannot be found in the South. The decline in domestic tourism flows to the major metropolitan areas is also more pronounced in the South of Europe, approximately 50 per cent per summer month compared with 20 per cent (July 2020) and stagnation (August 2020) in the North regions.

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  • 47.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Hagsten, Eva
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Importance of land characteristics for resilience of domestic tourism demand2022Ingår i: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empirically if land characteristics (especially forests and mountains) are of importance for the local ability to withstand the shock of the Covid-19 on domestic tourism demand during the summer of 2020. A second step of the analysis focuses on the recovery stage in the subsequent summer. Three tourism indicators are considered: arrivals, overnight stays and length of stay. Official data on land use characteristics of 2029 villages in the Federal state of Bavaria (South Germany) are employed for the analysis. Estimations using the Spatial Durbin model combined with the Heckman selection model reveal that there is a significant relationship between the proportion of forest within as well as surrounding the village and the demand for domestic tourism compared with the 2019 baseline. There is also a significant relationship with the altitude of the surrounding areas. The importance of mountains and forests is present in both the initial year of the pandemic and in the recovery year of 2021, although the magnitude is lower in the summer of 2021. Direct and spatial effects can also be found for lakes and rivers on overnight stays and length of stay.

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  • 48.
    Tafesse Tirkaso, Wondmagegn
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Zeleke Aklilu, Abenezer
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Youth rural-urban migration in Ethiopia: Environmental drivers and employment in the informal sector2022Ingår i: The Informal Sector and the Environment / [ed] Ranjula Bali Swain; Uma Kambhampati, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, s. 117-131Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic environmental degradation has been triggering youth rural to urban migration in developing countries. Environmental-driven migration pressure is intense in countries that rely on weather-dependent agriculture. Youth driven out of rural areas due to environmental factors end up in urban areas mostly seeking jobs without having the human capital needed to be employed in the formal sector. Thus, environmental factors push the youth into urban informal sectors. This chapter identifies environmental drivers of youth rural-urban migration and employment outcomes, using a survey of 700 youths from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which is combined with georeferenced weather data. Survey respondent youth mainly come from zones in Ethiopia that have experienced above average precipitation and temperature variability. This is corroborated by the youths’ responses. The survey respondents identify drought and flooding as the main environment-related reasons for migrating. Upon arriving in urban centers, the youth are informally employed mainly in construction, as daily laborers and in informal service sectors.

  • 49.
    Zeleke Aklilu, Abenezer
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wetland investment support schemes: adoption and spatial interactions2022Ingår i: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 98, nr 2, s. 292-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agri-environmental investment support that compensates landowners for the costs of wetland creation and restoration is considered an effective policy for increasing biodiversity and reducing nonpoint emissions in agricultural landscapes. This study assesses the extent to which such an agri-environmental scheme is propagated across landowners and examines determinants of the adoption of the policy in Sweden. Using spatiotemporal variations in the implementation of the scheme, we show that endogenous spatial interaction across landowners helps propagate the adoption of the scheme. We did not find spatial interactions to play a role in the disadoption of the scheme.

  • 50.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Institute of Retail Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    McKelvie, Alexander
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Do Targeted R&D Grants toward SMEs Increase Employment and Demand for High Human Capital Workers?2022Ingår i: Questioning the Entrepreneurial State: Status-quo, Pitfalls, and the Need for Credible Innovation Policy / [ed] Karl Wennberg; Christian Sandström, Cham: Springer, 2022, s. 175-198Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies on the employment effects of government R&D grants targeting SMEs are characterized by data-, measurement-, and selection problems, making it difficult to construct a relevant control group of firms that did not receive an R&D grant. We investigate the effects on employment and firm-level demand for high human capital workers of two Swedish programs targeted toward growth-oriented SMEs using Coarsened Exact Matching. Our most striking result is the absence of any statistically significant effects. We find no robust evidence that the targeted R&D grant programs had any positive and statistically significant effects on the number of employees recruited into these SMEs, or that the grants are associated with an increase in the demand for high human capital workers. The lack of statistically significant findings is troublesome considering that government support programs require a positive impact to cover the administrative costs associated with these programs.

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