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  • 51.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    The Europeanization of the Swedish State2016Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, s. 515-528Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Variation och likformighet i granskningen2019Ingår i: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 225-245Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Johannesson, Livia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Weinryb, Noomi
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Förvaltningsakademin.
    Juridifiering till priset av försvårad styrning inom asylprövningen2019Ingår i: Granskningssamhället: Offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 187-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54.
    Kopp, Sebastian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Lika men ändå olika: Analys av hur Göteborgs och Stockholms Stad agerar i frågan om utsatta EU-medborgare2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The question concerning vulnerable EU-citizens has been widely debated in Sweden the last few years. Due to unclear legislation and strong municipal self-determination municipalities act differently regarding vulnerable EU-citizens. The purpose for the dissertation is therefore to analyse how Stockholm and Gothenburg City acts and collaborates with non-profit organisations in the question concerning vulnerable EU-citizens and whether the approaches can, according to the theory of territorial governance, be viewed as effective. The dissertation has showed that Gothenburg City has created a common action plan with surrounding municipalities in order to expand their territory. Gothenburg have also signed an IOP-agreement with several non-profit organisations in order for them to act together. The dissertation has showed that an IOP-agreement can be equated to an effective and sustainable partnership. Stockholm City on the other hand has not expanded their territory, since an equivalent interpretation of the law is important to the municipality. No IOP-agreement has been signed and a reason for this could be that the relationship between non-profit organisations in Stockholm City has historically been characterized by competition instead of trust. Due to the complex question concerning vulnerable EU-citizen, new forms of partnership has though been developed in Stockholm City.

  • 55.
    Musial, Kazimierz
    University of Gdansk , Poland.
    Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education2010Ingår i: Tertiary Education and Management, ISSN 1358-3883, E-ISSN 1573-1936, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 45-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change stipulates HEIs to respond to environmental needs, and the external stakeholders often assume greater prominence relative to the internal ones. This development is explained by a paradigmatic shift in the concept of good governance. Furthermore, the Stakeholder Society perspective is used to investigate the changing position and meaning of stakeholders in Nordic higher education.

  • 56.
    Musial, Kazimierz
    University of Gdansk , Poland.
    Reformy edukacji wyższej w Finlandii w obszarze finansowania szkół wyższych2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finnish system of education is widely discussed and often used as role model of a modern educational system that is adjusted to the needs of the society and national economy. This analysis covers current issues pertaining to the functioning of Finnish higher education institutions and to their finances. It attempts to point at mechanisms and institutions that are responsible for the functioning of the higher education system, by paying attention to the professional, administrative and legal issues. With a short reference to the historical developments, the most important higher education reforms are presented as changing the financial foundation of the whole sector. In a comparative perspective it may be seen as innovative thinking about public management and about efficient use of the public finances.

  • 57.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology / Swedish Defence University.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    The Invisible Hand? Critical Information Infrastructures, Commercialisation and National Security2018Ingår i: The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 0393-2729, E-ISSN 1751-9721, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 124-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporatisation of critical information infrastructure (CII) is rooted in the ‘privatisation wave’ of the 1980s-90s, when ground was laid for outsourcing public utilities. Despite well-known risks relating to reliability, resilience, and accountability, commitment to efficiency imperatives have driven governments to outsource key public services and infrastructures. A recent illustrative case with enormous implications is the 2017 Swedish ICT scandal, where outsourcing of CII caused major security breaches. With the transfer of the Swedish Transport Agency’s ICT system to IBM and subcontractors, classified data and protected identities were made accessible to non-vetted foreign private employees – the sensitive data could thus now be anywhere. This case clearly demonstrates accountability gaps that can arise in public-private governance of CII.

  • 58.
    Niemann, Cajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Villkorat förtroende: Normer och rollförväntningar i relationen mellan politiker och tjänstemän i Regeringskansliet2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between politicians and civil servants is ambiguous and potentially problematic in democratic terms. The aim of the thesis is to examine this relationship in the Swedish core executive, Regeringskansliet. More specifically, the analysis emphasises the respective role expectations of the two groups when interacting with each other. The thesis is based on two extensive qualitative interview studies with politicians and senior civil servants, one carried out in the early 1980’s and one undertaken more recently. Hence it also offers an opportunity to analyse whether these expectations have changed or remained stable during the last decades.

    The findings reveal that the role expectations of politicians and civil servants to a high extent correspond, and have remained relatively stable over time. The relationship between politicians and civil servants is based on norms such as (conditional) trust, delegation and yet relatively close interaction. If so, politicians are unloaded by the civil service in order to handle their external responsibilities. Although relatively informal, a passive hierarchy of roles ensures the superiority of politicians and more specifically of the minister. Civil servants adapt to roles taken by politicians, although providing guidance to the politicians on how to behave in office. The division of labour is not based on the different tasks performed in the policy-making process. Instead, politicians assume responsibility for all actions and decisions – also those undertaken by the civil servants – within the ministries, while civil servants offer politicians protection and security. Taken together these results indicate that the institutionalised norms that surround the relationship between politicians and civil servants are highly powerful. Nevertheless, the thesis also reveals tendencies towards a departure from these norms, suggesting that this relationship is to some extent fragile and exposed to various attempts at reform.

  • 59.
    Rehnberg, Hanna Sofia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Svenska.
    Kulturbärande ord: Nycklar till verket2017Ingår i: En modern myndighet: Trafikverket som ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson; Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, s. 113-145Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 60.
    Rehnberg, Hanna Sofia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Svenska. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Förvaltningsakademin.
    På väg: Berättelser om Trafikverket2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många har saker att säga om Trafikverket, men vad säger trafikverkarna själva? I denna rapport kommer myndighetens chefer och medarbetare till tals.

    De berättar om stolthet, kompetens och engagemang, men också om en brist på helhetssyn och om upplevelsen av att det inte är tillräckligt högt i tak i organisationen. De resonerar om den balansgång som följer av att vara en myndighet och att samtidigt likna ett företag, och om dragkampen mellan det ”det hårda” och ”det mjuka”.

    Genom en väv av röster, sammanställda och tolkade med hjälp av narratologi och teori om organisationskultur, skapas en övergripande berättelse om Trafikverket i ett tidigt skede i den unga myndighetens historia.

  • 61.
    Reitan, Therese
    Statens institutionsstyrelse / Stockholms unversitet.
    Commitment without confinement: Outpatient compulsory care for substance abuse, and severe mental disorder in Sweden.2016Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 45, nr March/April, s. 60-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a person with severe substance abuse or a severe mental disorder may be committed to compulsory care according to two different legislations. Both acts include an option of providing involuntary care outside the premises of an institution — care in other forms (COF) and compulsory community care (CCC), respectively. As co-occurring disorders are commonplace many individuals will be subject to both types of compulsory care. The structures of both legislations and their provisions for compulsory care in the community are therefore scrutinized and compared. Based on a distinction between “least restrictive” or “preventative” schemes the article compares COF and CCC in order to determine whether they serve different purposes. The analysis shows that COF and CCC both share the same avowed aims of reducing time spent in confinement and facilitating transition to voluntary care and the community. But they also serve different purposes, something which is reflected in disparate scopes, eligibility criteria, rules, and practices. Overall, COF was found to be a more “least restrictive” and CCC a more “preventative” scheme. The distinction is associated with COF being an established part of legislation on compulsory care for substance abuse with a universal scope and CCC being a recent addition to compulsory psychiatric care legislation with a selective character.

  • 62.
    Reitan, Therese
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Förvaltningsakademin. Stockholms universitet.
    Lagen eller magen? Förvaltningsrätten och LVM-mål rörande gravida kvinnor2017Ingår i: Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, Vol. 40, nr 3-4, s. 132-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish SubstanceAbuse (Special Provisions) Act a person may be sentenced to compulsory care for a maximum of six months by an administrative court if she has a serious ongoing substance abuse and needs care which cannot be provided through voluntary measures. The person must also risk seriously harming her physical or mental health, destroying her life, or harming herself or a next of kin. The latter does not include an unborn child and the courts are only to assess whether the grounds for commitment are sufficient in terms of the woman’s needs and risk for harm. The legislation does, however, leave ample scope for so called fairness arguments (“reella hänsyn”). This article studies the extent to which the pregnancy is accentuated in court rulings and in what way – with a special focus on fairness arguments.

  • 63.
    Reitan, Therese
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Förvaltningsakademin. Stockholm University.
    Negotiating Space in Confined Places: Co-Production of Public Services with Unwilling Users.2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 23, nr 3-4, s. 61-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An expanding body of research on co-production, participation, co-creation and other forms of user involvement in public services has not sufficiently reflected their coercive nature. Coercion, like persuasion, is a central dimension of public administration and a defining element of, for example, compulsory care. It is, however, seldom properly addressed in the literature on co-production. The aim of this study is twofold; to propose a broadened definition of co-production which more adequately reflects the complexities of human services by distinguishing between users (clients) and consumers (social services), and to investigate the relevance and practice of co-production in a non-voluntary setting. Examples of enhanced, participative, consumer, and user co-production were identified based on organizational and individual data from the Swedish government agency responsible for compulsory care for substance abusers. Forms of user co-production at the operational level were highlighted through client records and administrative data concerning transfers to community care – so called Care in Other Forms (COF). COF placements are intricate processes involving many different stakeholders and the analysis revealed how clients actively partake in negotiations on the terms and content of service delivery. The idiosyncrasies of involuntary human services should be considered in future research on co-production.

  • 64.
    Reitan, Therese
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning 4, Sociologi.
    Theories of Interorganizational Relations in the Human Services1998Ingår i: Social Service Review, ISSN 0037-7961, E-ISSN 1537-5404, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 285-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 65.
    Rindzeviciute, Egle
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Svensson, Jenny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Tomson, Klara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Cultural policy in translation?: The concept of creative industries travels to Lithuania2013Ingår i: On conference website, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Professionens problematik: lärarkårens kommunalisering och välfärdsstatens förvandling2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Federalism and Democracy in Russia: Putin's Federal Reforms 2000 - 20042009Ingår i: Totalitarismus und Transformation: Defizite der Demokratiekonsolidierung in Mittel- und Osteuropa / [ed] Uwe Backes, Tytus Jaskulowski, Abel Polese, Dresden: Hannah Arendt-Institute , 2009, 1, s. 107-116Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 68.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Rethinking Russian Federalism: Federal Policies and Intergovernmental Relations From Yeltsin to Putin2008 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 70. Soneryd, Linda
    et al.
    Furusten, Staffan
    Sundström, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Democratic values and the organizing of actors in governance structures2010Ingår i: Organizing Democracy: the construction of agency in practice / [ed] Göran Sundström, Linda Soneryd, Stefan Furusten, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, s. 131-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 71.
    Speiner, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper.
    Tiflidou, Alexandra
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper.
    En kontrollerad profession: En kvalitativ studie baserad på lärares upplevda syn på deras arbetssituation2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverket har under 2010-talet genomfört reformer som har medfört en omfattande administrationsbörda för lärare. Administrationsbördan grundar sig i kontrollmekanismer där övervakning och kvalitetsbedömning sker genom ökad dokumentation som ska genomföras av lärarprofessionen. Vidare ändrades läroplanen år 2011, och blev då mer innehålls och resultatfokuserad, vilket har medfört tydligare ramar om vad lärare får och ska utföra i sin undervisning. Den teoretiska referensramen innehåller teorier om den byråkratiska idealmodellen, centralisering & formalisering, Mintzbergs byråkratistrukturer, William G. Ouchis teori om Marknader, Byråkratier och Klaner samt New Public Management. Dessa teorier används för att skapa en ökad förståelse om läraryrkets styre och för att vidare underlätta tolkningen av lärarnas arbetssituation. För att besvara studiens frågeställningar och syfte har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med åtta lärarrespondenter från två olika skolor, en friskola och en kommunal.

    Studiens resultat visar att lärarnas autonomi har påverkats negativt genom ökade krav och påtryckningar olika aktörer, då de i dagsläget inte kan planera undervisningen fritt utan ska ske genom de standardiserade tillvägagångssätten. Denna studie syftar till skapa en ökad förståelse om lärares upplevelser angående deras arbetssituation, där både friskole- och kommunala respondenter studerades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. Studien åskådliggör genom det empiriska resultatet att aktörernas krav har en negativ påverkan på lärarnas arbetssituation. Studiens slutsatser visar att de aktörer som påverkar lärarna är; Skolledningen(Academedia), kommunen, media, Skolverket(regeringen), föräldrar och EU. Studien visar att lärare ofta inte ser syftet till dokumentationen och ser den som alltför omfattande. Slutsatsen som dragits utifrån de ökade dokumentationskraven samt kunskapskraven är att lärare har fått en minskad makt samt autonomi i deras arbete och har förlorat kontrollen till andra aktörer.

  • 72.
    Sundström, Göran
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    In search of democracy. The process behind the Swedish forest-sector objectives2010Ingår i: Organizing Democracy: the construction of agency in practice / [ed] Göran Sundström, Linda Soneryd, Stefan Furusten, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, s. 79-93Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 73.
    Sundström, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Furusten, Staffan
    Soneryd, Linda
    Democracy, governance and the problem of the modern actor2010Ingår i: Organizing Democracy: the construction of agency in practice / [ed] Göran Sundström, Linda Soneryd, Stefan Furusten, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, s. 1-13Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 74.
    Söderström, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Regional Environmental Governance and Avenues for the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Baltic Sea Area2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the avenues for the ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region. This region is one of the most contaminated water bodies in the world, although the first Regional Seas Convention was created here and theregion has a long history of cooperation and environmental protection. The current environmental governance arrangements are examined with specific focuson governance structures, cross-sectoral integration and ecological boundaries.The ecosystem approach to management as both a tool and vision of holistic management of natural resources is traced through the evolution of environmental governance, as well as its manifestation in contemporary environmental policies in the region. It is found that the major EU directives, as well as HELCOM polices, promote the ecosystem approach and that its presence has increased inrecent years; it is now the major guiding principle in European marine governance. However, the governance structures impede implementation indifferent ways. The environmental problem areas in the region all require different governance arrangements, thus obstructing a holistic approach. The environmental problems per se also affect each other, necessitating far-reaching sectoral integration and cross-border cooperation, which at present is the major obstacle regarding implementation. The contemporary trends combining solid regionalisation through HELCOM with increased Europeanisation and macro regionalisation by different EU initiatives offer some promise, but the cross sectoral impediments must be resolved if the ecosystem approach is to become apractical approach and not just a policy principle.

  • 75.
    Vedberg, Nadja
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper.
    Den informella högskolereformen?: En explorativ fallstudie om högskolereformers påverkan på anställda inom högskolesektorn2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study that explores the ways in which implemented university reforms have affected employees in the higher educational sector. Previous research within the research field has mainly focused on policy related consequences of the reforms. This is why a study that brings attention to the ways the reforms have affected employees is sorely needed.

    The aim with the study is to examine whether there is a discrepancy between formal changes and the ways the employees experience them. The study is based on interviews with 8 lecturers from two universities and the material is analyzed mainly through sociological neo-institutional theories, such as Richard Scott’s theory of the three pillars within an informal institution and Helmke and Levintskys theory of the relationship between formal and informal institutions.

    The results show that there is a discrepancy between the formal changes and the ways employees perceive them. Furthermore the results also show that the employees are not fully satisfied with the outcomes of the changes.

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