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  • 51.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Norman, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Förtroende och tillit i World of Warcraft: En studie utifrån WoW-användares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will show different interactions that a user needs to adjust in order to find and create trust within a guild in the game World of Warcraft. The aim of this study is to see if these interactions are used in different ways depending on which guild a user is a member in. The study is based on three different guilds and a few WoW-users perspectives, experiences and thoughts. The main methods in this study is based on qualitative methods that includes surveys, scenarios, observation and semi-structured interviews. The analysis has been based on two theories, social capital theory and the flow theory. This study has also examined how the design and features of WoW can affect a user's interactions, both in and outside the game.

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  • 52.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    An analysis model of tourism academic networks: a Swedish case study triangulated with an EU research project2016In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop an analysis model of a tourism department network using an explorative approach. Strategic stakeholders have been identified for the tourism department and organised into partner groups. An analysis model has been developed based on four network types: formal organisation, informal organisation, formal individual and informal individual. For every type, the following six network content dimensions were found relevant to analyse: stakeholders, reciprocal relations, relation exchange, network driving forces, network management and network purpose. The investigations have shown some focused network strengths such as network permanency, with corresponding weaknesses such as rigid relations. Some typical implications of the strengths and weaknesses for the department have been identified, and some network techniques to handle the implications have been proposed. An annual network development process for a tourism department is suggested. The resulting network is summarised as the Professional Tourism Academic Network (PTAN).

  • 53.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analyses Tools for Event Sustainability Certification in Destinations2015In: Responsible Tourism?: Book of Abstract : The 24th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik 1st-3rd october 2015 / [ed] Eyrún Jenný Bjarnadóttir, Edward H. Huijbens & Kristín Sóley Björnsdóttir, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research Centre , 2015, p. 113-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about responsible and sustainable development in tourist destinations. One could argue that event companies have a responsibility for sustainability, but they lack the analyses tools. The purpose is to investigate and analyse how companies working with events could develop a certification process of sustainability, and how decisions about an event’s sustainability certification could be supported. The analysis is based on both the study of relevant literature and investigations carried out and by using multi-criteria decision-making systems. A sustainable certification process is developed which consists of external company sustainability criteria, such as social, cultural, economic and ecological dimension, and also internal criteria such as using a sustainability plan. However, in this study certification obstacles have been found, for example certification costs. When developing the sustainability certification process a need is recognised for a decision support tool. Therefore a triangulation multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed consisting of six steps: 1. Problem formulation, 2. Computer criteria definition, 3. Definition of measures and rules, 4. Data collection and registering, 5. Total evaluation of the alternatives' results and 6. Final analysis and choice. When using the model there is a need for an integrated manual assessment by the evaluator and the computerbased expert system support. Therefore, triangulation of mainly qualitative research methods is used starting with qualitative interviews with an inductive approach by the evaluator, continuing with computer-based expert system analysis (the DEXi-system) with a logical interpretation approach and ending with the evaluator's deep interpretation of both manual and computer-based results.

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  • 54.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    City tourist destination planning and visitor streams2019In: 28th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: 23rd to 25th October 2019, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University , 2019, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destinations and their visitors are crucial to study in city tourism. Valls et al. (2013) proposed that identifying destination characteristics related to visitor segments and their holiday can help in the interpretation of contemporary urban tourism flows in Europe, facilitating city strategic planning in order to boost competitiveness. It is a challenge to identify the destination attributes and their benefits that the individual market segments value the most (Reisinger, Mavondo, & Crotts, 2009).

    Within destinations in Sweden there is a lack of knowledge about visitor streams. For example, there are no available official statistics for detailed tourism streams in Stockholm (The statistical analyst at Swedish Agency for Eco­nomic and Regional Growth, 2018). The problem, though, is how qualitative information and statistics can be collected and analysed with the limited resources available. In addition, the statistics are too static, because they are not connected to a tourist’s whole trip. New approaches will be demanded for tourism statistics and study techniques. Exploring tourist spatial behaviour based on social media big data is a new research field (Tang & Li, 2015).

    There is a discussion how to use mobile data points in Sweden in order to understand pattern of travel to destinations and concentration of people at a destination during a specific time. In addition, there are difficulties such as the lack of knowledge of a person's background. However, the use of mobile data and other Internet sources is rapidly developing.

    The purpose of this study is how visitor streams can based on the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed in order to improve the destination by destination organisations? This is an ongoing research project about visitor streams.

    This research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, tourist segments studies, in-depth interviews and a literature review. Statistical data and qualitative information in this research are used as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”.

    The case study of the visitor segment “cruise passengers” to Stockholm has been chosen as an empirical example. During the high season, there could be between 2,000 and 16,000 cruise passengers in the centre of Stockholm on any given day. These sightseeing tours mostly use just three or five activity points, which are based on visitor attractions, restaurants, shopping, guided tours, outlooks and exploring independently. This means that a very small city area is used by cruise passengers.

     In order to develop the tourist products and marketing there is a need for the destination organisations to understand the most important tourist segments and their segment streams within the regional and local destinations, using statistics and qualitative indicators. For example, the DMOs and local incoming companies need to coordinate the marketing, attraction development and logistics regarding their cruise products in the central of Stockholm. The stream content could be: defined visitor segment, visitor data, spatial destination data such as points and routes, time information and tourism product. However, there is also a need for understanding overall city people streams in order to plan the city's infrastructure, where big data could be used. As a result this will hopefully improve the destination logistics and reduce overcrowding.

    The streams can be of different types, which demand different investigation and presentation techniques. The cruise passenger’s visitor stream routes are of regular character. But the segment “private car travellers” are of irregular character, where the tourists can be analysed in visitor sectors connected to an investigation technique, when moving around individually.

    Finally, this research propose the visitor stream concept and future research of various visitor segment streams and the city's people movement pattern. A basic method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: defining “regional and local destination” and its characteristics, investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, identifying important visitor segments, analysing segment streams and overall movement patterns of people with new destination tools.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm: Slutgiltig redovisning till Huddinge kommun2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport slutredovisas uppdraget ”Kundundersökning av hundsporten i Stockholm”. Undersökningen är utförd på uppdrag av Huddinge kommun. En sammanfattande slutsats för denna studie är att ett stort intresse finns för hundägande och hundsport idag. I Stockholms län finns 80 tusen hundägare och 102 tusen hundar. I Huddinge kommun finns fyra tusen hundägare och 5 tusen hundar1. Utifrån rapportens resultatredovisning per frågeområde kan både idéer och konkreta förslag utläsas om hur hundsporten kan utvecklas både i Stockholms län och i Huddinge kommun. En generell slutsats är att det finns en en stark efterfrågan på professionella hundanläggningar (hundcenter), egna familjens hundaktiviteter på allmänna platser, lokala hunddagis, kurser, hundomvårdnadsprodukter, mat- och hundutrustningsprodukter och hundägararnas egna trivselprodukter.

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  • 56.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Mellanlägesrapport i forskningsprojektet "utveckling av exportmogna destinationer": en litteraturstudie av forskningsfronten hösten 20122013Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Smart City Tourist Segmentation: How can aspects of heritage experience be used in city tourist segmentation?2018In: Tourism Implications and Dilemmas: 24-26 September 2018: UiT The Artic University of Norway, Alta, Norway: Book of Abstract, Alta, Norway: UiT , 2018, p. 70-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most tourists to Sweden come to urban areas, but a dilemma is that there is a lack of visitor attractions to offer experiences in the cities. Therefore, the shift from heritage being only preserved to also being experienced by different tourist segments is welcome.

    Different tourist segments have their own unique heritage experiences. The “classical” experience aspects proposed by Pine & Gilmore (1999) can be used to explain the experience. However, special aspects of experience at heritage sites have been pointed out, such as Must See, Must Learn, Must feel and Must evolve (Poria, 2012).

    Visit Sweden (2018) focuses on three tourist segments, such as Active family. Our empirical studies show that the experience-related motives of visit are somewhat different for these three segments. The study also shows that human senses are strongly connected to the experience, but the importance of the senses differ. Another empirical implication is that smart cities give prerequisites for what Mossberg (2007) call experiencescape.

    The purpose of the present study is to clarify how tourists' experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and how this may be further applied in the market segmentation. An overall case study method will be used to study three maritime tourist attractions.

    The research contribution is to show how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on that aspects of tourist experience can emerge from the sensory impressions (Agapito et. al, 2014). Ano­ther contribution is how these aspects of experience can be used in marketing segmen­tation using the smart city tourism concept. Finally, this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to market well-attended and efficiently marketed heritage attractions.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sustainability Process and Certification in the Swedish Event Tourism Industry2016In: Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, ISSN 2286-3745, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society today there is a heated debate about sustainable development. It is argued that event organisations must take responsibility for sustainability, although they may lack appropriate development tools. The purpose of this article is to study how event companies and organisations can develop a sustainability process in a societal system context and the need for certification in their events. The analysis was based on the study of relevant literature, an investigation in Sweden and a systems analysis. A triangulation technique was used to combine the different methods. It is argued that there is a sustainability event system in a societal context, within which event organisations have a central role. A model of sustainability and certification process for an event organisation and its events is developed, which consists of criteria, activities, certification, effects and obstacles. This recognised certificate could be a motivator and guideline for sustainable event development. The certification's focus has to be on the event organiser's management. However, event organisers need to certify their own organisations, either including all future events or only some specific events. This would give the organisations and the event industry a positive image and recognised role in a sustainable world.

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    Sustainability Process and Certification
  • 59.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of Tourism Department Partners: A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI2014In: Proceedings from The 23rd Nordic Symposium On Tourism And Hospitality: THE VALUES OF TOURISM 2 - 4 O c t o b e r  2 0 1 4 / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Copenhagen: Copenhagen business school , 2014, p. 71-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN) of

    Tourism Department Partners

     

    – A Swedish Case Study Triangulated with the EU-Project TARSI

     

    GÖRAN ANDERSSON

     (Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, Stockholm, Sweden[1])

     

    Universities are not isolated from society. Throughout the world and at the highest political level, there are pressures on the higher education sector to network with its surrounding society. This whole idea of networking is supported by the European Bologna process in connecting academia more closely with business and society and in new and innovative ways. Nevertheless, at universities there is a lack of knowledge on how to structure societal networks and a lack of experiences in network building. This causes problems with regard to effective co-operation between the university and its societal partners. The fact that universities are not isolated from society can also be recognised by the public debates on education, research and community engagement. Nevertheless, there are almost no research articles written about universities' societal networks.

           The purpose of this research is to investigate university networks critically and to develop an analysis model for strategic partner relations and the underlying network structure within a Tourism Department's network.

           A case study methodology has been used with the Tourism Department at the author's university being the object studied, in order to study the network building process since it was established in 1999. Experiences from the EU-project TARSI (Tailored Applied Research and Implementation) have been triangulated with the results from the case study.

           Furthermore, a literature review has been conducted in order to identify which stakeholders appear in the literature of higher education-society interrelations and to find underlying dimensions to the university network structure. The theoretical framework is based on network theories, where network strategy, network partners, relation purpose, networks' formality, individual and organisational networks, network principles and obstacles are important themes.   

           For the Tourism Department, the following strategic partner types with associated relation purposes have been identified: the academic staff, current students, alumni, the tourism industry, public tourist organisations, non-profit tourist organi­sa­tions, macro-environment partners and the higher education sector. Every main stakeholder group has been organised into partner groups at the Tourism Department. The benefit of this approach is that special university objectives can be reached more easily if the Tourism Department has known part­ners in formal sub-groups already in place. In every sub-group there are typically questions depending on the Department's relation purpose.

           A relation structure network model has been developed, where the dimensions of formal-informal and organisational-individual have been found relevant in order to structure the network. The model is based on the four main opportunity building principles of permanency, openness, motivation and trustfulness. However, there are also corresponding main obstacles of cost-benefit misunderstanding, relation burden, strategic unconformity and non-network opportunities.

           There is a challenge in increasing the community engagement activities when using more resources. However, the benefits for the university and the surrounding world will be positive in total. It is of great importance for European university academies to use network strategies in their overall planning in order to be a natural part of society, which is summarised as the Professional Societal Academic Network (PSAN). Finally, the interaction of universities with society is regarded as a never-ending journey in a global world.

     

    KEYWORDS: Strategic network, Tourism Department, Community engagement, Network partners, Networks' formality, Individual-organisational stakeholders

     

    [1] For correspondence: Södertörn University, Department of Tourism Studies, 141 89  HUDDINGE, Sweden; e-mail: goran.andersson@sh.se

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  • 60.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist experiences of heritage attractions: how can cognitive and affective aspects of experiences be used in attraction development?2016In: Book of Abstracts: 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Ira Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a paradigm shift from heritage being only preserved, to also being shown as a tourist attraction. One of two diverse approaches amongst scholars to define heritage tourism is to use a visitor-experience perspective (Apostolakis, 2003). Different segments of tourists have their own unique experiences of the heritage. Specific aspects can be used to explain the experience, such as the “classical” aspects by Pine & Gilmore (1999). In addition, in the last few years other experience aspects have been identified, such as kick, comfort, competence and contact (Kairos Future, 2011). The concept of “the experience room” (Mossberg, 2003) is used to present an experience context. The assumption of this study is that the experience landscape is made up of perceptive signals that cover the human senses. Although one can ask how this approach supports the development of attractions. Cognitive and affective experiences were discussed at conferences on memory tourism in Estonia 2013-14, used in the pilot study to this research. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge about how tourist's experiences of heritage attraction can be analysed into aspects of experience for different segments of tourists, and secondly, how the human senses influence the tourist's cognitive and affective experiences. An overall case study method will be used to study four maritime tourist attractions. The study consists of unstructured ethnographical interviews, experimental observation of tourists, and tourist's own evaluations during the experience. The research contribution is to shed light to how meaningful aspects of experience can represent the experience of heritage attractions for different target groups. This is based on an analysis on whether tourist experience aspects can emerge from the sensory impressions of tourists' experi­ences (Agapito et. al, 2014). Another contribution is to figure out how the sense perception can be connected to affective and cognitive aspects that result in a joint experience of an attraction. The pilot study showed that enhanced customer investigations of tourist's experiences are needed, which will be further more analysed. In the end this research will hopefully give attraction developers new tools to generate innovative and well-attended heritage attractions.

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  • 61.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: A Study of Stockholm City2015In: Integrating City Tourism into the Urban Research Agenda: 15-16 June 2015, GSSI, L’Aquila / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, L’Aquila, Italy: Gran Sasso Science Institute , 2015, p. 25-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm hosts nearly eleven million commercial guest nights annually, and is ranked as one of Europe’s top ten destinations.The county population is 2.1 million (Stockholm Visitors Board,

    2014). In order to pursue economic, effective, and sustainable tourist destination development, it is important to understand its characteristics. In this study “city destinations” are focused on using sub-characteristics such as “visitor attraction clusters”. For understanding these characteristics, a clear definition of destination has to be used (Framke, 2002). The following components can be used to conduct an analysis of a destination: geographical place, visitor, image, complete tourist product, and interacting business and public sector (Andersson, 2013). Tourist destinations can be studied at the following different geographical place levels: the regional (e.g. the Stockholm region), the local (e.g. the old town) and the attraction-based destination point (e.g. Friends arena). The Stockholm Tourism Strategy 2020 project group has proposed a number of criteria that must be fulfilled before a destination can be considered mature. In order to gain an understanding of the demand (and revenue) side of destinations, unique criteria can be used for visitor segmentation in the city, such as visitor purpose. There are changing patterns of visitor streams in Stockholm, however, such as the dramatic increase in the number of cruise passengers (Stockholm harbour, 2015). Therefore the visitor stream planning has to be up-dated. By using criteria for visitor segmentation and characterization of the destination, economically strong and reachable visitor segments such as city-breakers can be identified. Visit Sweden has identified a number of segments, such as “double income no kids” (DINKs), that can serve as an overall category for citybreakers. Research purpose: To obtain deeper understanding of how regional, local, and point destinations can be developed using knowledge of the destination character and visitor streams within the destination. The theoretical framework is based on the concept of destination, the characteristics of city tourism, visitor segments, and streams. Methodology: As a starting point, approximately 150 destination plans have been written by my undergraduate students, and a pilot study and a literature review have been conducted. The next step will be a main case study on regional, local, and point destination levels in Stockholm and the associated visitor streams. The final step will be to draw conclusions about the model of visitor streams in city destinations.

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    Visitor streams in city destination - Göran Andersson Rome research conference 2015
  • 62.
    Andersson, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Visitor Streams in City Destinations: Towards New Tools for Measuring Urban Tourism2016In: Tourism in the City: Towards an Integrative Agenda on Urban Tourism / [ed] Nicola Bellini & Cecilia Pasquinelli, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 147-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City destinations are central in the study of tourism. But how can visitor streams related to the destination characteristics and visitor segments be analysed and discussed as a basis for improvement of the destination? This research used statistical data and qualitative information as “knowledge indicators” rather than as “unambiguous facts”. The research included analysis of about 100 destination plans, a pilot study of statistics and qualitative destination information about Stockholm, and a literature review. It resulted in the development of the visitor stream concept, which can be used in future research on the integration of various visitor segment streams. A method for analysing visitor streams is suggested: (1) defining “focused destination” and its characteristics, (2) investigating quantitative and qualitative destination information, (3) identifying visitor segments, and (4) analysing streams with new destination tools. The knowledge gained will introduce and address new issues concerning statistics for measuring, monitoring and assessing the actual value of tourism, particularly urban tourism.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analysis Dimensions of City Destination Character and Image Positioning2018In: Almatourism, ISSN 2036-5195, Vol. 9, no 17, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City tourism, with its unique character and image, has increased considerably over the last decades. At the same time, the complexity of destination development and image marketing has increased, and there is a lack of analysis tools for image positioning. The purpose is to investigate city destination image and character as prerequisites for destination mar­keting and development and how the image and character position can be analysed. City destination character, visitor destination image and visitor segments are used as the main theoretical framework.  An exploratory qualitative study approach has been chosen with an image case study of destination Stockholm. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the visitor segment international students and destination specialists. The study shows that desti­nation specialists have assessed a combination of city destination characteristic areas, which can be developed. Furthermore, visitors have a mind­set of several image aspects and holistic expressions for city destinations that can be used in destination marketing to change the current image position into the desired one. In order to determine a desired position, six analysis dimensions have been found useful: Desired positioning, Demand and supply, Visitor segmentation, Destination generalisation, Visit process and Expression type. The analysis dimensions are based on relevant dichotomous aspects. The effects of the used dimensions are called “positioning leverage effects”, and their main aim is to obtain a competitive advantage and to differentiate to other destinations.

     

  • 64.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    City destination image- How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Ioanna Farsari, PhD, Dalarna, Sweden, 2017, p. 29-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract from the presentation of:

     

    City destination image

    - How destination characteristics can be interconnected with visitors' destination image

     

    Göran Andersson & Saeid Abbasian

    Tourism Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden

    Email: goran.andersson@sh.se

     

    Destination Management Organisations (DMO) package the city image into a clear brand in order to attract foreign visitors (Eringa & Zhou, 2015). Still it is a complex task to analyse visitor segments' image experiences (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Unique characteristics of tourism destinations are exploited by DMO:s and tourism companies, such as their identity (Valls et al., 2012), in planning and marketing products for different visitor segments. Besides, big cities are typically more well-known and organised destinations which opens for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011).

    The purpose of the research project is to investigate the characteristics and interconnected images of a city destinations; and visitor segments' experiences of city images based on image attributes. A multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose is used. The theoretical framework consists of city destination characteristics and images, image experiences, and visit motivators.

    Typical characteristics and visitor segments were identified in the case of destination Stockholm in our pilot study. The results have been used in a qualitative investigation about the city image and its attributes, and also visitor's image expectations and experiences. Furthermore, an overall case study of Stockholm city will be conducted.

    The knowledge contribution relates to new city destination characteristics connectivity to images. Furthermore, the image impact on visitor travel motivators before and after visiting the destination. A model will be developed about “visitors' image positions”, based on the visitors' assessment of destination image attributes. This knowledge will support tourism companies and DMO:s to develop image marketing tools.

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    City destination image
  • 65.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourist Segments' Perceptions Of City Destinations: Balanced marketing by tourism companies and destination organisations2016In: Book of Abstracts: The 25th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research - Balancing Dichotomies 2016 in Turku, Finland / [ed] Juulia Räikkönen, Iva Lahovuo & Antti Honkanen, Åbo, Finland: Åbo Turismakademi , 2016, p. 19-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All tourism destinations have unique characteristics that constitute their identity (Valls et al., 2012). Tourism companies, in turn, exploit these when planning and marketing product concepts for different market segments. In recent decades, the cities in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) have undergone a change considering their profiles as more well-known tourism destinations. Meanwhile, even the degree of professionalism in the tourism industry has increased. This opens opportunities for new forms of image marketing (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). In order to understand city tourism better a comparison between urban and rural tourism will be made. Each destination and the associated companies have to develop their products and marketing campaigns in order to effectively promote themselves to various tourist segments. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the characteristics of city destinations, and how tourist segments translate them into destination images, and further how the image influences motivations for travel choice. Our theoretical framework consists of city destination concepts, destination characteristics and images, tourist segments' motivations and destination branding. In our pilot study, typical characteristics and tourist segments were found in the case of destination Stockholm. This result will be used when investigating how different tourist segments translate characteristics to an image perception. The planned research will take a multidisciplinary approach with an explorative purpose. A case study of two typical BSR-cities will be conducted, using interviews, statistical data, web site analysis and destination document studies. The knowledge contribution relates primarily to new forms of city destination characteristics and their impact on visitor travel motivators. Furthermore, a model for investigating segments' “image positions” will be developed based on a new kind of demand of city tourism and a more professional tourism industry, even though it is a complex task to determine image positions (Stepchenkova & Mills, 2010). Our hypothesis is that tourist segments are more interested in what city destination can offer today, but the supply side needs more knowledge how to influence the segments' travel motivators. We hope that the acquired knowledge will support destination organisations (DMO) and tourism companies to develop their tools for image marketing.

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  • 66.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 914-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    E-handel för mikroföretag på ett socialt nätverk: En kvalitativ studie om e-handelsfunktioner för mikroföretag inom second hand2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study about how second hand micro enterprises are using Facebook to interact with their customers and to increase their clientele. The study also examines what benefits e-commerce may offer second hand companies. Why this study is significant is if second hand companies would operate an e-commerce it could make more people interested in second hand, and by that make more people shop second hand and help save the earth’s resources. The study was accomplished with several interviews with some second hand shops, one customer survey and observations on a social network and its functions. The result shows that images is the thing the companies uses most to interact with their customers on Facebook, the images lets the customers see the current range the store has and it also allow new customers to get the information they need before a visit to the real store. E-commerce can offer second hand shops bigger sales, when reached out for customers around the country and even abroad. The result was later complied and was put in an tematic analysis. The study’s conclusion is that an e-commerce on a social network can be time saving for micro enterprises. Our design proposal is for micro enterprises with lack of time and limited economy to manage marketing, communication and e-commerce all in one place.

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  • 68.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Business as un-usual through dislocatory moments – change for sustainability and scope for subjectivity in classroom practice2018In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 648-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution to the debate that has been described as a tension between instrumental and emancipatory educational objectives in environment and sustainability education. The contribution involves a methodological approach (introd-) using the concept ‘dislocatory moments’, to identify and analyse moments in classroom practice that address educational objectives relating to ‘change for sustainability’ and ‘thinking and acting independently’. A case of business education, when ‘sustainable development’ is integrated in a series of lessons, is used to exemplify the approach involving analysis of the emergence and closure of a dislocatory moment and the change of logics that occur. The illustrative case shows how room for subjectivity and change can be intertwined in educational practice. It is suggested that the methodological approach could be used in empirical research of classroom practice to further knowledge about the kind of situations that contribute to ‘business as un-usual’ without compromising emancipatory education ideals.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    The Responsible Business Person: Studies of business education for sustainability2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for the inclusion of sustainable development in the business curriculum have increased significantly in the wake of the financial crisis and increased concerns around climate change. This has led to the appearance of new initiatives and the development of new teaching approaches. This thesis explores business education at the upper secondary school level in Sweden following the inclusion of the concept of sustainable development in the curriculum. Drawing on poststructuralist discourse theory, the overarching purpose is to identify the roles of a responsible business person that are articulated in business education and to discuss how these roles could enable students to address sustainability issues. The thesis consists of four studies, based on textbook analyses, teacher interviews and classroom observations. Three categories of roles have been identified, implying that a business person is expected to either adapt to, add or create ethical values. These three categories are compared with the roles indicated in the environmental discourses constructed by Dryzek and the responsibility regimes developed by Pellizzoni. Drawing on Dryzek’s and Pellizzoni’s reasoning about which qualities are important for addressing sustainability issues, it is concluded that the roles identified in the studies could mean that students are unequipped (the adapting role), ill-equipped (the adding role) or better equipped (the creating role) to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues. The articles include empirical examples that illustrate how and in which situations specific roles are articulated, privileged or taken up. The examples also indicate how the scope for business students’ subjectivities are facilitated or hampered. It is suggested that the illustrative empirical examples could be used for critical reflection in order to enhance students’capabilities of addressing uncertain and complex sustainability issues and to improve educational quality in terms of scope for subjectivity.

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  • 70.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro Universitet.
    Logics of business education for sustainability2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 463-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of ‘business education for sustainability’and how these ‘logics’ position the subject business person, based on eight teachers’ reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers’ reasoning. The analysis takes its starting point in different approaches to how a business ought to or could take responsibility for sustainable development. Different approaches to business ethical responsibilities, in combination with assumptions about how educational content is legitimised and presupposed purposes of education, are used to construct logics of business education for sustainability. In the paper, the results of this analysis are presented as: the logic of profit-, social- or radical-oriented business education. Our results also show how the different logics position the subject business person differently, as one who adapts to, adds or creates ethical values. The results are first discussed in terms of how environmental and social challenges could be dealt with in the future and secondly, considering the risk of de-subjectification with regard to profit-oriented business education, the implications this may have for the educational quality itself.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Hägglund, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Björninen, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    “Det är ju underhållning att gå på en mässa för mig i alla fall”: En studie kring besökares motiv vid deltagande av mässor i privat-, utbildnings- och företagssyfte2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The MICE-industry is a relatively new phenomenon that is currently in a strong growth period, fairs are included in this industry. There is a great deal of interest and a variety of motives for people to visit fairs for various reasons. The exhibitors' and visitors' motives differ according to several studies, which shows the problems that exists about what the visitors' actual motives are. This study investigates why visitors in private, educational and business purposes choose to participate in fairs, and identifies what the influencing motive is behind the visitor's decision to participate in a fair. This is examined through a quantitative and qualitative research method. The result shows that there are similarities, but also significant differences between the three visitor purposes.

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  • 72.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Avd för medieproduktion.
    Josefsson, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology. Högskolan Väst, Avd för medieproduktion.
    Pareto, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Avd för medieproduktion.
    Challenges in designing virtual environments training social skills for children with autism2006In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, University of Reading , 2006, p. 35-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore particular challenges faced when designing virtual environments for children with autism, with the purpose of training social skills. Our findings are based on studying autistic behaviour during three years (primary and secondary sources), analysis of related system and other computer mediated assistive technology, as well as general game design. From these studies we have identified eight critical design parameters that need to be adjustable in a system suitable for autistic persons. The parameters importance, their variation range, as well as the need for independent adjustment of these were estimated and verified by experienced expert pedagogues.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Från fixed till responsiv: Responsiv design av en statisk webbplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report explains the approach for the making of a responsive design to the website Projects & Staff, a website that previously had a fixed design. The project consists of two parts, hi-fi prototypes created in Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop as well as a complete mobile version of the website, created with CSS3. During the project I have designed for user experience and usability, two areas that are important to responsive web design. I have conducted a feasibility study in the form of a website analysis, made a PACT analysis and user interviews. This to define the needs that existed for a responsive design, and to get a clear picture of the users and their habits. The goal has been a responsive web design represented well on different devices, especially smartphones, a goal that I have done well with achieving.

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  • 74.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Norström, Karolina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Funktioner inom Video on Demand-tjänster: En användarstudie inom online streaming2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of streaming media services has rapidly evolved since 2013 (Findahl, 2014). As the usage of video on demand (VOD) services increases, it becomes more important that the services are well developed and accessible to its users. In this essay we study the functionality of the three most used VOD-services in Sweden, from a user perspective. Using existing theories and literature, we discussusability and conduct a field evaluation, analysing the three VOD services. Based on the conducted evaluation, we decided to move forward with ten features that, we found, were the most useful from a user perspective. It also helped delimit the study. The essay contains two research methods, a questionnaire survey and focus groups. The results from the study are presented in a ranking-list that will serve as a recommendation to the operators of the VOD services. The conclusion we made from the ranking-list is that a VOD service that take most of these functions into account will make for a better user experience.

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  • 75.
    Andersén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    En virtuell klädkollektion: En rapport om processen i att designa och illustrera en virtuell klädbutik till Stardoll.com2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report that goes through the design process of designing and illustrating a virtual clothing shop with the theme ”Stockholm Streetstyle” for the website ”Stardoll.com”. The purpose of the report is to examine how you can manage to get as close to designing a certain style or theme as possible, and also how the process of designing a clothing line can work, The illustrations were made in Adobe Illustrator and the final result of the project was an illustrated fashion collection with 21 parts, in the total of 6 outfits, and also a background for the shop. 

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  • 76.
    Andic, Eda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Englund, Kim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    När fantasin om paradis ön möter verkligheten: En studie om de sociokulturella effekter av turismen på Mallorca2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the socio-cultural impacts that tourists and locals in Mallorca are experiencing. We want to study the locals’ and tourists' perceptions and impact they have on each other. Qualitative interviews have been conducted for this thesis, in which two different interview forms were used. One interview form was used to interview locals and another for tourists, and a total of 11 people were interviewed. The study is based on theories that includes socio-cultural impacts, cultural shock, Doxey's irridex model and codes of conduct.

    The result of this study is that both locals and tourists had in general positive perceptions of the socio-cultural effects. The positive effects they experienced was cultural- and knowledge exchange, create networks with tourists from around the world and to have multicultural meetings. It was only locals who felt the negative socio-cultural effects of tourism, and these effects were that tourists litter the streets, drinks a lot of alcohol, creates high noise levels and that tourism affects the traditions and local language.

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  • 77.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Syrefria bottnar - orsakade av klimat, människa eller både och?2014In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, UK.
    Self, Angela E.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    St. Amour, Natalie
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / Uppsala University.
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Edwards, Thomas W.D.
    University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / University College London, UK.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment record from a small lake in the north-eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula has been investigated in a multi-proxy study to gain knowledge of Holocene climatic and environmental change. Pollen, diatoms, chironomids and selected geochemical parameters were analysed and the sediment record was dated with radiocarbon. The study shows Holocene changes in the terrestrial vegetation as well as responses of the lake ecosystem to catchment maturity and multiple stressors, such as climate change and volcanic eruptions. Climate change is the major driving force resulting in the recorded environmental changes in the lake, although recurrent tephra deposition events also contributed. The sediment record has an age at the base of about 10,000 cal yrs BP, and during the first 400 years the climate was cold and the lake exhibited extensive ice-cover during winter and relatively low primary production. Soils in the catchment were poor with shrub alder and birches dominatingthe vegetation surrounding the lake. At about 9600–8900 cal yrs BP the climate was cold and moist, and strong seasonal wind stress resulted in reduced ice-cover and increased primary production. After ca. 8900 cal yrs BP the forest density increased around the lake, runoff decreased in a generally drier climate resulting in decreasedprimary production in the lake until ca. 7000 cal yrs BP. This generally dry climate was interrupted by a brief climatic perturbation, possibly attributed to the 8.2 ka event, indicating increasingly windy conditions with thick snow cover, reduced ice-cover and slightly elevated primary production in the lake. The diatom record shows maximum thermal stratification at ca. 6300–5800 cal yrs BP and indicates together with the geochemical proxies a dry and slightly warmer climate resulting in a high productive lake. The most remarkably change in the catchment vegetation occurred at ca. 4200 cal yrs BP in the form of a conspicuous increase in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. Thisvegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover.

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  • 79.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Telford, Richard J.
    University of Bergen.
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea coastal waters2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 198, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference total nitrogen (TN) concentrations for the Gårdsfjärden estuary in the central Bothnian Sea, which receives discharge from an industrial point-source, have been estimated from diatom assemblages using a transfer function. Sedimentological and diatom evidence imply a good ecological status before 1920 with an assemblage dominated by benthic taxa indicating excellent water transparency, high diatom species richness and less organic sedimentation resulting in homogeneous well oxygenated sediments. A change in the diatom assemblage starts between 1920 and 1935 when the species richness declines and the proportion of planktic taxa increases. Increased organic carbon sedimentation after 1920 led to hypoxic bottom waters, and the preservation of laminae in the sediments. The trend in the reconstructed TN-values agrees with the history of the discharge from the mill, reaching maximum impact during the high discharge between 1945 and 1990. The background condition for TN in Gårdsfjärden is 260-300 μg L-1, reconstructed until 1920.

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  • 80.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Younger Dryas - Pre-boreal transition as recorded in vared glacial clay sequences in the north-western Baltic Proper1996In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 118, p. A79-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Did The Storegga tsunami affect the Baltic Sea?2001In: Baltica: an International Yearbook for Quaternary Geology and Palaeogeography, Coastal Morphology and Shore Processes, Marine Geology and Recent Tectonics of the Baltic Sea Area, ISSN 0067-3064, E-ISSN 1648-858X, Vol. 14, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Omstedt, Anders
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Östersjön förändras ständigt2005In: Upsala Nya Tidning, ISSN 1104-0173, p. 3-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 83.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zhang, Rui
    Xiamen University, China.
    Baltic Sea Basin Paleoenvironment: paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea Basin through the last glacial cycle2014Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jørgensen, Bo Barker
    Cotterill, Carol
    Green, Sophie
    IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere2015In: Scientific Drilling, ISSN 1816-8957, E-ISSN 1816-3459, Vol. 20, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north.

     

    The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During theWeichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies.

     

    The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization and zonation of the predominant biogeochemical processes. Quantification of microbial cells in the sediments yielded some of the highest cell densities yet recorded by scientific drilling.

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  • 85.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jørgensen, Bo Barker
    Cotterill, Carol
    Green, Sophie
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Baltic Sea Basin Paleoenvironment: Expedition 347 of the mission-specific drilling platform  from and to Kiel, Germany Sites M0059–M0067  12 September–1 November 20132015Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Arillo, Maria-Isabel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Cutting the cord: a study on maternal mortality and obstetric care in disaster settings2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines global incentives to reduce maternal mortality, namely the fifth Millenium Developmnet Goal to reduce maternal mortality with 75% by 2015. More specifically it examines maternal mortality and obstetric care in situations of emergency. When exposed to extreme situations the risks of negative pregnancy- and delivey outcomes are increased. Data was collected from seconday sources and from interviews with health staff with experiences from humanitarian work in the field. The findings were analyzed using a theoretical framework explaining maternal mortality be referring to both direct and indirect causes. The two theoretical models used in the study are similar and reminds of each other when explaining maternal mortality. One is based on the assumption that an obstetric complication has occurred and differnt delays in recieving care is the main cause maternal mortality, whilst the other theory is more in depth and elaborates the underlying causes. The first theory is used a base tto analyze the data after which the other theory is applied in order to introdue a deeper dimension to the analysis. The findings suggest that direct causes accounts for 80 per cent of all maternal deaths, homorrhage being the largest, including in disasters. Further causes are infections, unsafe abortions, eclampsia and obstructed labor. Also, underlying socail factors such as gender inequality indirectly has a negative impact on maternal mortality. Moreover, findings suggest that obstetric care is prioritized in disaster relief response.

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  • 87.
    Ariz, Susin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Swedan, Leyla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Avveckling av traditionella turistbyråer: En studie om hur sju kommuner i Sverige anpassar sin besöksservice till besökarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how seven different municipalities in Sweden develop and adapt their visitor services in an increasingly digitized society. The study is based on a qualitative research methodology consisting of seven semi-structured interviews. The empirical data is based mainly on the respondents' responses to the subject, secondary data from the respective destinations website as complementary material to the study has also been used. Results indicate that the role of the traditional tourist information centers has changed due to technological development. The tourism organizations' development of visiting services is thus an adaptation to society and how visitors seek information today. Furthermore, the result shows that the combination of digital- and personal interaction is a crucial factor in creating added value to visitors. The digital hosting is primarily about being available on different digital channels with the purpose of reaching out to visitors before their visit and the personal meeting is mainly about being in place where the visitor is located.

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  • 88.
    Arntzen Svensson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Re-design av Titanpriset: Hur man utformar en designlösning som tillfredsställer intressenternas behov2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of visual design have sins long been important in graphic design because it conveys so much more than the eye see. A brand does not only represent the name of the company but also its purpose and idea. Therefore is it so important that the visual profile radiates the organization's vision in a clear way and gives the viewer a pleasant overall experience. Many times can it help to freshen up a brand's visual identity in order to successfully launch the company again and to some extent also increase its consumption.

    This essay presents the production and the designprocess of Sveriges Kommunikationsbyråers ( Komm! ) Titan award. Komm! thought the Titan award needed to have its own identity and gave me the task to create this. The current logo was not harmonious or particularly well executed and therefore did the company demand a re-production of the Titan award. The criteria for the reproduction of the Titan award was that they wanted a clean, clear and creative new design solution.

    An interview and content analysis have been performed to get the results presented at the end of the studie. These methods have been used to gain a deeper understanding of what constitutes visual profiles and logos. Also research of previous work and scientific papers have been read to acquire more knowledge about the topic.

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  • 89.
    Arntzen Svensson, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Användare & filter: En studie om filterfunktioner på fotoapplikationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through centuries the picture has been an important element in our community. It’s been a source to entertainment, memory sharing and also a way of communication. Pictures have been used in many ways and since the 19th century we have been able to capture pictures on photos. With the technology we have today, pictures can be taken and shared via the cellphone and because of this the photo-sharing have increased rapidly. Not only do we now have a selection of different photo-sharing networks they also offer tools to retouch the photos before sharing with predefined filters for easy editing. We were therefore interested in how these tools influence the way we retouch our photos. By that we mean if the opportunity to use filter affect how we think about retouching and if this affect the way we share our photos.

    By questionnaire and interview study, the result showed us that the majority of the photos that are being shared are going through some kind of retouches. Whether it is by predefined filters or if they are manually edited there are very few users of photo-sharing networks who shares unedited photos. Further it has merged that because of the filter function, more people are being introduced to the art of editing. 

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  • 90.
    Aronsson, Signe
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Rakic, Ivan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Den politiska instabilitetens påverkan på turismen med Turkiet i fokus: En kvalitativ studie om vilka effekter den politiska oron i Turkiet har på den inkommande turismen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring of 2017 the authors of this paper have studied the political instability in Turkey, and its effect on the incoming tourism. The study is done from two perspectives, Swedish tour operators and potential tourists. In 2015 and 2016 Turkey suffered from several attacks and political demonstrations. In addition, the refugee crisis affected the country noticeably. This became the start of reduced interest for traveling to Turkey. 

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the political instability in Turkey has effected the tourism industry from a perspective of three Swedish tour operators and potential tourists. To explore this aim the authors have used three research questions. 

    Based on methodological approaches empirical data has been collected. The collected data has been analysed by using selected theoretical starting points; political instability, crisis, marketing during and after a crisis. 

    The results of this study shows that Turkey has been strongly affected by political instability and that decreasing tourism plays a significant role in the country’s economy. Swedish tour operators notices significant differences in the number of sold trips now, comparing to before the crisis. Exanimated tour operators all agree that the way back to where it was is a long process. Results also show that tourists attitudes regarding traveling to Turkey is based on personal experiences and emotional feelings.

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  • 91.
    Arvidsson, Anne
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Wester, Tobias
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Existerar ett heteronormativt förtryck i dagens turism?: Intersektionalitetsteorier genom svenska homosexuella turisters resor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being gay and to travel can give rise to many problems despite the perception that a homonormativity is evolving in today's societies. Within the scope of this paper it examines homosexual Swedes' experiences and needs as tourists. The perspective of intersectionality has been applied to distinguish privilege and oppression of gay men and women in a tourism context. The methodological approaches are qualitative e-mail interviews with a snowball sample and a thematic analysis to analyze the respondents' answers. This paper has shown that when people are traveling to non-gay-friendly destinations and spaces they’re subjected to repression in various forms. Both men and women reflect on their safety when choosing destinations and to some extent avoid traveling to certain countries. Women disclaim their needs of specific products and services as homosexuals, while the men affirm the gay culture. Women, in this case, may be more likely to be subjected to oppression in many different perspectives. To some extent, the authors consider that a heteronormative oppression exist in today's tourism and it is a long-term effort to overcome the problems that homosexuals are subjected to.

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  • 92.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: From Nature to Infection2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vector-borne diseases are an increasing global threat to humans due to climate changes, elevating the risk of infections transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, and other arthropod vectors. Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits dangerous tick-borne pathogens to humans. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). Climate change has contributed to increased tick abundance and incidence of tick-borne diseases, and between 10,000 and 15,000 human TBE cases are reported annually in Europe and Asia. TBEV shows a patchy geographical distribution pattern where each patch represents a natural focus. In nature, TBEV is maintained within the tick-rodent enzootic cycle. Co-feeding is the main route for TBEV transmission from infected to uninfected ticks and for maintenance within the natural foci. The increasing number of TBE cases in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing additional TBEV sequences and of identifying novel natural foci, and in this work we sequenced and phylogenetically characterized four TBEV strains: Saringe-2009 (from a blood-fed nymph), JP-296 (from a questing adult male), JP-554 (from a questing adult male), and Mandal-2009 (from a pool of questing nymphs, n = 10). Mandal-2009 represents a TBEV genome from a natural focus in southern Norway. Saringe-2009 is from a natural endemic focus in northern Stockholm, Sweden, and JP-296 and JP-554 originate from a natural focus “Torö” in southern Stockholm. In addition, we have studied the effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on population dynamics of I. ricinus in southern Stockholm and observed significant spatiotemporal variations in tick activity patterns. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBEV among co-feeding ticks. We found that the probability of co-occurrence of larvae, nymphs, and female adults was highest during early summer whereas increasing vegetation height and increasing amounts of forest and open water around the study sites had a significant negative effect on co-occurrence of larvae, nymphs, and female adults.

    The proximal part of the 3 ́non-coding region (3 ́NCR) of TBEV contains an internal poly(A) tract, and genomic analysis of Saringe-2009 revealed variability in the poly(A) tract indicating the existence of different variants within the TBEV pool of Saringe-2009. Like other RNA viruses, TBEV exists as swarms of unique variants called quasispecies. Because Saringe-2009 came from an engorged nymph that had been feeding on blood for >60 h, we propose that Saringe-2009 represents a putative shift in the TBEV pool when the virus switches from ectothermic/tick to endothermic/mammalian environments. We investigated the role of poly(A) tract variability in replication and virulence of TBEV by generating two infectious clones of the TBEV strain Toro-2003, one with a short/wild-type (A)3C(A)6 poly(A) tract and one with a long (A)3C(A)38 poly(A) tract. The infectious clone with the long poly(A) tract showed poor replication in cell culture but was more virulent in C57BL/6 mice than the wild-type clone. RNA folding predictions of the TBEV genomes suggested that insertion of a long poly(A) tract abolishes a stem loop structure at the beginning of the 3 ́NCR. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of the TBEV genomes after passaging in cell culture and/or mouse brain revealed molecular determinants and quasispecies structure that might contribute to the observed differences in virulence. Our findings suggest that the long poly(A) tract imparts instability to the TBEV genome resulting in higher quasispecies diversity that in turn contributes to TBEV virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of Saringe-2009, JP-296, JP-554, and Mandal-2009 predicted a strong evolutionary relationship among the four strains. They clustered with Toro-2003, the first TBEV strain from Torö, demonstrating a Scandinavian clade. Except for the proximal part of the 3 ́NCR, TBEV is highly conserved in its genomic structure. Genomic analysis revealed that Mandal-2009 contains a truncated 3 ́NCR similar to the highly virulent strain Hypr, whereas JP-296 and JP-554 have a genomic organization identical to Toro-2003, the prototypic TBEV strain from the same natural focus. NGS revealed significantly higher quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554 compared to Mandal-2009. In addition, single nucleotide polymerphism (SNP) analysis showed that 40% of the SNPs were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating the persistence and maintenance of TBEV quasispecies within the natural focus.

    Taken together, these findings indicate the importance of environmental factors for the occurrence pattern of the different life-stages of the tick vector, which are important for the persistence of TBEV in nature. Our findings also show that the selection pressure exerted by specific host also affects the population structure of the TBEV quasispecies. In addition, our results further demonstrate that the evolution of quasispecies has effect on TBEV virulence in mice.

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    Ticks and Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: From nature to infection
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  • 93.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Lee, Yi-Ping
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindqvist, Rickard
    Umeå universitet.
    Melik, Wessam
    Örebro universitet.
    Kröger, Andrea
    6Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany / University of Magdeburg, Magdenbrug, Germany.
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    The role of the poly(A) tract in the replication and virulence of tick-borne encephalitis virus2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, no 6, article id 39265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus transmitted to humans, usually via tick bites. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, and symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and long-lasting sequelae, including permanent brain damage. It has been suggested that within the population of viruses transmitted to the mammalian host, quasispecies with neurotropic properties might become dominant in the host resulting in neurological symptoms. We previously demonstrated the existence of TBEV variants with variable poly(A) tracts within a single blood-fed tick. To characterize the role of the poly(A) tract in TBEV replication and virulence, we generated infectious clones of Torö-2003 with the wild-type (A)3C(A)6 sequence (Torö-6A) or with a modified (A)3C(A)38 sequence (Torö-38A). Torö-38A replicated poorly compared to Torö-6A in cell culture, but Torö-38A was more virulent than Torö-6A in a mouse model of TBE. Next-generation sequencing of TBEV genomes after passaging in cell culture and/or mouse brain revealed mutations in specific genomic regions and the presence of quasispecies that might contribute to the observed differences in virulence. These data suggest a role for quasispecies development within the poly(A) tract as a virulence determinant for TBEV in mice.

  • 94.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Haglund, Mats
    Forsberg, Pia
    Overby, Anna K
    Andreassen, Ashild
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Tick-borne encephalitis virus sequenced directly from questing and blood-feeding ticks reveals quasispecies variance.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e103264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3' non-coding region (3'NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3'NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3'NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and control strains, Hypr and Neudoerfl. Toro 2003 and Habo 2011 contained mainly a short (A)3C(A)6 poly(A) tract. A similar pattern was observed for the human TBEV isolates 1993/783 and 1991/4944; however, one clone of 1991/4944 contained an (A)3C(A)11 poly(A) sequence, demonstrating that quasispecies with longer poly(A) could be present in human isolates. Neudoerfl has previously been reported to contain a poly(A) region, but to our surprise the re-sequenced genome contained two major quasispecies variants, both lacking the poly(A) tract. We speculate that the observed differences are important factors for the understanding of virulence, spread, and control of the TBEV.

  • 95.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univarsitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Local land-scape effects on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus2016In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 11, p. 283-289, article id 487Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 96.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Pettersson, John H-O
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreassen, Åshild
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similarities between quasispecies pools of the virus2017In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies. TBEV shows a focal geographical distribution pattern where each focus represents a TBEV hotspot. Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis showed geographical clustering among the newly sequenced strains and three previously sequenced Scandinavian strains, Toro-2003, Saringe-2009 and Mandal-2009, which originated from the same ancestor. Among these five Scandinavian TBEV strains, only Mandal-2009 showed a large deletion within the 3' non-coding region (NCR), similar to the highly virulent TBEV strain Hypr. Deep sequencing of JP-296, JP-554 and Mandal-2009 revealed significantly high quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554, with intact 3' NCRs, compared to the low diversity in Mandal-2009, with a truncated 3' NCR. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that 40% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating a putative mechanism for how TBEV persists and is maintained within its natural foci.

  • 97.
    Ashja, Maryam
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Förutsättningar för hantering av kemikalierisker i förskolor: En fallstudie av Haninge kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Goods that children come in contact with on a daily basis for example toys, electronics, textiles, household items, have attracted an increased attention in recent years because of a common occurrence of residues of potentially hazardous chemical substances. Some municipalities in Stockholm have developed plans for managing chemical risks and work systematically to phase out products containing hazardous substances. This thesis aims to contribute to an improved knowledge base for any future work with non-toxic nursery schools in Haninge. The study's focus is on the challenges encountered by conditions and problems of preschool personnel to manage chemical risks in early childhood environments. Primary data was collected through a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews with both the preschool staff and practitioners working in the central organization of the municipality. Identified key scientific studies and theories related to the concepts of risk management, risk perception and risk communication were used to put the results of the study in a larger context. A thematic analysis was then performed using developed indicators of effective risk management related to, for example, risk perception, accountability and internal and external risk communication.

    The results from this study show that most of the indicators of effective risk management are not met in the current situation. For example, the communication failure and pre-school staff's discretion is limited by budget, procurement contracts and imperfect knowledge while there is no routine monitoring work to follow up requirements associated with procurement. Haninge municipality can improve the pre-school staff conditions including setting higher standards in procurement, focus on communication and information, be clearer in its guidelines on hazardous chemicals in children's everyday lives and develop follow-up work around the requirements.

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    C-uppsats
  • 98.
    Ask, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Gränssnittsanalys av Video On Demand tjänster: En gränssnittsanalys av fyra stycken VOD-tjänster på fyra stycken plattformar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper works as an assignment from the Video On Demand Company Headweb, who wanted aninterface analysis of their own and their competitors VOD services. The purpose is to help Headwebwith their own interface by studying theirs and others interfaces and make an analysis on how theyfunction, how they look and how good the usability is with every service, with hope to findsomething that could make the VOD service of Headweb better.I have also studied how the interfaces of the VOD services look on different platforms, to see howthey are designed as a whole. This has been an expert analysis where I have studied the differentVOD-services by myself, without any external users.To find advantages and disadvantages with the services and their platforms, I have used differenttheories, models and design patterns to frame areas such as filmsearch, categorization, registrationand navigation. I have compared the VOD services with each other and drew conclusions for eacharea to see how the interfaces differ between the services, but also between platforms.My analysis has shown that all VOD services in this project have a very unique interface, eventhough they all have the same goal, to allow the user to control their viewing of film. They usevarious functions and structure and use their own page names and categorizations. In this project, Ihave also found a number of changes that I recommend that Headweb does to their service toenhance the usability.

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    Gränssnittsanalys av Video On Demand tjänster
  • 99.
    Ask, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Söderman, Kenneth
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Spelkomponenter i World of Warcraft: En undersökning om vilka spelkomponenter som är viktigast för spelaren i MMORPG-spelet World of Warcraft2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have chosen to focus this paper on the importance of game-components in the MMORPG-game World of Warcraft, in order to discover which of them who are the most important and create the biggest motivation to play the game for the players of World of Warcraft. We made this  investigation because we wanted to find out more about the specific reasons about what people think is especially great with World of Warcraft and makes them want to play it for hour after hour. By doing this we wanted to find out what it is that is so appreciated with this game. But this is a big area and it has therefore been difficult to find a way to satisfy and make those who have answered on our survey to feel that the game-component they enjoy most has been a part of our questions.

    To solve this problem we did a survey that included 200 persons and two interviews. When both the survey and the interviews had been completed, the result was being compared against each other and together to see if there was any difference between them or if they had any similarity to the attraction and motivation. This comparison was done with two theories and one model there was made for game designing. After going through the result we managed to find out that there isn’t a big difference between what attracts and what motivates a player.

    Our methods showed that most of the players in World of Warcraft play the game to maintain their social network that they have built up for some time. This reason was both the strongest attraction and the most important motivation to play the game. The konwledge we gained from our studie could be used by the game-creators to see which components that is of certain interest of the player. By this the creators (in this case Blizzard) could focus on making these components even better and making the player appreciate the game more.

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    Spelkomponenter i World of Warcraft
  • 100.
    Askeljung, Albert
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    From global visions to local actions: A study of the implementation process of global environment goals through a top-down perspective2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International environment efforts are often seen as unsuccessful and the reasons why are not clear. The international negotiations in the IPCC and the EU show that the opinions and ambitions differ quite a lot between the different countries. Even though there are ambitious goals and international agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol, there are still problems with implementing these at country level.

    This study examines the implementation process from international to local level focusing on a Swedish context. The aim of the study is to identify the main implementation problems when implementing international environment goals.

    The study uses a top-down perspective, meaning that it will examine the implementation process from international to local level concentrating at the hierarchical structures and processes. The study uses both text analysis and qualitative interviews in order to collect data, three interviews were conducted in order to collect data about the municipality perspectives.

    The conclusions of the study implies that a lack of national and local political will together with a high degree of municipality autonomy are the main problems when implementing international environment goals.

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    Uppsats
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