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  • 51.
    Holmlund, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Donnerberg, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    How does tourism affect the sociocultural aspects of the local community?: A Minor Field Study in Bali2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing rapidly worldwide. In 2016, Bali, Indonesia, had a record year in tourism, and the industry is continuously growing. One can argue that tourism is a culture exploiter and disrupts traditional culture. Nevertheless, it can also revitalize culture. Since the tourism in Bali is based on the Balinese culture and traditions, the writers wanted to acquire a deeper understanding of how the locals look upon - does tourism affect their cultural traditions and can residents preserve their local culture? A qualitative method was used for this study. For the collecting of data the writers conducted semi-structured interviews. The result of the study was, according to the Balinese, that people in Bali have become more money oriented due to the development of tourism and that some ceremonies have lost their spiritual meaning. In addition, the writers found that the locals are continuously working on preserving their culture but the challenge is to preserve what is actually authentic Balinese.

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    How does tourism affect the sociocultural aspects of the local community
  • 52.
    Holmquist, Isabelle
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sjöberg, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Wirz, Janina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    It’s so popular, in the middle of nowhere: En studie om säsongsberoende turism i Stockholms skärgård.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze actions which businesses in archipelago environments may use to successfully extend the season.

    Method: A qualitative research method approach has been applied through seven interviews. Completion has been made using secondary data.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework is based on Conceptual approaches to seasonality causation from Goulding (2006) and Influences on patterns of tourism seasonalityby Butler (2001).

    Empericism: The empericism consists of four open interviews and three semistructured interviews conducted with representatives from different lodging businesses in the archipelago. Charts consisting information about the referred islands complete the interviews. 

    Conclusions: Businesses in Stockholm archipelago are dependent on natural and institutional factors such as weather, bank holidays and travel habits. Stockholm archipelago is especially attractive to visitors during the summer. Lodging businesses therefore experience a dramatic reduction in the number of visitors during the off-season. The available range is limited to the summer season when several activities are dependant on weather conditions, but some businesses show that they try to find other attractions during the low season to keep up with the declining number of visitors. The actions that the businesses take is mainly focused on increasing growth during the summer season and they are  generally not actively working to extend the seasons. Results show that the greatest limitations that the businesses face in Stockholm archipelago are staff shortages, natural causes and public transport limitations. That is, the extension of seasons being limited as the businesses mainly invest in the summer season, which in turn may lead to sustainability issues.

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    Kandidatuppsats_Holmquist_Wirz_Sjöberg
  • 53.
    Hultqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Carlsson, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Strategier för digital klagomålshantering: En kvalitativ studie av fem utvalda hotell med höga kundbetyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As more hotels are established and that competition in turn increases, it becomes increasingly important to offer a good service to attract customers. If the hotels do not satisfy the guest they may complain. With the Internet's advancement, new approaches were established for dissatisfied guests to raise their complaints and, in other words, the criticism does no longer reach only family and friends. The study aims to create an understanding of how the hotel's complaint management works on the internet. This has been examined by answering the following research questions:

    • What strategies are used in digital complaint management in social networks?

    • How does complaint management affect Word of Mouth?

    To answer the research questions a qualitative approach with five semi-structured interviews and a non-participation observation has been conducted.

    The study indicates that communication has become more digital, but that personal contact is still more important. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the strategies used in digital complaint management are to respond quickly, to be understanding, to apologize to some extent, use a clear and well-formulated language, consider every word, take a direct dialogue from public to private and compensate the guest if necessary. If the strategies are taken into account in digital complaint management the work towards a satisfied guest will be simplified.

    A general conclusion drawn in the study is that the formulated strategies are important to work with to increase customer satisfaction and to successfully reverse the guest before spreading negative WOM or e-WOM. It has also been found in the present study that traditional WOM still has a greater impact than e-WOM, despite the fact that e-WOM reaches a larger audience.

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  • 54.
    Immanuel, Jenling
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lack of basic services in the tourism industry: A study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Bamenda, Cameroons.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to highlight and investigate lack of basic services on city tourism in Bamenda from a national and an international stakeholders’ perspective. The study also aims to explore potential solutions and suggest improvements that can make Bamenda more competitive as a tourist destination. Basic services focused on has been insecurity, infrastructure shortage and unskilled personnel on tourism sub industries, electricity outages and unstable internet supply. To understand the scope of, the problem, a qualitative method approach was used whereby thirty-seven persons were interviewed. The respondents were adult males and females between the age range 38- 50 who have years of working experience and academic background that ranged from bachelor’s degree to Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D).

    The study identified government negligence in providing needed infrastructure and services as some of the biggest setbacks to the smooth functioning of the tourism industry in Bamenda. It was surprisingly realized that Bamenda has a diverse culture capable of attracting many international tourists as well as a very dynamic population. Additionally, it was noted that there is a devastating crisis of identity in the Cameroons that has brought tourism to near zero.

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  • 55.
    Immanuel, Jenling
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mugisha, Hafsa
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Bergsgorillorna i Rwandas Volcanoes National Park: Turism under extrema förhållanden - en studie om ekoturism & hållbar utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact mountain gorillas has on the sustainable and developmental life of the Volcanoes National Park (VNP) in Rwanda. The study is equally based on the on psychosocial perspectives as it concerns the behavior of the population. It emphases on how ecotourism works and how it affects the mountain gorillas on the nature reserve. The study also investigates the impact of ecotourism with regards to the locals, society and the country using research that has been previously carried out.

     

    The study's findings show that the revenue-sharing system from mountain gorilla tourism activities has changed local communities view on ecotourism both positively and negatively through opportunities and weaknesses in sustainable development. In addition, the study shows the government's ongoing commitment to improving and maintaining the eco-tourism sector by diversifying its activities. It shows that the government of Rwanda has included conferences, ceremonies, and tours in its ecotourism efforts that further provides variation for visitors so that tourism develops throughout the country.

     

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  • 56.
    Jamal, Fadi
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Grönberg, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Huddinge kommun destinationsutveckling och marknadsföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how Huddinge municipality works with destination development and marketing.

    Method: We have used both quantitative and qualitative method. Data has been collected from primary and secondary sources relevant to the study.

    Theory: Consists of theories of destination, marketing, development.

    Result: The result of the study is that a municipality today can do without tourism.

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  • 57.
    Jankicevic, Marko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Swedan, Menna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att återskapa en turistdestination på ruiner av krig: En studie om Belgrads destinationsimage, branding och utveckling ur ett aktör- och turistperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how Belgrade as a tourist destination was affected by previous political disorder during the 1990’s on the query of destination image, destination branding and destination development. The research also discussed how different actors in the public and private sectors work on the issue and how international tourists’ perspectives look like in relation to this topic. A qualitative method was applied through semi-structured and structured interviews with three actors within tourism sector, one from the public sector, and further 15 interviews with international tourists. The study's results show that Belgrade, as a tourist destination, was mainly affected by the civil war in the 1990’s. The war created a negative destination image, undefined destination branding and a non-sustainable destination development. The following led to, reduced number of incoming tourists and economic stagnation, which resulted in a lack of resources to invest in destination development. It created a negative destination image in a global aspect, and in addition to that international tourists usually associated Belgrade with insecurity and political instability. However, tourism started to increase following the new political regime approximately 10 years ago, when major efforts were made by both international and national investors. Accordingly, actors within various private and public sectors are involved in expanding tourism products, increasing marketing efforts and placing the destination on an international tourism market.

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  • 58.
    Johander, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Zakrisson, Josefin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ingen vill ha turister som åker hit, förstör och eldar upp ön: En studie om turismens hållbara utveckling i Stockholms skärgård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is intended to gain a comprehensive understanding of how the advancement of tourism in Stockholm’s archipelago affects the destination’s sustainability. To examine the multitude of variables that affect sustainability, the paper is centered on Sandhamn, as it is one of the most popular destinations within Stockholm’s archipelago. Throughout the study, both the quantitative and qualitative methods were implemented in the form of a triangulation. In order to demonstrate the development of tourism within the archipelago, the study utilized statistics from various actors as the quantitative portion of this paper. The qualitative part consists of interviews as well as an observation that has been applied to investigate the integral components of development and its outcomes. The statistics show a stagnation of tourists in the archipelago; however, the respondents disagree and conversely argue that there has been an influx of tourists, but that they are staying for a shorter period of time. Thus, proving that the development is not sustainable; as the number of tourists who come during this shorter period have a significant impact on the island's infrastructure and exacerbates the island's sustainability. During the extended low season, when tourists are at their minimum, profitability problems arise; thereby, leading to an entirely new issue for the destination's actors. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the lack of cooperation is a contributing factor to the shortened season and would need to be improved to redistribute the visitors more evenly throughout the year.

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    Ingen vill ha...
  • 59.
    Johanna, Blixt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lomakka, Lovisa
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mjölken är ekologisk, räcker inte det?: En kvalitativ studie om ekologisk hållbarhet på mötesanläggningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism in Sweden is growing rapidly and the tourism industry is facing many challenges. Global tourism is getting less sustainable due to the rapid growth of the tourist industry and it is of great importance that actors within the industry starts working preventively to reduce negative environmental impact. There are great challenges then as growth in traveling must be combined with sustainable development. Included in tourist industry are meetings industry. Business traveling generates a large part of the total tourism revenue and this sector.  This essay touches on the meetings industry and the ecological sustainability with focus on meetings facilities and their work regarding sustainable development. Explored is how chosen facilities work with these issues, how they experience the work and the challenges surrounding the implementation of environmental issues. Furthermore, the authors touches on subjects relating to rules and regulations which actors in the tourist industry should take into consideration.

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  • 60.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lauri, Patricia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kosmetisk turism: en kvalitativ studie om konsumtionen av kosmetisk turism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of the study is to examine the consumption of cosmetic tourism from the consumer's and the producer’s viewpoint and to examine what factors help individuals choose to travel overseas to consume cosmetic surgeries. The method used in the study was a qualitative examination, where we interviewed seven individuals. Five of the individuals have gone through the process of surgery overseas, one is a Swedish surgeon that’s working on Akademikliniken and lastly we interviewed one person who runs a company in Sweden that arranges trips overseas with the purpose of going through a surgery. The collected data was analyzed with support of the consumer society and Gidden's theory about modernity and self-identity. The final discussion shows that cosmetic tourism is a growing phenomenon and the extent of it is growing in today's society and that the main factors that have shown to affect the choice is trust and competence within the clinic and the surgeon, and women’s dissatisfaction with their bodies.

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  • 61.
    Karimi, Sheyma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Water Dilemma in Isfahan and International Tourists’ effect on it2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is one of the leading industries, in terms of international trading between countries. In addition to receipts received at destinations, international tourism has also generated US$211 billion in exports through international passenger transport services. The study is conducted in Isfahan, a city in center of Iran. The city is unique in its cultural heritage and archeology. It is one of Iran's oldest cities at more than 1,500 years of age. An important cultural and commercial center, Isfahan is Iran's third largest metropolitan area. Isfahan experiences an arid climate, like the rest of the Iranian plateau with low rainfall. Isfahan has a high capacity to attract international tourists to provide a better understanding of Iran’s history, culture, and natural environment to the world. Zayandeh Rud which means “life-giving River” is the largest Iranian plateau and the most important surface water in Isfahan. It starts from Zagros Mountains and ends in the Gavkhouni Swamp, a seasonal salt lake in the southeast of Isfahan. The catchment area has been affected by two drought periods within the last 15 years. Decreasing surface and groundwater availability has been accompanied by an increase in water withdrawal for irrigation, domestic uses, industry, and water transfers to neighboring provinces. This has led to severe ecological and social consequences. This study identifies the potentials of Isfahan in attracting international tourists and also evaluate the water crisis that the city faces. The research is based on qualitative method. The primary data is gathered through face to face and phone interviews and questionnaires. The results show some finding solutions to water crisis in Isfahan and some suggestions for improving tourism industry in the city.

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  • 62.
    Knutas, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Johansson, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Etablering av kommersiell rymdfart i Sverige: En undersökning om möjligheten att etablera kommersiell rymdfart i samarbete med Sveriges enda rymdbas Esrange Space Center2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to explore Sweden’s opportunities to establish commercial spaceflight and whether this is a realistic or unrealistic possibility in the future. We also looked at whether efforts should be made as a complement to this, for example through virtual experiences from Earth. One of our starting points was to investigate the opportunities and potential for Kiruna to develop to a more established tourist- and urban space town. To achieve this, we are primarily focusing on the development opportunities and current plans for the future of Sweden´s only spaceport Esrange Space Center.

    In this paper, we mainly used qualitative methods in the form of structured and unstructured interviews. We had interviews with five relevant parties for our research, both verbally and via email. The quantitative method we used consisted of a survey we did with one hundred respondents during a period of one week. The theories that have been used are four different theoretical frameworks which have helped us to investigate and strengthen our purpose by applying these into the context of space. They include how the use of future scenarios as a method of investigation could help scientists to predict a certain future outcome. Also the human need of total fulfillment and the longing for new experiences together with the aspects that can affect whether a person accepts a new innovation or decides to reject it. The theories also examines the threats, strengths, weaknesses and possibilities that commercial spaceflight is facing.

    The commercial space sector is facing curtain difficulties in terms of safety, environmental and economic issues. But if the development follow the same curve as for the regular air traffic it might be possible to travel to space for a reasonable price 50 years from now. Where space organizations ultimately choose to establish commercial spaceflight depends on the customers, since their demand will determine where they want to fly out from. For Kiruna, which is already hosting Sweden´s only spaceport it will be crucial to work hard to show ambition and provide attractive offers for their potential clients. Until technology provides us with the solutions preventing commercial spaceflight cyber Tourism (virtual reality) can be a substitute for visitors to experience space without the need to take account of time, location, security and economy.

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  • 63.
    Källberg, Stephanie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ryman, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kan Interrail få en comeback?: En undersökning om ungdomars attityder och intresse till Interrail2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    he tourism industry is ranked as one of the world's biggest and fastest growing industries, which in return contribute to big environmental consequences. More environmentally friendly, railway bound transportation are current research questions and are discussed to prevent the negative effects of tourism. The purpose of the study was to research adolescents interest and attitude towards train for touristic purposes and if their perceived environmental awareness affected their choice of travel. Interrail was chosen as a research object partly because the authors considered it a current topic and partly because of the investment that the EU-commission made to be able to give 18-year olds free Interrailpasses this year. Interrail was in accordance with the theory perceived to be a more environmentally friendly choice of transportation and form of tourism. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used to answer the purpose and questions of the study. From the chosen theories there appears to be a gap between tourists attitudes and behaviour, where personal values and the environmental norm that existed at home, was disregarded when choosing to go on a trip. The results from the 7 personal interviews and the questionnaire shows that the interest for train as transport for touristic purposes is relatively low, which could give an explanation for the lacking interest for Interrail in today's adolescents. Even among companies Interrail is interpreted as having a low position on the market. Companies aren't interested in marketing Interrail due to its low perceived economic profit. The interest for Interrail is low where aspects such as time, price and experience weighs heavier for adolescent’s touristic choices, where the environmental benefits are merely seen as a positive bi-product. From a lack of knowledge and preconceptions the authors interpret Interrails comeback, despite the financial investments from the EU-commission, as hard to achieve.

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  • 64.
    Leguisamo, Pilar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nilsson, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Viljan att åka tillbaka: En studie om motivation och lojalitet hos svenska repeaters2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att tillföra kunskap och förståelse för resenärers motiv till att återbesöka en destination upprepade gånger samt förstå hur de utvecklar lojalitet gentemot den platsen. Studien genomfördes utifrån en kvalitativ ansats. Nio respondenter deltog i semistrukturerade intervjuer som berörde deras erfarenheter och känslor kring resvanor. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt har sammanställningar utformats utifrån den tidigare forskningen som grund för analys av empiriskt material. Push- och pull-faktorer presenteras inledningsvis, som därefter följs av en modell om lojalitetsutveckling. Som stöd tilllojalitetsutvecklingsmodellen presenteras en tillitsutvecklingsteori. Slutligen tillämpas lojalitetskategoriseringar som gör det möjligt att placera en respondents lojalitet i två olika kategoriseringar.

    En analys av det insamlade materialet påvisade att beroende på vilket intresse en individ har kan resemotivationen skilja sig från person till person. Mat och klimat var båda motiverande faktorer för respondenterna att åka tillbaka. Majoriteten av respondenterna ansåg även att kunskapen om destinationen motiverade dem till att fortsätta åka tillbaka då denna gav en känsla av att vara hemma på semestern samt att de kan då koppla av på en gång. Studiens resultat visade även att lokalbefolkningen hade stor påverkan när det gäller respondenternasutveckling av lojalitet gentemot destinationen.

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  • 65.
    Lidman, Adam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Rönninger, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hållbart resande?: En kvalitativ studie av den svenska utlandsresenärens syn på hållbart resande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 66.
    Lindwe, Michaela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Linander, Felicia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tjänstekvalitet: En kvalitativ studie om gästers upplevelser under en hotellvistelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a globally enhanced and competitive hotel market, operators try to create strong brands and win guest loyalty. But what is the motivation behind the choice of accommodation and what attributes determine what makes a satisfied hotel guest? Good service quality has become an important competitive advantage, with service experience becoming a decisive factor in customer satisfaction. In this study, there was a desire to try to figure out which factors affect customer satisfaction and what attributes that hotel guests value and return to. Is there any unambiguous definition of service quality or are there as many answers as there are guests? Is there a difference between the service quality at hotel chains and independent hotels? Based on these reflections, qualitative interviews were conducted in focus groups. The questions were based on previous research and theories on the subject of service quality. The results of the study indicate that the behavior and presence of hotel staff play a greater role than previous theories emphasized. In an increasingly digital world, hotel guests find appreciation and value in the personal meeting of an committed staff who can offer personalized service.

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  • 67.
    Matatko, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Piotrowska, Liza
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Karläggning av olika intressenters erfarenheter och åsikter av delningsekonomi: - En studie om Airbnb´s påverkan på samhällsaktörer- och befolkning i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of renting out your own home is a trend that has been spread worldwide. From a spatial behavior, human territory has opened in society by making the power over its geographical area accessible to people which the landlord does not need to have any relation to. A business site, based on the sharing economy, which has gained ground today, is Airbnb. This study aims to map out experiences and opinions of the sharing economy and Airbnb from two perspectives, central social actors and the population. A mix of qualitative and quantitative research is made. The study shows that there are differences in experiences and opinions, which have consequences for the population, such as precarious regulations and income declaration. Our research also shows that there is a change in social behavior through the sharing economy, which at best can become a creative development for the population who want to be part of the sharing economy. 

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    Kartläggning av olika intressenters erfarenheter och åsikter av delningsekonomi
  • 68.
    Mbuyi, Ruddy
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Who are the visitors to the National Museum in Stockholm?Sweden's museum of art and design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research study was to find about who the National Museum visitors are and what is their five reasons and motives to visit the National Museum. To get a better understanding about finding out who are the National Museum visitors a qualitative method was used in the form of a questionnaire that dealt with questions about the respondent’s demographic background and open questions related to finding out more details about the respondents’ reasons to visit the National Museum that is an art and design museum. The data that was gathered from the questionnaire was analysed through the use of a thematic analysis to find specific themes based on the female and male respondent’s answers. The results indicate that most of the respondents who took part in the questionnaire on the 5th of April 2019 at the National Museum are a mix of female and male between the age 20-72 years from Sweden and other countries, all of them have a higher education (High School, Bachelor and Master Degree) and have studied art, history of art or design. The reason that many of the respondents choose to visit the museum and what attracted them to the National Museum was foremost for they all share an interest in art and design. The National Museum itself is an interesting place to be at because many of the female and male respondents have an appreciation in the art and design collections and exhibitions that is displayed at the museum. The National Museum offers a free admission and entry so many of them could visit the museum either by themselves or with a companion, and many of the respondents like how the National Museum teaches history about the art and design.

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  • 69.
    Mekhelif, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sakho, Sandey
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Backpacking: En studie över resenärers motivation till backpacking turism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine backpackers motivation to choosing this type of tourism, and to see if there is a homogenous group.

    Travel motivation is something that has been discussed and researched about within tourism. Backpacking is a form of tourism that has a been in controversial discussion regarding whether it is a positive or negative type of tourism, and why people choose to do it. Aqualitative method was used in this study, we sent out 23 interview questions to our 12 respondents. Due to a far distance between us and some of the respondents we chose to do all of the interviews over e-mail. We sent e-mails back and forth to our respondents to make sure that they understood everything. We used different authors in our theory section, such as Pearce and Loker-Murphy. When comparing previous studies and looking at different types of backpacker categories this study reveals that backpackers main motivation is to explore new cultures and get away from their everyday life. Most backpackers have the same keyfeatures and mostly a similar motivation, some motivated by self-development, others are motivated by new experiences.

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    Backpacking
  • 70.
    Monin Nylund, Désirée
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Andersson, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Search results: Stockholm Archipelago (152): En innehållsanalytisk undersökning av hemsidan TripAdvisor och dess skribenters omdömen om logiverksamheter i Stockholms skärgård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how hotels and hostels in the archipelago of Stockholm has been reviewed on the website TripAdvisor. Another aim was to analyse how TripAdvisor’s review system is constructed. The used method for this study was content analysis of 152 reviews collected from TripAdvisor. Moreover, observations of TripAdvisor's review system and its point system TripCollective were executed. Four articles were chosen as the theoretical framework for the study in which the authors of the first two articles discuss how consumers choose to act based on reviews online. The authors of the second two articles discuss which components are most frequent in reviews about hotels. The study resulted in an empirical material which demonstrated that TripAdvisor's review system is designed with regards to a number of guidelines and suggestions. These guidelines and suggestions can, or have to be, followed in order to create and publish a review. The most frequent themes in the reviews regarding hotels and hostels in the archipelago of Stockholm were Restaurant (18 %), Accommodation (16 %), Hostship (15 %) and Environment (14 %). Future consumers can be influenced by the writers reviews due to TripAdvisors review system and point system TripCollective.

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    fulltext
  • 71.
    Mwamburi, Sharon
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Destination Branding: A Qualitative Case Study of Local Stakeholders’ Practices in Mombasa, Kenya2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is today the most powerful driver of economic growth and development. Globalization plays a big role in diminishing traveling barriers across the globe, which has led to increased competition between destinations to identify themselves and delineate how they want to be perceived by tourists. In this case, developing a clear destination brand identity is paramount for success. Tourism destinations are complex; they are multidimensional and so are their consumer needs and stakeholders interests. The focal point of this research was on destination branding; it is crucial to have all the stakeholders on board. Consequently, a destination brand has to reflect the authentic identity of the destination hence differentiating it from its competitors. The purpose of the research was to explore stakeholders’ practices in destination branding, their attitude, experiences and expectations of branding Mombasa. The research was based on qualitative method where primary data was gathered through face to face interviews with the tourism stakeholders in Mombasa, and data collected was analysed using content analysis. The key findings include; lack of unity among stakeholders, Mombasa has not been branded, inadequate funds for branding Mombasa, and need for product diversification. The research concludes by suggesting step by step approach for branding the destination.

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  • 72.
    Nilsson, Angelica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Öhman Lundin, Malin
    Unga vuxnas uppfattningar och upplevda ansvar om turismens miljöpåverkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing every day and contributes to a more positive growth concerning work opportunities and cultural exchange to mention a few of the many positive effects. The industry also has a negative impact on the environment and is endangered to be destroyed due to the increased amount of travel, this is something which requires action from the industry that must head for a more sustainable future. It is required by the industry to aim for a more sustainable future where the environment is taken care of and negative effects decrease, a task that also is required by the tourists. Former studies have shown a significant difference between tourists’ attitude to environmental responsibilities compered to their actual behaviour. Individual needs and preferences are first priorities rather than environmental thinking and action connected toa trip. Is it therefore possible to put more individual responsibility on the people in the future? The purpose of this study is to examine knowledge of young adults living in Sweden about the problems that tourism contributes to and what kind of responsibility the individual person is willing to take in order to decrease these impacts.

    Empirical data has been collected thru ten qualitative interviews with persons living in Sweden, between the ages of 20-30 years old, that travels abroad for holidays at least once a year. The result of this study shows that there is some understanding for the negative effects that tourism cause to the environment, but not in relation to the individual travel. Neither does planning nor the traveling it self contain environmental thinking, what is mainly prioritised is mainly individual interests and preferences. Despite great perceived responsibility against the environment it is seendifficult to take the environment into account,before and during a holiday.As it risks interfering with individual interests and main purpose of traveling.The results also show that the perceived knowledge of environment problems caused by individual travelling and tourism is low. There is a clear wish for more information and abilities to make choices which are profitable for the environment. This indicates that more environmental responsibility might will be taken in relation to international travelling, which eventually will lead to a more sustainable travel.

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  • 73.
    Nouri, Rand
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Shaker, Hana Kais
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Domanski, Mikolaj
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hur har digitaliseringen förändrat resenärers sätt att boka paketresor?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays many travelers choose to book their trips via online booking sites instead of visiting physical travel agencies. This has changed the way the physical travel agencies operate their businesses and has forced them to adapt to new strategies in order to stay alive in this new reality of the industry. The comfort of the digitization pushes the world toward internet and online services, which implicitly mean that physical shops has become less important even in tourism industry where potential travelers go to digital platforms to reach out for information as well as to plan and choose their destinations. The aim of our study was to investigate how digitization has affected the way passengers book their package holidays and how it affects physical travel agencies and their businesses. With the help of our method, which consist of interviews and a questionnaire, we were able to collect empirical data for compilation and analyses and thus to draw our final conclusions.

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  • 74.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Educational Community Engagement – a chance for students in tourism to get closer to the chaos of the archipelago entrepreneur?2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017, p. 63-64Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While Tourism in Sweden is booming, the Stockholm Archipelago seems to be at a standstill at best (Tillväxtverket 2016) Attempts at seasonal prolongation show no clear results. Archipelago Business Development is a 3-years EU-Interreg project commenced October 2016 aiming at business model improvement. At Södertörn University, students from Tourism studies, Business Studies and Media Technology are enrolled. The project is on the Swedish side currently recruiting businesses to participate in the project. Pilots using course work, where students find their own empirical objects include intermediate level projects in Net-based Information Systems, Tourism innovation projects pursuing improvements in business models. Several bachelor, and master essays are under way. Students are to interact with entrepreneurs through business clinics –speed-dating like consultancies where the business bring their problems and students collaborate in teams to suggest solutions to the problems, possibly backed up by experts. Also, there is to be an accelerator programme where a selected number of entrepreneurs are in for a long term business model development project of longitudinal character, where students may join at a certain point or follow the process. In April 24th, there will be a student kick-off at Södertörn University with participants from the business side, municipalities and Swedish project partners and on April 26th, the corresponding event will be in Turku with all project partners. Expectations are that students will get a closer grip on the reality of businesses. At the time of the conference, experience from this pedagogical experiment will have some results to discuss.

  • 75.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Om att styra självständighet2014In: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, p. 113-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Om att styra självständighet
  • 76.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Stockholm Archipelago – arena for goose feeding entrepreneurs with solutions to non-prioritised problems or entrepreneurs in dire need of help?2017In: Nordic Geographers Meeting, Stockholm 18th –21st June 2017, Session L3: Rural entrepreneurship: Knowledge, innovations, diversification and value creation – strategies for coping with a changing world, 2017, p. 5-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the constructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs.

    References Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016a) ”Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types”, Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016b) ”Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations”, Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981) “On the measurement of organizational slack”, Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C. Gimeno-Gascon, F.J. & Woo, C.Y. (1994) “Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance”, Journal of Business Venturing, 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1991) “A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior”, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall 1991, 7-25. Ketchen et al., (1993) Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B. & Snow, C.C. (1993) “Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches” Academy of Managent Journal, 36(6), 1278–1313. Miller, D. (1987a) “Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance”, Academy of Managent Journal, 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b) The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy” Strategic Management. Journal, 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016) “Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation.” Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696.Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) “Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach”, Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 71–91.

  • 77.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Student Involvement as a Tool for Nurturing Business Model Development in Tourism Businesses in the Stockholm Archipelago2017In: 6th International Tourism Conference ENCUENTROS / AIRTH 2017 : Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality – Preparing for the Future: Final Proceeding : Portorož, Slovenia, 23 – 25 March 2017 / [ed] Dejan Križaj; Florian Zach, AIRTH , 2017, p. 23-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism consumption in Sweden 2015 was SEK 263 billion, an increase by 7% from 2014 and 46,7% from 2005 (Tillväxtverket, 2016, p. 16). For Stockholm Archipelago, no statistics are available, but guest nights in the guest harbours can be a proxy for tourism development. In 2015 there were 172,531 overnight guests in private yachts, a decrease by 31% from 2014 and 29% from 2005. During the same period, the other types of commercial lodging in the country as a whole has had a monotonous increase in over night guests totalling 40,7% in the past decade. According to Löfmarck & Wolgast (2010) more than 50% of employees worked for businesses with 6 employees or less, while 10 companies supplied about a quarter of the jobs in the tourism sector and the seven largest companies constituted the top quartile in terms of revenue; there were few rather large companies and many small businesses. The archipelago is considered a good tourist amenity, but obviously there is dire need for rethinking how things are done in the region in, order to catch up, and one reasonable point of departure is assessing the business models in use. For this reason an EU-Interreg financed project was launched on October 1st, 2016. A first issue to settle is updating the situation on businesses active in the archipelago, where after comes the assessment of their business models, in which businesses are to be linked to students, where the former get access to up to date tools for business model assessment in collaboration between Drivhuset, a foundation coaching incubator activities at many Nordic universities, Södertörn university in Sweden, and Åbo Akademi University and Novia university of applied sciences in the Finnish archipelagos of Turku and Nyland. Student participation is planned in two ways: In course work students in work groups assess the situation each participant enterprise is in, analyse their business models and suggest alterations. Also, students will do thesis work on bachelor’s and master’s levels. The course work will be assessed on academic as well as practical utility merits, while the theses are assessed on academic merits only. Researchers will follow the development of participant enterprises as well as the project’s impact on quality of education. The project is based on Osterwalder’s business model canvas approach to innovation utilising hypothesis driven design methods, where academic staff guides the process. Going through the literature on business models, it seems that on the one hand, little consensus is about when it comes to the exact definition of the term, while a rather broad one is about, when it comes to that somehow involves value creation – and often value capture, and what the necessary means of doing so are (e.g. Osterwalder, 2004; Teece, 2010; Zott et al. 2011), i.e. it is on how businesses are blue printed in order to sustain themselves, In that sense, it is related to business strategy. (c.f. Teece, 2010). Often there is a presumption on entrepreneurial activity, especially when it comes to business model innovation. In the entrepreneurship literature, there is a distinction between entrepreneur by nature and entrepreneur by necessity. Many of the inhabitants of the Stockholm archipelago are lifestyle entrepreneurs, and hence maximum profit is not self-evident as objective, even though better earnings are welcome; there is not really an option of taking place out of the configuration the business model is based in. The lifestyle entrepreneur is characterised by being able to lead the life at hand as motivation for activities, while the ‘normal’ corporation are taking on economic activity in order to maximise value added, often implying the building of shareholder wealth. The difference implies that the corporation is expected to pursue all businesses that are above the internal rate of interest on investments, while the lifestyle entrepreneur shuns any option that is not relevant to her/his lifestyle. Commonly this means enduring low profitability requirements. These rather atypical businesses open the possibility of widening the scope of the literature to alternatives to entrepreneurial orientation towards strategy, other forms of packaging, and through that, further exploration of the relation between networks and alliances and business models.

    References:

    Löfmarck A & Wolgast H. (2010). Studie av turismrelaterad näring i åtta skärgårdskommuner, Unpublished report to Stockholm County.Osterwalder, A. (2004). The Business Model Ontology – A Proposition in a Design Science Approach, Doctoral Thesis, l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de l’Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Teece, D.J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation, Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 172-194. Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. (2011). The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research, Journal of Management, 37(4), 1019-1042.

  • 78.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Student Involvement as a Tool for Nurturing Business Model Development in Tourism Businesses in the Stockholm Archipelago2018In: Academica Turistica - Tourism and Innovation Journal, ISSN 2335-4194, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism consumption in Sweden is booming, but it seems to be at a standstill in the Stockholm archipelago, and most businesses of all kinds in it are small. Therefore, an eu-Interreg-financed educational community engagement project aiming at business model development in the archipelagos of Turku, Åland (both in Finland), and Stockholm was launched, as Finland has a similar situation. In this paper, the foundations of the project, the literature on the issues of being rural and in the archipelago, and business models are reviewed and put in perspective through preliminary empirical results of the project, in while municipality and some business representatives have been interviewed. The rationale is that there is a weak scientific understanding of business models in use in the archipelagos. Methodologically, action research is being used in addition to document studies, with unstructured interviews and observations as the primary empirical methods. The primary results for which the empirical findings put light on the intersection of the abovementioned literature bodies are the impact of infrastructural and access problems due to isolation, as well as indications of a community split between second homes and permanent residents. The lifestyle-entrepreneurship jeopardises the economic well-being but enriches the social well-being of the population. The primary conclusions are that seasonality and second homers provide entrepreneurs with large output markets in season, but small ones in the off-season. The business equation cannot omit place since it is part of the social well-being of the lifestyle-entrepreneurs, which calls for further research into configurational approaches to strategy in an archipelago context.

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  • 79.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Using educational community engagement to understand the archipelago tourist2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background of the study While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. A central feature of the project is also student participation, where university students om Finland and Sweden work with the problems in courses. Purpose of the study In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the onstructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). Also, the specific characteristics of the customers to the archipelago need to be addressed. The purpose of the study is to understand the entrepreneurs’ conception of tourist behaviour and its consequences for strategy. Methodology In an initial step, entrepreneurs are being tapped on their perceptions of customer behaviour through interviews and register data on actual tourist behaviour. For example in a course on business intelligence, students interview entrepreneurs, and then use the customers’ utilization of web based resources of one of the destinations is being used as base for students’ suggestions on destination approach to development issues. The project thus generates behavioural data, that can be assessed directly as well as indirectly through the entrepreneurs’ understanding. Results The project is not finished, so conclusive results are not at hand as of yet. Indications so far point in the direction that the rather large share of second home tourists are sceptical towards costly or peace- disturbing projects, which is in line with earlier findings (e.g. Löfgren, 1999), whereas occasional events have substantial attraction value. So far there has been limited data on occasional tourists, du to that high season has not been covered by the project yet. Expectations are here that it is more relevant to understand consumer behaviour from Belk’s (1988) idea that consumption patterns are best understood as identity building processes. Here preference for well-being is a hypothesised top candidate of travel motivation, based in preliminary interview data with entrepreneurs. The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model, as well as customer characteristics. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs. Conclusions, research implications and limitations As the project is not finished, there is not really grounds for drawing conclusions, and implications and limitations should also await the increased robustness available when the whole project is finished before evaluation. Of course, the shortcomings of idiosyncratic studies, like unclear representativeness of case studies, and volatility of values as well as memory problems affect on interview trustworthiness. References References Belk R.W. (1988). Possessions and the Extended Self. Journal of Consumer Research. 15(2), 139-168. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016a). Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types. Journal of Business Research. 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016b). Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981). On the measurement of organizational slack. Academy of Management Review. 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C., Gimeno-Gascon, F.J., & Woo, C.Y. (1994). Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing. 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1991). A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall, 7-25. Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B., & Snow, C.C. (1993) Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches. Academy of Managent Journal. 36(6), 1278–1313. Löfgren, O. (1999). On holiday: A history of vacationing, California studies in critical human geography, 6. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press Miller, D. (1987a). Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance. Academy of Managent Journal. 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b). The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy. Strategic Management. Journal. 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016). Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation. Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696. Tillväxtverket (2016). Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund, J. & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing. 20, 71–91.

  • 80.
    Onn, Gustaf
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Supply side perception of Halal tourism: A Swedish pilot study2019In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, p. 40-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halal tourism – where tourists with Muslim norms are considered in that there is no alcohol, no gambling, food adheres to Muslim religious requirements, and that there is a separation of men and women in public spaces – is considered a growing market, especially when considering the wealthier populations, e.g. in Saudi and United Arab Emirates. However, some of these requirements may seem at odds with some western norms, and may hence require both investments, and dealing with ethical issues if one would cater to this demand. Nevertheless, Halal tourism can also be provided by non- Muslim countries to Muslim tourists. This justifies a research (e.g. Henderson, 2016; Yasuda, 2017; Razzaq et al, 2016) for the multicultural Sweden as well.  A pilot study with 15 questions to assess perception of Halal tourism is being carried out with an open- ended questionnaire been sent out with 4 reminders to 250 persons working in government, organisations and enterprises linked to tourism in Sweden from four e-mail lists between June 2018 and January 2019. As of now, 22 have returned forms. The responses will be broadly thematically analysed as it is a survey of opinions. Possibly the investigation may turn to deep interviews and in that case a deep thematic analysis may show useful.  Only a minor part of the interviewees has a good grip on which exact dimensions are considered in definition of Halal tourism and have some knowledge of the adaptations required to it. Most of them have mentioned oral sources and Internet as their information source. A majority thinks Halal tourism may be of significance in Swedish tourism, if Muslims are targeted, while the rest are either doubtful or sceptic. Concerning pros of going after this target group, the majority report diversification of demand, general increase in demand, cultural exchange and general benefits to consumers, while a minority report having too little knowledge, or do not see any advantages or in a couple of cases have unclear answers. On the cons they point to the association between the concept of Halal to slaughter specifically, to the inability to deliver appropriate hospitality, to the possible detrimental effects on other target groups, point out the organisational adaptations necessary, put forth economic costs as well as cultural hinderances, or saw no downsides. A minority had either no ideas nor answers atall.  Whether one should go ahead and pursue this target audience or not, the answers totally varied. Some did agree, while others thought more thorough analysis of the target group was needed, or thought that all customers should be catered to as long as it does not adversely affect other target markets, or believed that this should not be a public responsibility, that invest is not on the proper level, or that at present no investments should be made, but if it turned out to be a high demand, it may be profitable. A minor part found it economically not defensible. When it comes to marketing Sweden as a Halal destination, several of them either mentioned Muslim nations or Muslim VFR tourists or specific geographic regions, while the rest either emphasizes need of more analysis, or claimed that they knew too little, answered irrelevant or gave no answer. On problems that may arise from marketing Sweden as a Halal destination, a majority either mentioned cultural difficulties or feared confused identity, leading to blurred destination image. Several of the interviewees found no problem while the rest either thought further analysis was needed or had no idea or answer. To the question if they were willing to pursue the target group, most of the interviewees was positive while several of the interviewees had negative opinion on it and few persons either did not know, answered unclear or gave no answer. As to under which conditions they could see Halal tourism being undertaken in Sweden, the answers are very varying. Nine persons either gave no answer or did not know while the rest either were against the idea or any necessary adaptions or required respect to equal value of people, to sustainability and fairtrade.

  • 81.
    Paradzik, Ivona
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lappalainen, Jasmin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Utvecklingen av destination Gotland: en kvalitativ studie om destinationsutveckling av Gotlands lågsäsongsturism2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to research how the low season affects tourism and how destination development is taken care of on the island of Gotland in Sweden. Gotland is a very popular travel destination during the busy summer months June, July and August, but the authors of this study felt that it would be interesting to investigate what happens with the tourism business during the rest of the year on the island.

    With the help of qualitative methods such as interviews with the local people, stakeholders, and observations made in the capital of Gotland Visby, the authors have gathered data to be analyzed and presented in this paper. The authors had the privilege to interview two tourism managers from Destination Gotland and Region Gotland, who provided important information for the study.

    To be able to find out how different aspects of destination development of low season tourism are taken to account, the authors prepared an interview guide for every specific interview, to match the topics discussed with the informants. It was important to the authors to fully engage to this study, so travelling to Visby and observe the island was a natural choice. This excursion gave the authors the possibility to discover the island not only from an academic perspective but also from a touristic one.

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  • 82.
    Patko, Adam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Issa, Muhinde
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Geralf, Belinda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies. Belinda Geralf.
    Visit Swedens marknadsstrategier: En kandidatuppsats om Visit Swedens val av internationella marknader jämfört med de regionala DMO:s prioriteringar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our main purpose with this bachelor thesis is to get an understanding of which different orientations currently exists when it comes to the incoming international tourism to Sweden. Furthermore, we want to find out how the collaboration between Visit Sweden and the regional destinations management organizations, called DMO:s is structured in relation to each other. We have chosen a qualitative method which includes several different types of interviews with Visit Sweden and the regional DMO:s as well as text material from Visit Sweden's website. The theories are scientific articles which we consider are suitable to our chosen subject and empirical data.    

    The results based on the collected empirical evidence show that Visit Sweden does not see that they have choose specific markets, but they admit that they choose focus markets when it comes to countries. Among other things, Visit Sweden's choice is about when they see a potential that travelers in each country want to visit Sweden. This can change over time depending on internal and external factors. They are based primarily on their target group Global Traveler who according to their market analyzes can be applied to several different countries that are not included in their focus markets. What also controls the selection of markets and market segments are their owners the Swedish state and Swedish tourism AB, but also various tourism stakeholders such as small and large, for example hotels who seek help with marketing towards international tourists.

    When it comes to how regional DMO:s prioritize compared to Visit Sweden we can conclude that several of them prioritize in the same way as Visit Sweden. However, we see a pattern when regional DMO:s who do not share the same choice of focus markets choose to market themselves in other ways than cooperating with Visit Sweden. This happens despite of the fact that there is an opportunity for collaboration with Visit Sweden still even if their focus market is not the same.

     

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  • 83.
    Paulaityté, Akvile
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ohlson, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Turism, marknadsföring och hållbar utveckling: En kvalitativ studie om hållbart utvecklings- och marknadsföringsarbete i Visby2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how Leader Gute and the municipality Region Gotland work with sustainable tourism development in Visby on Gotland. This methodological study will shed light on how Gotlands Besöksnäring AB and Destination Gotland markets Visby and if they work with sustainability. This objectivistic and qualitative study consists of four interviews and a text- and pictureanalyzis has been made. Five theories have been used to explain marketing of destinations, sustainable tourism and sustainable development. The result shows that the municipality Region Gotland works with sustainable tourism development in their planning work of Visby but that few resources are used to this work within the tourism industry and that they work with social, ecological and economical areas but have not yet developed tangible goals within these areas. Leader Gute works socially with projects driven by the local population, with small enterprises and to increase employment opportunities on the island. They work economically with contributing to entrepreneurship and ecologically with renewable energy and to increase nature tourism with a low environmental effect. Destination Gotland work with filling boats with travelers and also package trips. They work sustainably with usage of catalytic converters on their boats and market Visby via digital channels. Gotlands Besöksnäring AB arrange meeting days within the tourism industry and members of the association Gotlands förenade besöksnäring and also realise projects. The firm has not developed a sustainable development plan or a marketing strategy for the tourism industry on Gotland. They cooperate with the municipality Region Gotland and the destination company Inspiration Gotland to develop a development plan and a marketing strategy. The firm market at their members via Facebook. 

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    Turism, marknadsföring och hållbar utveckling
  • 84.
    Persson, Martina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Yakhyaev, Rashid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Autenticitet inom backpacking: En studie som undersöker autenticitet och hedonism inom backpacking2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores authenticity and hedonism in backpacking. Postmodernism has led to a homogenization in regards to the destinations that backpackers visit and the activities they perform. Authentic experiences are thus much more difficult to find and discern due to the prevailing mass tourism. This study measures Swedish backpacker's perceptions and behaviors regarding authenticity, using a questionnaire survey that is answered by 203 participants. Data collection is presented in the form of tables and descriptive text that is analyzed using a theoretical framework which includes authenticity, backpacking, hedonism and well-being. The result shows that Swedish backpacker's perceptions and behaviors are most closely linked to existential authenticity and that hedonistic enjoyment is part of the modern backpacker.

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  • 85.
    Polonis, Vanessa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Björklund, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Panek, Nathalie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sälj det nu eller aldrig: En studie om hotellbranschens kraftiga priskurvor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hotel industry is characterized by perishability, which means that its services cannot be stored and saved to a later sales opportunity. In that world, a room that is not booked is lost forever. Another thing that also characterizes the industry is that it is seasonally controlled, thus the demand varies between different periods of time and occasions. As hotels tend to have high fixed costs, companies often choose to price their services higher when the opportunity that consumers pay a higher price appears. This can lead to a situation when the consumers feel fooled by the fact that the hotel itself does not create the new conditions that makes the demand rise. As a support for the interviews conducted, a research focused on the real prices has also been conducted where the prices of fifteen hotels in Stockholm were checked for three months on three occasions. To investigate the relationship between these two phenomena, seven hotel employees have been interviewed and shared their experiences of the reality and strategies within hotel industry. In order to get an overall picture, fifty consumers having profiles of potential hotel guests, have been interviewed where they answer questions about different scenarios and estimated prices for hotels of three different classes in Stockholm. The research made it possible to determine some conclusions. It appeared to be important for hotel industry to optimize prices in a way that they reflect the demand. An important tool to achieve this optimization is yield management and it confirms by the driving forces that identifies most often. The result of this reality is that the hotels experience fluctuations of prices over time, with rarely occurring stable pricing curves. Price awareness of customers tend to be raised when their experience of similar purchases is high. It has also been found that high prices do not necessarily have to lower the consumer value and that hotel guests may be willing to pay a higher price due to certain external factors. The relation between pricing and customer value was found to be complex and as there are some factors preventing the customer value to get lowered by price increase, it might be beneficial for hotels to take these factors into account. 

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  • 86.
    Puric, Monika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Lindberg, Rebecka
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Den fysiska platsens betydelse: En kvalitativ studie om förhållningssättet researrangörer har till den plats där personal och kund möts2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper has been to examine which approach travel agencies has to the physical store or office that a customer can visit, and if and in which way the place can affect the customer.

    Method: This paper is done from a qualitative approach. The content is based on interviews done with employees from seven travel agencies on the swedish market.

    Conclusion: The conclusion shows that tour operators uses the physical room to build confidence, create security and strengthen the relationship between the staff and customer. Through the physical room the tour operators can affect the customer by giving personal contact, added value and the ability to give the customer directions towards their purchase.

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    Den fysiska platsens betydelse
  • 87.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att inventera de utmaningar och möjligheter som före­tagarna i Stockholms skärgård står inför. Rapporten har skrivits inom ramen för Interreg-projektet Archipelago Business Development och omfattar en inventering av skärgårdsföretagarnas behov, utmaningar och möjligheter i Stockholms skär­gård.

    Undersökningen har bland annat gjorts genom gruppintervjuer med företagare på Dalarö, Ornö, Sandhamn och Utö. Därutöver har enskilda in­ter­vjuer genomförts med företagare i fem olika kommuner. Geo­grafiskt fördelas urvalet på Stockholms södra och mellersta skärgård.

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    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård
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  • 88.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Development in the Stockholm Archipelago: institutions, traditions and responses to local development initiatives2018In: Challenged Ruralities: Welfare States under Pressure : Conference Book – Fifth Nordic Rural Research Conference / [ed] Hanne W. Tanvig and Lise Herslund, Frederiksberg: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Archipelago is classified as one of the less developed rural areas in Sweden. Although the Archipelago is located close to Stockholm, local inhabitants and businesses live in the shadow of the capital city. Over the last decades, a number of policy initiatives and development projects have been launched to support a sustainable socio-economic development in the Stockholm Archipelago, not the least by trying to decrease the dependence on the summer season for the creation of local income. But results have not been as positive as expected. In addition, it seems that inhabitants in some islands have managed to create a more dynamic environment and have achieved some successes, while inhabitants in other islands are still struggling with the same problems as they were 20 years ago. These differences cannot easily be dismissed as a result of differences in physical infrastructure.

    By conducting a comparative qualitative and systematic study of the conditions for creating a sustainable socio-economic development in various islands in the Stockholm Archipelago this study will answer the following questions: What makes some communities in the archipelago vibrant and resilient and others less so? Which are the variations in pre-conditions for a vibrant and resilient development? What have previous policy initiatives and projects succeeded with? And when have they failed?

    The article is based in an on-going case study in which project and policy evaluation reports have been analysed. In addition, a large number of in-depth interviews with business owners in the Archipelago, with policy officers in various involved municipalities and project coordinators have been conducted.

  • 89.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Facing business challenges with the Stockholm Archipelago as a context: A comparative study of entrepreneurial responses and local development on three islands2019In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. XII, no 2, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a comparative qualitative and systematic study of the local (island) pre-conditions for creating sustainable socio-economic development through entrepreneurship, here defined as a process of identifying, evaluating, and exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities, this study aims to shed light on entrepreneurial responses to challenges and opportunities on three islands in the Stockholm Archipelago and how context influences these responses.

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  • 90.
    Siggelin Alstermark, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Paasila, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Marknadsföring på språng: En komparativ studie om hur löplopps marknadsföring kan referera till människans fem sinnen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how references to humans five senses can be seen in the marketing of running races. Earlier studies highlight that it is difficult, if not even impossible, to stimulate some of these senses through social media, which also raises an interest in how companies work to get in touch with these senses? This study focuses on the marketing of five running races. For this study, a qualitative method has been used where the websites of the running races, official videos, Facebook and Instagram posts have been studied. In order to understand the collected data, a theory of sense marketing by Hultén, Broweus and van Dijk has been used, but also a theory about interaction between text and image by Nordström. These two theories are used as tools in the analysis work. The results shows that the marketing of the running races only stimulates the sight sense and the sense of hearing. For the smell sense, taste sense and touch sense the human being can only have memories of experiences through these specific senses.

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  • 91.
    Sjöqvist, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Panic, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Fotbollsturismens sociala aspekter utifrån ett hållbart perspektiv: En undersökning hur fotbollsresenärer påverkar lokalbefolkningen på en destination2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was made by two students for their bachelor theses in Tourism Studies at Södertörns högskola in Sweden. The aim of the study was to investigate the social aspects of football tourism from a sustainable perspective. The study investigated what's essential for football travellers when they travel both abroad, but also in Sweden, to see a football game. Another factor that was investigated was how the locals, especially those living near a arena, are influenced by the behavior of the football travelers when a football event is taking place. The problems that may arise with a football trip are that locals and travelers can end up in conflicts that can lead to social consequences at the destination as well as reduce social sustainability. This study investigated this phenomenon and by identifying the problems which arise with a football trip, it can help to increase the social sustainability of the destination.

     The method which was used to investigate the phenomenon of this study consisted of interviews with football travelers, the locals around Friends Arena, employees at Friends Arena and a football organizer. This was considered to contribute to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and also give an understanding from different perspectives. At the same time, an observation was also performed on a football game to increase knowledge and understanding of a football event, but also to gain insight into the behavior of football travelers. The material that was gathered in form of interviews was then combined with theories to get a better perception of the phenomenon. The result of the study showed that the biggest motive for a football trip was to get and feel belonging with other supporters. It was the feeling of identity with other travelers that mattered the most. The result also showed that football travelers end up in a free zone where everything is allowed, which contributed to changing their behavior during the trip. Alcohol turned out to be a big part of this belonging with others and a significant part of the travel, especially in Sweden. This contributed that the local population, especially the older group, felt worried when there was a football event. It also turned out that because of this they had to adapt their personal needs and could not be near the arena when there was a football event. This also contributed to social conflicts among football travelers and locals and reduced social sustainability at the destination.

     The problems surrounding football tourism proved to arise among the locals when they felt worried and had to adapt to a football event. Football travelers didn't see this as a problem because they ended up in a free zone and ignored individuals around them. Sustainable tourism should satisfy the needs of the tourist while not having to destroy the need of the local population. This was not achieved in this case, which also makes the social sustainability of football tourism difficult to achieve.

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  • 92.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Det turistiska fältet och dess aktörer, Josefin Syssner & Lars Kvarnström (red.). Studentlitteratur, 2013.2014In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 184-186Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies. Strömstad Academy.
    From Global to Intra-Regional Tourism2016In: UTMS Journal of Economics, ISSN 1857-6974, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 149-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of how society has evolved, travel and tourism have had a positive development since the end of Second World War. But now it seems that the perception of risk and danger is accentuated and the tourists choose destinations based on more safety and security for tourists.

    Risks often seem to be based on different global activities and actions from different groups, which the individual can not affect or influence over. These perceived risks thus affect the development of tourism and travel in a global perspective.

    This article would discuss the new threats to the global tourism due to the terrorist attacks that target different countries and in many cases the popular tourist destinations. With the result that travel has become more intra-regional again.

    The article makes a review of the slightly incomplete statistics available in the area and discuss possible strategies for overcoming the existing terrorist attacks.

    The conclusions of the article points to a more concrete cooperation between international and national organizations, governments, as well as NGOs, tour operators and civil society in general.

  • 94.
    Steene, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies. Strömstad akademi, Nordiskt institut för avancerade studier.
    Turism: Om att sälja drömmar2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turism handlar om att få en upplevelse av annorlunda karaktär. Turist är man på sin fritid, efter det att man utfört alla de uppgifter man har i form av arbete - avlönat eller av ideell karaktär. En del av denna fritid kan användas för att göra en semesterresa. Man kanske reser till någon annan plats i det egna landet, eller till någon plats i ett annat land.

    ----

    De teman som diskuteras är fritid och rekreation, upplevelseturism, resandets determinanter samt köpprocessen, kvalitetsutveckling och hållbarhetsaspekter med utgångspunkt i turismindustrin.

    Framtiden är svår att sia om, men boken gör avslutningsvis ett försök att belysa en trolig utveckling inom turismindustrin. Studier påområdet pekar generellt sett påen ljus framtid, både för nationella och internationella aktörer. Men hållbarhetsaspekter kommer att kräva ökad hänsyn.

  • 95.
    Stenhammar, Abir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Paz Rivero, Belen
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Svärdman, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    DE KULTURELLA FAKTORERNAS INVERKAN PÅ TURISM: - En studie om resemotiv bland medborgare i Förenade Arabemiraten samt Qatar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har turismen i världen ökat kraftigt, inte minst i Sverige. Turistindustrin står inför många utmaningar och då konkurrensen ökar och avstånden krymper mellan olika länder och världsdelar är det viktigt att beakta de kulturella skillnader som finns och vad vi bör känna till om dessa skillnader när det gäller turism. Kunskapen om dessa skillnader kan vara avgörande vid marknadsföring och inrättandet av nya resmål.

    Turister från Mellanöstern är sällsynta i Sverige och vi vill med denna uppsats ta reda på om dessa kulturella och religiösa skillnader kan vara hinder för turism från dessa länder samt andra motiv hos dessa medborgares när de reser, samt om det finns eventuella andra motiv dom kan vara orsaken till den dåliga besöksstatistiken i Sverige.

    Mellan länderna i Mellanöstern finns det stora ekonomiska skillnader och denna studie har därför fokuserats på de potentiella turister som kan finnas i Gulf Cooperation Council-länderna (GCC), där uppsatsen vidare avgränsats till Dubai som ingår i Förenade Arabemiraten ”United Arab Emirates, UAE” och till Qatar. Sverige anses vara ett land som turister från UAE och Qatar borde vilja besöka, då vi har ett motsatsförhållande i klimatet, med en behaglig sommartemperatur och gröna landskap sommartid. Trots detta är antalet turister från dessa länder lågt och det borde finnas möjligheter att öka antalet turister till Sverige. Denna bakgrund har lett uppsatsens författare till problemformuleringen: vilka motiv resenärer har när de skall resa, då de potentiella turisternas ekonomi, lagar och kulturella värderingar som råder i UAE och Qatar skiljer sig väsentligt från samhället i Sverige?

    Med utgångspunkt i motiv- och kulturteorier är uppsatsens övergripande syfte att undersöka turisters resemotiv från UAE och Qatar, samt att belysa några kulturella faktorer som kan påverka dessa turisters val av destination.

    – Vad motiverar turister från UAE och Qatar, när de bokar sina resor till en destination?

    – Vilka skillnader finns det i de olika kulturerna mellan UAE, Qatar och Sverige som kan övervinnas och möjliggöra ett större utbyte av turister?

    – Vilken lärdom kan Sveriges turistnäring dra från detta?

    Uppsatsen grundar sig på en kvalitativ- och kvantitativ metod. Den kvalitativa datainsamlingen har skett med hjälp av personliga intervjuer med medborgare från UAE och Qatar, samt intervjuer med lokala aktörer och aktörer från Sverige. Den kvantitativa datainsamlingen består av enkäter som delats ut till medborgare i UAE och Qatar. För att stärka uppsatsens primärdata har sekundärdata i form av hemsidor, litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar använts.

    Slutsatserna av studien är: både motivation och kultur har stor påverkan på turisters val av resmål. Kunskap/okunskap om resmålet när det gäller kultur, religion och en mängd olika krav som kommer ur detta är viktiga att beakta för att lyckas locka turister från dessa länder.

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    DE KULTURELLA FAKTORERNAS INVERKAN PÅ TURISM
  • 96.
    Sundling, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Bååt Sporrstedt, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Det bästa sättet att förutsäga framtiden är att skapa den: En kvalitativ flerfallsstudie om hur Stockholms konferensaktörer ställer sig gentemot mellanhandsföretag och hållbar utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate in how key actors in Stockholm’s conference industry work in relation to sustainable strategies and external resources during planning and execution of conferences. It also aims to investigate trends and patterns in the industry and how the vision of the future conference is seen.

    Method: The study is based in a qualitative multidisciplinary study comprising ten semi structured interviews as primary collection together with secondary data.

    Theory: The theoretical background is based on two platforms, one describing the meeting industry, and one describing the travel business sectors. Theories regarding sustainable development, the conference industry’s key players, industry trends and a communication model is also based on this study. The theoretical framework serves a delimitation of what the authors have chosen to analyze.

    Empiricism: The empiricism section includes a presentation of each respondent and the company the respondent works for. The companies described are 7A: Centralen, Kumla Herrgård, MSD AB (Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), Linné Travel, American Express Global Business Travel, Svenska Möten, Scandic Skogshöjd, Nordic Choice Hotels and two anonymous companies. Along the presentation follows a summary of the interviews.

    Findings: The findings of this study have shown that the majority of Stockholm’s conference actors do not have a fully developed policy for sustainable development and that social and economic aspects end up in the shadow of the environmental effort. The intermediaries are not entirely appreciated among smaller companies and conference facilities in the industry, because of dysfunctional communication. The intermediaries, on the other hand, mean that they contribute to resource savings and efficiency in conference planning. In the future, the actors consider the conference to have a concrete content and a clear purpose. Something that must also be maintained is a clearer focus on the guest’s experience as well as the preservation of physical meetings.

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    kandidatuppsats_sundling_baatsporrstedt
  • 97.
    Tatiana, Lantz
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Jana, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    "Ta mer, vi är inte i Sverige": En kvalitativ studie om svenska unga vuxnas risktagande av drogturism i Barcelona2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drug tourism is a concept that have gained popularity in the biggest and most popular european tourist destinations as of lately. It has even gained attention in popular media about how the modern youths consumption of illegal substances have grown lately and how research proves that the consumption of these illegal substances often duplicate when they travel. The purpose of this studie is to analyze what underlying factors contribute to swedish youth decision for travelling to Barcelona for the specific reason of consuming illegal substances. The writters of this essay are going to use qualititve methods in form of deep interwievs with people that direclty have participated in these form of tourism (drugtourism), mainly to have a deeper understanding about this phenomenon. To analyze the collected empirical matherial the writters are going to use selected previous research that focuses on this phenomenon. Because of the little research that has been done about this subject in Sweden and the impact it has had on the swedish youth almost all collected precious research is from outside of Sweden. The authors will also use two theoretical starting points to shape and gain an understanding of how the phenomenon affects the interviewed ones. The results in this studie shows that the swedish youth travell to Barcelona to consume illegal substances because of the availability the city presents when it comes to finding these illegal substances. It appears that additional contributing factors such as anonymity and freedom are produced among the individuals involved in this form of tourism.

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    "Ta mer, vi är inte i Sverige"
  • 98.
    Temml, Annabelle
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kerem, Gürkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    EURES: Arbetsförmedlingens europeiska rekryteringshemsida: – En effektivitetsstudie för rekrytering inom turistindustrin2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about EURES functionality and efficiency with a particular focus on tourism. By using a number of research methods, the efficiency of EURES is studied and compared to the Swedish public employment service website. By using the research results, EURES strengths and weaknesses have been carefully analyzed and suggestions for improvements of the network are presented. In the introduction, the company and network EURES and the Swedish public employment service are presented. Their background information and functions in society are further explained in this section.

    The purpose and the key questions are also included here. The key questions are the questions, which the researchers aim to answer to the best of their knowledge by the end of this study. The methods, which the researchers have used in this study, are described and examples of past studies are then introduced in the theory. The researchers have used information from past studies and applied it to EURES and the Swedish public employment services. After collecting and analyzing an array of empirical data the researchers finally yet most importantly, reveal the answers to the key questions in the conclusion of the essay.

    EURES= European Employment Services,Arbetsförmedlingen = The Swedish public employment service

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  • 99.
    Utterborn, Ylva
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kindstedt, Linus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Djurattraktioner: En studie om djurattraktioner utifrån svenska intressenters perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using animals in the tourism industry is common, although some research on the subject has been directed towards people's ethical concerns. Tourist activities such as elephant riding, dolphin shows or visiting zoos are common features during the holidays. In this study, we will try to provide new knowledge about how visitors relate to and argue about animal attractions. This paper aims to study animal attractions based on the views of different Swedish stakeholders and their views on animal attractions related to tourism. The study is based on a qualitative method where interviews have been conducted with the following stakeholders: Kolmården zoo, animal rights organization Djurens Rätt, tour operator NAZAR, as well as regular visitors of animal attractions. In addition to this, a site observation has also been made and questionnaires were distributed at Kolmården zoo. The chosen theories for the study are based on two main themes which are: “Animals and ethics” as well as “Animal spaces in relation to visitor’s experiences”. In the result chapter, each stakeholder’s view of animal tourist attractions is presented. The chapter starts with the results based on the producer's perspective and then switched to the visitors. Thereafter, the result is analyzed in relation to previous research and theory. The conclusion of the study is presented in the last chapter, along with an accompanying discussion. The results shows that animal welfare is the most important to all stakeholders but there are different perceptions how to ensure the future for the animals.

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  • 100.
    Vaca Vaca, Jessica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tanaveerapong, Patricia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Jag möts av destinationsmarknadsföring dagligen på sociala medier: En studie om konsumenternas tolkning av destinationsmarknadsföring på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent years it has become increasingly common for the general populous to use social media, especially for companies and consumers in the tourism industry. This affects the way potential consumers learn about new destinations and also influences their opinions on said places. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of how destination marketing is interpreted by consumers. In order to achieve this, two questions needed to be answered: How do consumers come across destination marketing on social media? and In what way do consumers feel destination marketing impacts their purchasing decisions? Interviews were conducted with 20 consumers to obtain qualitative data in order to gain an insight on the consumers perspective. Empirical data was analyzed using five different theories: Social Media Marketing, The Buyer Decision Process, WOM and eWOM, Personal Characteristics Affecting Consumers Behavior and Push- and Pull Factors. This study shows that consumers encounter destination marketing on social media often and also that destination marketing has a significant influence on consumers purchasing decisions as it encourages travel and allows selection of destination. 

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    Jag möts av destinationsmarknadsföring dagligen på sociala medier...
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