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  • 51. Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Tokyo.
    Alcohol tax, consumption and mortality in tsarist Russia: is a public health perspective applicable?2013In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 340-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The public health perspective on alcohol comprises two main tenets: (i) population drinking impacts on alcohol-related harm and (ii) population drinking is affected by the physical and economic availability of alcohol, where alcohol taxes are the most efficient measure for regulating consumption. This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America. However, as yet, it has been little examined in a historical context. The aims of the present article are to use data from tsarist Russia to explore (i) the relation between changes in the tax on alcohol and per capita alcohol consumption and (ii) the relation between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. Methods: The material comprised annual data on alcohol taxes, alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The tax and alcohol consumption series spanned the period 1864-1907 and the mortality data covered the period 1870-94. The data were analysed by estimating autoregressive integrated moving average models on differenced data. Results: Changes in alcohol taxes were significantly associated with alcohol consumption in the expected direction. Increases in alcohol consumption, in turn, were significantly related to increases in alcohol mortality. Conclusion: This study provides support for the utility of the public health perspective on alcohol in explaining changes in consumption and alcohol-related harm in a historical context. We discuss our findings from tsarist Russia in the light of experiences from more recent alcohol policy changes in Russia.

  • 52.
    Ogino, K.
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakamura, T.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kim, J.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kikuchi, H.
    Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ebishima, K.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yoshiuchi, K.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ando, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamamoto, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Negatively skewed locomotor activity is related to autistic traits and behavioral problems in typically developing children and those with autism spectrum disorders2018In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important objective for researchers and clinicians is to gain a better understanding of the factors that underlie autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is possible that investigating objective and quantitative behavioral phenotypes and their relationship to clinical characteristics, such as autistic traits and other emotional/behavioral problems, might facilitate this process. Given this, in the current study we examined the link between locomotor dynamics and clinical characteristics, including autistic traits and emotional/behavioral problems, in children with ASD (n = 14) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 13). A watch-type actigraph was used to continuously measure locomotor activity which was assessed in terms of mean activity levels and the skewness of activity. Parents assessed quantitative autistic traits using the Japanese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and emotional and behavioral problems using the Japanese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed that among all children, all-day activity was more negatively skewed, suggesting sporadic large all-day “troughs” in activity and was significantly correlated with the SRS social awareness subscale score (ρ = −0.446, p = 0.038). In addition, the more negatively skewed daytime locomotor activity was associated with the SDQ Hyperactivity Inattention subscale score (ρ = −0.493, p = 0.020). The results of this study indicate that investigating locomotor dynamics may provide one way to increase understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical characteristics of ASD.

  • 53.
    Oh, H.
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Yau, Rebecca
    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Discrimination and Suicidality amongst racial and ethnic minorities in the United States2018In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 245, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past decade, suicide rates have increased among certain racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. To better understand suicide vulnerability among people of color, studies have examined the relations between social risk factors –such as discrimination –and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. However, the literature has been inconsistent, calling for more population studies.

    Methods: This study analyzed data from two surveys: (1) The National Survey of American Life; and (2) The National Latino and Asian American Survey, which taken together are representative of Black, Latino, and Asians in the United States. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between levels of discrimination on the Everyday Discrimination Scale and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Additional models tested for effect modification by race and by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Results: We found that individuals who reported the highest levels of discrimination had greater odds of reporting lifetime suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, when compared with people who did not report discrimination, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Notably, discrimination increased odds of reporting an unplanned suicide attempt and a suicide attempt without the intent to die. Adjusting for psychiatric diagnoses attenuated these effects. We found no evidence of effect modification by race or by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Limitations: Data were cross-sectional, which did not allow for causal inferences.

    Conclusions: Future translational research can explore how screening for discrimination may help identify individuals and groups of racial/ethnic minorities at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

  • 54.
    Oh, H.
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Waldman, K.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, J. E.
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic experiences and physical health conditions in the United States2019In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 90, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Psychotic experiences are associated with physical health conditions, though the associations have not always been consistent in the literature. The current study examines the associations between psychotic experiences and several physical health conditions across four racial groups in the United States.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys to examine the associations between psychotic experiences and physical health conditions across four racial groups (White, Black, Asian, Latino). We used multivariable logistic regression to calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals.

    Results: Psychotic experiences were significantly associated with several physical health conditions depending on the condition and the racial group being examined. Further, the number of physical health conditions was associated with increasingly greater risk for psychotic experiences in a linear fashion.

    Conclusions: Psychotic experiences may serve as useful markers for physical health conditions and overall physical health status. Future studies should examine the underlying mechanisms between psychotic experiences and health, and explore the clinical utility of psychotic experiences for preventive interventions.

  • 55.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Seasonal Allergies and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id E1965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal allergies have been associated with mental health problems, though the evidence is still emergent, particularly in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Latino and Asian American Survey (years 2001⁻2003). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relations between lifetime allergies and lifetime psychiatric disorders (each disorder in a separate model), adjusting for socio-demographic variables (including region of residence) and tobacco use. Analyses were also stratified to test for effect modification by race and sex. A history of seasonal allergies was associated with greater odds of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use. The associations between seasonal allergies and mood disorders, substance use disorders, and alcohol use disorders were particularly strong for Latino Americans. The association between seasonal allergies and eating disorders was stronger for men than women. Seasonal allergies are a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Individuals complaining of seasonal allergies should be screened for early signs of mental health problems and referred to specialized services accordingly.

  • 56.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Lincoln, Karen D
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deu , Barcelona , Spain / CIBERSAM , Madrid , Spain.
    Allergies, infections, and psychiatric disorders among Black Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life2019In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: An emerging body of literature shows that allergies and infections are associated with psychiatric disorders, though there is little research to confirm these associations among Black Americans in the United States. Design: We analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, and used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between past 12-month allergies/infections and past 12-month psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, lifetime diabetes, and body mass index. Results: We found that allergies/infections were associated with mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders. We detected effect modification by ethnicity, with stronger odds for mood, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders, with no significant associations for substance use or eating disorders among Caribbean Blacks. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of screening for psychiatric disorders among Black individuals complaining of allergies/infections, and the need to also treat allergies/infections among people with psychiatric disorders.

  • 57.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Singh, Fiza
    University of California, La Jolla, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Self-reported asthma diagnosis and mental health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 271, p. 721-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.

  • 58. Razvodovsky, Y
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus, 1990-20052009In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of suicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet Period. Study design: Unlinked cross-sectional study using data drawn from four time points. Methods: Age- and gender-specific suicide data for urban and rural regions of Belarus were obtained from the Belarus Ministry of Statistics for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. The data were recalculated into seven age categories and then directly standardized. Poisson regression models were used to assess changes ill urban-rural suicide rate ratios across the four time points. Results: Between 1990 and 2000, the suicide rate rose sharply in Belarus. It started to reduce after 2000, but in 2005 it was still much higher than its initial level. The same was true for urban and rural suicide rates and for male Suicide rates in all regions combined. However, after 1995, there was a divergence between gender-specific rates in urban and rural areas. A small reduction in urban suicide rates for both genders contrasted with a sharp increase in suicide rates among trien and women in rural areas. By 2005, although suicide rates had fallen from their 2000 level for both genders in urban and rural locations, the decrease was much smaller in rural areas. These changes resulted in a deteriorating rural-urban suicide ratio across the period 1990-2005, with suicide rates among nearly every rural male age group remaining extreme after 1995. Although it is probable that a deteriorating social and economic situation has underpinned increasing suicide rates in all regions, there may be factors that are specific to rural locations, such as increasing social isolation and poor provision of medical services, that account for the extreme suicide rates now being recorded there. Conclusion: By 2005, Belarus had one of the highest suicide rates in the world. This now requires urgent intervention by the necessary authorities to ameliorate this situation in urban and, especially, rural locations.

  • 59.
    Reile, R.
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Re: Letter to the Editor of Public Health in response to ‘Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: results from an 18-year follow-up study’2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, p. 157-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: Results from an 18-year follow-up study2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 145, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyze the variation in factors associated with mortality risk at different levels of self-rated health (SRH).

    Study design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between mortality and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related predictors for respondents with good, average, and poor SRH in a longitudinal data set from Estonia with up to 18 years of follow-up time.

    Results: In respondents with good SRH, male sex, older age, lower income, manual occupation, ever smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption predicted higher mortality. These covariates, together with marital status, illness-related limitations, and underweight predicted mortality in respondents with average SRH. For poor SRH, only being never married and having illness-related limitations predicted mortality risk in addition to older age and male sex.

    Conclusions: The predictors of all-cause mortality are not universal but depend on the level of SRH. The higher mortality of respondents with poor SRH could to a large extent be attributed to health problems, whereas in the case of average or good SRH, factors other than the presence of illness explained outcome mortality.

  • 61. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Gilmore, Anna
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and Psychosocial Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 271-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. Results: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. Conclusions: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

  • 62.
    Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Gilmore, Anna
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rotman, David
    Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Haerpfer, Christian
    Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 20102012In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 102, no 7, p. 1320-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

  • 63. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 1079-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. Methods Using household survey data from 18 420 (2001) and 17 914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. Results Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. Conclusions Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

  • 64. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. Aims To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Methods Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Results Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia ( although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and nonsmokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. Conclusions A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

  • 65. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Gasparishvili, Alexander
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Changes in household access to water in countries of the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 352-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Evidence from the Early 2000s quantified limited coverage of household water supplies in countries of the former Soviet Union. The study objectives were to measure changes in access to piped household water in seven of these countries between 2001 and 2010 and examine how these varied by household economic status. Methods Cross-sectional household sample surveys were conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Data on household piped water were compared with a related 2001 study and descriptive, regression and relative risk analyses applied. Results Increases in access to piped water in the home between 2001 and 2010 were recorded in urban and rural areas of all countries, except Kazakhstan. Access remains lower in rural areas. The relative risk of urban households not having piped water in 2010 compared with 2001 diminished by one-third for households with a bad/very bad economic situation [rate ratio (RR): 0.66] and by half for wealthier households (RR: 0.48). In rural areas, the declines were 15% for households with a bad/very bad economic situation (RR: 0.85) and 30% for wealthier households (RR: 0.69). Conclusions Despite encouraging increases in access to piped water, there remain significant gaps for rural and poorer households.

  • 66. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Gilmore, Anna B.
    Danishevski, Kirill
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union2013In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 22, no 6, p. e12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.

    Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.

    Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.

    Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  • 67. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Murphy, Adrianna
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Patterns of Public Support for Price Increases on Alcohol in the Former Soviet Union2012In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 473-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Conclusion: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  • 68. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Petticrew, Mark
    McKee, Martin
    The influence of concern about crime on levels of psychological distress in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 433-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous studies suggest that the fear of crime is associated with worse mental health, with social capital potentially having a mediating influence. However, no studies could be identified on this issue in countries of the former Soviet Union, despite them experiencing increasing rates of crime and profound social change. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between concern about crime and levels of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight former Soviet countries using a standardised questionnaire containing items on psychological distress and concern about five criminal activities. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between concern about criminal activities and psychological distress. Separate regression models were run to explore the influence of social capital on this relationship. Results The first model (excluding social capital) produced significant positive coefficients of association for all five types of criminal activity with psychological distress, with a range from 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54) for suffering abuse because of nationality to 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.70) for being sexually molested. The second model (including social capital) also showed significant associations for all five criminal activities, but coefficients were slightly smaller. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of a relationship between fear of crime and psychological distress in the study countries, with possibly a small mediating influence of social capital. Further studies are required to explore the relationship between fear of crime, social capital and mental health in the region.

  • 69.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Informal social capital in childhood and suicide among adolescent and young adult women: A cross-sectional analysis with 30 countries2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 42, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2005/2006, and World Health Organization (WHO), this study examined the relationship between girls' informal social capital and female suicide rates in adolescence and young adulthood in 30 European and North American countries. Regression analyses using normal, robust and bias-corrected confidence intervals were used for this purpose. Informal social capital (involvement with friends after school) among 15 year-old girls explained,9% of the total variation in the young female suicide rate. This effect was of approximately the same magnitude as that of the corresponding male suicide rate. Although the findings of this study provide support for the common notion that female suicide can be understood in relation to male suicide, the association we observed between female informal social capital in adolescence and early adult female suicide highlights the need for more female-specific studies on suicide.

  • 70.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Too poor to binge?: An examination of economic hardship and its relation to alcohol consumption patterns in Taganrog, Russia2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 330-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Ruchkin, V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Koposov, R. A.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

  • 72.
    Saito, A.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Association Between Autistic Traits in Preschool Children and Later Emotional/Behavioral Outcomes2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 3333-3346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5 were related to emotional/behavioral outcomes at age 7. The results showed that prior autistic traits were subsequently associated with all emotional/behavioral domains. After controlling for baseline emotional/behavioral scores autistic traits continued to predict later emotional symptoms and peer problems. This study highlights that in addition to clinical ASD, it is also important to focus on subthreshold autistic traits in preschool children for better subsequent emotional/behavioral outcomes.

  • 73.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    On Interpersonal Violence in Russia in the Present and the Past: A Sociological Study2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Pitrim Sorokin: the Russian years2002In: The unknown Sorokin: his life in Russia and the essay on suicide / [ed] Denny Vågerö, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2002, p. 11-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Alcohol and homicide in early 20th-century Russia2005In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 501-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Factors associated with non-lethal violent victimization in Sweden in 2004-20072010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 404-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent ictimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come rom the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually etween 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents ged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. ogistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent ariables were associated with having experienced violence in the revious 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were ounger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful lcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject o violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who ere Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also ignificantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk f non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout wedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or conomically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. his highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing nequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to e linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

  • 77.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    The social and economic determinants of smoking in Moscow, Russia2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow - the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 - a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow's larger population. Information was obtained about subjects' smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women ( 18 - 30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking ( locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia's changing social environment.

  • 78.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Institutional Trust in Contemporary Moscow2009In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 779-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of institutional trust in Russia are amongst the lowest in the world. As yet, however, little research has focused on this phenomenon at the sub-national level. The current study examines trust in social and political institutions among citizens in Moscow in 2004. Results showed that levels of institutional trust are extremely low and that there were only three institutions (the church, president and hospitals) that were more trusted than distrusted. Moreover, although the effects of some demographic and other independent variables on trust stretched across institutions, several variables had a unique impact in terms of trust in the president.

  • 79.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Norström, Thor
    Alcohol and Suicide in Russia, 1870-1894 and 1956-2005: Evidence for the Continuation of a Harmful Drinking Culture Across Time?2011In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Previous research suggests that a strong relation exists between alcohol consumption and suicide in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. This study extends this analysis across a much longer historical time frame by examining the relationship between heavy drinking and suicide in tsarist and post-World War 11 Russia. Method: Using alcohol poisoning mortality data as a proxy for heavy drinking, time-series analytical modeling techniques were used to examine the strength of the alcohol-suicide relation in the provinces of European Russia in the period 1870-1894 and for Russia in 1956-2005. Results: During 1870-1894, a decreasing trend was recorded in heavy drinking in Russia that contrasted with the sharp increase observed in this phenomenon in the post-World War 11 period. A rising trend in suicide was recorded in both study periods, although the increase was much greater in the latter period. The strength of the heavy drinking suicide relation nevertheless remained unchanged across time, with a 10% increase in heavy drinking resulting in a 3.5% increase in suicide in tsarist Russia and a 3.8% increase in post-World War II Russia. Conclusions: Despite the innumerable societal changes that have occurred in Russia across the two study periods and the growth in the level of heavy drinking, the strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation has remained unchanged across time. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol-suicide association. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 72, 341-347, 2011)

  • 80.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Moscow2008In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 23, p. 447-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines attitudes towards violenceagainst women among the populace in Moscow, Russiausing data drawn from the Moscow Health Survey.Information was obtained from 1,190 subjects (510 menand 680 women) about their perceptions of whetherviolence against women was a serious problem in contemporaryRussia, and under what circumstances they thoughtit was justifiable for a husband to hit his wife. Less thanhalf the respondents thought violence was a seriousproblem, while for a small number of interviewees therewere several scenarios where violence was regarded asbeing permissible against a wife. Being young, divorced orwidowed, having financial difficulties, and regularly consumingalcohol were associated with attitudes moresupportive of violence amongst men; having a loweducational level underpinned supportive attitudes amongboth men and women. Results are discussed in terms of the public reemergence of patriarchal attitudes in Russia in thepost-Soviet period.

  • 81.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Community Violence Exposure in Russian Adolescents2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research has shown that exposure to community violence is common for many children across the world. However, less is known about exposure in particular subgroups such as those children with developmental disorders. To address this research gap, the aim of this study was to examine community violence exposure (CVE) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the role of gender in this association. Data were analyzed from 2,782 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Arkhangelsk, Russia that were collected during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). ADHD status was assessed with the hyperactivity/inattention scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Information was obtained on past-year witnessing and violence victimization in the community. Results showed that CVE was more prevalent in children with ADHD symptoms. Specifically, 75.1% of children with ADHD symptoms had been exposed to any violence versus 62.3% in the non-ADHD group (χ2 = 18.65, p <.001). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) revealed that CVE was significantly higher for adolescents with ADHD symptoms for both witnessing and victimization, while exposure was significantly higher for ADHD boys compared with girls. The findings of this study suggest that CVE may be elevated in adolescents with higher ADHD symptoms. Given that CVE has been associated with a variety of negative social and psychological outcomes in typically developing children, an important task for future research is to determine what factors are associated with CVE in adolescents with ADHD symptoms including those relating to such phenomena as comorbid psychopathology, the family, and peer relations, so that interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce CVE and its detrimental effects in this population.

  • 82.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents2019In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

  • 83.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, KodairaJapan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

    METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

  • 84.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Madrid, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Koposov, R.
    Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Blatný, M.
    Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hrdlička, M.
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, M.
    Yale University, New Haven, USA.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University.
    Loneliness and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among Czech, Russian and U.S. adolescents2016In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Methods: Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Results: Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health. © 2016 Stickley et al.

  • 85.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ueda, M.
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Y.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Waldman, K.
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Physical multimorbidity and suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States2020In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 260, p. 604-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As yet, there has been little research on the association between physical multimorbidity (the co-occurrence of two or more physical illnesses) and suicide, and results have been mixed. This study examined if physical multimorbidity is associated with suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States. Method: Data were analyzed from 15,311 adults that were obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Information was obtained on nine self-reported physical health conditions and lifetime suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plan, and attempts). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: An increasing number of physical health conditions was associated with higher odds for suicidal behavior. Compared to those with no physical conditions, individuals with ≥ 4 physical illnesses had 2.99, 4.82, and 4.39 times higher odds for reporting suicidal ideation, a suicide plan, and suicide attempts, respectively. An interaction analysis showed that for suicide attempts the association was stronger in younger rather than older adults. Limitations: The data were cross-sectional and information on physical conditions and suicidal behavior was self-reported and may have been subject to reporting bias. Conclusions: As multimorbidity has increased in recent decades in the United States, alerting medical practitioners to the increased risk of suicidal behavior in adults who have multiple medical conditions as well as screening for suicidality in this group may be important preventive measures to help reduce suicidal behavior in the general population.

  • 86.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Loneliness, common mental disorders and suicidal behavior: Findings from a general population survey2016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 197, no June, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Loneliness has been linked to an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. To date, however, there has been comparatively little research on this in the general adult population, or on the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association. The current study examined these associations using nationally representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Information was obtained from 7403 household residents aged ≥16 years on perceived loneliness and lifetime and past 12-month suicide ideation and attempts. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of CMD. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.

    RESULTS: Loneliness was associated with suicidal behavior. Although adjusting for CMDs attenuated associations, higher levels of loneliness were still significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts with odds ratios (OR) for those in the most severe loneliness category ranging from 3.45 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 17.37 (past 12-month suicide attempt). Further analyses showed that ORs for suicidal behavior were similar for individuals who were lonely without CMDs, and for those respondents with CMDs who were not lonely. Lonely individuals with CMDs had especially elevated odds for suicidal ideation.

    LIMITATIONS: This study used cross-sectional data and a single-item measure to obtain information on loneliness.

    CONCLUSION: Loneliness is associated with suicidal behavior in the general adult population. This highlights the importance of efforts to reduce loneliness in order to mitigate its harmful effects on health and well-being.

  • 87.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  • 88.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults2018In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1070-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

  • 89.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Kawakami, N.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Childhood adversities and adult-onset chronic pain: Results from the World Mental Health Survey, Japan2015In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1418-1427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood adversities (CAs) have been associated with adult-onset chronic pain. However, to date, most single country studies on this association have been undertaken in Western countries. This study examined the association in Japan where information is scarce. Methods: Data were drawn from the World Mental Health Survey Japan, a population-based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 11 areas of Japan in 2002-2006. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥20 years who provided information on CAs occurring before age 18 years and chronic pain (n = 1740). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk for different forms of adult-onset chronic pain (arthritis/rheumatism, neck/back pain, headache and any pain) as a function of the presence of 11 different types of CA and the number of CAs. Results: In the adjusted models, significant associations were observed between: physical abuse and neck/back pain (HR 2.55) and any pain (HR 1.88); sexual abuse and any pain (HR 2.84). Significant dose-dependent relationships were also observed between a greater number of CAs and some adult-onset chronic pain conditions (neck/back and any pain). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that in Japan, some forms of CA may be associated with certain types of adult-onset chronic pain, in particular neck/back pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  • 90.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain..
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Blatný, Marek
    Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Hrdlička, Michal
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University.
    Correlates of Weapon Carrying in School among Adolescents in Three Countries2015In: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with weapon carrying in school among Czech, Russian, and US adolescents.

    METHODS: Logistic regression was used to analyze data drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA).

    RESULTS: Violent behavior (perpetration / victimization) was linked to adolescent weapon carrying in all countries. Substance use was associated with weapon carrying among boys in all countries. Greater parental warmth reduced the odds for weapon carrying among Czech and Russian adolescents. Associating with delinquent peers was important for weapon carrying only among US adolescents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with weapon carrying in school vary among countries although violent behavior and substance use may be associated with weapon carrying across countries.

  • 91.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Murphy, Adrianna
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University.
    Binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents2015In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 540-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.

    RESULTS: Among the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females-2.6%; males-3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).

    CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.

  • 92.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    McKee, Martin
    Roberts, Bayard
    Murphy, Adrianna
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Binge drinking among adolescents in Russia: Prevalence, risk and protective factors2013In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1988-1995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as 'risk' or 'protective' factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the 'family environment', the 'alcohol environment' and 'deviant behaviour'. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.

  • 93.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    McKee, Martin
    Roberts, Bayard
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) - a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12-17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health.

    RESULTS: Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls - 17.6%; boys - 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents' health in Russia.

  • 94.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: Findings from northern Russia.2013In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 133, no 15, p. 838-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.

    RESULTS: Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.

    CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.

  • 95.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway .
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA .
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Loneliness and health risk behaviours among Russian and US adolescents: a cross-sectional study2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research gap, the current study examined this relation among Russian and U.S. adolescents. Methods: Data were used from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school-based survey conducted in 2003. A total of 1995 Russian and 2050 U.S. students aged 13-15 years old were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between loneliness and substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and violence. Results: After adjusting for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, loneliness was associated with a significantly increased risk of adolescent substance use in both Russia and the United States. Lonely Russian girls were significantly more likely to have used marijuana (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-4.45), while lonely Russian boys had higher odds for past 30-day smoking (OR, 1.87; CI, 1.08-3.24). In the U.S. loneliness was associated with the lifetime use of illicit drugs (excepting marijuana) among boys (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.41-6.77) and with lifetime marijuana use (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.26-2.55), past 30-day alcohol consumption (OR, 1.80; CI, 1.18-2.75) and past 30-day binge drinking (OR, 2.40; CI, 1.56-3.70) among girls. The only relation between loneliness and sexual risk behaviour was among Russian girls, where loneliness was associated with significantly higher odds for ever having been pregnant (OR, 1.69; CI: 1.12-2.54). Loneliness was not associated with violent behaviour among boys or girls in either country. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with adolescent health risk behaviour among boys and girls in both Russia and the United States. Further research is now needed in both settings using quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the association between loneliness and health risk behaviours so that effective interventions can be designed and implemented to mitigate loneliness and its effects on adolescent well-being.

  • 96.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Sabawoon, W
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    McKee, M
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Loneliness and health in Eastern Europe: findings from Moscow, Russia2015In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine which factors are associated with feeling lonely in Moscow, Russia, and to determine whether loneliness is associated with worse health.

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: Data from 1190 participants were drawn from the Moscow Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with feeling lonely and whether loneliness was linked to poor health.

    RESULTS: Almost 10% of the participants reported that they often felt lonely. Divorced and widowed individuals were significantly more likely to feel lonely, while not living alone and having greater social support reduced the risk of loneliness. Participants who felt lonely were more likely to have poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.76), and have suffered from insomnia (OR: 2.43; CI: 1.56-3.77) and mental ill health (OR: 2.93; CI: 1.88-4.56).

    CONCLUSIONS: Feeling lonely is linked to poorer health in Moscow. More research is now needed on loneliness and the way it affects health in Eastern Europe, so that appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce loneliness and its harmful impact on population well-being in this setting.

  • 97.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Richardson, Erica
    Roberts, Bayard
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 13, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Methods: Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. Results: The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. Conclusions: The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

  • 98.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Fundacio St Joan Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK .
    Mckee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK .
    Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. Results: In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions: The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

  • 99.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health.

  • 100.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Urban-rural differences in psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 178, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type.

    METHODS: Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities.

    LIMITATIONS: The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions.

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