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  • 51.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Anxiogenic behaviour induced by 17α-ethynylestradiol in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)2011In: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 0920-1742, E-ISSN 1573-5168, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 911-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaviour studies are used in toxicology research as they are excellent tools to measure physiological end-points caused by exogenous chemicals. In mammals both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours have been used for a long period of time, whereas in teleost fishes non-reproductive behaviours have received little attention compared to reproductive behaviours. Recent advances in measuring stress related behaviours in zebrafish have provided additional tools to understand behaviour toxicology in fish. One species with well documented reproductive behaviour disturbed by different toxicants is the guppy, which is better suited than zebrafish for reproductive behaviour studies and therefore might be a better model organism for comparative behaviour studies in fish toxicology. Here we report new applications for non-reproductive behaviours in guppy and test these behaviours on males treated with the endocrine disruptor 17α-ethynylestradiol at environmentally relevant concentrations. 17α-ethynylestradiol increased freezing and bottom-dwelling when fish were placed in a non-familiar aquarium, but did not significantly affect shoaling behaviour. These results are similar to the anxiogenic behaviours seen in rats treated perinatally with 17α-ethynylestradiol and add more concern to the impacts of endocrine disruptors on aquatic wildlife.

  • 52.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Whose fish? Managing salmonidae and humans in complex social-ecological systems: Examples from the Baltic Sea Region2009In: Challenges for diadromous fishes in a dynamic global environment: proceedings of the international symposium "Challenges for Diadromous Fishes in a Dynamic Global Environment" held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, June 18-21, 2007 / [ed] Alex Haro ... [et al.], Bethesda, Md: American Fisheries Society , 2009, p. 663-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of salmonids at local and regional levels in the Baltic, Sea is best analyzed by viewing the Baltic region as a complex social-ecological system. The ecosystem approach, now in an implementation phase in the Baltic Sea region, provides a framework for understanding interdependencies between resources, ecosystems and society, and examining management trade-offs. This study focuses on application of the ecosystem approach to management of two salmonids: the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fishery in the Baltic Sea region and the brown trout S. trutta recreational fishery in Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. These cases provide illustrative examples of some current trend!; and key challenges for sustainable salmonidae management. The Baltic Sea has low biodiversity and Atlantic salmon is one of the few commercially or recreationally important fish species. In this region, fish resources and the ecosystems they depend on are shared by nine coastal nations. The different salmon populations spawn in their native rivers but mix in offshore areas where they are harvested by national fishing fleets. In the Baltic, a number of factors have impacted wild salmon populations. Hydropower development in the Baltic coastal states has led to declines in wild salmon populations and, to compensate, annual stocked fish releases. In attractive coastal areas such as the Stockholm archipelago in Sweden, increased recreational fishing has led to a shift in user patterns from small-scale commercial fisheries by islanders towards a heterogeneous group of visiting recreational fishers. Efforts to reorganize fisheries management institutions in the Baltic Sea region indicate the need to consider the full range of user groups, develop coherent multilevel management institutions, and achieve a better understanding of the role of diverse fish populations in the ecosystem.

  • 53.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 54.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

  • 55.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Andersson, Ingela
    Cross-scale linkages and trade-offs in multilevel water governance: A case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District2011In: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Conference, Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea , 2011, p. ICES CM2011/R:21-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 57.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Global regimes, regional adaptation: environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation2010In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 489-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant efforts to improve environmental safety in marine oil transportation, the risk of a major accident with devastating oil spills has most likely increased. Building on the regime analytical approach where it is assumed that international collaboration may benefit participating countries, it is argued that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives may increase maritime safety significantly, compared to exclusive reliance on universal conventions. A distinction is made between on the one hand investments in safety-increasing infrastructure and local capacity building and on the other, vessel design, on-board installations and crew qualifications. It is suggested that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives are more likely to be taken on the former kind of objects, targeting issues, such as modernization of port facilities, monitoring support, assistance in emergency capacity building and designation of ports of refuge, because the interaction between the involved countries are comparably stable in the cases. Actual efforts to improve safety seem to follow the logic of separation between these two types of safety-increasing measures. It is concluded that similar drivers of bilateral and sub-regional initiatives targeting specific aspects of marine safety and contributing to overall collective benefits from improved environmental protection probably exist also in other regions than the Baltic Sea.

  • 58.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    [Recension av] "Internasjonal Miljøpolitikk", Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson och Geir Hønneland (red).2009In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 242-246Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Bergström, Maria
    Adesina, Modupe F.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen-suppressive soil2010In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study, we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF103 of the isolate Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  • 62. Jaensson, Alia
    et al.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Effects of copper on olfactory-mediated endocrine responses and reproductive behaviour in mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to conspecific females2010In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 800-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the effects of copper (CuSO4) on the ability of mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to detect and react both physiologically and behaviourally to female pheromones were studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first experiment, priming effects of the female pheromone prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) were evaluated by determining the amount of milt produced and the blood plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) after the PGF(2 alpha) exposure. In the second experiment, male parr were placed in a large stream tank together with a group of adult males and ovulated females and their individual behaviours were recorded. In the priming experiment, the amount of expressible milt was significantly lower, less than half, in groups exposed during 4 days to 10 or 100 mu g l-1 copper compared with control parr only exposed to water. No significant differences were observed in plasma levels of 11-KT and 17, 20 beta-P. During the behavioural experiment, exposed parr spent less time with the female and had a lower number of courting events. Blood plasma levels of 11-KT were, however, significantly higher in the group exposed to 100 mu g l-1 copper compared with the control group. Furthermore, the exposed group spent significantly less time swimming upstream than did the control group. The present study demonstrates that exposure to copper affects reproductive behaviours and endocrinology of S. trutta male parr.

  • 63. Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    André, Carl
    The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change.

  • 64. Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Milberg, Per
    Tree and site quality preferences of six epiphytic lichens growing on oaks in southeastern Sweden2009In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oaks (Quercus robur) can reach a considerable age, which makes them an important substrate for many epiphytic lichens, including several red-listed species. We studied the importance of tree size and other environmental factors for the occurrence of six epiphytic lichens at two sites, in southeastern Sweden, differing in quality as judged by tree size distribution and number of old trees. The effects of tree circumference, light availability, trunk inclination and site were analysed. Results showed that different lichen species responded differently to these factors, but, overall, tree size was most important for lichen occurrence. Five species showed a positive relation to tree size, but the 50% probability of occurrence was reached at different tree sizes among these species and there were also site differences. This study shows that the maintenance of old trees is crucial for several lichen species, which highlights the importance of long-term management plans.

  • 65. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Allard, Ann Sofie
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Lenoir, Linette
    Persson, Tryggve
    Taylor, Astrid
    Yesilova, Håkan
    Tillämpning av metodik för miljöriskbedömning på utvalda förorenade områden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    The precautionary principle in EU and US chemicals policy: A comparison of industrial chemicals legislation2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 239-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the precautionary principle will be considered as the starting point for decision-making on chemicals in cases of scientific uncertainty. The principle will serve as the reference point for an analysis and a comparison of chemicals- policies and, in particular, of legislation for industrial chemicals in the European Union and the United States of America. In the second section, the precautionary principle will be described on a general level and operationalised with respect to chemicals management. The third section will focus on EU precautionary and chemicals policy and, in particular, on the recently adopted REACH regulation. A similar analysis will be made of US policies in the fourth section, with a focus on the Toxic Substances Control Act. In the fifth and concluding section, the results from the analyses will be compared and discussed with the aim to identify measures that could improve the management of chemicals under uncertainty.

  • 67.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Governance of Complex Socio-Environmental Risks: The Case of Hazardous Chemicals in the Baltic Sea2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 144-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and socio-political controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  • 68.
    Kateka, Adolphine G.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Co-management Challenges In The Lake Victoria Fisheries: A Context Approach2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis examines the challenges to co-management in the Tanzania part of Lake Victoria. The study mainly addresses the Nile perch fishery and uses the fishing communities of Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania as a case study. Co-management in Lake Victoria is defined as the sharing of the management responsibilities between the state and the fishing communities. Co-management was adopted in the Lake Victoria fisheries on the understanding that it has the capacity to provide space in which the poor resource users could be empowered to sustainably manage their resource base. The assumption was that the sharing of the management responsibilities between the state and the community of users would have led to equity in resource access, poverty reduction and resource sustainability. Thus, reducing the role of the state and enhancing that of the communities was seen as a solution to the problems of poverty and illegal fishing that are threatening the sustainability of the fishery and the fishers dependent on it. However, in spite of these proclaimed efforts, illegal fishing and poverty in Lake Victoria remain major threats to the long-term sustainability of the fishery, a fact that is raising questions on the efficacy of co-management in Lake Victoria. These questions have particularly focused on the co-management model and the neo-liberal ideals that underlie it, namely decentralization, participation and accountability. The central argument in this thesis, however, is that co-management performance in Lake Victoria is to a large extent shaped by the complex international, national, and local context in which it is implemented and which in turn shapes the problems of poverty and illegal fishing that co-management is supposed to address. The study concludes that the international and national politics behind the Nile perch fishery intersect with the cultural and social context in which the fishery is embedded to shape co-management performance at the local level.

    For analysis, the study applies a multi-level approach and draws insights from the common pool resources theory, the actor-oriented approach, the entitlement framework, and the theory of the state. Detailed interviews across scale, secondary data, policy documents, and laws, supported by quantitative data are the methods applied.

  • 69.
    Knudsen, Olav F.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    IMO legislation and its implementation: Accident risk, vessel deficiencies and national administrative practices2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article takes as its point of departure the apparently contradictory findings in recent research about accident rates in shipping and IMO implementation records. It is argued here that although IMO conventions have probably greatly improved shipping safety, they cannot credibly be held to be the chief cause of reduced accident rates as claimed in a recent Marine Policy article, when the documented failures of flag state and port state implementation continue to leave vessels sailing with grave deficiencies. The present analysis posits and corroborates a cluster of linked tendencies that jointly undermine IMO implementation. The core problem is IMO’s weak connection to the national maritime administrations, leading to broadly discretionary practices, exacerbated by language difficulties. Adding new rules is no panacea, as new rules in some cases negatively affect the functioning of existing regulations, and sometimes seem motivated mainly to show political alertness. The structural weakness of the IMO/member state link is the core implementation problem that urgently needs to be dealt with if marine safety is to be improved. The concluding section proposes a reform to bring the IMO out of this conundrum and ensure effective implementation.

  • 70.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Population Genetic Structure and Connectivity of the Abundant Sea Urchin, Diadema setosum around Unguja Island (Zanzibar)2010In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Uncontrolled growth of sea urchin populations may have a negative effect on coral reefs, making them barren. To avoid this, different methods of sea urchin reduction have been developed but, without knowledge of their genetic structure and connectivity, these methods may be ineffective. The aim of this study was to examine the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity in the sea urchin, Diadema setosum, population around Unguja, Zanzibar, using AFLP. We found evidence of different genetic clusters, high migration between the sites and high genetic diversity within the sites. These findings indicate that a manual reduction of sea urchins with similar genetic connectivity, implemented on the same geographic scale as our study, would be ineffective since sites are probably repopulated from many sources.

  • 71.
    Lidberg, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hantering av miljö- och hälsorisker i textila produktkedjor: En fallstudie av Stockholms läns landsting2011Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Lind, Emma E
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2011In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 20, p. 503-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P < 0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST) = 0.021, P < 0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs = 0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs = 0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P < 0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P < 0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.

  • 73.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, principally due to their sensitivity to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis, both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

    Generation time of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA analysis of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Quercus robur.

    The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden, between 1986 and 2003, were also compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

    Finally differences in species richness and cover of lichens on large Q. robur were examined between urban and rural environment. The results demonstrated that species number and percent cover was significantly higher on oaks standing rural compared to oaks standing urban. Effects of urban sprawl showed a decline in species richness and cover with increasing age of the surrounding buildings.

  • 74.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, since lichens are sensitive to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

    Brokind was chosen as the study site to investigate the succession of epiphytic lichens on Quercus robur using a chronosequencial approach. Fourteen of the investigated taxa out of 50 proved to be significant. The taxa were divided into three groups according to whether they occurred on young, middle-aged or old trees.

    Generation length of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    Generation length of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from the coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Q. robur.

    The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden between 1986 and 2003 were compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

    Regional gradients of abundance and size of Hypogymnia physodes at 66 sites in southern Sweden were examined. The coordinate system rotating the reference system of investigated sites around the origin was used to search for the best explanatory power for the angle of the explanatory variables. The results showed a gradient of increase in the probability of occurrence in a north-north-east direction and an increase in diameter on thallus size in a west-north-west direction.

  • 75.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Ekologi.
    Rapp, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Ekologi.
    Biodiversity in the wake of urban sprawl: loss among epiphytic lichens on large oaksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suffers from urbanisation. In the present study, we focused on how the age of urbanisation affects the richness of 17 epiphytic lichens species and their cover on large oaks, with a minimum spacing of 250 m, in urban environments in the city of Linköping (100,000 inhabitants), SE Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunk circumference and oak density within 300 m. Lichen richness and cover were significantly lower on urban trees compared to rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded by houses. Roughly one species is lost every 30 years. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a drop in occurrence with respect to the duration of housing development. The reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% (Calicium viride, Evernia prunastri), 80% (Chrysotrix candelaris) to 90% (Ramalina spp.) during the 160-year period of urbanisation considered. Therefore, even if valuable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen flora are likely to become depleted over time.

  • 76.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Brand, Anneli
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Krikorev, Mikael
    Olsson, Niklas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Robeck, Alexandra
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Rönnmark, Fredrik
    Matsson, Jan-Eric
    Generation time estimated to be 25-30 years in Cliostomum corrugatum (Ach.) Fr.2009In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 41, p. 557-559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lindblom, Louise
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Milberg, Per
    Skage, Morten
    Ekman, Stefan
    Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 8, p. 1870-1878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to estimate the dispersal rate in an organism assumed to be confined to tree stands with unbroken continuity. We used the lichen-forming ascomycete Cliostomum corrugatum, which is largely confined to old oak stands. Five populations, with pairwise distances ranging from 6.5 to 83 km, were sampled in Ostergotland, south-eastern Sweden. DNA sequence data from an intron in the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene was obtained from 85 samples. Nearly all molecular variance (99.6%) was found within populations and there were no signs of isolation-by-distance. The absolute number of immigrants per population per generation (estimated to 30 years), inferred by Bayesian MCMC, was found to be between 1 and 5. Altogether, evidence suggests abundant gene flow in the history of our sample. A simulation procedure demonstrated that we cannot know whether effective dispersal is ongoing or if it ceased at the time when oaks started to decrease dramatically around 400 years BP. However, a scenario where effective dispersal ceased already at the time when the postglacial reinvasion of oak had reached the region around 6000 years BP is unlikely. Vegetation history suggests that the habitat of C. corrugatum was patchily distributed in the landscape since the early Holocene. Combined with the high dispersal rate estimate, this suggests that the species has been successful at frequently crossing distances of at least several kilometres and possibly that it has primarily been limited by the availability of habitat rather than by dispersal.

  • 78.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Milberg, Per
    Palmer, Michael W.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Changes in the distributions of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden using a new statistical method2009In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 413-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies on changes in species distribution have mainly been based on analysis of range boundaries. In contrast, the method used here evaluates shifts in species' geographic centroids within a predefined area. We used presence/absence data on epiphytic lichens collected 1986 and 2003 from 64 sites in southern Sweden. A centroid was calculated each year, for each lichen species and substrate. The distance of centroid movement was evaluated in a permutation procedure. In total, 56 lichen species on 22 tree species were involved in the analyses, yielding 30 cases that had sufficient sample sizes both years to be evaluated. Out of these, three exhibited a significant movement of their centroid. The shift of lichen centroids of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai on the tree species Juniperus communis L. was 50 and 151 km with the direction 27 degrees and 48 degrees, respectively. For Hypogymnia physodes on Pinus sylvestris L., corresponding values were 41 km and 30 degrees. The northnortheast shifts of these species in Sweden could be a response to a warming climate.

  • 79.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hansson, Anne-Charlotte
    Lindblom, Louise
    Genetic variation in relation to substratum preferences of Hypogymnia physodes2009In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 41, p. 547-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variability and its relationship to substratum preferences within and among populations of the sorediate foliose lichen Hypogymnia physodes was investigated using sequence variation in the complete nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A few samples of the putatively closely related, sorediate, H. tubulosa were also included. Samples were collected from each tree species in study sites in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. In total, DNA sequences from 104 individuals of H. physodes and 16 of H. tubulosa were obtained. A group I intron situated at the end of the small subunit (SSU) of the nrDNA was detected in both species. Within-species variability was observed in both species: fifteen haplotypes were found for H. physodes and seven for H. tubulosa for the combined alignment of the intron and the ITS. Possible recombination within the total gene fragment was detected and hence the different regions (intron, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) were analysed separately. They show a different degree of variability both between each other and between the species. The number of haplotypes of H. physodes in the four regions are 5, 5, 1, and 5 and for H. tubulosa 5, 2, 1 and 2, respectively. A statistical parsimony estimation resulted in two unconnected networks; one containing all the samples of H. physodes and one containing all H. tubulosa samples. It was not possible to show different potentials of the different haplotypes for establishment on different substrata as the network of H. physodes indicates recombination within the ITS region which may be frequent enough to make this primarily clonally reproducing species to behave like a sexual species.

  • 80. Mertens, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bringué, Manuel
    van Niewenhove, Nicolas
    Takano, Yoshihito
    Pospelova, Vera
    Rochon, Andre
    De Vernal, Anne
    Radi, Taoufik
    Dale, Barrie
    Patterson, R. Timothy
    Weckström, Kaarina
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Louwye, Stephen
    Matsouka, Kazumi
    Process length variation of the cyst of thedinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in the NorthPacific and Baltic-Skagerrak region: calibration as anannual density proxy and first evidence ofpseudo-cryptic speciation2012In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 734-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process length variation of cysts of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparede et Lachmann) Butschli in surface sediments from the North Pacific was investigated. The average process length showeda significant inverse relation to annual seawater density: t annual= -0.8674 x average process length +1029.3(R2=0.84), with a standard error of 0.78 kgm-3. A sediment trap study from Effingham Inlet in British Columbiarevealed the same relationship between average process length and local seawater density variations. In the Baltic–Skagerrak region, the average process length variation was related significantly to annual seawater density: t annual =3.5457 x average process length -993.28 (R2=0.86), with a standard error of 3.09 kgm3. These calibrations cannot be reconciled, which accentuates the regional character of the calibrations. This can be related to variations in molecular data (small subunit, long subunit and internal transcribed spacer sequences), whichshow the presence of several genotypes and the occurrence of pseudo-cryptic speciation within this species.

  • 81.
    Nilsson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Wright, Anthony Ph
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Proteome-wide evidence for enhanced positive Darwinian selection within intrinsically disordered regions in proteins2011In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 12, no 7, p. R65-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Understanding the adaptive changes that alter the function of proteins during evolution is an important question for biology and medicine. The increasing number of completely sequenced genomes from closely related organisms, as well as individuals within species, facilitates systematic detection of recent selection events by means of comparative genomics. RESULTS: We have used genome-wide strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphism data from 64 strains of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces paradoxus) to determine whether adaptive positive selection is correlated with protein regions showing propensity for different classes of structure conformation. Data from phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of 3746 gene alignments consistently shows a significantly higher degree of positive Darwinian selection in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins compared to regions of alpha helix, beta sheet or tertiary structure. Evidence of positive selection is significantly enriched in classes of proteins whose functions and molecular mechanisms can be coupled to adaptive processes and these classes tend to have a higher average content of intrinsically unstructured protein regions. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that intrinsically disordered protein regions may be important for the production and maintenance of genetic variation with adaptive potential and that they may thus be of central significance for the evolvability of the organism or cell in which they occur.

  • 82. Nousiainen, Marko
    et al.
    Pylkkänen, Päivi
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Seppänen, Laura
    Vesala, Kari Mikko
    Are Alternative Food Systems Socially Sustainable?: A Case Study from Finland2009In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 566-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the importance of alternative food systems in delivering social sustainability to local communities. The perceptions of local and organic food systems actors regarding equity (or fairness) between the actors and viability of the local communities are examined to analyze social sustainability in Juva, Finland. The findings lend conditional support to the positive relationship between localized food systems and actors within these systems feeling empowered and influential, while also supporting other research emphasizing the limitations of farmer influence on vertical distributional channels, irrespective of production methods (i.e., organic or conventional).

  • 83.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Att söka skyddad geografisk- eller ursprungsbeteckning2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84.
    Nygård, Odd
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Godset Almnäs i Norra Fågelås socken: odlingshistoria och markanvändning2012Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Effects of Pollutants on Olfactory Mediated Behaviors in Fish and Crustaceans2011In: Chemical communication in Crustaceans / [ed] Breithaupt and Thiel, New York: Springer, 2011, p. 507-529Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Ramula, Satu
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    University of Kalmar.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Spatial data replacing temporal data in population viability analyses: An empirical investigation for plants2009In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 401-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conservation management, there is an urgent need for estimates of population viability and for knowledge of the contributions of different life-history stages to population growth rates. Collection of long-term demographic data from a study population is time-consuming and may considerably delay the start of proper management actions. We examined the possibility of replacing a long-term temporal data set (demographic data from several years within a population) with a short-term spatial data set (demographic data from different populations for the same subset of two continuous years) for stochastic estimates of population viability. Using matrix population models for ten perennial plant species, we found that the matrix elements of spatial data sets often deviated from those of temporal data sets and that matrix elements generally varied more spatially than temporally. The appropriateness of replacing temporal data with spatial data depended on the subset of years and populations used to estimate stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s)). Still, the precision of log lambda(s) estimates measured as variation in the yearly change of logarithmic population size rarely differed significantly between the spatial and temporal data sets. Since a spatiotemporal comparison of matrix elements and their variation cannot be used to assess whether spatial and temporal data sets are interchangeable, we recommend further research on the topic.

  • 87. Reitalu, Triin
    et al.
    Sykes, Martin T.
    Johansson, Lotten M.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hall, Karin
    Vanderwalle, Marie
    Prentice, Honor C.
    Small-scale plant species richness and evenness in semi-natural grasslands respond differently to habitat fragmentation2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 899-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores whether small-scale species diversity, species evenness and species richness in semi-natural grassland communities are similarly associated with present management regime and/or present and historical landscape context (percentage of different land-cover types in the surroundings). Species diversity, evenness and richness were recorded within 441 50 × 50 cm grassland plots in 4.5 × 4.5 km agricultural landscape on Öland, Sweden. Recent and historical land-cover maps (years 2004, 1959, 1938, 1835, and 1800) were used to characterize the present and past landscape context of the sampled vegetation plots. Partial regression and simultaneous autoregressive models were used to explore the relationships between species diversity measures (Shannon diversity, richness and evenness) and different explanatory variables while accounting for spatial autocorrelation in the data. The results indicated that species richness was relatively sensitive to grassland isolation, while the response of species evenness to isolation was characterized by a degree of inertia. Because the richness and evenness components of species diversity may respond differently to habitat fragmentation, we suggest that monitoring projects and empirical studies that focus on changes in biodiversity in semi-natural grasslands should include the assessment of species evenness – as a complement to the assessment of species richness. In addition, our results indicated that the development and persistence of a species-rich and even grassland vegetation was favoured in areas that have historically (in the 19th century) been surrounded by grasslands. Information on landscape history should, whenever possible, be incorporated into the planning of strategies for grassland conservation.

  • 88.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio)2011In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 105, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89. Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Scientific uncertainty and science-policy interactions in the risk assessment of hazardous chemicals2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Business history: den internationella framväxten2012In: Företagsminnen: Magasinet om näringslivets historia, ISSN 1101-7473, no 2, p. 38-41Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91. Sandahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Riskbedömning i Östersjön2012In: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-9Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.

  • 92.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    A Political Ecology Inspired Critique of Common Pool Resource Research and Practice2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power : an anthology / [ed] Friman, E. and Gallardo Fernández, G., Uppsala: CSD Uppsala , 2010, p. 23-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development: North Americaand Europe (NAE) Report2009Other (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development: Synthesis Report : A Synthesis of the Global and Sub-Global IAASTD Reports2009Other (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar2011In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    The Politics of People - Not Just Mangroves and Monkeys: A study of the theory and practice of community-based management of natural resources in Zanzibar2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based management of natural resource (CBNRM) projects have commonly failed to deliver conservation and development benefits. This thesis examined how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory have contributed to the indifferent performance of CBNRM projects. Evidence was gathered from two CBNRM case studies in Zanzibar to show that CPR institutional design does not sufficiently acknowledge the politics or social relations of project sites. Moreover, these limitations reduce CPR theory's explanatory power and the functionality of CBNRM projects. This is because CPR theory's influence on CBNRM projects is to frame people with fixed identities and related interests as 'rational resource users', rather than people enrolled in multiple network relations with differentiated means of influence, interests and responsibilities. Actor-oriented theory is used to show that CBNRM would benefit from a shift in the correlation with institutional design factors to understanding the operation of power and conflict at project sites. These findings suggest that currently CBNRM projects are too mired in concern about regulating the 'direct' relationship between resource users and conservation objectives, with problematic implications. It is shown that actor-oriented theory is more sensitive to the different capacities, interests and strategies of actors in CBNRM institutional transformation processes. While actor-oriented theory does not offer a parsimonious or predictive theory to reform CPR theory or CBNRM policy, it can provide insights into pre-project conditions and emergent practice useful for explaining project interventions. 

  • 97.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    The Robustness of CBNRM projects in view of the shortcomings of CPR theoryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Bylund, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    On the use of actor-network theory in a common pool resources project2009In: The Commons Digest, ISSN 1933-5350, Vol. 8, p. 1-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Common pool resource theory has become the dominant theoretical and practical strategy to study and design natural resource management institutions. This paper contrasts the common pool resource theory (CPR) with that of actor-network theory (ANT) by employing the rhetorical device of a conversational piece between two researchers. Examining their respective approaches to understanding highlights the ontological and epistemological differences between the two approaches, and how they could be used to investigate community based nature resource management. For illustrative purposes we draw on our empirical work on community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Kisakasaka, Zanzibar. Some common misconceptualizations and misunderstandings of actor-network theory are clarified by examining some often taken for granted common pool resource assumptions about rationality, objectivity, framing, scale and what constitutes common sense when undertaking social science research. The paper concludes equivocally by suggesting that although the two research approaches should not be hybridised, separately employed they might shed light on different aspects of community-based natural resource management projects.

  • 99.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Mohammed, Salim M.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Nordin, Karolina
    Lunden, Bengt
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    The changing social relations of a community-based mangrove forest project in Zanzibar2010In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas in East Africa are experiencing rapid economic, resource management, demographic and technological shifts. In response diverse Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) applications have been embraced to provide mutual conservation and use benefits. These initiatives have met with mixed success in practice. Reflecting on the limitations of past research using common pool resources theory theory to study CBNRM we use insights from actor oriented theory combined with satellite image analysis to describe and discuss the forces dynamically influencing institutional and mangrove forest cover change at Kisakasaka, Zanzibar focussing on the formal CBNRM project period between 1996 and 2001, but also considering the period before and after this. We examine the shifting social relations that affected the performance and viability of the formal CBNRM arrangements. An integrated approach was taken to the presentation and discussion of results where it was possible to enrich and expand explanations of socio-environmental change, which was driven by a lack of government support, the undermining effects of party political divisions, and the lack of institutional adaptive capacity. We conclude that this was a useful approach to explain CBNRM intervention events at Kisakasaka.

  • 100.
    Schartau, Mai-Brith
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Jonason, Patricia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Law.
    Bron Jr, Michal
    Södertörn University, Södertörn University Library. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Environmental Oragnizations and Conditions for Participation in Regional Environmental Governance: The Baltic Sea Region2012In: On conference website, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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