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  • 51.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Management of Hazardous Substances in the Marine Environment2018Inngår i: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management / [ed] Salomon, Markus; Markus, Till, Dordrecht: Springer, 2018, s. 715-732Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.

  • 52.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mind the gap: Coping with delay in environmental governance2020Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 1067-1075Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vägar till en friskare Östersjö2015Inngår i: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, nr 1, s. 8-9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gapet är stort mellan miljömål och miljötillstånd i Östersjön. De omfattande insatser som görs av offentliga institutioner, näringsliv och allmänhet räcker inte. Samtidigt finns ett stort och växande engagemang från många politiker, företagare och enskilda för att stärka havsmiljöarbetet. När vi nu summerar ett större treårigt forskningsprojekt finner vi viktiga ledtrådar till vägar som kan leda till en förbättrad situation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 54.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach to Management: A Case Study of Baltic Sea Environmental Governance2016Inngår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, s. 21-44Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives.  When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Governance of Complex Socio-Environmental Risks: The Case of Hazardous Chemicals in the Baltic Sea2011Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 144-157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and socio-political controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  • 56.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development & Structural Planning, Erkner, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Key Topics and Challenges2015Inngår i: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2015, s. 1-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Kidd, Sue
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Calado, Helena
    University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Marine Spatial Planning and sustainability: Examining the roles of integration - Scale, policies, stakeholders and knowledge2020Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 191, artikkel-id 105182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has been heralded as the key means of achieving a more integrated approach to marine use across sectors and spatial scales. Achieving greater integration and coherence in MSP governance arrangements is seen as a way to resolve current problems of marine governance (such as fragmentation) and address future resource demands in a sustainable way. However, there is a lack of clarity and consensus in practice regarding sustainability in MSP, both in terms of MSP governance practices and sustainable resource use. For example, how are we to treat the environment in MSP? Should we conceive the environment as just another sector with interests to be negotiated, or as the very boundary condition that limits possibilities for maritime activities and developments? How do we integrate diverse views on this in MSP decision-making? This is but one example of an integration challenge in MSP important for sustainability. There are numerous others. Integration is intimately connected to the ability of MSP to deliver sustainable marine resource use at various levels and scales. The roles of integration are diverse and interconnected, including those that affect social-ecological integration or land-sea interaction, but also aspects of good governance and social sustainability. The latter include inter-sectoral decisionmaking, stakeholder engagement, cross-border interaction and knowledge pluralism. How integration is exercised in these procedural aspects of MSP is likely to substantively affect outcomes both in terms of sustainable blue growth or the ability to deliver an ecosystem-based approach. Integration as a policy and analytical problem to be addressed has also been discussed elsewhere – most saliently in the fields of sustainable development, ICZM, environmental policy integration, planning theory and socio-ecological systems. While there has been some work on integration in MSP, additional insight is needed: to better empirically ground the roles of integration in MSP, to understand the multidimensionality and interdependencies of integration dimensions and to unpack what ‘balance’ might mean for understanding and pursuing sustainability in different MSP contexts. In response, this special issue aims to explore the roles, problems and opportunities of various types of integration in relation to MSP's sustainability ambitions.

  • 58. Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap.
    Bioaccurnulation of Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 in Baltic Sea benthos2005Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 134, nr 1, s. 45-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated Cr-51 Ni-63 and C-14 in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  • 59. Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Naeslund, Björn
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    An ecosystem model of the environmental transport and fate of carbon-14 in a bay of the Baltic Sea, Sweden2003Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 166, nr 3, s. 193-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical discharge of radioactive C-14 from the Swedish final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. It involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web of a bay in the Baltic Sea. In the model, C-14 was introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the modelled ecosystem was assessed assuming a release of 51.3 MBq per year for 1000 years. The implications of changes of two parameters on the C-14 fate were examined: route of C-14 entry in the food web and water exchange. Modelling results were also used to estimate steady-state C-14-concentrations in biota, to investigate the time needed to reach steady-state and to calculate the ecological half-life of the radionuclide for the modelled compartments and the ecosystem. Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged C-14 was flushed out of the system (99.8%), and diluted in a much larger recipient. However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers, which enabled subsequent transfer of C-14 to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). In general, the highest C-14-concentrations were observed in benthic plants and benthic macrograzers followed by fish and other organisms. An assumption of C-14 entry into the food web via benthic primary producers was found to lead to increased concentrations in-biota (especially benthic organisms) and reduced rates of water exchange were also observed to significantly increase the C-14 exposure of the organisms.

  • 60. Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    Brewitz, Erica
    Jones, Celia
    Avila, R.
    Beresford, Nick
    Brown, Justin
    Fortin, C.
    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Oughton, Deborah
    Pentreath, J.
    Pröhl, Gerhard
    Sundell-Bergman, S.
    Zinger-Gize, Irène
    Formulating the FASSET assessmentcontext: FASSET deliverable 2: part 12002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61. Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    Brewitz, Erica
    Jones, Celia
    Avila, R.
    Beresford, Nick
    Brown, Justin
    Fortin, C.
    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Oughton, Deborah
    Pentreath, J.
    Pröhl, Gerhard
    Sundell-Bergman, S.
    Zinger-Gize, Irène
    Overview of programmes for the assessment of risks to the environmentfrom ionising radiation and hazardouschemicals: FASSET deliverable 2: part 22002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 62. Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    Jones, Celia
    Gomez-Ros, José Maria
    Zinger, Irène
    Sundell-Bergman, S.
    Avila, R.
    Brewitz, E.
    Howard, Brenda J.
    Beresford, Nick
    Barnett, C.L.
    Sanchez, A.L.
    Wright, S.M
    Strand, Per
    Brown, Justin
    Stenrud, H.
    Oughton, Deborah
    Thørring, H.
    Hosseini, A.
    Iosjep, M.
    Børretzen, P.
    Pröhl, Gerhard
    Taranenko, V.
    Cancio, David
    Real, A.
    Agüero, A.
    Robles, B.
    Suañez, A.
    Williams, Clive
    Saxén, Ritva
    Ilus, E.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Woodhead, D.
    Pentreath, J.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap.
    Kumblad, L.
    Näslund, B.
    Skarphedinsdotti, H.
    Broed, R.
    Stark, K.
    Jones, Steve R.
    Patton, D.
    Vives i Batlle, J.
    Daniel, D.P.
    Vives Lynch, S.
    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    Fortin, C.
    Calmon, P.
    Bruchertseifer, F.
    Framework for assessment ofenvironmental impact of ionising radiationin major European ecosystems: FASSET deliverable 62004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Science-Policy Interfaces in Baltic Sea Environmental Governance: Towards Regional Cooperation and Management of Uncertainty?2016Inngår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Gilek et al., Springer, 2016, 1, s. 173-203Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful environmental governance, which applies particularly to the Baltic Sea where all five risks pose serious threats to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. We use science-policy theory and an analytical framework based on a categorisation of relevant management responses linked to different states of incomplete knowledge (risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, ignorance) to investigate two main characteristics of science-policy interfaces: (1) organisational structures and (2) procedural aspects of managing scientific uncertainties and stakeholder disagreements. The analyses reveal differences and similarities in institutional and organisational designs of the respective assessment-management interactions, as well as in terms of how scientific uncertainties, stakeholder disagreements and socio-political ambiguities are addressed. All the five science-policy interfaces expose science-based management approaches that commonly are not able to cope sufficiently well with the complexities, uncertainties and ambiguities at hand. Based on our cross-case analyses, we conclude by recommending five key aspects that need to be addressed to improve science-policy interactions in Baltic Sea environmental governance: (1) more adaptive organisational structures in terms of time, context and place dependency, (2) increased knowledge integrations, (3) a more careful consideration of stakeholder participation and deliberation, (4) better management of uncertainty and disagreements and (5) increased transparency and reflection in the communication of science-policy processes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 505-523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65. Littorin, Bengt
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    A photographic study of the recolonization of cleared patches in a dense population of Mytilus edulis in the northern Baltic proper1999Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 393, s. 211-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recolonisation of cleared patches (15 x 15 cm) on a Mytilus edulis-dominated rocky bottom was followed by photography from June 1992 to October 1994. An experiment was also performed to study movement of newly recruited mussels on ropes in cleared areas. Mussels recolonised the rock surfaces by moving in from the perimeter of the clearings. Juvenile recruitment directly to the cleared surfaces was insignificant for the recolonisation process. However, a large number of juvenile mussels was observed in filamentous algae over and around the cleared patches. The speed of recolonisation was 4.5 cm(2) of cleared surface per month. The rate of recolonisation was somewhat higher at 6 m than at 12 m water depth. On ropes, downward movement of newly recruited mussels (from 3 up to 12 months old) was small but significantly larger than upward or horizontal movement. There was a positive correlation between movement of mussels to cleared parts of the ropes and the density of mussels on uncleared rope parts. These findings indicate that the recolonisation of disturbed patches by M. edulis in the northern Baltic proper is a relatively slow process driven primarily by a redistribution of already established mussel individuals.

  • 66. Littorin, Bengt
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Vertical patterns in biomass, size structure, growth and recruitment of Mytilus edulis in an Archipelago area in the northern Baltic Sea proper1999Inngår i: Ophelia: International Journal of Marine Biology, ISSN 0078-5326, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 93-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although dwarfed by the low saline conditions, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) is a biomass dominant in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea proper, owing to the lack of invertebrate predators and competitors for space. In the present study patterns of distribution of blue mussels on relatively smooth, moderately sloping rocky surfaces in the Asko area, northern Baltic proper, are described and interpreted. Biomass, growth rate, maximum shell length and recruitment of mussels decreased with water depths (from 3 to 15 m). No consistent differences in total abundance were, however, detected among depths. Shell growth, as measured by annual growth rings, was linear between about 2-8 yr. of age. Within this linear interval the estimated rate of shell growth was significantly faster (3.4 mm yr.(-1)) at 5 m than at 10 m depth (2.7 mm yr.(-1)) Although the observed vertical patterns in biomass distribution correlated both with recruitment and growth, the year round presence of large numbers of small mussel individuals (less than or equal to 2 mm) at all depths indicates that differences in somatic growth may explain the observed variability in biomass among depths. Potentially important processes such as intraspecific competition, food availability and food quality, which may generate the observed patterns in growth and biomass are discussed.

  • 67. Olsson, Björne
    et al.
    Bradley, Brian P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap.
    Reimer, Olof
    Shepard, Jenn L.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Physiological and proteomic responses in Mytilus edulis exposed to PCBs and PAHs extracted from Baltic Sea sediments2004Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 514, nr 1-3, s. 15-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. L.) exposed to organic pollutants were measured using several physiological measures and as changes in protein expression. Blue mussels from the Baltic Sea were exposed for 6 days in a flow-through system to two fractions of extracted Baltic sediments (containing primarily PAHs or PCBs) from one industrially impacted site and one off-shore site. Exposure to Aroclor1248 (a commercial PCB mixture) was included as a reference treatment. Physiological response was measured as changes in respiration, excretion, clearance rates and scope for growth. Of the physiological responses, only clearance rate and scope for growth in the Aroclor and impacted site PCB treatments differed significantly (p < 0.05) from control organisms, perhaps due to a large variation among individuals. Seven proteins were observed, presumed to be from stress protein families (hsp60, hsp70 and hsp90) on one-dimensional electrophoresis gels. All protein levels, except three proteins, 62, 73 and 90 kDa, in response to PCB exposure from the industrial site, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in treated than in control organisms, suggesting the use of stress-inducible proteins as diagnostics in risk assessment. A wider sample of proteins was observed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The presence or absence of protein spots compared to control organisms was used as an indication of stress. Between 23 and 76 proteins or spots were present and 15 to 23 absent compared to controls, and the results supported the physiological and one-dimensional gel results, suggesting that the mussels were indeed suffering from stress. The methods used here represent stress monitoring at two different levels of biological organization; the cellular- and the level of individual organisms. In this experiment the protein response showed less variation among individuals compared to the physiological parameters. The protein response, however, still suffers from the lack of interpretation into commonly used monitoring terms, which emphasizes the need for more knowledge of whether the response is a momentary reflection of exposure or an early warning of higher order effects.

  • 68. Oughton, D. H.
    et al.
    Aguero, A.
    Avila, R.
    Brown, J. E.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Addressing uncertainties in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, nr 9, s. 1384-1392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like any complex environmental problem, ecological risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation is confounded by uncertainty. At all stages, from problem formulation through to risk characterisation, the assessment is dependent on models, scenarios, assumptions and extrapolations. These include technical uncertainties related to the data used, conceptual uncertainties associated with models and scenarios, as well as social uncertainties such as economic impacts, the interpretation of legislation, and the acceptability of the assessment results to stakeholders. The ERICA Integrated Approach has been developed to allow an assessment of the risks of ionising radiation, and includes a number of methods that are intended to make the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the assessment more transparent to users and stakeholders. Throughout its development, ERICA has recommended that assessors deal openly with the deeper dimensions of uncertainty and acknowledge that uncertainty is intrinsic to complex systems. Since the tool is based on a tiered approach, the approaches to dealing with uncertainty vary between the tiers, ranging from a simple, but highly conservative screening to a full probabilistic risk assessment including sensitivity analysis. This paper gives on overview of types of uncertainty that are manifest in ecological risk assessment and the ERICA Integrated Approach to dealing with some of these uncertainties.

  • 69.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Maack, Lotta
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Morff, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk & University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles2019Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, nr 175, s. 98-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70. Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Scientific uncertainty and science-policy interactions in the risk assessment of hazardous chemicals2010Inngår i: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 151-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71. Sandahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Riskbedömning i Östersjön2012Inngår i: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, nr 2, s. 8-9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    HU20122riskbedomning
  • 72.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Fred Saunders.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Day, Jon. C.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    McCann, Jennifer
    Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Smythe, Tiffany
    United States Coast Guard Academy, USA.
    Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings2019Inngår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 74.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    c Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

  • 75.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ikauniece, Anda
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Riga, Latvia.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    University of Gdańsk, Sopot, Poland / Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Theorizing Social Sustainability and Justice in Marine Spatial Planning: Democracy, Diversity, and Equity2020Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id 2560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates a conceptual framework to examine social sustainability in marinespatial planning (MSP). Based on a critical literature review of key texts on social sustainabilityin MSP and the broader sustainable development literature we show the need to elaborate acogent and comprehensive approach for the analysis and pursuit of social sustainability linkedto the sea. We then theorize social sustainability by developing a conceptual framework throughintegrating three dimensions: Recognition, Representation and Distribution. While these three socialsustainability/justice features clearly overlap and are interdependent in practice, the conceptualthinking underpinning each of them is distinctive and when taken together they contributetowards conceiving social sustainability as a pillar of sustainability. Our approach can support ananalysis/evaluation of MSP in that, first, its broad scope and adaptability makes it suitable to examinethe wide range of claims, demands, and concerns that are likely to be encountered across dierentpractical MSP settings. Second, it acknowledges the opportunities and challenges of assessing,implementing, and achieving social justice within a broader sustainability framework.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 76.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 77.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 769-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 78.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019Inngår i: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 175-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 79.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Ruden, Christina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Are occupational exposure limits becoming more alike within the European Union?2008Inngår i: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 858-866Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by seven different national regulatory agencies of EU member states are compared with those of the European Commission (EC). The comparison concerned: (1) what chemicals have been selected, (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals, and (3) the similarity between the OELs of different EU member states and the OELs recommended by the European Commission. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years in four of the live countries in our study for which historical data were available to us. Poland has not changed its level noticeably and Germany has increased it. Since the first list of indicative OELs was established by the EC, a few of the EU exposure limits have been lowered. The similarity index indicates that the exposure limits of EU member states are converging towards the European Commission's recommended OELs. Still, the average level of OELs differs between organizations - the Estonian OELs are on average 35% higher than the Polish OELs.

  • 80.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Ruden, Christina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Occupational exposure limits: A comparative study2008Inngår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 261-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers' health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The OELs mirror the outcome of the risk assessment and risk management performed by the standard setting actor. In this study we compared the OELs established by 18 different organisations or national regulatory agencies. The OELs were compared with respect to: (1) what chemicals have been selected and (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals. Our database contains OELs for a total of 1341 substances; of these 25 substances have OELs from all 18 organisations while more than one-third of the substances are only regulated by one organisation. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years for 6 of the 8 organisations in our study for which historical data were available; it has increased for Poland and remained nearly unchanged for Sweden. The average level of OELs differs substantially between organisations; the US OSHA exposure limits are (on average) nearly 40 % higher than those of Poland. The scientific or policy-related motivations for these differences remain to be analysed.

  • 81.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Occupational exposure limits: A comparative study of the levels today and development during the past 10 years2007Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 172, s. S123-S124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Risk assessment and occupational exposure limits2008Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 180, s. S74-S74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 83. Skarpheoinsdottir, H
    et al.
    Ericson, G
    Dalla Zuanna, L
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Tissue differences, dose-response relationship and persistence of DNA adducts in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene2003Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 165-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a) to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive glands (b) to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA adduct formations and (c) to examine the persistence of the formed adducts. A Scope for growth (SFG) study was also run to compare physiological responses of the mussels with the degree of DNA adduct formation. In an initial dose-response experiment, the mussels were exposed to 0.5, 50, and 100 mug/l of tritium labelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 4 days, and thereafter the bioaccumulation of B[a]P and DNA adduct formation in different tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting and P-32-postlabelling analysis. respectively. In a following exposure-depuration experiment, mussels were exposed to 17 mug/l of radiolabelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 6 days. B[a]P accumulation and DNA adduct formation were determined during the exposure, and B[a]P elimination and persistence of DNA adducts were studied during 28 days of depuration in uncontaminated water, The results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. DNA adduct levels were not elevated in the digestive gland of the mussels at any exposure concentration (0-100 mug/l). even though the highest B[a]P tissue concentrations were found in the digestive gland (1.0+/-0.1 mg B[a]P/g tissue dry wt at 100 mug/l, mean+/-SE. n = 12). DNA adducts were on the other hand formed in the gills, with the highest levels found in mussels exposed to 50 and 100 mug B[a]P/l. and a dose dependent increase in adduct levels (from 1.6 to 5.9 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) from 0 to 50 mug B[a]P/l, In gills, DNA adduct levels increased with time during the 6-day exposure period in the exposure-depuration experiment, and then persisted for at least 2 weeks after exposure cessation while B[a]P tissue levels exhibited a rapid decrease (half-life of 8 days). No significant differences were observed in SFG between the control and exposed groups. Since DNA adducts exhibited a relatively high persistence in gills compared to B[a]P tissue concentrations, they seem to be a more integrated measure of genotoxic exposure than only chemical analysis of the contaminant bioaccumulation. The results also suggest that if using analysis of DNA adducts in H. edulis for monitoring purposes. analysis of gills in addition to the more commonly used digestive gland should be taken into consideration.

  • 84. Strand, Per
    et al.
    Beresford, Nick
    Avila, Rodolfo
    Jones, Steve R.
    Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    Agüero, A.
    Barnett, C.L.
    Brown, Justin
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Howard, B.J.
    Ilus, E.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Kumblad, L.
    Näslund, B.
    Patton, D.
    Robles, B.
    Sanchez, A.L.
    Saxén, R.
    Stenrud, H.
    Suañez, A.
    Wright, S.M.
    Identification of candidate referenceorganisms from a radiation exposurepathways perspective: FASSET deliverable 12001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 85.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kern, Kristine
    eibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS) & University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    ‘Environmental Governance’ and ‘Ecosystem Management’: Avenues for Synergies between Two Approaches2016Inngår i: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 86.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 754-768Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a radical approach to achieving sustainable development objectives at sea. While critics challenge its avowed radicalness, often through highlighting dominative processes, more insidious mechanisms of restricted agency remain under-elaborated, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This paper offers a more robust and balanced reading of MSP/power. First, drawing on Haugaard, we read MSP as providing actors with dispositional power to act in concert, thus entailing a move from the risks of ‘resource rush’ to structuring, which facilitates predictability and promotes agency. However, MSP’ing may also restrict agency when (1) powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to pursue sectoral goals; (2) planning fantasies and the planner’s cognitive limitation sustain dominative power-relations; and (3) in setting the boundaries of MSP, bias is mobilized in favor of vested interests. We thus deploy Foucault’s notion of freedom, to analyze the relationship between ‘steering’ and resistance subjectivities, and his concept of parrhesias to consider to what extent, an ethico-political planner may contribute towards more equitable processes and outcomes. We conclude that besides the planner, the state as the ultimate authority in MSP must intervene substantively to minimize differentials in the distribution of actors’social resources.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 87.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Stockholm University.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates2008Inngår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 264-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria > M. balthica > M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccurnulation of both metals and organic contaminants.

  • 88.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Coping with uncertainties in science-based advice informing environmental management of the Baltic Sea2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 29, s. 12-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing uncertainty is a main challenge for sustainable management of complex socioecological systems, such as marine ecosystems. Today, a growing number of scientific publications address decision-making practices under conditions of high uncertainty. However, very few studies have analyzed how science treats uncertainty before it reaches decision-makers, especially for various marine environmental issues. This study aims to fill these research gaps by identifying the main theoretical approaches to science-based uncertainty management proposed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, by scrutinizing advisory documents, current approaches and methods to assess and treat uncertainty in science-based advice are analyzed and compared for five significant environmental issues in the Baltic Sea (eutrophication, fisheries, invasive species, chemical pollution, and oil spills). Specifically, the study analyzes the types of uncertainties acknowledged, how strategies and practices present and address uncertainties, and whether new theoretical proposals identified in the scientific literature affect existing practices. The study's results reveal that current scientific practices do not adequately address uncertainty in advice formulation. First, no common guideline is in use, resulting in significant differences among studied environmental issues and a common lack of structure, clarity, established terminology, and transparency in the assessment and treatment of uncertainty. Furthermore, new theoretical developments connected with uncertainty appraisal (such as theoretical typologies) and new tools and methods for handling uncertainty (such as precautionary and participatory approaches) are hardly utilized in practice in the management of the Baltic ecosystem. Consequently, although theoretical approaches for coping with uncertainty in complex socio-ecological systems are ample, the challenge for the future is to implement these approaches more effectively in assessment and management frameworks. The study discusses possible improvements to current practices in environmental management of large-scale socio-ecological systems such as the Baltic Sea and other regional seas, acknowledging that these measures will not reduce all existing uncertainty but rather contribute to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties.

  • 89.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Participation and post-normal science in practice?: Reality check for hazardous chemicals management in the European marine environment2014Inngår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 63, s. 15-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the "polluter-oriented" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the "environment-oriented" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases.

  • 90.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Rabilloud, Louise
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hazardous substances: a case study of environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea region2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context.

     

    The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.

    WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.

    WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.

    WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public.

     

    In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.

  • 91.
    Zaucha, J.
    et al.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    d Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Gee, K.
    f Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Turski, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS Policy Brief: Challenges and Possibilities for MSP integration in the Baltic Sea2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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