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  • 801.
    Svallhammar, Stig
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Sannel, Bertil
    Sjö- och landtransporter2008Ingår i: Stockholm - Mälarregionen / [ed] Ulf Sporrong, Stockholm: Sveriges nationalatlas , 2008, s. 75-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 802.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Fish ponds in Scania, and Linnaeus's attempt to promote aquaculture in Sweden2012Ingår i: Svenska Linnésällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 0375-2038, s. 85-100Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 803.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Paolo Freire, Gayatri Spivak, and the (Im)possibiity of Education: The Methodological Leap in Pedagogy of the Oppressed and "Righting Wrongs"2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this essay is to find out and show as to whether the respective pedagogies of Paolo Freire and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak are free from the authoritarian and oppressive tendencies they both expressively seek to oppose. More specifically, the investigation presented in this text is focused on the relation between theory and method in Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Spivak’s “Righting Wrongs – 2002: Accessing Democracy among the Aboriginals.” The analysis of this relation, and these two texts, moreover, is informed by three interconnected research questions, asking (1) how Freire and Spivak prompt us to learn from the learner, (2) if Freire and Spivak manage to circumvent the danger of transference, of imposing the teacher’s agenda on the student, and (3) how the methodological leap (from theory to practice) of Freire and Spivak fit into their respective theorizing in a broader sense. As the inquiries above suggest, this essay pays close attention to the fact that Freire and Spivak both—albeit to different degrees—try to render their theories practicable, while still avoiding undemocratic methods that fail to take into account the voice and the reality of the student. By way of a close reading of some of Freire’s and Spivak’s central pedagogical concepts, a thorough scrutiny of the concrete methodological examples provided by the same scholars, and an analysis of Freire’s dialectical reasoning and Spivak’s Marxist/deconstructionist theorizing, this thesis aims to demonstrate that neither of these two theorists are completely successful in realizing their educational projects. In the case of Freire, this is primarily due to a methodological saving clause that ultimately functions so as to mute students whose voices are not resonant with that of the pedagogue, and in Spivak’s case, the failure finds its explanation mainly in the author’s deconstructionist tendency to resist the practice of offering concrete, overall solutions to complicated problems.

  • 804.
    Svensson, Jonas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Är den starkt växande vildsvinspopulationen ett hot mot tjäderns reden?2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on a previous documented method of manufacturing artificial nest containing pre-colored hen eggs. This method is going to be used to find, if the wild boar population, which is growing in number, is a threat to the capercaillie population.  In comparison to the wild boar population, the capercaillie population is diminishing in different parts of Sweden.  In order to find out if they are affect by each other, the case study was carried out during the months of April to May 2009. 100 artificial nests were placed out on various locations on the Södertuna estate just in the outskirts of Gnesta. The unique aspect of this study is that a fenced environment to keep out wild animals is used to conduct this study, which has been previously known to be free from wild boar, but the area outside has sittings of wild boar. So to fully understand how this affects the capercaillie population, 50 of the nests were placed outside the fence area, while the other 50 nests were placed inside the fenced area. The sites were visited on two separate occasions, and were noted of the changes inside and outside the fenced compounds. The result of these visits show that many of the nests inside the fenced environment has been consume by birds. It was not possible to prove that nests have been predated by wild boar, even the wild boar populations could be found outside of the fenced area. The statistical analysis has been carried out to determine the perdition rate on the nests and which of the two main groups the culprits belonged to. The significant difference came to a P <0.05. The predations on the artificial nests inside the fence were greater than the nest placed outside the fence. The total came to a 20 %, i.e. 20 of the 100 nests which were predated on, in total. 32%, i.e. 16 of the nests were attacked that were placed inside the fence and 8 %, i.e. 4 were attacked inside the fence. To observe closer at the species that targeted the nests inside the fence were crows/eurasian jay 18 % (9), badgers/fox 14 % (7) and wild boar 0 %. Outside the fence, the results were divided into division on crows/eurasian jay 2 % (1), badgers/fox 6 % (3) and wild boar 0 %. This study shows the wild boar population does not the pose a threat to the swindling population of the capercaillies population. But this case study demonstrates that there are other species that create a threat to the simulated nests, which is of an utter most importance to research into this particular subject into the future on reproduced artificial nests to investigate the perdition rates of capercaillies.

  • 805.
    Svensson, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Cooperation between botanical societies and academic institutions2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 806.
    Svensson, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Geografiska perspektiv på turismlitteratur2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att ha läst Turismprogrammet, med kulturgeografisk inriktning, på Södertörns Högskola föddes intresset för huruvida den turistiska litteraturen anknyter till ämnet geografi. Den allmänna uppfattningen av litteraturen på Turismprogrammet är att den är bristfällig och inte av önskad bredd. En eventuell geografisk anknytning är svår att hitta. Frågan är om det är ”dålig” litteratur på turismprogrammet eller om annan litteratur har samma brister. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning turismlitteratur knyter an till ämnet geografi.

    Urvalet av studerad litteratur är gjort för att få en så bred utgångspunkt som möjligt. Delar av litteraturen är vald beroende på att den är forskningsbaserad, medan andra delar beroende på att den används på Turismprogrammet. Den geografiska utgångspunkten är Holt-Jensens bok Geography – history and concepts. Uppsatsen är baserad på tre delar. Först presenteras ämnet geografi och de geografiska ämnesområden som anses vara av vikt för uppsatsen. Vidare presenteras läst turistisk litteratur för att ge en översiktlig beskrivning av litteraturens innehåll. Slutligen placeras turismlitteraturen in i en geografisk mall där eventuell geografisk anknytning presenteras och analyseras.

    Frågor som kommer att besvaras är:

    • Vad är geografi, utifrån Arild Holt-Jensens perspektiv i Geography – history and concepts 2003, och hur knyter turismlitteraturen an till detta perspektiv? Vad kan ämnet geografi erbjuda turismen och dess forskning?

    Granskningen av turismlitteraturen utifrån ett geografiskt perspektiv visar att endast en av de studerade böckerna domineras av ett geografiskt ämnesområde. Ytterligare en bok har visat sig ha en bred geografisk bas i jämförelse med övriga sex studerade böcker, då denne berör eller behandlar fem av sju böcker. Övriga böcker berör eller behandlar två till tre av de geografiska ämnesområdena.

    Slutsatserna av litteraturstudien är att turismlitteratur i stor utsträckning inte anknyter till ämnet geografi. Geografi är ett ämne som kan erbjuda den turistiska forskningen mycket, men som endast presenteras bristfälligt i studerad turismlitteratur.

  • 807.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Worms with only a single cilium S.: per animal2009Ingår i: Mechanisms of Development, ISSN 0925-4773, E-ISSN 1872-6356, Vol. 126, s. S17-S17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 808.
    Söderberg, Frida
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Volunteer that makes a difference or difference that makes a volunteer?: A study on the apprehension of roles and functions of European volunteers in Ghana2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en historisk tillbakablick ser man att västerlänningar länge och med olika motiv har varit närvarande i Afrika. De senaste i raden är unga volontärer som, istället för att vara turist i vanlig bemärkelse, åker till kontinenten för att arbeta inom organisationer som till exempel lärare. Denna studie, vars empiriska material bygger på en fältstudie i Ghana där kvalitativa intervjuer gjorts med tolv europeiska volontärer, syftar till att undersöka vilken förståelse volontärerna har av sin roll och funktion. För att skapa en idé kring syftet har frågor kring volontärkonceptets betydelse, motiv och effekter av volontärupplevelsen samt synen på västerlänningar och ghaneser ställts. I ljuset av postkolonialism och volontär turism visar studien på ett antal faktorer som förklarar motiv och volontärkonceptets betydelse, med fokus kring vikten av volontärens läroprocess och mognad. Effekterna handlar om kunskap kring utvecklingsfrågor och biståndsarbete samt en upplevelse av att kunna påverka ghaneser och utvecklingen i Ghana. De visar också på avståndstagande från både västerlänningar (som vill ”hjälpa” och har ”kolonialt” beteende) och ghaneser, samtidigt som de helst umgås med de förra. Volontärernas förståelse av sin roll och funktion upplevs tvådelad; uttryckt förstås den som någon som är i Ghana för att uppleva och lära sig, men det utläses också att de ser som sin uppgift att sprida sin livssyn, hjälpa lokalbefolkningen och medverka till utveckling. En möjlig förklaring till denna motsägelsefullhet kan vara att volontärerna, uppväxta i en tid där de lärt sig ”hur de ska tänka” om ”Vi” och ”Dem”, tar avstånd från allt som motsäger den synen men samtidigt är de också djupt påverkade av det västerländska samhällets fokus på skillnader mellan folk, skillnader med förtecken så som ”utvecklade” och ”underutvecklade”. Det skapar en komplexitet av att vara medveten om något men inte kunna leva efter det.  

  • 809.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Female inequality and the spreading of HIV/AIDS – a gender-based study2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading of HIV/AIDS has a gendered dimension. In this essay I focus on the gender roles that create different spheres for the sexes and how they are connected to the spreading of HIV/AIDS. The construction of masculinity hinders the HIV preventing efforts due to the social demands of having several partners and the dislike of using condoms. Sometimes it also results in gender-based violence. The female gender role narrows the possibilities for women to protect themselves. The women are struck harder by the disease because they are in a disadvantageous position in society where they have few means of economic independence and no control over their own bodies in their sexual relationships. The key is to change the gendered domain and the attitudes toward both men and women.

  • 810.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Is it rational to buy eco-labelled food?: A study of the knowledge of, willingness to pay for and reasons to purchase eco-labelled seafood in Sweden2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-labelling is a way to promote sustainable development. This is a quantified study about purchase behaviour regarding eco-labelled seafood in Sweden, based on interviews with a convenience sample of consumers in situ. The objectives were to establish how large the knowledge of eco-labelled seafood is, to investigate the reasons for acquiring the product and thus determine the prime driving force to do it. The willingness to pay for eco-labelled seafood was also investigated. The results show a low awareness where just about a quarter of the respondents knew that eco-labelled seafood existed. The willingness to pay was high; four out of five were ready to spend additional money on an eco-labelled product. Women displayed a higher willingness to pay than men, which supports previous research. Regarding the reasons to purchase the only options presented to the respondents were environmental concern, enhanced health or both alternatives in combination. Health as the single factor was the least preferred choice and the two other alternatives were favoured to an equal amount. A difference in purchase behaviour can be detected among respondents with awareness of ecolabelled seafood when compared to those without. Those aware stated a willingness to pay to a higher degree and also displayed more environmental concern and less health interest than those unaware of eco-labelled seafood.

  • 811.
    Talebi Ilkhechi, Laleh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen.
    Det dialogiska klassrummet: En kvalitativ studie om dialog mellan lärare och elever2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En vetenskaplig text. Hoppas att denna text blir till nytta för kommande studenter och blivande lärare.

  • 812. Tamas, I
    et al.
    Hodges, E
    Dessi, Patrick
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Johnsen, R
    Gomes, A V
    A combined approach exploring gene function based on Worm-Human Orthology2005Ingår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 6, s. 65-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many aspects of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans biology are conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates establishing this particular organism as an excellent genetic model. Because of its small size, large populations and self-fertilization of the hermaphrodite, functional predictions carried out by genetic modifications as well as RNAi screens, can be rapidly tested. Results: In order to explore the function of a set of C. elegans genes of unknown function, as well as their potential functional roles in the human genome, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to select the most probable worm orthologs. A total of 13 C. elegans genes were subjected to down-regulation via RNAi and characterization of expression profiles using GFP strains. Previously unknown distinct expression patterns were observed for four of the analyzed genes, as well as four visible RNAi phenotypes. In addition, subcellular protein over-expression profiles of the human orthologs for seven out of the thirteen genes using human cells were also analyzed. Conclusion: By combining a whole-organism approach using C. elegans with complementary experimental work done on human cell lines, this analysis extends currently available information on the selected set of genes.

  • 813. Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Transnational multi-stakeholder standardization: Organizing fragile non-state authority2010Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 814.
    Tengdahl, Hedvig
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Vad innebär CSR- i teorin och i praktiken?2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan mitten på förra seklet har många exempel på ohållbart företagande uppdagats, då media och NGOs visat allmänheten att många företag brustit i sitt sociala och miljömässiga ansvarstagande. Skandaler med korrupta chefer, orimliga chefsbonusar och brister i många fabrikers produktionsförhållanden har tyvärr blivit allt vanligare. Detta har lett till en intensiv debatt kring företagens ansvarstagande i samhället, inom vilken det finns åsikter både för och emot ett ökat ansvarstagande. 

    Begreppet Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har vuxit fram som en motkraft till företagens ansvarslöshet och är ett arbetsområde inom vilket företag kan arbeta för att utöka sitt sociala och miljömässiga ansvarstagande. CSR är ett paraplybegrepp för företagens ekonomiska, etiska, sociala och miljömässiga ansvarstagande och begreppet har ingen entydig definition. Syftet med denna uppsats är därför att genom en kvalitativ metod försöka redogöra för begreppet CSR mångbottnade betydelse. Många företag världen över arbetar idag med CSR och för att illustrera hur begreppet kan tolkas innehåller uppsatsen ett avsnitt som redogör för klädföretagen Odd Molly och WeSCs tolkningar av begreppet.

    Att företag idag arbetar med CSR har främst två anledningar som båda innebär ett konsekvensetiskt synsätt, där konsekvenserna av företagets agerande ska bli så bra som möjligt, så att företaget ska kunna vinna konkurrensfördelar. Det första skälet till att företag arbetar med CSR, är att många kunder idag föredrar att handla produkter och tjänster av företag som tar ett ökat samhällsansvar. Den andra anledningen är att många företag är rädda för att få ett medialt fokus som reflekterar negativt över verksamheten. För att minska sina chanser att bli granskade väljer därför många företag att arbeta med CSR i "det tysta", vilket undersökningen av Odd Molly och WeSCs CSR-arbete även bekräftar.

  • 815. Terragni, Laura
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Halkier, Bente
    Mäkelä, Johanna
    Can consumers save the world?: Everyday food consumption and dilemmas of sustainability2009Ingår i: Anthropology of Food, ISSN 1609-9168, E-ISSN 1609-9168, nr Sept.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 816.
    Thernström, Jens
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Dependency theory and China’s increased involvement on the African continent: The perception of foreign aid in Babati2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to discuss possible effects of an increase in African – Chinese relation above the historically more dominant Western – African dependency. There has recently both been an increase in trading between Africa and China and an increase in Chinese funded development on the African continent. But will Chinese aid over Western actually make that big a difference for Africa? African intellectuals see Chinese involvement as a way to break free from the neo-colonial ties to the West. A fair south-south relationship between Africa and China would indeed have that result but few indicators prove that that would be the case today. The trading interest from China is very similar to that from Western parties, a few valuable goods constitutes the major part of African nations export industry. A rapid growth in trading between China and Africa is not likely to bring African nations from the pattern they are historically used to having against western parties but to form a new trend of dependency towards Chinese interest. (Tull, 2006, s. 471) 

    To explain this relation between the African continent and both Western and Chinese interests dependency theory will be used. To fully explain dependency theory one will not only have to look at trading and exploatation of natural resources but also on a transference of social values and foreing involvment in African communities. To achieve this a series of interviews were conducted in Babati during the later parts of February and early March in 2010. This in coagency with an text analys provides a foundation for discussion about the implications  Chinese aid will have on the African dependency towards Western interests. 

    What can be extracted from this is that Chinese aid most likely will not lift Africa out of dependency in it’s current form. Trading interests from Chinese parties are to similar to the explotiative west to make a huge difference. African natural resources are traded against low-cost mass produced units and to  small of an profit is made for the African parties to make the exhange fair. But with the rise of China and the fact that China today finances a big part of the United States government a global power shift will occur and the traditional hegemoninc power structure will most likely change into an multi polar world order.  This change is important to study closer to understand what the effects might be for the African continent’s depenency towards foreign interests and specially the relation between China and USA is important though they are the biggests actors today in development work on the African continent.

  • 817.
    Thinning, Lena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Miljöpåverkan av vattenrenare M300: En studie av hur strävan efter hållbar utveckling kan integreras i framställning av produkten2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 818.
    Thompson, Iris Lee
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Agricultural Systems in Babati: Zea mays and its alternatives2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to give an understanding on the aspects that influences the choice of cropsand agricultural methods in Babati, Tanzania. Drought is a reoccurring problem in this part ofTanzania, which affects a majority of the towns’ farmers. This fact is likely to affect thechoice of crop as well as the limitations when it comes to the choices in cultivation. But thechoice itself has implications on its surrounding and can be affected by the surrounding. Tounderstand the circumstances, a wider picture will be depicted and an evaluation of thegeography of Babati and on its climate conditions. The results from this study suggest thatlack of crop rotation pose as a problem that should be studied. Furthermore, green manurefrom legumes and plants like Tithonia could be a less expensive alternative but can stillfunction as an effective fertilizer. Concerning the drought issue the study can not concludethat drought resistant crops would have any big improving effects. Nevertheless there is someevidence advocating that it could be apart of the solution in terms of avoiding some of thenegative effects brought on by drought.

  • 819.
    Thompson, Iris Lee
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Agricultural Systems in Babati: Zea mays and its alternatives2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to give an understanding on the aspects that influences the choice of cropsand agricultural methods in Babati, Tanzania. Drought is a reoccurring problem in this part ofTanzania, which affects a majority of the towns’ farmers. This fact is likely to affect thechoice of crop as well as the limitations when it comes to the choices in cultivation. But thechoice itself has implications on its surrounding and can be affected by the surrounding. Tounderstand the circumstances, a wider picture will be depicted and an evaluation of thegeography of Babati and on its climate conditions. The results from this study suggest thatlack of crop rotation pose as a problem that should be studied. Furthermore, green manurefrom legumes and plants like Tithonia could be a less expensive alternative but can stillfunction as an effective fertilizer. Concerning the drought issue the study can not concludethat drought resistant crops would have any big improving effects. Nevertheless there is someevidence advocating that it could be apart of the solution in terms of avoiding some of thenegative effects brought on by drought.

  • 820.
    Thor Thorvardarson, Haukur
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Fatique or Failure: An Investigation Into Youth-Centric Sexual and Reproductive Health Program2007Studentarbete andra termin, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is increasing pressure on NGOs in Tanzania who are working with sexual and reproductive health programs (SRHP) from foreign donors because the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken on emergency proportions. The risk of increasing interference into the policy shaping of domestic SRHP is that the programs lose their

    local relevance as they get too involved in pleasing foreign donor agendas in order to ensure donor funding. The aim of this study is to analyze the cooperation of The Tanzanian Family Planning Association (UMATI) UMATI and The Swedish Association for Sexuality Education (RFSU), who have jointly worked together to form the project Young Men as Equal Partners (YMEP). I argue that the YMEP project has failed to meet the needs of the adolescents with the peer-to-peer

    methodology as the needs of the adolescents are not being met. The reasons for this are twofold: the Eurocentric post-colonialist nature of the project planning and the local exclusion of adolescents in the project planning process as their sexual and reproductive rights are not being addressed in formal or informal education programs because of traditionalist values. This study is a qualitative study, which uses semi-structured interviews conducted in secondary schools in Manyara Region in Tanzania as a method of data collection. The theory used in this study is a literature review wherein empirical results from both individual and group interviews will be compared

    to other theoretical views. The conclusion of this study is that adolescents must be incorporated into the NGO programs as well as other stakeholders as this will perhaps challenge their traditionalist values and produce a sustainable behavioral change that will improve the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in The United

    Republic of Tanzania.

  • 821.
    Thor Thorvardarson, Haukur
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Stiring Up The Societal Gender Hierarchy Order: A Study in how Sexual and Reproductive Health Programs Are Challenging and Changing the Power Relationship between Young Men and Women2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of modernization, globalization and urbanization has begun to challenge the gender relationship between in Tanzania. Western influence and globalization factors such as religion, donor funds and mass media have propagated ideologies that have challenged and changed old rooted traditionalist ideas and created a power – knowledge struggle between males and females and older generations. Younger people are living a different lifestyle than their elders and are demanding more individualistic freedoms and are breaking away from cultural constructions such as the extended family. The aim of this study is to evaluate the gender policy of the male-centric sexual and reproductive programs called Young Men as Equal Partners (YMEP). The aim is to criticize the premise that male involvement sexual and reproductive health programs are the single best method to implement sustainable behavioural change. The raison d’être that these male involvement take for granted is that women generally are powerless to affect the behaviour of their partners, and are unable to negotiate with their partners to have safe sex or to change their behavioural patterns. The following study is a qualitative study, which uses semi-structured interviews conducted in secondary schools in Manyara Region in Tanzania as a method of data collection. The theory used in this study is social constructivism where empirical results from conducted interviews both individual and group interviews will be evaluated in the background of social constructivism. The conclusion of this study is that it is therefore imperative for the implementation of sustainable behavioural change that sexual and reproductive health programs do not only focus on single sex exclusion strategy which create knowledge-power gender inequalities, but rather it is more effective in order to implement sustainable sexual and reproductive behaviour change to include all the members of the community, and to tailor the program strategies to individual sexual and reproductive needs rather than focusing exclusively on one gender or social group.

  • 822.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Stockholm University.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates2008Ingår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 264-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria > M. balthica > M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccurnulation of both metals and organic contaminants.

  • 823.
    Thulin, Jonatan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Rum för lärande, med eller utan väggar: En studie om utomhusdidaktikens relation till inomhusdidaktiken samt biologiämnet2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den här uppsatsen har jag velat diskutera relationen mellan utomhusdidaktik respektive inomhusdidaktik som utgångspunkt för undervisningen i den svenska skolan. Ett annat syfte är att med utgångspunkt i ovan nämnda didaktiker fördjupa kunskaperna i utbildningsmetodik för lärare i allmänhet och biologilärare i synnerhet.

    Studien utgår från två frågeställningar som jag genom intervjuer med två representanter för utomhusdidaktik och två representanter för inomhusdidaktik har försökt besvara.

    Resultatet av denna studie visar att utomhusdidaktik och inomhusdidaktik kan vara mycket lika i sina fokus på de didaktiska frågorna. Ett undantag är var-frågan som är av större betydelse för utomhusdidaktiken. Studien visar även att utomhusdidaktik berör många fler ämnen än biologiämnet.

    En viktig slutsats är att undervisningen i skolan ofta saknar verklighetsförankring. Utomhusdidaktik och science-center-didaktik, som representerar inomhudidaktik i denna studie kan båda hjälpa skolan att konkretisera den ofta teoretiska undervisningen och bidra till en ökad förståelse hos eleverna.

  • 824.
    Thureborn, Olle
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Dynamics in submersed Charophyta vegetation in three Swedish lakes2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vegetationsdynamiken hos Charophytavegetation har studerats i tre grunda sjöar. De studerade sjöarna ligger ungefär 25 km sydost om Gävle, nära Östersjön. Sedimentproverna togs upp med hjälp av ett plaströr som fungerade som en sedimentprovtagare. Varje prov skivades sedan upp i tre skikt, undre, mellan och övre för att kunna studera vegetationsförändringar över tid. För de statistiska analyserna användes programmet R version 2.12.1 för windows. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur vegetationsdynamiken förändras över tid i de tre utvalda sjöarna och utveckla metoder för att kunna använda sporbanken till dessa undersökningar.

    Totalt hittades tre arter i de studerade sjöarna, Chara intermedia, Chara aspera och Chara tomentosa. Resultaten visar att Chara generellt uppför sig olika mellan de olika samhällena, sjöarna har olika vegetationsdynamik. C. aspera och C. intermedia visade sig ha riktade förändringar medan C. tomentosa visade tydliga tecken på patch dynamik. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån olika tolkningar, som eutrofiering, salthaltsvariation , intraspecifik konkurrens och founder eller dominance- kontrollerade samhällen.

    Kransalger är känsliga för eutrofiering och många av de svenska arterna är idag rödlistade. Förståelsen för vegetationsdynamiken hos kransalgsarter är därför av stor relevans. Denna studie visar att det är möjligt att göra en undersökning av vegetationsdynamikens förändring över tid genom att använda sig av en sporbank.

  • 825.
    Thörn, Camilla
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Samrådets utveckling vid MKB, utifrån MB i samordning till PBL2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of environmental impact assessments (EIA) is to increase the consideration for environmental matters and management of resources in the decision-making through a regulated process of consultation, irrespective of whether they are about projects of environmentally hazardous activities and water activities or plans of physical planning (land planning of natural and agricultural landscapes). The clarifcation of consultation in the environmental code connected to Legislation the planning and building Act, as well as its practical application in cases of significant impact, has catched my interest in environmental policy. The consultation should enable insight and influence from the ones particularly concerned, as well as the public and other actors that are to strive toward a sustainable development alongside the developer. Through systematically retrieving data from literature, practical application by authorities, and case studies, several important problems have been discerned in the consultations since the environmental code was introduced. The intention is to augment the public's insight and influence in the process by means of clarificationed in the environmental code, which is connected to the Legislation the planning and building act and the regulation of environmental impact assessment since 2004/ 2005.

    The clarification involves that concerns should be entered on an early stage, for instance already in stages where location and design are surveyed, and be included in the basic data for decision-making during the entire process up to a decision. Above all, it is important that standpoints are observed before projects and plans are fully developed, in order for proposed locations to be changed to alternative locations before the proceedings become too lengthy and the costs unreasonably high.

    The consultation-related problems may also be solved by creating a democratic collaboration from the start through planned communication planning. This will provide the conditions for a constructive and durable dialogue between different interested parties in the process and favour the environmental concerns, as well as saving costs up to the decision. In Legslation the planning and building Act, it is important to already in ”program consultation” discuss if the implementation of the plan may entail significant impact, in order for the consultations about EIA and plan to take place in a context in ”the plan consultation”. This makes it easier for interested parties in the consultation to understand the significance of the interference with the environment from the start, and thus counteracts conflicts. What has been found in the case studies by EIA:s from the time after the alteration of consultation, is that the wider stakeholder analysis is introduced earlier and that they have a clearer process and a shorter decision-making timeframe. In some project–EIA:s, however, the application made by the authorities is not fully clear in the environmental assessment process. This may entail that different interested parties in the consultation will not come in from the start, and/or that the project will not receive the environmental assessment process that is necessary. The actual consequences of the fact that environmental impact are being made visible through follow-up of the consultation and environmental impact in the EIA, is that the experiences are returned to monitoring and that the need of additional measures may be detected.

  • 826. Tinnert, A S
    et al.
    Månsson, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Yildirim, Håkan H
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hood, D W
    Schweda, Elke K H
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Structural investigation of lipopolysaccharides from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: investigation of inner-core phosphoethanolamine addition in NTHi strain 9812005Ingår i: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 340, nr 11, s. 1900-1907Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    LPS of NTHi comprises a conserved tri-L-glycero-D-manno-heptosyl inner-core moiety (L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1 -> 2)-[PEtn -> 6]-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1 -> 3)-[beta-D-Glcp-(1 -> 4)]-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1 -> 5)-alpha-Kdop) in which addition of PEtn to the central heptose (HepII) in strain Rd is controlled by the gene lpt6. It was recently shown that NTHi strain 981 contains an additional PEtn linked to O-3 of the terminal heptose of the inner-core moiety (HepIII). In order to establish whether lpt6 is also involved in adding PEtn to HepIII, lpt6 in strain 981 was inactivated. The structure of the LPS of the resulting mutant strain 981lpt6 was investigated by MS and NMR techniques by which it was confirmed that the lpt6 gene product is responsible for addition of PEtn to O-6 of HepII in strain 981. However, it is not responsible for adding PEtn to O-3 of HepIII since the 981lpt6 mutant still had full substitution with PEtn at HepIII

  • 827.
    Tong, Yong-Guang
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi. Karolinska Intsitutet.
    Regulatory function of homeobox genes in the development of Caenorhabditis elegans2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has been widely used as a genetic model for over 40 years to investigate developmental control genes. In this thesis, I studied the roles of several homeobox genes and a novel RNA binding protein (RBD) in the development of C. elegans to understand the function of these genes in higher organisms. Homeobox genes are transcriptional regulators that are highly conserved in evolution and play important domains in eukaryotes, and genes encoding this domain play roles in a wide variety of post-transcriptional gene regulation processes. In paper I, we characterized a novel protein, RNA binding domain-1 (RBD-1), which is involved in ribosome biogenesis. This protein contains six consensus RNA-binding domains and is conserved as to sequence, domain organization, and subcellular localization from yeast to human. RBD-1 is essential for the development of C. elegans. The RNAi experiments using the cDNA of RBD-1 demonstrated various abnormalities in the C. elegans development, such as defects in morphology (dumpy), incomplete molting, and defective gonadal and vulval development. Animals depleted for RBD-1 arrested mainly at the L1 larval stage. In the course of studying the homeobox genes, we often used the dye-filling assay. It is the simplest method presently used to assay the structural integrity of sensory cilia. In paper II, we optimized conditions, in which reliable staining of the inner labial (IL2) neurons could be obtained, namely in low salt conditions, in the presence of determethod to distinguish mutant alleles that stain amphids and phasmids, and IL2 neurons. Using this assay, we found that a mutation in the POU homeobox gene unc-86 abolished dye-filling in IL2 neurons but not amphids and phasmids. mids. In Paper III, we showed that the LIM homeobox gene ceh-14 was expressed in other sensory neurons and interneurons, including the phasmid neurons and the ALA interneuron, while previously it was shown that ceh-14 is expressed in the AFD neurons and required for thermotaxis behavior in C. elegans. ceh-14 mutant animals displayed defects in dendrite outgrowth of the phasmid neurons, while the ALA interneuron and some tail neurons showed ceh-14 and the paired-like homeobox gene ceh-17 act in the separate pathway to control normal axonal outgrowth of ALA neuron. Overexpression of CEH-14 in the nervous system may titrate out interacting factors, such as LDB-1, which caused developmental defects In paper IV, we investigated the function of four homeobox genes, ceh-6, ceh-26, ttx-1 and ceh-37, in the excretory cell development. We showed that the POU-III class homeobox gene ceh-6, the Prospero class homeobox gene ceh-26, and two otd/Otx family homeobox genes, ceh-37 and ttx-1 formed a regulatory hierarchy required for the development and function of the excretory cell in C. elegans. The excretory cell is required for maintaining osmotic balance and excreting waste products. While ceh-6 has previously been demonstrated to play a role in the excretory cell patterning, we showed here that ceh-26 and ceh-37 are expressed in the excretory cell. ceh-26 mutants arrested in early larval development with defects characteristic for a lack of excretory cell function. Double mutant of the otd/Otx genes ceh-37 and ttx-1 was displaying larval arrest, consistent with the excretory cell dysfunction, which indicates that there is functional redundancy between these two genes. Using mutant alleles and RNAi, we showed that ceh-26::GFP and ceh-37::GFP was down-regulated in ceh-6 mutants. Further, we found that ceh-37::GFP was down-regulated in the ceh-26 genes, such as channel proteins (the target genes ) that are expressed in the excretory cell and found that only a subset of the genes regulated by ceh-6 was also regulated by ceh-37/ttx-1. We mapped the promoter regions of ceh-26 and of the target gene clh-4 to identify putative homeodomain proteins binding sites. Given that these homeobox genes are well conserved in evolution, we may expect that parts of this cascade are also conserved in other organisms.

  • 828.
    Tong, Yong-Guang
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Conditions for dye-filling of sensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans2010Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 188, nr 1, s. 58-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye-filling is a common method used to stain Caenorhabditis elegans ensory neurons in vivo. While the amphids and phasmids are easy to tain, a subset of sensory neurons, the IL2 neurons, are difficult to tain reproducibly. Here we examined the conditions under which the IL2 eurons take up the lipophilic fluorescent dye DiI. We find that IL2 ye-filling depends on salt concentration, but not osmolarity. Low salt rior and during incubation is important for efficient dye uptake. dditional parameters that affect dye-filling are the speed of shaking uring incubation and the addition of detergents. Our modified ye-filling procedure provides a reliable method to distinguish mutant lleles that stain amphids and phasmids, IL2 neurons, or both. An dditional benefit is that it can also stain the excretory duct. The ethod allows genetic screens to be performed to identify mutants that electively affect only one of the sensory structures or the excretory uct.

  • 829.
    Tong, Yong-Guang
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Meenon, K.
    Meenon, K.
    Prétôt, R.
    Viktorin-Aspöck, G.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    A regulatory network of homeobox genes is required for the function of the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory cellManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 830.
    Truskauskaite, Alina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Utvecklingsmöjligheter av gränsöverskridande turism vid den polsk-slovakiska gränsen: En studie om två nationalparker2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om turismutvecklingen i gränsregionen vid den polsk-slovakiska gränsen, där Pieniny nationalparker som finns på var sin sida av den nationella gränsen uppmärksammas. I studien ställs frågor om möjligheter att utveckla turismen i en region mellan två länder, vilka restriktioner begränsar denna verksamhet och i vilken utsträckning har utvecklats samarbete som gäller turismfrågor mellan Polen och Slovakien.

    I uppsatsen används ett relevant teoretiskt material om regioner, statliga gränser, gränsöverskridande samarbete, förbindelserna mellan nationalparker och turismen samt turismplaneringen i skyddade områden. Det empiriska materialet om ämnet samlas in genom observation på fältet och intervjuer på båda Pieniny nationalparkerna i gränsregionen mellan Polen och Slovakien samt på Ekonomidepartementet i Slovakiens huvudstad Bratislava.

    Efter en utfört analys kommer författaren till följande slutsatser:

    • turismutvecklingens möjligheter i gränsregionen finns på grund av två Pieniny nationalparker som finns på båda sidorna av gränsen och utgör ett odelbart ekologiskt system; tillhörande EU och Schengen frigör rörligheten av människor i gränsområdet; transporter och kommunikationer har möjligheten att utvecklas i samband med turismutvecklingen vid gränsen,
    • turismutvecklingens restriktioner i gränsregionen innebär den utspridda organiseringen av turismplaneringen; den känsliga naturen i nationalparkerna kräver en särskild hänsyn inom turismutvecklingens process; en stor andel av privatägdmark i nationalparkerna försvårar planeringen; brist på tillgänglighet bromsar turismens utveckling; olika lagar i Polen och Slovakien komplicerar en enhetlig turismutveckling i gränsregionen; olika valutor i Polen och Slovakien besvärar turister som kommer på besök,
    • samarbete inom turismplaneringen i den polsk-slovakiska gränsregionen har påbörjats, men fortfarande befinner sig i en utvecklingsfas.
  • 831.
    Truskauskaite, Alina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Wojtczuk, Ann-Sofi
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Anpassningar till ekonomiska svängningar bland aktörer inom mötesindustrin: med konferensanläggningar i Stockholm och Göteborg som exempel2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 832.
    Turegård, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Traditional forest reserves and their contribution to conservation biology in Babati District, Tanzania2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional forest reserves are protected natural forests established by ancestors to perform many socio-cultural functions and are protected in accordance to customary laws, not based on government legislation. These reserves generally have a long history with well preserved forests that could demonstrate what the surrounding environment could have looked liked, if humans had not altered it. Therefore, the traditional forest reserves might have significant ecological value and a potential high biodiversity. During February and March of 2009 a field study with semi-structured interviews and field observations was carried out in Babati District in Manyara Region in Tanzania, to study the possible contribution TFRs might have to conservation. The information collected were then analysed using Metapopulation Theory, Island Biogeography Theory and local knowledge concepts. The analysis indicates that there is a higher biodiversity in TFRs compared to surrounding areas and unprotected forests as a result of a rigid traditional protection that local people respect. Further on the MPT and IBT show how TFRs could benefit conservation as islands of refuge for threatened species or as migration corridors between nearby forest reserves and national parks. The future for TFRs and possible conversion into CBFM must include respect and support for the local beliefs as a basis for protection and thereby conservation.

  • 833.
    Tynnerson, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Community Based Wildlife Management: its Role in Conservation and Development2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has exceptional wildlife, environment and natural resources. The traditional way of conserving nature and wildlife has been through parks and reserves. In the 1980’s community based conservation emerged as a resource management paradigm. Its premise was that giving local people a stake in wildlife would increase their incentive to conserve it. This would make wildlife an important engine of local economic development. The core elements in community based conservation projects concern development, conservation and sustainable land use. Its ambition both to improve conditions for the local communities and conserve wildlife seems like a win-win situation, but has this really been working that well when applied in the field? This study aims to review the Community Based Wildlife Management in Tanzania, exemplified by a case study in the Wildlife Management Area in Burunge, located in a migration corridor between two national parks. There has been much controversy surrounding community-based management projects. While gains for the local communities have not always been clear, gains for wildlife seem more evident. Both species numbers and individuals have increased, but at the same time there has also been increasing conflicts between locals and wildlife. This is a sign that the WMAs are only halfway to towards reaching their goal of improving conditions for both communities and wildlife. CBC stills seems like the way forwards, maybe in a modified form which allows more government control, but where local people’s rights are still respected.

  • 834.
    Uddare, Rebecca
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Biotopskydd av stenmurar: Skäl för dispens2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Stone walls in agricultural land are incorporated in the general protection of biotopes. They are protected because they provide a habitat for endangered species. Therefore it is illegal to carry out proceedings in an area that is included in the protection of biotopes. In order to do that, exemption is needed which can only be granted if there are special reasons. The essay stipulates what these special reasons are.

    In an exemption errand the interest for nature conservation must be weighed against a public or a private interest. Administrators have varying opinions on how the interest for nature conservation, contra individual and public interests shall be evaluated. The interest for nature conservation has a lower value if the wall lacks endangered species or if stone walls are common in the area. But a lower value, in itself, can never be considered as special reasons.

    When it comes to a public interest, it must be an important one in order to bring about an exemption. Examples of important public interests are animal and health protection.

    Private interests are often constituted by the desire to improve the farming profitability. This is however rarely considered as an “unforeseen situation”, and therefore - according to preparatory work - it is not judged as special reasons.

    One conclusion is that the County Administrative Boards need improved guidance. Another conclusion is that exemption shall be used restrictively. Exemptions are not supposed to solve all problems due to protection of stone walls in agricultural land. They ought to be the solution when no other reasonable alternatives can be found.

  • 835.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Rabilloud, Louise
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hazardous substances: a case study of environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea region2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context.

     

    The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.

    WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.

    WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.

    WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public.

     

    In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.

  • 836.
    Ulaner, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Bio-cultural Rights, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Interacting Regimes and Epicentres of Power2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the struggle over rights to benefits and ownership of plant genetic resources and the global regime complex on the management of plant genetic resources, and how different regimes concerning these resources cooperate or stand in opposition to each other. Because of changes in US patent law and the establishment of TRIPS, patent claims over plant genetic resources has increased dramatically globally. This, amongst other things, in turn has lead to the acrimonious negotiations of access and benefit sharing arrangements within the framework CBD. The objective of this thesis is to examine the interaction between the international regimes regulating genetic resources and intellectual property and to analyse how these regime interactions, affect the protection of traditional knowledge held by local communities, indigenous peoples and small farmers in developing countries. The thesis concludes that it exists several regime interactions that are disruptive and undermine the possibility of protecting traditional knowledge from misappropriation. It is further concluded that modifications of the existing IPR regimes, on the disclosure of inventions, with a certificate of legal provenance, securing FPIC, MAT and benefit sharing, may serve as one brick in the wall that protect traditional knowledge from misappropriation through wrongly granted patents. But a certificate of legal provenance will not do the work alone. To protect traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources in the long term bio-cultural solutions which sustains the entire community where traditional knowledge is embedded is needed.

  • 837.
    Ulaner, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Privatiseringen av de växtgenetiska allmänningarna: Konsekvenserna av regimkomplexet kring växtgenetiska resurser för bönders rättigheter och matsäkerhet2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar det globala regimkomplexet för förvaltningen av växtgenetiska resurser för livsmedel och jordbruk, samt hur avtalen rörande dessa resurser samverkar eller står i motsättning till varandra. I och med förändringar i amerikansk patentlagstiftning och upprättandet av TRIPS har patentanspråk på växtgenetiska resurser ökat dramatiskt, vilket i sin tur påverkade tillkomsten av CBD vilken innefattar upprättandet av lagstiftning rörande tillträde till och den rättvisa fördelningen av nyttor härstammande från, genetiska resurser. För att möjliggöra ett relativt fritt flöde av växtgenetiska resurser har ITPGRFA med dess multilaterala system fram förhandlats. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka konsekvenser den nuvarande globala förvaltningen av växtgenetiska resurser för livsmedel och jordbruk kan få för jordbruksforskning, småbönders rättigheter och matsäkerhet i Syd. Uppsatsen visar på hur patent och tillträdeslagstiftningar skapar en situation där fler och fler parter innehar rättigheter att utestänga andra från att nyttja dessa, för den globala matsäkerheten, essentiella resurser. Vidare visas på hur det samtidigt pågår processer inom UPOV som riskerar att undanta bönder rätten att spara utsäde och därmed göra dem beroende av de i allt högre grad monopolartade frömarknaderna, vilka domineras av att fåtal multinationella företag. Här konstateras även att ITPGRFAs multilaterala system är en öppning i detta hyperägande, men att det internationella samfundet samtidigt måste försäkra att patentanspråk inte kränker bönders rättigheter till sina resurser.

  • 838. Underwood, J N
    et al.
    Souter, Petra B
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ballment, E R
    Lutz, A H
    van Oppen, M J H
    Development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers from herbicide-bleached tissues of the brooding pocilloporid coral Seriatopora hystrix2006Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Notes, ISSN 1471-8278, E-ISSN 1471-8286, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 176-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report the isolation of 44 microsatellites from the brooding, pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora hystrix, developed from a partial genomic DNA library using a repeat enrichment protocol. A further eight previously published microsatellites were also tested; five of these were developed for S. hystrix, whereas three were isolated from corals of the closely related genus Pocillopora. Out of these, we incorporated nine and 10 primer pairs into two multiplex reactions that reliably amplified polymorphic microsatellites in populations from the west and the east coast of Australia, respectively. Number of alleles ranged from three to 22 per locus.

  • 839. Unell, Maria
    et al.
    Nordin, Karolina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm Universtiy.
    Jernberg, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Stenström, John
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Degradation of mixtures of phenolic compounds by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A62008Ingår i: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 495-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the chlorophenol-degrading actinobacterium, Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6, was tested for its ability to grow on mixtures of phenolic compounds. During the experiments depletion of the compounds was monitored, as were cell growth and activity. Activity assays were based on bioluminescence output from a luciferase-tagged strain. When the cells were grown on a mixture of 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol and phenol, 4-chlorophenol degradation apparently was delayed until 4-nitrophenol was almost completely depleted. Phenol was degraded more slowly than the other compounds and not until 4-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol were depleted, despite this being the least toxic compound of the three. A similar order of degradation was observed in non-sterile soil slurries inoculated with A. chlorophenolicus. The kinetics of degradation of the substituted phenols suggest that the preferential order of their depletion could be due to their respective pKa values and that the dissociated phenolate ions are the substrates. A mutant strain (T99), with a disrupted hydroxyquinol dioxygenase gene in the previously described 4-chlorophenol degradation gene cluster, was also studied for its ability to grow on the different phenols. The mutant strain was able to grow on phenol, but not on either of the substituted phenols, suggesting a different catabolic pathway for the degradation of phenol by this microorganism.

  • 840.
    Unesi, Edessa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    From Dumping to Production Allocation: A Critical Evaluation of the Consequences of the Corporate Food Regime2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from a US-centered food regime, shaped by protectionist state-governed agriculture, to a corporate food regime, focusing on establishing transnational agribusinesses, led to various changes in livestock production and trade. This essay investigates the extent to which this shift has affected the trade relations between Brazil, Sub-Saharan Africa and the EU, by
    comparing trends in trade and production of poultry.

    By using statistics from trade databases Comtrade and the Market Access Database, trends in Brazilian export flows to selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are presented and evaluated. These trends suggest an increase in Brazilian poultry import to some countries, namely South Africa, Cameroon, Senegal and Gabon, not including the dramatic drop in 2006, possibly caused by exogenous factors, such as a global decrease in poultry demand because of outbreaks of Avian Influenza. European trade with Sub-Saharan Africa has to a  moderate degree decreased or stagnated in some countries in the region, which could be explained by a high European domestic demand and a strong euro.

    The agribusiness structure in Brazil suggests a strong connection to the characteristics making up the corporate food regime, and their success and expansion point toward a continued increase in poultry market shares, in turn suggesting stronger influence on the global market. Hence, the gains of trade liberalization are toned down for developing countries, seeing that trade with subsidized developed countries is being replaced with that of developing countries.

  • 841.
    Unesi, Edessa
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Wagman, Rickard
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    EU:s jordbrukssubventioner och dess ekonomiska effekter på Afrika söder om Sahara2007Studentarbete andra termin, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats
  • 842. van Elsas, Jan Dirk
    et al.
    Costal, Rodrigo
    Jansson, Janet
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Bailey, Mark
    Nalin, Renaud
    Vogel, Timothy M.
    van Overbeek, Leo
    The metagenomics of disease-suppressive soils - experiences from the METACONTROL project2008Ingår i: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 591-601Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil teems with microbial genetic information that can be exploited for biotechnological innovation. Because only a fraction of the soil microbiota is cultivable, our ability to unlock this genetic complement has been hampered. Recently developed molecular tools, which make it possible to utilize genomic DNA from soil, can bypass cultivation and provide information on the collective soil metagenome with the aim to explore genes that encode functions of key interest to biotechnology. The metagenome of disease-suppressive soils is of particular interest given the expected prevalence of antibiotic biosynthetic clusters. However, owing to the complexity of soil microbial communities, deciphering this key genetic information is challenging. Here, we examine crucial issues and challenges that so far have hindered the metagenomic exploration of soil by drawing on experience from a trans-European project on disease-suppressive soils denoted METACONTROL.

  • 843. Vilhelmsson, Monica
    et al.
    Glaser, Andreas G.
    Martinez, Daniel Badia
    Schmidt, Margit
    Johansson, Catharina
    Rhyner, Claudio
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheynius, Annika
    Crameri, Reto
    Achour, Adnane
    Zargari, Arezou
    Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in IgE-binding to the Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 112008Ingår i: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 294-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The yeast Malassezia sympodialis, which is an integral part of the normal cutaneous flora, has been shown to elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in atopic eczema (AE) patients. The M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 11 has a high degree of amino acid sequence homology to manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from Homo sapiens (50%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (56%). Humoral and cell-mediated cross-reactivity between MnSOD from H. sapiens and A. fumigatus has been demonstrated. Taken together with the recent finding that human MnSOD (hMnSOD) can act as an autoallergen in AE patients sensitised to M. sympodialis, we hypothesized that cross-reactivity could also occur between hMnSOD and Mala s 11, endogenous hMnSOD thus being capable of stimulating an immune response through molecular mimicry. Herein we demonstrate that recombinant Mala s 11 (rMala s 11) is able to inhibit IgE-binding to recombinant hMnSOD and vice versa, indicating that these two homologues share common IgE-binding epitopes and providing an explanation at a molecular level for the autoreactivity to hMnSOD observed in AE patients sensitised to Mala s 11. Using molecular modelling and mapping of identical amino acids exposed on the surface of both Mala s 11 and hMnSCE) we identified four regions each composed of 4-5 residues which are potentially involved in IgE-mediated cross-reactivity. Mutated rMala s 11 molecules were produced in which these residues were altered. Native-like folding was verified by enzymatic activity tests and circular dichroism. The rMala s 11 mutants displayed lower IgE-binding in comparison to wild-type rMala s 11 using plasma from AE patients. In particular, mutation of the residues E29, P30, E122 and K125 lowered the IgE-binding to Mala s 11. The results of this study provide new insights in the molecular basis underlying the cross-reactivity between Mala s 11 and hMnSOD.

  • 844. Visram, Shakil
    et al.
    Yang, Ming-Che
    Pillay, Ruby Moothien
    Said, Sadri
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Chen, Chaolun Allen
    Genetic connectivity and historical demography of the blue barred parrotfish (Scarus ghobban) in the western Indian Ocean2010Ingår i: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 157, nr 7, s. 1475-1487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on genetic connectivity are essential for the design of management strategies for coral reef fisheries. In this study we used a mitochondrial DNA marker to investigate population structure of the reef-associated parrotfish, Scarus ghobban, from four countries, Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania, in the western Indian Ocean. We obtained nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial control region for 117 individuals. Measures of haplotype diversity were relatively high. Pairwise population differentiation (F (ST)) was low, but not always non-significant. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed genetic differentiation between groups, when the data was partitioned into two groups consisting of samples from Mauritius and Tanzania in one group, and samples from Kenya and Seychelles in another group. Direction of gene flow was estimated using a Bayesian approach. Migration was sometimes asymmetric or directional, coinciding with the flow of major oceanic and coastal currents in the region. Mismatch distributions, based on the observed number of differences among haplotype pairs, produced a unimodal distribution, indicative of recent demographic expansion. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades without any geographic structure, suggesting recent migration between historically isolated lineages. We reconstructed the historical demography of S. ghobban and examined it in the context of Pleistocene climate stages and changes in relative sea level. Overall, these results showed that populations of S. ghobban are genetically diverse and have relatively high gene flow, with some genetic structuring in the western Indian Ocean.

  • 845. Vladic, Tomislav
    et al.
    Forsberg, Lars A.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Sperm competition between alternative reproductive tactics of the Atlantic salmon in vitro2010Ingår i: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 302, nr 04-mar, s. 265-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of brood stock in appropriate conditions is an important equirement for the production of high quality offspring. In this study, e investigated fertility of the two life history forms of Atlantic almon males, precocious parr, brought up in breeding tanks in the atchery and anadromous, migratory searanched males, caught when eturning to the home river. The sperm quality was assessed by xperiments between equal amount of sperm from one adult and one parr ale in competition to fertilize eggs of a single female. The paternity as determined by a microsatellite analysis. Parr males achieved greater eproductive success than anadromous males under competition, and nadromous adults had greater fertility in controls as compared to the perm competition situation. In total, parr males achieved 3.6 times reater fertilization success than anadromous males. Sperm ATP content ontributed significantly to male fertility. Our results provide vidence that ejaculates of precociously mature Atlantic salmon parr are f increased quality as an adaptation to high sperm competition ntensity due to better maintenance in the fish farm than in the wild.

  • 846.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Kot-Wasik, Agata
    Gdańsk University of Technology.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): Persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour2012Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 178, nr 2, s. 282-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 ng/L and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminization of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analyzed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  • 847.
    von der Weid, Irene
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Artursson, V
    Seldin, L
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. SLU.
    Antifungal and root surface colonization properties of GFP-tagged Paenibacillus brasilensis PB1772005Ingår i: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 0959-3993, E-ISSN 1573-0972, Vol. 21, nr 8-9, s. 1591-1597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the potential of Paenibacillus brasilensis strain PB177 to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi commonly causing maize diseases and to colonize maize plants. In vitro assays demonstrated antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium moniliforme and Diplodia macrospora. The PB177 strain was tagged with the gfp gene, encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-tagged bacteria were detected attached to maize roots by stereo- and confocal microscopy. The GFP-tagged bacteria were also used to treat maize seeds before challenging the seeds with two phytopathogenic fungi. The results demonstrated that the bacterial cells are mobilized to the maize roots in the presence of the fungal pathogens. The ability of P. brasilensis PB177 to inhibit fungal growth in vitro and its capability of colonization of maize roots in vivo suggest a potential application of this strain as a biological control agent. This is the first report on the successful introduction of the GFP marker gene into a P. brasilensis strain, enabling the direct observation of these promising plant growth promoting bacteria on maize roots in situ.

  • 848.
    Vujovic, Milica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    High Maternal Thyroid Hormone Reverses Glycogen Deficiency in Mice with Dominant Negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor a12008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
  • 849. Wagner, Claudia S.
    et al.
    Roelle, Alexander
    Cosman, David
    Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Intstiute.
    Achour, Adnane
    Structural elements underlying the high binding affinity of human cytomegalovirus UL18 to leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-12007Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 373, nr 3, s. 695-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes UL18, a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I homologue that binds to the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LIR)-1 (also called ILT2/CD85j/LILRB1), an inhibitory receptor expressed on myeloid and lymphoid immune cells. The molecular basis underlying the high affinity binding of UL18 to LIR-1, compared to MHC class I molecules (MHC-I), is unclear. Based on a comparative structural analysis of a molecular model of UL18 with the crystal structure of the HLA-A2/LIR-1 complex, we identified three regions in UL18 influencing interaction with LIR-1. Comparison of the relative binding affinities of mutated UL18 proteins to LIR-1 demonstrated the importance of specific residues in each region. Substitution of residues K42/A43 and Q202, localized in the alpha 1 and alpha 3 domains, respectively, reduced binding affinity to LIR-1 nearly by half. The model also suggested the formation of an additional disulfide bridge in the 0 domain of UL18 between residues C240 and C255, not present in MHC-I. Substitution of either cysteine residue prevented association of UL18 to beta(2)m, abolishing binding to LIR-1. All observed differences in binding affinities translated directly into functional consequences in terms of inhibition of IFN-gamma production by T cells, mediated through the UL18-LIR-1 interaction. The larger amount of interacting regions, combined with an increased stability of the alpha 3 and beta(2)m domains allow a higher recognition affinity of UL18 by LIR-1.

  • 850.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    The CHD chromatin remodeling factors in schizosaccharomyces pombe2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of chromatin structure is essential in a wide variety of processes including transcriptional regulation, recombination, replication, chromosome segregation, development and differentiation. The enzymes that are central in regulating chromatin structure can be classified into two major groups. The first group of proteins consists of the histone modifying enzymes that catalyse the addition or removal of posttranslational modifications of histones. The second group of proteins is the highly conserved ATP-dependent remodeling factors that modify the nucleosome structure. Evidence is emerging that these two groups of proteins are intimately linked in chromatin function. This thesis describes the roles of the S. pombe Hrp1 and Hrp3 CHD remodeling factors in chromatin regulation, which have been shown to be important in centromere function and transcriptional regulation. The Hrp remodeling factors are functionally linked to the histone chaperone Nap1 as well as acetylation and methylation activities. We have demonstrated that Hrp1 has both independent and overlapping roles with Hrp3 in regulating centromere assembly and function. Both hrp1 and hrp3 deficient cells are disrupted in centromere silencing and display various chromosome segregation defects indicative of functions at both the outer repeats and the central core of the centromere. These phenotypes are likely to originate from the requirement of Hrp1 in keeping the centromeres hypoacetylated and for maintaining the histone H3 variant CENP-A at the central core of the centromere. Genetic interactions combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation indicate that Hrp1 stimulates CENP-A assembly during DNA replication. In addition to their centromere functions, the Hrp remodeling factors contribute to transcriptional regulation by promoting histone removal. Biochemical purifications identified a physical interaction between Hrp1 and Hrp3 and with the histone chaperone Nap1. Consistent with the physical interaction data, genome wide analysis showed that the CHD remodeling factors together with Nap1 have a common function in removing histones particularly at promoter regions. Interestingly, we found that histone disassembly in coding regions by both Hrp1 and Hrp3 promote transcriptional activation. Cell synchronisation studies revealed that the Hrp1 dependent histone disassembly occurs in a DNA replication independent manner. A functional interaction between acetylation and remodeling activity was established based on the high degree of overlap between the Hrp ATPases, regions affected by Nap1 histone density, and corresponding histone deacetylase and histone acetylase targets. Finally, we discovered that regions with upregulated genes and altered levels of histone modifications in the HDAC clr6-1 mutant were significantly similar to equivalent lists for the histone demethyl transferase swm1 mutant. In addition, the same regions with upregulated genes and effects on histone modification levels in the swm1 and clr6 mutant overlapped with Hrp1 and Hrp3 binding targets. Thus, it is likely that Swm1 act in concert with Clr6 and Hrp1 to mediate transcriptional silencing. Thus, HDACs, HATs, and HMTs are intimately linked in vivo to CHD nucleosome remodeling factors as well as histone chaperones in centromere assembly and transcriptional regulation.

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