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  • 51.
    Jeong, Yeonjae
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Park, Seoyeon
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Republic of Korea.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Spain; Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Spain.
    Jacob, Louis
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Spain; University of Versailles Saint‐Quentin‐en‐Yvelines, France.
    Kostev, Karel
    University Hospital, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Radua, Joaquim
    Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Global burden of gout in 1990‐2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 20192023In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 53, no 4, article id e13937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Although gout is one of the most common rheumatic diseases, world data is lacking because most studies have focused on industrialized countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the global burden of gout and associations with year of diagnosis, age, geographical region, sociodemographic status, and various further risk factors.

    Methods: Retrospective data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) was used, initially collected between 1990 and 2019. Raw numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 persons) of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) of gout were extracted from GBD 2019 for 204 countries and territories and stratified by sex, age, year, sociodemographic index, and geographic region. Correlations between gout and other chronic diseases were identified, and the burden attributable to high body-mass index (BMI) and kidney dysfunction was described.

    Results: The total number of patients and gout age-standardized prevalence rate increased between 1990 and 2019. Gout was most prevalent in Australasia and high-income North America, and a higher socio demographic index (SDI) was associated with higher age-standardized prevalence, incidence, and YLDs. High BMI and kidney dysfunction were risk factors for gout, while gout was correlated with other kidney diseases.

    Conclusions: The global prevalence of gout, as well as incidence, and YLDs increased worldwide from 1990 to 2019, and had a significant association with sex, age, geographic region, SDI, and risk factors. Understanding the complex interplay of environmental, sociodemographic, and geographic risk factors is essential in mitigating the ever-rising disease burden of gout.

  • 52.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Självmord som ett avlägsnande från kommunikation: ett nytt luhmannskt perspektiv på ett gammalt sociologiskt problem2013In: Sosiologi i dag, ISSN 0332-6330, E-ISSN 1893-4617, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 58-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Suicide in Russia: A macro-sociological study2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work constitutes a macro-sociological study of suicide. The empirical focus is on suicide mortality in Russia, which is among the highest in the world and has, moreover, developed in a dramatic manner over the second half of the 20th century. Suicide mortality in contemporary Russia is here placed within the context of development over a longer time period through empirical studies on 1) the general and sex- and age-specific developments in suicide over the period 1870–2007, 2) underlying dynamics of Russian suicide mortality 1956–2005 pertaining to differences between age groups, time periods, and particular generations and 3) the continuity in the aggregate-level relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality from late Tsarist period to post-World War II Russia. In addition, a fourth study explores an alternative to Émile Durkheim’s dominating macro-sociological perspective on suicide by making use of Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems. With the help of Luhmann’s macro-sociological perspective it is possible to consider suicide and its causes also in terms of processes at the individual level (i.e. at the level of psychic systems) in a manner that contrasts with the ‘holistic’ perspective of Durkheim. The results of the empirical studies show that Russian suicide mortality, despite its exceptionally high level and dramatic changes in the contemporary period, shares many similarities with the patterns seen in Western countries when examined over a longer time period. Societal modernization in particular seems to have contributed to the increased rate of suicide in Russia in a manner similar to what happened earlier in Western Europe. In addition, the positive relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality proved to be remarkably stable across the past one and a half centuries. These results were interpreted using the Luhmannian perspective on suicide developed in this work. 

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  • 54.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1543-6136, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 55.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-20052017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

    METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

    RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  • 56.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 57. Kaleta, Dorota
    et al.
    Usidame, Bukola
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta
    Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)2014In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 583-Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 58.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 1447-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 59.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 773-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 60.
    Kim, J. H.
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, J. Y.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, J.
    Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Jeong, G. H.
    Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, E.
    Department of Psychiatry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, S.
    Department of Psychiatry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, K. H.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Kronbichler, A.
    Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Stubbs, B.
    King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Solmi, M.
    King's College London, London, UK; University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deéu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hong, S. H.
    Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Dragioti, E.
    Linköping University.
    Jacob, L.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deéu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Brunoni, A. R.
    University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Hospital Universitario, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Carvalho, A. F.
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Radua, J.
    King's College London, London, UK; Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Centre (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Karolinska Institutet.
    Thompson, T.
    University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Yang, L.
    Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada; Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Grabovac, I.
    Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Schuch, F.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Fornaro, M.
    Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rais, T. B.
    University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.
    de Pablo, G. S.
    King's College London, London, UK; Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Shin, J. I.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Fusar-Poli, P.
    King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Environmental risk factors, protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD: an umbrella review2020In: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 955-970Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD have been investigated, but the consistency and magnitude of their effects are unclear. We aimed to systematically appraise the published evidence of association between potential risk factors, protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers, and ADHD. Methods: In this umbrella review of meta-analyses, we searched PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, and screened the references of relevant articles. We included systematic reviews that provided meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations of potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers with diagnosis of ADHD. We included meta-analyses that used categorical ADHD diagnosis criteria according to DSM, hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD, or criteria that were less rigorous than DSM or ICD, such as self-report. We excluded articles that did not examine environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers of ADHD; articles that did not include a meta-analysis; and articles that did not present enough data for re-analysis. We excluded non-human studies, primary studies, genetic studies, and conference abstracts. We calculated summary effect estimates (odds ratio [OR], relative risk [RR], weighted mean difference [WMD], Cohen's d, and Hedges' g), 95% CI, heterogeneity I2 statistic, 95% prediction interval, small study effects, and excess significance biases. We did analyses under credibility ceilings, and assessed the quality of the meta-analyses with AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2). This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019145032. Findings: We identified 1839 articles, of which 35 were eligible for inclusion. These 35 articles yielded 63 meta-analyses encompassing 40 environmental risk factors and environmental protective factors (median cases 16 850, median population 91 954) and 23 peripheral biomarkers (median cases 175, median controls 187). Evidence of association was convincing (class I) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 1·63, 95% CI 1·49 to 1·77), childhood eczema (1·31, 1·20 to 1·44), hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (1·29, 1·22 to 1·36), pre-eclampsia (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and maternal acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy (RR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17 to 1·34). Evidence of association was highly suggestive (class II) for maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·45 to 1·76), childhood asthma (1·51, 1·4 to 1·63), maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and serum vitamin D (WMD −6·93, 95% CI −9·34 to −4·51). Interpretation: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight; pre-eclampsia, hypertension, acetaminophen exposure, and smoking during pregnancy; and childhood atopic diseases were strongly associated with ADHD. Previous familial studies suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, overweight, and smoking during pregnancy are confounded by familial or genetic factors, and further high-quality studies are therefore required to establish causality.

  • 61.
    Kim, Jae Han
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Kim, Jong Yeob
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seul
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, San
    Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Stubbs, Brendon
    Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain..
    Dragioti, Elena
    Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden..
    Jacob, Louis
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain; Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France..
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Radua, Joaquim
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thompson, Trevor
    Department of Psychology, University of Greenwich, London, UK..
    Smith, Lee
    The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK..
    Oh, Hans
    School of Social Work, University of Southern California, CA 90015, USA..
    Yang, Lin
    Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada; Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada..
    Fornaro, Michele
    Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, Federico II University, Naples, Italy..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    de Pablo, Gonzalo Salazar
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Department of Basic Sciences, Medicine Faculty of Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 15 Rue Djebel Lakdar, Tunis 1007, Tunisia..
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seung Won
    Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Hwang, Jimin
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA..
    Il Shin, Jae
    Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK..
    Environmental Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Biomarkers for Postpartum Depressive Symptoms: An Umbrella Review2022In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 140, article id 104761Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed an umbrella review on environmental risk/protective factors and biomarkers for postpartum depressive symptoms to establish a hierarchy of evidence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until 12 January 2021. We included systematic reviews providing meta-analyses related to our research objectives. Methodological quality was assessed by AMSTAR 2, and the certainty of evidence was evaluated by GRADE. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021230784). We identified 30 articles, which included 45 environmental risk/protective factors (154594 cases, 7302273 population) and 9 biomarkers (2018 cases, 16757 population). The credibility of evidence was convincing (class I) for antenatal anxiety (OR 2.49, 1.91-3.25) and psychological violence (OR 1.93, 1.54-2.42); and highly suggestive (class II) for intimate partner violence experience (OR 2.86, 2.12-3.87), intimate partner violence during pregnancy (RR 2.81, 2.11-3.74), smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.39, 1.78-3.2), history of premenstrual syndrome (OR 2.2, 1.81-2.68), any type of violence experience (OR 2.04, 1.72-2.41), primiparity compared to multiparity (RR 1.76, 1.59-1.96), and unintended pregnancy (OR 1.53, 1.35-1.75).

  • 62.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    et al.
    Federal State Institution of Science, Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    РОЛЬ СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ В ОБЪЯСНЕНИИ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ РАЗЛИЧИЙ В СОСТОЯНИИ ЗДОРОВЬЯ РОССИЯН: [The Role of Social Relations and Explaining Socio-Economic Health Disparities among Russians]2015In: Социальные Aспекты Здоровья Hаселения [Social Aspects of Population Health], ISSN 2071-5021, Vol. 4, no 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Existence of systematic health differences between people with different socio-economic status has been confirmed by many studies. At the same time, social relations have been found to be an important determinant of health. Some scholars consider social relations as mediator between socioeconomic status and health. However, studies on this subject are scattered and inconsistent. At the same time, it remains unclear how social relations are distributed according to socio-economic status. The study, the results of which are presented in this work, is an attempt to examine relationship between socio-economic status, social relations and health.

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are: 1) to explore relationship between socio-economic status and social relations; 2) to confirm association between social relations and health; 3) to reveal whether social relations mediate association between socio-economic status and health.

    Methods: The study is based on data of the European Social Survey, Round 5. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression models. Three indicators were selected to measure social relations: presence of a family partner, confidentiality availability (presence of someone with whom it is possible to discuss intimate and personal matters) and social participation (communication with people for enjoyment rather than for reasons of work or duty). Socioeconomic status was assessed by the level of education, employment and financial situation. Self-rated health on a one-five scale was used as health (illness) indicator.

    Results: It was found out that socio-economically disadvantaged persons are at greater risk of social isolation, which, in turn, has negative effect on health. Social relations explain up to 21% of the socio-economic inequalities in self-rated health of the Russian people.

    Conclusions: The received results show the need to promote social support and social integration especially among people with low socio-economic status, which can contribute to reduce health inequalities.

  • 63.
    Konishi, Shoko
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, USA.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Pollinosis and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese: a population-based cohort study2016In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1083-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Having an allergic disease may have health implications beyond those more commonly associated with allergy given that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that both atopy and allergy are linked to mortality. More viable immune functioning among the elderly, as indicated by the presence of an allergic disease might therefore be associated with differences in all-cause mortality.

    OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Japanese cohort, this study examined whether having pollinosis (a form of allergic rhinitis) in a follow-up survey could predict all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort, which at its 1993 baseline recruited residents aged 40-69 years old from two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The current study used information on pollinosis that was obtained from the follow-up survey in 2000. Mortality and migration data were obtained throughout the follow-up period up to December 2008. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.

    RESULTS: At the 2000 follow-up survey, 12% (1 088 out of 8 796) of respondents reported that they had pollinosis symptoms in the past 12 months. During the 76 186 person-years of follow-up, 748 died from all-causes. Among these there were 37 external, 208 cardiovascular, 74 respiratory, and 329 neoplasm deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, pollinosis was associated with significantly lower all-cause (hazard ratio 0.57 [95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.87]) and neoplasms mortality (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.92]).

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having an allergic disease (pollinosis) at an older age may be indicative of more viable immune functioning and be protective against certain causes of death. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the association between pollinosis and mortality.

  • 64.
    Koposov, R.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway,Tromsö, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Inhalant use in adolescents in northern Russia2018In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 709-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of inhalant use in Russian adolescents and to investigate associated psychosocial problems from a gender perspective. Methods: Data on inhalant use and comorbid psychopathology were collected by means of self-reports from 2892 (42.4% boys) sixth to tenth grade students in public schools in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in boys and girls, who were non-users and users of inhalants. Results: The prevalence of inhalant use was 6.1% among boys and 3.4% among girls. Compared with non-users, inhalant users scored significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing problems, functional impairment and lower on academic motivation, with psychopathology increasing with age. While there were no gender differences for internalizing problems, increased levels of externalizing problems in inhalant users were gender-specific (significantly higher in boys). Conclusions: Inhalant use is related to significantly higher levels of comorbid psychopathology in Russian adolescents. Comprehensive, evidence-based prevention and intervention policies are needed to address inhalant use and its harmful effects.

  • 65.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute and Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, US; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Enuresis in young offenders: a study on prevalence and mental health comorbidity2024In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 15, article id 1328767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Enuresis is a common disorder in the school-age period, and is often associated with a variety of behavioral, psychological, and social problems. While early studies suggested an association between enuresis and delinquent behavior, there has been no recent research assessing the prevalence of enuresis and its comorbid psychopathology in young offenders. The aim of this study was to therefore assess the prevalence of enuresis and its associated psychiatric comorbidity in incarcerated young offenders.

    Methods: The prevalence of past and current enuresis and comorbid psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview and self-reports from 366 incarcerated male young offenders [age 14 to 19 years (mean age = 16.4)] from Northern Russia.

    Results: Seventy-three (20.0%) adolescents reported a previous history of enuresis, and in addition almost 10% of the youth reported current enuresis symptoms. Delinquent youth with enuresis did not significantly differ from other youth in the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses when assessed by a clinical diagnostic interview, but had significantly higher levels of self-reported mental health problems, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    Conclusion: Problems with enuresis are common among delinquent youth and may be associated with increased mental health problems. Given the potentially increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in young offenders with enuresis, comprehensive mental health screening of those who are detected with this condition should be considered in the juvenile justice system.

  • 66.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, United States; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Bulimia Symptoms in Russian Youth: Prevalence and Association With Internalizing Problems2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 797388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThere has been limited research on bulimia symptoms in adolescents from the general population outside the United States. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Russian youth and explore the associations between a clinical level of self-reported probable bulimia nervosa (BN) and internalizing problems, binge drinking and functional impairment by gender. MethodsData were collected from a representative sample of school students (N = 2,515, 59.5% female) from Northern Russia [age M (SD) = 14.89 +/- 1.13 years]. Probable BN and internalizing psychopathology were assessed using self-report scales. Chi-square and independent sample t-tests were used to compare respondents' demographic characteristics and disordered eating behaviors. GLM multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess the associations between probable BN, functional impairment and mental health problems (MHP) by gender. ResultsAnalyses showed that the 3-month prevalence of probable BN was higher in girls (3.9%) than in boys (1.2%). Probable BN was associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatic anxiety, somatic complaints, binge drinking and functional impairment. Boys reported a higher level of problem scores in relation to probable BN. ConclusionsOur findings suggest that bulimia symptoms are prevalent in Russian adolescents and are associated with MHP and functional impairment. Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated MHP is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 67.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University, USA; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Community Violence Exposure and School Functioning in Youth: Cross-Country and Gender Perspectives2021In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, article id 692402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many children and adolescents experience violent events which can be associated with negative consequences for their development, mental health, school, and social functioning. However, findings between settings and on the role of gender have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate cross-country and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and school functioning in a sample of youths from three countries. Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among school students (12-17 years old) in Belgium (Antwerp, N = 4,743), Russia (Arkhangelsk, N = 2,823), and the US (New Haven, N = 4,101). Students were recruited from within classes that were randomly selected from within schools that had themselves been randomly selected (excepting New Haven, where all students were included). CVE was assessed with the Screening Survey of Exposure to Community Violence. School functioning was assessed with four measures: the Perceived Teacher Support scale, Negative Classroom Environment scale, and Academic Motivation and Perception of Safety at School scales. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance were performed to assess differences in the levels of school-related problem behaviors in boys and girls, who reported different degrees of CVE. Results: Participants in all three countries reported a relatively high prevalence of violence exposure (36.2% in Belgium, 39.3% in Russia and 45.2% in the US who witnessed violence), with a higher proportion of girls than boys witnessing violent events (varied from 37.4 to 51.6% between the countries), whereas boys reported more episodes of victimization by violence than girls (varied from 32.3 to 49.9% between the countries). Youths who experienced increased CVE (from no exposure to witnessing to victimization) reported an increase in all school functioning problems in all of the countries and this association was not gender-specific. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regardless of differences in the level of CVE by country and gender, violence exposure is negatively associated with school functioning across countries. Nonetheless, even though reactions to community violence among adolescents may be expressed in a similar fashion, cross-country differences in social support systems should also be taken into account in order to provide culturally sensitive treatment modalities.

  • 68.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway;Sechenov First Moscow State Med University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Dept Prevent Intervent Psychiat Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA;Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Incarcerated Adolescents: Prevalence, Personality, and Psychiatric Comorbidity2021In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 652004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Incarcerated adolescents represent a risk group for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), but research on this population has been limited and no studies have been conducted in Russia. To address this deficit, this study examined NSSI and the factors associated with it among youth in a juvenile correctional facility in Russia. Methods: NSSI and psychopathology were assessed using a psychiatric interview and self-report questionnaire in 368 incarcerated male adolescents aged 14-19 years (mean age 16.4 years, S.D. 0.9) from Northern Russia. Results: 18.2% (N = 67) of the study participants had a history of NSSI and also had higher rates of anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, community violence exposure and scored higher on most of the Youth Self-Report problem scales. In addition, 31.3% of the NSSI group reported previous suicidal ideation and had thought about a specific suicide method compared to 12.0% in the No-NSSI group. Adolescents with NSSI also differed significantly from the No-NSSI group on self-directedness (lower) and self-transcendence (higher) personality traits. Conclusion: NSSI is common in incarcerated adolescents in Russia and is associated with extensive psychiatric comorbidity, suicidal ideation and specific personality traits.

  • 69.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Bulimia symptoms and anger and aggression among adolescents2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that anger and aggression may be elevated in adolescents with a bulimia nervosa (BN) diagnosis. However, as yet, little is known about whether bulimia symptoms are linked to anger and aggression in adolescents in the general population. To address this deficit this study aimed to explore the associations between a clinical level of bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and anger, anger rumination and aggression in community-based adolescents, and determine whether gender is important in this context.

    METHODS: This study was conducted on a representative sample of youth from northwestern Russia (n = 2613, age 13-17 years old, 59.5% female) using self-report scales. A proxy variable for a CLBS was created using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Aggression, anger and anger rumination were assessed by the Trait Anger Scale of the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Anger Rumination Scale, and scales created to assess physically and verbally aggressive behavior. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the associations between the study variables.

    RESULTS: A CLBS was more prevalent in girls than in boys (13.4% vs. 3.5%). The association with anger and aggression was stronger in both genders with a CLBS, compared to those adolescents without a CLBS. In the CLBS group, boys as compared to girls scored higher on verbal and physical aggression, anger rumination and social aggression. In both the CLBS and Non-CLBS groups higher anger and aggression scores were associated with increasing age.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that aggression and anger rumination are elevated in adolescents with BN symptoms, and that the associations between anger, aggression and BN symptoms may be stronger in boys. As previous research has indicated that the presence of aggressive behaviors may affect the prognosis of BN and complicate management of the disorder, clinician screening for these behaviors in adolescents with BN symptoms may facilitate the provision of more effective treatment, especially among boys.

  • 70.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, USA / Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Oakland, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, J.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Risk and functional significance of psychotic experiences among individuals with depression in 44 low- and middle-income countries2016In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2655-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population. Method: Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Results: When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone. Conclusions: This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 71.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Garin, N.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Miret, M.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Leonardi, M.
    Neurological Institute Carlo Besta IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy.
    Koskinen, S.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland .
    Galas, A.
    Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland .
    Haro, J. M.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: A cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between obesity and back pain has mainly been studied in high-income settings with inconclusive results, and data from older populations and developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess this association in nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America among older adults using nationally-representative data. Methods: Data on 42116 individuals ≥50 years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain in 2011-2012, and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa in 2007-2010 were analysed. Information on measured height and weight available in the two datasets was used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Self-reported back pain occurring in the past 30 days was the outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMI and back pain. Results: The prevalence of back pain ranged from 21.5% (China) to 57.5% (Poland). In the multivariable analysis, compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, significantly higher odds for back pain were observed for BMI ≥35 kg/m2 in Finland (OR 3.33), Russia (OR 2.20), Poland (OR 2.03), Spain (OR 1.56), and South Africa (OR 1.48); BMI 30.0-34.0 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 2.76), South Africa (OR 1.51), and Poland (OR 1.47); and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 1.51) and Poland (OR 1.40). No significant associations were found in the other countries. Conclusions: The strength of the association between obesity and back pain may vary by country. Future studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to differences in the associations observed. © 2015 Koyanagi et al.

  • 72.
    Koyanagi, A
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J M
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic symptoms and smoking in 44 countries.2016In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 133, no 6, p. 497-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychotic symptoms and smoking among community-dwelling adults in 44 countries.

    METHOD: Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) for 192 474 adults aged ≥18 years collected in 2002-2004 were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month psychotic symptoms. Smoking referred to current daily and non-daily smoking. Heavy smoking was defined as smoking ≥30 tobacco products/day.

    RESULTS: The pooled age-sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of psychotic symptoms (i.e., at least one psychotic symptom) for smoking was 1.35 (1.27-1.43). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those with no psychotic symptoms, the ORs (95% CIs) for smoking for 1, 2, and ≥3 psychotic symptoms were 1.20 (1.08-1.32), 1.25 (1.08-1.45), and 1.36 (1.13-1.64) respectively. Among daily smokers, psychotic symptoms were associated with heavy smoking (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92), and individuals who initiated daily smoking at ≤15 years of age were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.05-1.42) times more likely to have psychotic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: An increased awareness that psychotic symptoms are associated with smoking is important from a public health and clinical point of view. Future studies that investigate the underlying link between psychotic symptoms and smoking prospectively are warranted.

  • 73.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-like experiences and disordered eating in the English general population2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 241, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and disordered eating in the general population. We aimed to assess this association in the English adult population. Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey comprising 7403 English adults aged ≥16 years. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to identify the past 12-month occurrence of five forms of psychotic symptoms. Questions from the five-item SCOFF screening instrument were used to identify those with eating disorder (ED) symptoms and possible ED in the past year. The prevalence of any PLE was 5.1% (female) and 5.4% (male), while that of possible ED was 9.0% (female) and 3.5% (male). After adjustment for potential confounders, possible ED was associated with hypomania/mania in females (OR=3.23 95%CI=1.002-10.39), strange experiences [females (OR=1.85 95%CI=1.07-3.20) and males (OR=3.54 95%CI=1.65-7.57)], and any PLE in males (OR=3.44 95%CI=1.85-6.39). An interaction analysis revealed that the association was stronger among males for: auditory hallucinations and uncontrolled eating; and any PLE with uncontrolled eating, food dominance, and possible ED. Clinical practitioners should be aware that PLEs and disordered eating behavior often coexist. When one condition is detected, screening for the other may be advisable, especially among males.

  • 74.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and pain in an English national sample: The role of common mental disorders2016In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 175, no 1-3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

  • 75.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Japan.
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and suicidal behavior in England: Findings from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey2015In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 168, no 1-2, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

  • 76.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain.
    Lara, Elvira
    entro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain / Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK / King's College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital, Genova, Italy / National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Padova, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries2018In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 721-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.

    SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).

    MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).

    CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.

  • 77.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom / King's College London, London, United Kingdom / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / E.O. Galliera Hospital, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital, Genova, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    Fordham University, NY, USA.
    Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries2018In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 201, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.

  • 78.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between psychosis and severe pain in community-dwelling adults: Findings from 44 low- and middle-income countries2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 69, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies examining the association between schizophrenia and pain have produced mixed results and data on sub-threshold psychosis or psychotic symptoms and pain are scarce. This study assessed the association between psychosis and severe pain among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where no data exists.Data on 235,370 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month psychotic symptoms was established using four questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on whether they had at least one psychotic symptom and/or a lifetime psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between psychosis and past 30-day severe pain. The prevalence of severe pain among those with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 psychotic symptoms was 8.7%, 16.7%, 21.8%, 30.5% respectively. Compared to those with no psychotic symptoms or diagnosis, the ORs (95%CIs) were: at least one symptom without diagnosis [2.17 (1.99-2.38)]; no symptom with diagnosis [2.33 (1.71-3.17)]; at least one symptom and diagnosis [4.27 (3.20-5.71)]. Associations were partly mediated by chronic physical conditions, anxiety, and depression. Despite some limitations such as the use of a single-item question to assess pain, the results of this study suggest that individuals with psychotic symptoms or a psychosis diagnosis should be systematically assessed for pain, and if necessary, receive treatment for pain and its underlying conditions. Future research on the effect of pain management on psychosis outcome is warranted.

  • 79.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 1875-1885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged >= 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems.

  • 80.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-Like Experiences and Nonsuidical Self-Injury in England: Results from a National Survey2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0145533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the general adult population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association using nationally-representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of 7403 adults aged ≥16 years. Five forms of PLEs (mania/hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. The association between PLEs and NSSI was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Hierarchical models were constructed to evaluate the influence of alcohol and drug dependence, common mental disorders, and borderline personality disorder symptoms on this association.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of NSSI was 4.7% (female 5.2% and male 4.2%), while the figures among those with and without any PLEs were 19.2% and 3.9% respectively. In a regression model adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events, most types of PLE were significantly associated with NSSI: paranoia (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.96-6.52), thought control (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.05-5.74), strange experience (OR 3.13; 95%CI 1.99-4.93), auditory hallucination (OR 4.03; 95%CI 1.56-10.42), and any PLE (OR 2.78; 95%CI 1.88-4.11). The inclusion of borderline personality disorder symptoms in the models had a strong influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI as evidenced by a large attenuation in the ORs for PLEs, with only paranoia continuing to be significantly associated with NSSI. Substance dependence and common mental disorders had little influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Borderline personality disorder symptoms may be an important factor in the link between PLEs and NSSI. Future studies on PLEs and NSSI should take these symptoms into account.

  • 81.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / National Institute of Gastroenterology, Bari, Italy.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK / King’s College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seul, Korea / Severance Children’s Hospital, Seuo, Korea.
    Jackson, Sarah
    University College London, London, UK.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Lara, Elvira
    CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey.2019In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id E749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007⁻2008) were analyzed to assess this association. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 3,672 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 61.4 (18.3); 56% females]. The prevalence of MCI was 8.5%, while 11.0% and 20.8% experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with 2.82 (95%CI = 1.65⁻4.84) and 2.51 (95%CI = 1.63⁻3.87) times higher odds for MCI compared with no food insecurity, respectively. The OR for those aged ≥65 years with severe food insecurity was particularly high (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 2.20⁻6.81). In conclusion, food insecurity was strongly associated with MCI among South African older adults. Future longitudinal research is required to assess whether addressing food insecurity may reduce risk of MCI and subsequent dementia.

  • 82.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.
    Jackson, Sarah E
    University College London, London, UK.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK / King's College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Association of bullying victimization with overweight and obesity among adolescents from 41 low- and middle-income countries2020In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e12571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Data on the association between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization among adolescents are scarce from low- and middle-income countries.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization in 41 low- and middle-income countries.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analysed. Data on past 30-day bullying victimization (including type) and body mass index based on measured weight and height were collected. The 2007 WHO Child Growth reference was used to define overweight and obesity. Multivariable logistic regression (multinomial and binary) and meta-analyses based on country-wise estimates were conducted. Data on 114 240 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years were analysed (mean age [SD], 13.8 [1.0] y; 48.8% girls).

    RESULTS: Among girls, compared with normal weight, overweight (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; between-country heterogeneity I2  = 0.0%) and obesity (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; I2  = 0.0%) were associated with significantly higher odds for any bullying victimization, but no significant association was observed among boys. However, overweight and obesity were both associated with significantly increased odds for bullying by being made fun of because of physical appearance among both sexes-obesity (vs normal weight): girls OR = 3.42 (95% CI, 2.49-4.71); boys OR = 2.38 (95% CI, 1.67-3.37).

    CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies to reduce bullying of children with overweight/obesity are needed in low- and middle-income countries.

  • 83.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univeristy of Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Close Relationships Matter: Family Well-being and its Effects on Health in Russia2015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 1635-1655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatic fluctuations have occurred in population health in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although many factors have been examined in connection with this, there has been little focus on the role of the family, despite evidence from Western studies linking family functioning to individual health. Using data from 1,190 respondents collected during the Moscow Health Survey 2004 we examined the association between family relations and health outcomes. Poorer family functioning was strongly associated with worse self-rated physical health and mental health. Our results suggest that the proximal social environment of the family is important for understanding health outcomes in contemporary Russia.

  • 84. Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Judge, Ken
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Bopp, Matthias
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Assessing the potential impact of increased participation in higher education on mortality: Evidence from 21 European populations2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 117, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health.

  • 85.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Paris, France .
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland .
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland .
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries2014In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics.

    METHODS: Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to "Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions". We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests.

    RESULTS: The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.

  • 86.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, Paris, France.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Kulik, Margarete C
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The role of three lifestyle risk factors in reducing educational differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality in Europe2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios-the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice country scenario.

    METHODS: We used a method based on the population attributable fraction to estimate the impact of a modified educational distribution of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity on educational inequalities in IHD mortality among people aged 30-79. Risk factor prevalence was collected around the year 2000 and mortality data covered the early 2000s.

    RESULTS: The potential reduction of educational inequalities in IHD mortality differed by country, sex, risk factor and scenario. Smoking was the most important risk factor among men in Nordic and eastern European populations, whereas overweight and obesity was the most important risk factor among women in the South of Europe. The effect of physical inactivity on the reduction of inequalities in IHD mortality was smaller compared with smoking and overweight/obesity. Although the reduction in inequalities in IHD mortality may seem modest, substantial reduction in IHD mortality among the least educated can be achieved under the scenarios investigated.

    CONCLUSION: Population wide strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, and overweight/obesity targeted at the lower socioeconomic groups are likely to substantially contribute to the reduction of IHD mortality and inequalities in IHD mortality in Europe.

  • 87. Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Hoffmann, R
    Judge, K
    Looman, C
    Menvielle, G
    Kulhánová, I
    Toch, M
    Östergren, O
    Martikainen, P
    Borrell, C
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Bopp, M
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn.
    Jasilionis, D
    Eikemo, TA
    Mackenbach, JP
    Smoking and the potential for reduction of inequalities in mortality in Europe2013In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 28, p. 959-971Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, G
    Epidemiology of Occupational and Social Determinants of Health, Villejuif, France / University of Versailles Saint Quentin, Versailles, France.
    Eikemo, TA
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jasilionis, D
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    Kulhánová, I
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Östergren, O
    CHESS, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Mackenbach, JP
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in three smoking-related causes of death in 18 European populations2014In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 507-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking is an important determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in many countries. As the smoking epidemic progresses, updates on the development of mortality inequalities attributable to smoking are needed. We provide estimates of relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality from lung cancer, aerodigestive cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma in Europe and assess the contribution of these smoking-related diseases to inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    Methods: We use data from 18 European populations covering the time period 1998–2007. We present age-adjusted mortality rates, relative indices of inequality, and slope indices of inequality. We also calculate the contribution of inequalities in smoking-related mortality to inequalities in overall mortality.

    Results: Among men, relative inequalities in mortality from the 3 smoking-related causes of death combined are largest in the Czech Republic and Hungary and smallest in Spain, Sweden, and Denmark. Among women, these inequalities are largest in Scotland and Norway and smallest in Italy and Spain. They are often larger among men and tend to be larger for COPD/asthma than for lung and aerodigestive cancers. Relative inequalities in mortality from these conditions are often larger in younger age groups, particularly among women, suggesting a possible further widening of inequalities in mortality in the coming decades. The combined contribution of these diseases to inequality in all-cause mortality varies between 13% and 32% among men and between −5% and 30% among women.

    Conclusion: Our results underline the continuing need for tobacco control policies, which take into account socioeconomic position.              

  • 89.
    Lai, Taavi
    et al.
    Fourth View Consulting, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development in Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases. Case study for Estonia2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases in Estonia over the first decade of the 2000s. Decomposition of life expectancy by causes and age groups, and calculation of age-standardized rates for total and cause-specific mortality were used to assess differences over time and across social groups. The findings of the analysis showed significant overall reduction in mortality and increasing life expectancy in Estonia during the 2000s. The considerable improvement in mortality was observed in all groups distinguished by gender, ethnicity, educational level or by place of residence resulting in narrowing absolute inequalities, although the relative inequalities by educational level and by place of residence slightly increased. Despite progress, mortality rates remained higher among non-Estonians, the lower educated and residents of Ida-Viru county. Circulatory diseases and external causes of death contributed the most to the overall life expectancy at birth improvement and to the larger mortality decline among non-Estonians, the lower educated and in Ida-Viru county, with the opposite effect seen for infectious diseases.

  • 90.
    Laidra, K.
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rahu, K.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tekkel, M.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Aluoja, A.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident2015In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1753-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Laidra, Kaia
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rahu, Kaja
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kalaus, Katri-Evelin
    Center of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy SENSUS, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.2017In: Psychological Trauma, ISSN 1942-9681, E-ISSN 1942-969X, Vol. 9, no Suppl 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls.

    METHOD: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity.

    CONCLUSION: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • 92.
    Laidra, Kaia
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Havik, Merle
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Murd, Carolina
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Tulviste, Jaan
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Tamson, Merili
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Akkermann, Kirsti
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kreegipuu, Kairi
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Sultson, Hedvig
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Ainsaar, Mare
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Uusberg, Andero
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Rahno, Jaana
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Panov, Liisi
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Leetmaa, Kadri
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Aasa, Anto
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Lehto, Kelli
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Estonian National Mental Health Study: Design and methods for a registry‐linked longitudinal survey2023In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e3106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The Estonian National Mental Health Study (EMHS) was conducted in 2021–2022 to provide population-wide data on mental health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, and methods of the EMHS and to evaluate the survey response.

    Methods

    Regionally representative stratified random sample of 20,000 persons aged 15 years and older was drawn from the Estonian Population Register for the study. Persons aged 18 years and older at the time of the sampling were enrolled into three survey waves where they were invited to complete an online or postal questionnaire about mental well-being and disorders, and behavioral, cognitive, and other risk factors. Persons younger than 18 years of age were invited to fill an anonymous online questionnaire starting from wave 2. To complement and validate survey data, data on socio-demographic, health-related, and environmental variables were collected from six national administrative databases and registries. Additionally, a subsample was enrolled into a validation study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Results

    In total, 5636 adults participated in the survey wave 1, 3751 in wave 2, and 4744 in wave 3. Adjusted response rates were 30.6%, 21.1%, and 27.6%, respectively. Women and older age groups were more likely to respond. Throughout the three survey waves, a considerable share of adult respondents screened positive for depression (27.6%, 25.1%, and 25.6% in waves 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Women and young adults aged 18 to 29 years had the highest prevalence of depression symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The registry-linked longitudinal EMHS dataset comprises a rich and trustworthy data source to allow in-depth analysis of mental health outcomes and their correlates among the Estonian population. The study serves as an evidence base for planning mental health policies and prevention measures for possible future crises.

  • 93.
    Larsen, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lilja, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sturidsson, Knut
    Karolinska Institutet / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Blatny, Marek
    Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala Univeristy / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Bulimia symptoms in Czech youth: prevalence and association with internalizing problems2020In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 25, p. 1543-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Although clinical studies suggest that bulimia symptoms are common in youth, research on the prevalence of such symptoms and of their association with comorbid internalizing problems in the general population has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the gender-specific prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Czech youth and explored the association between a clinical level of self-reported bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and internalizing problems by gender, controlling for age, socio-economic status and puberty status. Method The study was conducted on a representative national sample of Czech youth (N = 4430, 57.0% female) using self-report scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine the associations. Results The 3-month CLBS prevalence was higher in girls (11.4%) than in boys (3.8%) and in both genders a CLBS was associated with higher levels of comorbid internalizing problems. Discussion Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 94.
    Lee, Jinhee
    et al.
    Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
    Son, Min Ji
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Son, Chei Yun
    Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, USA.
    Jeong, Gwang Hun
    Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.
    Lee, Keum Hwa
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Lee, Kwang Seob
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Ko, Younhee
    Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    Kim, Jong Yeob
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Lee, Jun Young
    Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
    Radua, Joaquim
    King's College London, London, UK ; Mental Health Networking Biomedical Research Centre (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain ; Karolinska Institute ; Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Eisenhut, Michael
    Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Luton, UK.
    Gressier, Florence
    Bicêtre University Hospital, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain ; ICREA, Barcelona, Spain ; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK ; King's College London, London, UK.
    Solmi, Marco
    King's College London, London, UK ; University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Rais, Theodor B
    University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, USA.
    Kronbichler, Andreas
    Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University.
    Vasconcelos, Daniel Fernando Pereira
    Federal University of the Parnaiba Delta, Parnaiba, Brazil.
    Silva, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da
    Federal University of the Parnaiba Delta, Parnaiba, Brazi.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Brunoni, André Russowsky
    University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ; University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Centre for Addiction & Mental Health, Toronto, Canada ; University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Cargnin, Sarah
    University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.
    Terrazzino, Salvatore
    University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Thompson, Trevor
    University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    King's College London, London, UK ; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK ; University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Genetic Variation and Autism: A Field Synopsis and Systematic Meta-Analysis2020In: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 10, no 10, article id E692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to verify noteworthy findings between genetic risk factors and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by employing the false positive report probability (FPRP) and the Bayesian false-discovery probability (BFDP). PubMed and the Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) catalog were searched from inception to 1 August, 2019. We included meta-analyses on genetic factors of ASD of any study design. Overall, twenty-seven meta-analyses articles from literature searches, and four manually added articles from the GWAS catalog were re-analyzed. This showed that five of 31 comparisons for meta-analyses of observational studies, 40 out of 203 comparisons for the GWAS meta-analyses, and 18 out of 20 comparisons for the GWAS catalog, respectively, had noteworthy estimations under both Bayesian approaches. In this study, we found noteworthy genetic comparisons highly related to an increased risk of ASD. Multiple genetic comparisons were shown to be associated with ASD risk; however, genuine associations should be carefully verified and understood.

  • 95.
    Lee, San
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Keum Hwa
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Park, Kyung Mee
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Park, Sung Jong
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Won Jae
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Jinhee
    Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Kronbichler, Andreas
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Solmi, Marco
    University of Ottawa, Canada; The Ottawa Hospital, Canada; King's College London, UK.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    King's College London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Jacob, Louis
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Thompson, Trevor
    University of Greenwich, UK.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Brunoni, Andre R
    University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany; University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Universitario, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Canada; University of Toronto, Canada.
    Radua, Joaquim
    King's College London, UK; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; CIBERSAM, Spain.
    An, Suk Kyoon
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Namkoong, Kee
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Eun
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    King's College London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, , UK; University of Pavia, Italy.
    Impact of data extraction errors in meta-analyses on the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers: an umbrella review2023In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 2017-2030Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.

    METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.

    RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

  • 96.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Baburin, A
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, D
    Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, J
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, P
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany; Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Economic fluctuations and urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015: a register-based study2020In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in the context of macroeconomic changes. Educational inequalities among 30-74 year olds were examined in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardized mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall mortality rates were larger in rural areas except among Finnish women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality were often larger in urban areas among men but in rural areas among women. Absolute inequalities were mostly larger in rural areas excepting Finnish men. Between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015 relative inequalities increased in most countries while absolute inequalities decreased except in Lithuania. In the Baltic countries the changes in both relative and absolute inequalities tended to be more favorable in urban areas; in Finland they were more favorable in rural areas. The overall pattern changed during the reccessionary period from 2004-2007 to 2008-2011 when relative inequalities often diminished or the increase slowed, while the decrease in absolute inequalities accelerated with larger improvements observed in urban areas. Despite substantial progress in reducing overall mortality rates in both urban and rural areas in all countries, low educated men and women in rural areas in the Baltic countries are becoming increasingly disadvantaged in terms of mortality reduction.

  • 97.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Baburin, A.
    National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Jasilionis, D.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ; Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Krumins, J.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Martikainen, P.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany ; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ; Stockholm University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Macroeconomic fluctuations and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000–2015: A register-based study2020In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 131, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented economic growth followed by a deep recession. This study aimed to examine changes and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in relation to macroeconomic fluctuations. Methods: We analysed changes in overall suicide mortality and by educational level between the 2000–2003, 2004–2007, 2008–2011 and 2012–2015 periods among men aged 30–64 years using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression), the relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Results: Overall suicide mortality fell markedly from 2000–2003 to 2004–2007. The decline was largest among high educated men in the Baltic countries and among middle and low educated men in Finland. From 2004–2007 to 2008–2011, the positive trend slowed and while suicide mortality continued to fall among middle and low educated men, it increased somewhat among high educated men in all Baltic countries. In Finland, suicide mortality decreased among the high educated and increased slightly among low educated men. Conclusions: In the Baltic countries, lower educated men had a smaller decline in suicide mortality than higher educated men during a period of rapid economic expansion, however, they were not more disadvantaged during the recession, possibly because of being less exposed to financial loss. Consequently, relative inequalities in suicide mortality may increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions.

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  • 98.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-20162019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1026-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented credit-driven economic growth that was followed by a deep recession. This study examined the impact of profound macroeconomic changes on population mental health in Estonia in 2004-2016.

    METHODS: Data on 17 794 individuals in the 20-64 age group were obtained from seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of past 30-day depression was calculated for men and women further stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether these characteristics were associated with the yearly variation in depression.

    RESULTS: In 2006, the adjusted prevalence ratio for depression was 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) for men and 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) for women as compared with 2004; in 2010, the prevalence ratio as compared with 2008 for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CIs 1.04 to 1.43 and 1.09 to 1.37, respectively). Among men, the increase in the prevalence of depression in 2008-2010 was statistically significant for 35-64 year olds, ethnic Estonians, those who were married, mid-educated or were employed, whereas among women, a significant increase was observed in 50-64 year olds, Estonians and non-Estonians, those who were not-married, were highly educated or mid-educated, in the mid-income group or were employed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Population mental health is responsive to macroeconomic changes. In less wealthy high-income countries, the greater impact of recession on depression among advantaged groups may relate to a higher debt burden coupled with job insecurity.

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  • 99.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vals, Kaire
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Macroeconomic changes and trends in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in 2004-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study2018In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess trends and inequalities in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in 2004-2012.

    METHODS: Data on 22,784 individuals in the 20-64 age group were retrieved from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates of past 12-month dental visits were calculated for each study year, stratified by gender, age group, ethnicity, educational level and economic activity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of study year and socioeconomic status on dental visits.

    RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of dental visits in the past 12 months was 46-52% in Estonia and 61-67% in Lithuania. In 2004-2008, the prevalence of dental visits increased by 5.9 percentage points in both countries and fell in 2008-2010 by 3.8 percentage points in Estonia and 4.6 percentage points in Lithuania. In both countries the prevalence of dental care utilization had increased slightly by 2012, although the increase was statistically insignificant. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed that these differences between study years were not explained by differences in socioeconomic status or oral health conditions. Women, the main ethnic group (only in Estonia), and higher educated and employed persons had significantly higher odds of dental visits in both countries, but the odds were lower for 50-64 year olds in Lithuania.

    CONCLUSIONS: In European Union countries with lower national wealth, the use of dental services is sensitive to macroeconomic changes regardless of the extent of public coverage, at the same time, higher public coverage may not relate to lower inequalities in dental care use.

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  • 100.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kunst, Anton E
    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 20092015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 216-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

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