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  • 51.
    Asplund Klingstedt, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Carlsson, Kajsa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    En studie av individers interaktion med företag på Instagram2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is today a large and important part of most people's everyday lives. The combination of the high user frequency, ready availability and cost efficiency makes social media an attractive marketing channel. Instagram is one of the largest players on the Swedish market and it is based on visual content. Because of the focus on visual content, Instagram is a more complex service to analyze and therefore research on this service is still limited.

    We have chosen to examine the service Instagram from a marketing perspective in order to identify which factors make individuals choose to follow and interact with companies on Instagram. This was done through a combination of quantitative- and qualitative data in the form of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The study showed that it is common that individuals follow companies on Instagram but that they are selective regarding which companies they choose to follow. They need to gain some sort of value from the account in order to continue to follow and interact with the company on Instagram. For a company to be interesting to follow and interact with on Instagram it is required that the company meet a number of parameters which are presented in the study. Most common was a continually updated stream of visually appealing and inspiring images and videos. The study also shows that there is a majority who feel they have a better relationship with companies they follow on Instagram compared to the companies that they don’t follow on Instagram but do follow on other social media.

    Based on the conclusions of this study companies that are active on Instagram and therefore communicate mainly through visual content have a lot to gain. By using this study companies can develop a strategy to optimize their presence on the Instagram in order to get people to interact with them, to expand the knowledge of the company on the market, strengthen relationships and to increase the company's sales.

  • 52.
    Asry, Imane
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Azad Khan, Kamran
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Normbrytande reklam idag: Ett branschperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att identifiera hur normbrytande reklam används som verktyg i företags marknadskommunikation. Som en del i syftet undersöks även vilka konsekvenser detta får för företag och dess kunder.

    Metod: För att uppfylla syftet genomfördes studien med en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där fenomenologi tillämpades. Sju yrkesverksamma intervjupersoner inom reklambranschen valdes ut och intervjuades för att få en förståelse kring fenomenet normbrytning. Adaptiv metod och följande teorier: Konvergent marknadsföring, Linear model of communication , relationsmarknadsföring, multikulturell marknadsföring, marketing communication mix och kundbaserat varumärkesvärde.

    Slutsatser: Studiens slutsatser mynnade ut i att företag ser lönsamhet i form av försäljning, innovativa konkurrensfördelar och en förändring av normer i reklamvärlden och samhället. Företag når även en bredare målgrupp genom syftesdriven kommunikation som får mottagare att sprida kampanjer som berör de vidare. Vi kan också konstatera att normbrytande reklam idag används som ett verktyg för att komma närmare kunden och det som kommuniceras ut mot kunden ligger i grund i ett relationsskapande.

  • 53.
    Ates, Ishak
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sahel, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ledarskap är kommunikation, kommunikation är ledarskap: en kvalitativ studie på den svenska dagligvaruhandeln2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to create a deeper understanding of how the internal communication in the Swedish daily trade is affected by the leadership. The study also aims to investigate employees' experiences of the leadership's communication.

    Research questions: - What impact does leadership have on internal communication in the Swedish daily trade? - How is the manager's communication experienced by employees?

    Theoretical frame of reference: The frame of reference starts with central concepts that include leadership, leadership style, communication, internal communication and communication channels. Then two communication models are applied: Shannon and Weaver's communication model and Schramm's communication model

    Method: A qualitative study with an abductive approach. The respondents were selected through a convenience selection and then semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Results: The study's results show that leadership has an impact on communication internally in the Swedish daily trade. Internal communication is influenced by the type of leader and the leader's choice of communication channels. The study also shows that there are weaknesses in leadership that make information dissemination to employees difficult.

  • 54.
    Attefjord, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lalovic, Irena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kvinnors entreprenörskap: Politiska incitament och stödsystem för kvinnors entreprenörskap inom branschen vård och omsorg2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze and generate a deeper understanding of the development of the policies that affect women’s entrepreneurship within the health and social care.

    Method: In order to answer the research question and to fulfill its purpose, the study has been conducted with a qualitative approach where a qualitative text analysis has been conducted. This in order to find information as well as analyze the legislative changes and other incentives introduced to promote women’s entrepreneurship.

    Empiricism andAnalysis: The material underpinning the study consists of Government documents, documents from the State Public Investigations and documents from the Swedish Agency for Growth and other Authorities, all of which have been used and carefully studied to identify the most prominent and relevant themes based on the purpose of the study and the previously presented theoretical reference framework.

    Conclusions: The conclusion that can be drawn is that policies that have had an impact on women’s entrepreneurship have been varied, with incentive initiatives that both inhibited and motivated women’s entrepreneurship in the industry. We have identified that the policy initiatives undertaken had starting points including the promotion of regulations that govern women’s entrepreneurship. Historic law barriers still exist today, explaining the differences between men and women’s entrepreneurship, which means that it is therefore necessary to revise the regulations. In addition to revising regulatory frameworks, improved knowledge, but also efforts to break the norms and stereotypical images about women’s entrepreneurship, are required by evening segregation between women’s and men’s entrepreneurship. In order to promote women’s entrepreneurship, they need the same right to external financial assistance to start, run and develop companies like the opposite sex, that is, the man.

  • 55.
    Awdisho Danial, Flouna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nikolic Jevremovic, Ivana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ren eller oren revisionsberättelse?: En studie om faktorers påverkan på utfallet av en revisionsberättelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The audit market has changed during the recent period due to scandals such as the Enron scandal and the abolition of auditing obligations 2010. When fraud occurs in the company's financial reports, its auditors are usually accused of being responsible as their main task is to review the companies' financial reports. The auditor gives the firms either an unqualified or qualified auditor’s report. An unqualified auditor’s report is seen as a “quality stamp”. Previous research has shown that a variety of factors affect the outcome of an unqualifiedand qualified auditor’s report. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the chosen factors of the study are related to an audit report, in order to understand which factors can be associated with a qualified audit report. Based on a quantitative method, empirical data has been collected from 377 micro-, small and medium sized companies' annual reports in Stockholm, and were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with eight different independent variables. A statistical significance on the variables; solvency and return on total assets, is found in both the simple and multiple logistic regression analysis, whereupon the zero hypothesis could be rejected for these. The lower the solvency and return on total assets, the greater the likelihood of an auditor leaving a qualified auditor’s report.

  • 56.
    Axelsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sandström, Therese
    Skattefinansierad sjukvård- är marknad och konkurrens svaret?: En analys av kostnaderna i upphandlad sjukvårdsverksamhet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, the structural reforms of the public sector has created incentives for legislation that is meant to stimulate competition between operators acting in the health care market. A raised attention to this type of market which is characterized by increased privatization has led to the study's purpose which is to investigate the correlation between the proportion of the net cost (the tax-funded health care) performed by private firms and net costs per medical visit (tax-funded activities / visits) in the two health care branches primary care and "specialized somatic care”. Further on, this study describes the impact of the increased market orientation in the public sector the past ten years. The theoretical framework deals with areas around quasi-markets, cost-benefit, the system of choice and the New Public Management. The study is based on a quantitative bivariate analysis where the variables “percentage of private providers of net cost” (independent variable) and the “net cost divided by the number of visits” (dependent variable) is investigated between 2005 and 2014. The statistics has been collected from the Municipality and county database Kolada for the total sample which consists of the 21 regions and counties in Sweden. A regression and correlation analysis was conducted in both the “specialized somatic care” and primary care to ascertain whether there is a linear numerical relationship between the two variables and to what extent the independant varible affects the dependent one. A negative correlation was found in both of the study groups for the whole period, where a strong correlaton can be proved for some of the years where net costs per visit in health care generally drops for each percentage county council purchases of private activity increases. The result also shows that there are regional differences where the share of private providers in large extent can be reflected in the population density.

  • 57.
    Azhibayeva, Mariam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rutqvist, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kartläggning av omvänd logistiks institutionella krafter på mikronivå: En komparativ fallstudie av två retursystem i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Companies have many demands based on environmental aspects. Sweden is largely influenced by EU regulations and one of the areas covered by EU regulations is waste management and waste prevention. One way for companies to work with their waste management and waste prevention is by using Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics aims to retrieve the product after its use for recycling, reuse or waste. In addition to the Reverse Logistics activities of a company being largely controlled by regulations, it is also affected by key players in the network. The Reverse Logistics research and literature is limited in several areas. Among other areas, Reverse Logistics has not been studied to a greater extent based on Institutional Theory. This study therefore sees the opportunity to cover this gap by examine the Reverse Logistics field in a micro perspective.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to map and understand how institutional forces have shaped the field of Reverse Logistics and how these forces have taken shape from a micro perspective.

    Method: A comparative case study was conducted by two return systems of pallets: Svenska Retursystem (SRS) in the food industry and Retursystem Byggpall (RB) in the construction industry. The study consists of seven semistructured interviews. It also consists of literature and regulations to present the institutional forces as they have shaped the Reverse Logistics field that later created the return systems.

    Theory: The theoretical frame of reference consists of Institutional Theory and Network Theory.

    Results: The institutional powers that was examined in this study and which have influenced the field of Reverse Logistics are literature and regulations. The literature shows that Reverse Logistics mainly have been used as a way to save costs in companies, but has more and more emphasized its environmental advantage. Reverse Logistics regulations show that organizations are governed by EU directives that are translated into Swedish legislations and later on to industry-specific guidelines. The return systems and their networks are the result of these institutional forces, as shown by the requirements and practices they have. Learning and dependence were two important factors in the network relations with other key players. Finally, it has been found that sustainability is a growing trend in Reverse Logistics.

    Proposals for continued research: Examine more key players in Reverse Logistics and study them based on Stakeholder Theory.

  • 58.
    Baca, Leart
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Badumé, Ali
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    The Good, the Bad & the Profitable: En studie om kontroversiella och hållbara företags prestation på börsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kontroversiella företag är företag verksamma i branscher som anses skada samhället och individer. Det kan därför vara motsägelsefullt för dessa att vara socialt ansvarsfulla som företag och kan även påstås vara omöjligt att vara socialt hållbar. Det finns även socialt hållbara företag och studier som visar att deras socialt hållbara arbete leder till ökat företags värde, samtidigt finns det studier som visar att kontroversiella företag ger en abnormt högre avkastning.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka ifall det finns ett samband mellan högt rankade hållbara företag och högre avkastning. Detta för att ta reda på ifall hållbara företagens CSR – arbete har en påverkan på avkastningen.

    Metod: Denna studie använder sig av en kvantitativ metod där sambandet mellan avkastning och hållbarhet undersöks. Hållbarheten bestäms genom Folksams index för hållbara företag och en regressionsanalys görs över åren 2009–2013.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen i denna studie är att kontroversiella företag presterar bättre än hållbara företag.

  • 59.
    Bajaj, Kiranjeet Kaur
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Madloul, Tara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    IAS 36 - Nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill: En jämförande studie mellan Sverige och Storbritannien2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: Införandet av IFRS innebar en stor förändring av redovisningsnormer för de noterade företagens koncernredovisning. Vid IASB:s publicering av redovisningsstandard, IFRS 3 Rörelseförvärv, år 2004, reviderades även standarden IAS 36 Nedskrivningar och IAS 38 Immateriella tillgångar. I samband med denna uppdatering av IAS 36 infördes en ny syn på förvärvad Goodwill.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur väl svenska och brittiska börsnoterade bolag följer upplysningskraven vid nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill samt undersöka huruvida uppfyllandet skiljer sig mellan länderna.

    Metod:Studien utförs i linje med den deduktiva forskningsansats och med en kvantitativ metod där börsnoterade bolag på Stockholmsbörsen, Large Cap och London stock exchange, FTSE 100 ingår. Data har hämtats utifrån bolagens årsredovisningar som sedan har granskats och sammanställts.

    Referensram: Referensramen i studien utgörs av teorier och redovisningsstandarden som behandlar upplysningskraven.

    Empiri: De upplysningskrav som uppfylldes mest och utförligt var redovisat goodwillvärde och hur denna värde var fördelat på olika KGE samt kraven om grunden för beräkning av återvinningsvärde. I de flest fall saknades information bland de företag som fastställde sitt återvinningsvärde på nyttjandevärde. Både svenska och brittiska företag hade bristfällig information gällande upplyskraven vid nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill.

    Slutsats: Vid sammanställning av empiri framgår att båda länderna inte har angett utförliga upplysningar vid nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill. Det som kan konstateras för att jämförbarheten ska uppnås är en betydande förbättring av de facto harmonisering som innebär den faktiska tillämpningen av regelverket IFRS.

  • 60.
    Balbul, Zaid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kassir, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kreditbedömning: Faktorer som har en inre påverkan på låntagarnas och långivarnas bedömningsprocess vid bostadslån2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomiska systemet har genom åren genomlidit ett flertal kriser dessa är både finansiella och strukturella. Ökade belåningsgrad kan skapa finansiella kriser som skapar konsekvenser för både banker och individer det vill säga världsekonomin i helhet.

    Denna studie ämnar till att studera hur bankernas beslutfattare det vill säga långivare bedömer en utbetalning av bostadslån och dess påverkan på låntagaren. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer som individer påverkas utav, det vill säga i detta sammanhang så kallade långivare. Även hur långivarna hantera oklarheter i en bedömning vid bostadslån samt den enskilde låntagarens synsätt av bostadslån.

    För att besvara syftet används ett antal teorier i denna studie vilka är att definiera begreppet risk, disaster myopia och agentteorin. Utöver teorier används även kvalitativa intervjuer samt två enkätundersökningar. Antalet intervjuade långivare var totalt fyra stycken, och 46 långivare som besvara enkätundersökningen. Låntagarnas enkätundersökning besvarades av totalt 126 personer. Studien kommer fram till att centrala faktorn i bedömning av bostadslån är återbetalningsförmågan för en låntagare men det finns ett antal faktorer som påverkar återbetalningsförmågan dessa diskuteras närmare i studien.

  • 61.
    Bandick, Sako
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sanneh, Fabakary
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Foreign market entry strategies: Evidence from a developed and an emerging market2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background - The positive impacts of globalization have been widely discussed, whereas many researchers argue that national borders are of less importance. However, as national borders are argued to be of less importance, some researchers miss to point out that the institutional differences remain and they are challenging to change.

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the entry strategies of three Swedish firms entering both a developed and an emerging market with a focus on the different institutional contexts.

    Method - This study has applied a qualitative method with an abductive approach and an instrumental case study strategy, whereas 3 semistructured interviews with 3 different firms having experience from both a developed and an emerging country were conducted.

    Conclusion - When firms enter a developed country with few institutional differences, they commit more resources and do not feel the urge to use a local partner. Entering an emerging country, the firms choose a more cost-efficient entry with less resource commitment and prefer to use a local partner with local knowledge.

  • 62.
    Bari, Aniqa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Johansson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Södras Hållbarhetsredovisning i praktiken: Ur de anställdas perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sustainability reports can be seen as a relatively new concept today. The purpose of the report is to present the company’s responsibility towards society. In other words, one can say that the company takes stands for the environmental, economic and social impact that their business have. It’s still optional for companies in Sweden to constitute a sustainability report. However, this will change in 2017 when sustainability reporting will become mandatory due to a new law. There are no specific guidelines that must be followed in the reporting, but the most common framework to use in building the report has been established by GRI. This study is a case study where Södra Skogsägarna ekonomisk förening (Södra) is the main focus. Södra is a forest product industry. Our purpose is to examine how the knowledge of sustainability is spread among the employees and how it applies.

     Södra is a corporate group which mostly focuses on three business areas: forest, wood and pulp industries. To examine what information the employees actually has received, the enterprise’s sustinability report was studied and interviews with employees were operated. With 98 responses from the survey and nine interviews with employees without connection, we came to the conclusion that there is a major knowledge of Södra’s work with sustainability among employees. On the other hand does the implementation of sustainability vary regarding company unit and job task, along with the topical sustainability category. Södra has traditionally worked mainly with the categories in relation to environment and the social and economical sustainability have not been as highly prioritized. This is noticed by the employees since they primarily associate sustainability with environment.

  • 63.
    Barmousa, Nahir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Beyene, Lamech Negash
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motivationsfaktorer inom tillverkningsbranschen: En kvalitativ fallstudie inom Scania AB 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to shed light on how employees at Scania AB are motivated to continue working in the manufacturing industry and to find out what motivation factors the employees at Scania have to continue working in the manufacturing industry. This is because more and more employees in the manufacturing industry have decreased. The authors of this study use of Scania AB as a case of investigating which motivational factors employees have in order to continue working in the manufacturing industry. To answer the question for this study, a qualitative research strategy was chosen through ten semi-structured interviews. The theoretical frame of reference chosen for the study was Vroom's expectation theory, which consists of three connection concepts, Expectation, Instrumentality and Valence. These three connection concepts should be multiplied with each other to create motivation among employees. Deci and Ryan’s theory of inner and outer motivation was chosen to study motivation among employees. The internal motivation is based on the employee's individual driven by challenges and their own will to develop, external motivation is described as external factors to create motivation among employees in the form of rewards, security and bonuses. The conclusion drawn shows that the employees at Scania AB are motivated to continue working in the manufacturing industry as they are expected to be promoted to a higher post. The employees are also motivated by internal and external motivation factors in the form of bonuses and security.

  • 64.
    Basic, Aldin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Wallin, Christoffer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Bransch kontra börsvärde: En studie angående den förväntade reporäntans effekt på small- och large-cap bolag inom olika branscher2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the trend in the world economy has indicated a maturity in growth which is low in historical terms. This has forced central banks around the world to drastically act to stimulate growth. The prime rate has then been used as the most central instrument for this purpose. Sweden is a living example of this as they have lowered interest rates below the dreaded zero level and currently have an interest rate of -0.5 %. The effects of prime rate changes on stock valuation have been studied widely, and the accumulated opinion among researchers is that interest rates directly affect the stock market.

    The historical studies that have been carried out focus on how the market as a whole is affected where individual effects on businesses end up in the dark. Therefore, this study has focused on investigating these industry-related effects of an interest rate change on individual companies in the chosen industries. The results from the study show homogenous effects for smaller companies, where the impact is greater on them in addition to larger companies. This is also apparent between the different industries. This area of concerns has been studied with an event study.

    The observed industries are consumer discretionary and commodities, the industry-specific effects shown by the study are that commodities are significantly more affected than consumer discretionarys’. Furthermore, the results show that company size is a greater indicator than industry due to the greater effect on small companies within consumer discretionary than on larger companies in the commodities sector. A negative change can also be referred to more homogeneous movements for the industries as well as the different business sizes. In addition, positive news gave a more heterogeneous move where the smaller companies did not correlate with the larger ones.

  • 65.
    Basoda, Muhammed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Celik, Azime
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konkursprognostisering: En studie om nyckeltalens betydelse vid konkurser i de svenska byggföretagen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When companies go bankrupt and they contribute to consequences that affect the entire society from different aspect. The construction sector is very affected line of business but there are different approaches for calculating bankruptcies in advance and measuring how well a business is.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze five different bankruptcy prediction models and their financial ratios in Swedish construction sector, to see if any or some models are applicable. Furthermore, the purpose of the study is also to compare our results with the results from the Lithuanian study and see if we get a similar result.

    Method: The study has used a quantitative approach where data has been collected from the companies’ annual financial reports and then applied in five bankruptcy prediction models.

    Results and conclusion: None of the five models are applicable in Swedish construction sector, as none of them shows high accuracy which is considered reliable.

  • 66. Batavia, B.
    et al.
    Nandakumar, P.
    Wagué, Cheick
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Export stagnation and budget deficits in the peripheral EU nations with EMU membership2013In: Journal of Economic Asymmetries, ISSN 1703-4949, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretical model of the economic and financial implications of EMU entry for the peripheral nations of the Euro area, the so-called PIGS nations. The model derived shows that EMU membership initiates huge capital inflows into the PIGS nations, driving up prices and wage costs. The rise in prices reduces international trade competitiveness, reducing net exports, while the rise in wage costs leads to greater government budget outlays, deteriorating the government budget. Without exchange rate adjustments, export stagnation, further exacerbated by the economic downturn in the Euro area as a whole, has been the price paid by the peripheral Euro nations. Examining the data for the recent decade suggests that the arguments against laying the blame for the economic and financial crises in the PIGS nations squarely on bad domestic policy-making and practices need to be taken seriously.

  • 67.
    Batavia, Bala
    et al.
    DePaul University, USA.
    Parameswar, Nandakumar
    Indian Institute of Management, Calicut, India.
    Sree, Rama Murthy
    Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Wagué, Cheick
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Avoiding a Liquidity Crunch: Do Pre-Bear Phase Bank Ratios Matter? Evidence from a World-Wide Sample2013In: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1927-033X, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Batavia, Bala
    et al.
    DePaul University, Chicago, USA.
    Wagué, Cheick
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Warrier, Nandakumar
    India Institute of Management, Calicut, India.
    Convergence Criteria For African Monetary Unions: Bringing in Non-Economic Factors and Comparing the Turkish Case2019In: Journal of International Finance and Economics, ISSN 1555-6336, E-ISSN 2378-864X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by noting that Turkey in her efforts to join the European Union and the European Monetary Union faces barriers that are non-economic in nature. Turkey is seen to be lagging behind the EU fraternity in providing complete democracy to its people. We find the strictures laid on to be rather unique, as such non-economic factors do not enter in, for instance, in discussions pertaining to regional monetary unions in Africa where a leader in economic performance may be a laggard in meeting non-economic convergence criteria. This paper develops non-economic convergence criteria, using five indices capturing the prevalence of democracy and freedom for the citizens, for regional African monetary unions in Africa, in West Africa and the CFA Franc Zone, and compare the convergence achieved by these nations with that of Turkey relative to the dominant economic player in Europe. It is noted that while Turkey lags behind in achieving convergence to the EU certain noneconomic factors, she does better in some others. Also, some African members of regional monetary unions are seen to fare worse that Turkey in converging to the specified non-economic criteria values.

  • 69.
    Bayazit, Fatih
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kasim, Hakki
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Branschspecifika finansiella likheter mellan tillväxtbolag: En kvantitativ studie baserad på svenska börsnoterade företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wu and Yeung have studied growth type with US companies to analyze capital structure and various financial behaviors of growth companies. The author believes that these companies have distinct capital structure and tend to follow this structure in the long run. Given the differences in financial systems between Sweden and the United States, a study with Swedish companies may be interesting with the industry variable added to the equation.

    Purpose: The purpose of the dissertation is to identify economic similarities between growth companies and then compare the results at industry level.

    Method: This study is based on a deductive approach and quantitative method where annual reports have been studied for 87 companies that were introduced on the spotlight stock market and Nasdaq Stockholm between 2008–2013, and still listed today. The annual reports were examined for a 5-year period from the initial public offering.

    Conclusions: For growth companies in the pharmaceutical industry, the results showed that growth type is persistent, and these companies choose to finance themselves primarily by issuing equity. Their debt is below 10% and no dividend is paid to shareholders. The absence of a dividend is not seen as a deficiency by its shareholders, they see the possibilities of the company for the future. In the first two years, profitability is negative, and the majority of their assets are in intangible form. Cash holdings are also high for these companies and, in contrast, the information asymmetry is low between the shareholders and the management.

  • 70.
    Belokurova, Darja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nordin, Susanne
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nyckeltal som indikationer på earnings management: En studie om en ny modell för att upptäcka resultatmanipulering utifrån de finansiella rapporterna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien Nyckeltal som indikationer på earnings management hade som syfte att ta fram ett verktyg som kan användas i de finansiella rapporterna för att upptäcka företag där en större sannolikhet för earnings management föreligger. Studien har sin utgångspunkt i en forskning utförd av Vladu, Amat och Cuzdriorean som publicerades år 2016. I studien appliceras det tillvägagångssätt och de tolv nyckeltal forskarna använde för att ta fram en modell som kan appliceras i den svenska kontexten. Nyckeltalen som används är framtagna för att fånga upp förvrängningar i de finansiella påståenden eller betingelser i företagets ekonomiska miljö som kan skapa incitament och öka sannolikheten för EM. I en komparativ två-fallstudie utvidgas förhållandeanalysen med statistiska tekniker som testar nyckeltalens diskriminanteffekt, relevans och bidrag samt förmåga att urskilja företag från två olika grupper. Grupperna av företag är följande: företag som är utpekade för att ha använt EM och företag som är kända för att följa god redovisning. Resultatet visade att de nyckeltal som bäst urskiljer företag som ansågs ha använt EM är: SG (ökad nettoomsättning) och CFO1 (index på kassaflöde från den löpande verksamheten), när företagen som analyseras består av både varu- och tjänsteproducerande företag. Det innebär att en ökad sannolikhet för EM förelåg vid en försämrad försäljning och ett kassaflöde som avtog mer än årets resultat. När enbart varuproducerandeföretag ingick i urvalet visades även LI1 (index av hävstångseffekten) som ett användbart nyckeltal. Det innebär att sannolikheten för EM ökade ytterligare vid en ökad skuldsättning. Studien har tagit fram två modeller som har lyckats utpeka 88,6 % respektive 100 % av företagen som varit anklagade för att ha manipulerat sin redovisning. Däremot kan modellerna anses vara beroende av studiens urval och därav kan brister förekomma i anledning av huruvida modellen skall kunna fungera som ett självständigt verktyg på svenska företag.

  • 71.
    Berggren, Oliver
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Uggla Fredriksson, Jakob
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kvinnligt ledarskap i en mansdominerad bransch: Anställdas uppfattningar av sina kvinnliga chefer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous research there is no doubt about the existence of genderrole stereotypes. These stereotypes have been described as an obstacle for women to reach management positions largely because the stereotypes assigned to women are not deemed as leader characteristics. This study aims to examine how women who have reached these positions actually lead to explore the possibility to lead with stereotypical female attributes. This is examined by interviewing eight employees in the male dominated construction industry and more specific the construction company NCC. The employees were asked questions to describe their female managers. The study shows that the majority of the examined managers primarily display characteristics typically assigned to women.

  • 72.
    Berglöw, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lundin Sörin, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Baksidan av revisorns bestyrkande: En studie om revisorns svårigheter vid bestyrkande av hållbarhetsrapporter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and background: There has been a growing trend over the last few decades that auditors will assure corporate sustainability reports. The audit profession has a long history and experience of reviewing the corporate financial reports. Sustainability reports, on the other hand, is a relatively new and dynamic area of auditing where the auditor lacks experience and clear standards designed to review such a report. The lack of experience can adversely affect the auditor’s professional legitimacy.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight the difficulties auditors may face while reviewing and certifying sustainability reports. Method: This essay is a literature study. The literature study consists of ten scientific articles.

    Conclusions: The study shows that international standards are difficult to apply and does not give the auditors fully support throughout the auditing process. Furthermore, auditors do not have enough knowledge and capacity to carry out a reliable audit of sustainability reports on their own. The study concludes that major auditing companies maintain legitimacy through their trademark. Finally, detailed and reliable statements by auditors are critical to meet stakeholders expectations.

    Concluding discussion: Auditors possess mostley limited knowledge and experience of auditing sustainability reports which creates problems within the auditing process. The study discusses what form these problems take and how they can be problematic for the auditor's credibility and legitimacy.

  • 73.
    Bergman, Axel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nilsson, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Operationell leasing och effekten av IFRS 16: En studie som undersöker effekten av IFRS 16 på svenska företag med hjälp av en internationell jämförelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion:1 januari 2019 är tanken att IFRS 16 ska användas som en ny standard för redovisning av leasingavtal. Det här styrs i dagsläget av IAS 17 som möjliggör för företag att formulera sina leasingavtal så att de kan klassas som antingen operationella eller finansiella. Ett operationellt leasingavtal behövs ej redovisas i balansräkningen vilket gör att företag med mycket leasing medvetet skriver sina leasingavtal så att de klassas som operationella, vilket leder till dolda skulder och tillgångar. Dessa redovisas sedan enbart i not, i företagens finansiella rapporter.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att bredda kunskapen om vilken effekt införandet av IFRS 16 kommer få för svenska företag inkluderade på Large Cap och ställa den i relation med effekten i andra länder.

     

    Forskningsfrågor:

    - Hur kommer en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal påverka svenska företag?

    - Skiljer sig effekten av en kapitalisering i Sverige med en kapitalisering i andra länder i                     Europa?

     

    Metod: Undersökningen är kvantitativ och använder en kapitaliseringsmodell utvecklad av Imhoff et al (1991) och Fülbier et al (2008) för att beräkna en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal. Vidare har statistiska metoder använts för att mäta skillnaden i förändring mellan Sverige och de två övriga länderna, Tyskland och Storbritannien.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: I Sverige noteras signifikanta förändringar i nyckeltal efter en kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal, vilket även skedde i Tyskland och Storbritannien. Storbritannien som var mest leasingtungt upplevde största skillnaden i siffror, följt av Tyskland och Sverige. Vid en statistisk jämförelse länderna emellan var Storbritannien det enda land som hade en statistiskt signifikant förändring i ett av nyckeltalen, totalt kapital. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att en effekt av kapitalisering av operationella leasingavtal i Sverige går i linje med resultaten i andra länder då skillnaden mellan länderna inte var statistiskt signifikanta.

  • 74.
    Bethiso, Johannes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dalbudak, Hasan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Småföretags investeringsbeslut inom dagligvaruhandeln: En studie om hur småföretag inom dagligvaruhandeln investerar och hanterar risker2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to create an understanding of the approaches that small business decision makers implement and what reasoning they use for investment projects. Furthermore, it should also provide an insight into how the companies' risk management that is associated with it goes to.

    Method: The method used in this essay is a method combination of both a qualitative and a quantitative character with a deductive approach. The study is based on both primary and secondary data, where the data collected is from the databases SöderScholar, Google Scholar and Jstor.

    Empiri: The study is based on four small businesses in the grocery trade that were interviewed as well as an additional 82 small companies that participated in a survey.

    Conclusion: The study showed that gender, age and experience had an impact on investment propensity, while education level had no impact on investment propensity. The study further showed that all four companies interviewed had an investment process that they followed. The survey showed that 75 of 82 respondents had an investment process that they followed. In addition, all interviewed companies had a risk management plan.

  • 75.
    Bhatti, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Förtroende och risk inför ett online köp: En kvalitativ studie om riskupplevelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The risk of online shopping differs from consumer to consumer. Previous scienceshow that consumers experience a higher risk related to online shopping, compared topurchase in traditional stores. The reason behind this is that there is no possibility to physically inspect the product before the purchase is completed, and most people want to try and feel the clothes before they decide to buy it. Also there is no opportunity to create an opinion about the seller, since there is no physical interaction between the customer and the ecommerce, which creates difficulty in assessing whether it is a reliable seller or not. An actionto reduce the consumers perceived risk is by creating a trustworthy impression.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate consumers perceive risks related buy ingclothes online, and if confidence in the e-commerce affects the risk level.

    Method: The research method for this study was qualitative, with a deductive approach. Data collection was developed through eight semi- structured interviews, in which participant werechosen from a convenience selection from the Stockholm area. Focusing on individuals between the age of 20- 45.

    Result: The study found that consumers who purchase clothes more often experience a lower risk related to online shopping, compared to those who do it rarely. The two distinct risks that respondents experienced in online shopping were the risk related to the clothes and the financial transaction. Results also showed that trust towards e-commerce has a decisive impact on the degree of risk, and how confident a consumer feels ahead of buying clothes online. It was found that the most effective trust-creating approach was contently information about the clothes, and several payment options. Additionally the results shows that consumers reduce the perceived risk level of online purchase through viral marketing, which is word-of mouth.

  • 76.
    Bhogal, Ramandeep
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    El Azzouzi, Mohamed
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Digital kompetens i det offentliga Sverige: En studie om digitalisering och dess påverkan på kompetens och kompetensförsörjning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to study how digitalization has affected competency and competency management within Swedish authorities. This regards to the sixteenth sustainable goal developed by the UN which purpose is to promote peaceful, equitable and inclusive societies for a sustainable development. E-governance and its effect on the society is being studied to achieve the vision of a sustainable development. Collection of data has included primary data in the form of semi-structured interviews. Further on, secondary data have been applied in form of statistics for varying contexts.

    Based on the study’s findings it can be confirmed that the digital transformation within the examined authorities partially has contributed to replace professional tasks and partially to change the working tools used in the operation. The new professional tasks and their applied processes have contributed to higher demands of new competencies within the operation. It is mainly about an increased digital competency of employees. Depending on the digital maturity and the implementation of new technologies, the demand of digital competence varies between the authorities.

  • 77.
    Birksjö, David
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Undervisningsdebuten – som man frågar gråter svaren2014In: Att lära en företagsekonom att tänka / [ed] Jonna Hjertström Lappalainen, Ann-Sofie Köping Olsson & Tommy Larsson Segerlind, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, p. 57-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Bjurmark, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Oxbern, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kassagenerering hos företag inom vårdsektorn på Stockholmsbörsen: En studie om indikationer på felaktig intäktsredovisning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problems: It is important that companies apply correct revenue recognition by following the basic rules and principles by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. The healthcare sector is alleged by regarding indications of inadequate revenue recognition and taxationamong which the Swedish Tax Agency has examined companies in the healthcare industry.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there are indications of incorrect revenue recognition in the healthcare sector.

    Demarcation: The study is limited to studying all 42 listed companies in the healthcare sector of Nasdaq OMX STO between 2008 and 2015.

    Theory and previous research: This study is based on Bengtsson's research. Furthermore, revenue recognition is associated with accrued accounting. Subsequentlyresearch and development are taken into consideration as well as their expenses. Further theories that is treated are cash flow analysis that is linked to cash generation. This section also considering earnings management focusing on Big Bath.

    Method: It is aquantitativestudyand calculations are carried out on the basis of several annual reports for an eight-year period, longitudinal design. The study is designed in a deductive way where the outset is theories and previous research. The disappearance of the study includes eleven companies.

    Empirical and analysis: Empirical is presented in common with analysis, where there also is a short presentation of each company. The analysis main focus is on the 2015 yearsquota.

    Conclusion: Of the study's 31 surveyed companies in the healthcare sector on the Stockholm Stock Exchange, 18 companies follows Bengtsson's theory that the quota should be improved and approachthe quota value1 over a longer period. The remaining13 companies does not follow Bengtsson's theory, which indicatesincorrect and subjective revenue recognition and accordingly needs a further inspection.

    Proposals for further research: Proposals for further research are to study companies throughout their lifetime to investigate how the quota relates to 1 as well as underlying causes, alternatively study another sector where there are indications of incorrect revenue recognition.

  • 79.
    Björkman, Lovisa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Mild, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ett företetags osynliga värden: Kommunikation av intellektuellt kapital i årsredovisningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte är att identifiera ord som företag använder sig av för att kommunicera intellektuellt kapital i årsredovisningar. Samt att kartlägga och tolka en eventuell förändring i omfattningen av kommunikation av intellektuellt kapital i årsredovisningar över tid.

    Metod: Uppsatsen antar en abduktiv ansats som grundar sig i att intellektuellt kapital studeras utifrån både tidigare forskning och studiens resultat. Uppsatsen undersöker 36 årsredovisningar från åren 2010, 2013 och 2016 genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys för att studera omfattning och en eventuell förändring. Uppsatsskribenterna har framställt ett kodschema med egenskaper och ord som utgår från tidigare forskning angående intellektuellt kapital. Vidare har dessa ord som återfinns i årsredovisningar kvantifierats i en innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Det finns likheter i hur branscherna väljer att kommunicera sitt intellektuella kapital i årsredovisningarna i ordval och olikheter i omfattning. Bank-, industri- och tillverknings- samt bygg- och fastighetsutvecklingsbranschen har ökat sin kommunikation av intellektuellt kapital i årsredovisningar. Investmentbranschen har däremot minskat. Relationskapital är det kapital som kommuniceras ut mest i jämförelse med human- och strukturkapital. Detta är slående för samtliga branscher och undersökta år.

    Slutsats: Svenska storbolag verkar inte använda sig av ramverk eller riktlinjer för att kommunicera intellektuella kapital i sina årsredovisningar, detta även i linje med tidigare forskning. Uppsatsen kan inte styrka någon specifik skillnad mellan kommunikation av intellektuellt kapital i kunskapsintensiva branscher gentemot traditionellt produktbaserade branscher. Tre av fyra undersökta branscher påvisar en ökning i kommunikation av intellektuellt kapital. 

  • 80.
    Blomberg, J.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kjellberg, H.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Winroth, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Trading opportunities and risks: Conflicting methods of coordination in investment banks2013In: Towards a Socioanalysis of Money Finance and Capitalism: Beneath the Surface of the Financial Industry / [ed] Susan Long & Burkard Sievers, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 163-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Bojackly, Rosalia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Attityder till annonser på Instagram: En kvalitativ studie om hur konsumenter uppfattar innehållet i annonser på Instagram2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is increasing constantly, which led to new communication and marketing channels have evolved, it has helped businesses and consumers to integrate and communicate with each other. One of the fastest growing communication and marketing channels is Instagram. The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of consumer attitudes to the content of the ads on Instagram. The study was based on a qualitative research approach with a selection of ten people, aged 18-28 years, who use Instagram. Previous research has shown that most people who use Instagram are between 12-35 years, therefore this study chose to combine the people who were available and were in the age frame. Semi-structured interviews were used as a method of study and consisted of eleven questions, which were in two distinct themes.

    The study's empirical data were analyzed using theories of social media as a communication- and marketing channel and attitudes to advertising. The study results showed that all respondents perceive the content of the ads on Instagram as both positive and negative, depending on how the company shapes the content of the ads on Instagram.         

  • 82.
    Bolander, Linus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Erkas, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lyxvarumärken möter sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om sociala mediers påverkan på lyxvarumärkens varumärkeskapital2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social medias, which is a part of Web 2.0, is today widely used by companies and organisations to expose their brands and nurture or create relationships with both existing- and potential consumers. The step to social media has not always been so certain, especially for luxury brands, which some researchers suggested would potentially damage their brand equity and distinctive associations which legitimise their position, and status as luxury. Today it is clear that a convincing majority of luxury brands have adopted social media and implemented marketing strategies for it. As the discussion, a few years ago were centred around if luxury brands should have social media presence, the more relevant question today is rather how luxury brands should use social media while still maintaining their brand. The purpose of this study is to examine how the brand equity of a luxury brand is affected by social media through the consumer’s perspective to give an answer how luxury brands should relate to social media. The study is limited to consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and will not regard the financially aspect of brand equity. Data have been collected through semi-structured interviews with potential consumers and a qualitative approach have been deployed by the researchers. This study finds that a restrained approach from luxury brands should be implemented with a clear connection to their legacy if they wish to maintain their status as luxury. Channels which were not controlled by the brand was considered more appealing to follow and consume content from. Furthermore, was it concluded that eWOM in parable with WOM was an effective tool for building brand equity. It was also a common agreement that a consumption of a luxury brand would not be as covet if the brand was not widely recognised by others. But shouldn’t be compensated with a broader availability of the luxury brands products. Therefore, it is concluded that luxury brands should pay closer attention to the physical - and digital aspects of the brand and its availability when using social media for marketing purposes if they wish to maintain or reinforce their brand equity.

  • 83.
    Borg, Erik A.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sjukvårdens globalisering och den resande patienten2019In: Medicinturism: Gränsöverskridande sjukvård i teori och praktik / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch, Kjell Ljungbo och Erik A. Borg, Gidlunds förlag, 2019, 1, p. 84-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kirsch, Frank-Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Care, Cure and Travel: Towards a symbiosis of medical treatment and tourism?2017In: Athens Journal of Tourism, ISSN 2241-8148, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 181-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of patients seek medical care outside their country of residence. More mobile populations that seek access to information about international medical treatment alternatives have influenced a booming medical tourism industry. The countries engaged in medical tourism are ranging from countries with high cost of medical care like the USA and Japan to medium cost countries, like Singapore and Germany to low cost countries like India and Poland. Engaging in medical tourism by attracting patients internationally involves a process of internationalization of healthcare. Countries have commonly gone through different stages in their approach to medical tourism which has matured the industry. A first stage in the internationalization is encouraging regular travelers to consider treatment options in a destination. A second stage involves the signing of agreements with healthcare systems in countries that can remit patients abroad. A third stage is to develop an integrated organization taking patients all needs before, during and after treatment into consideration. Our study is based on more than 80 in-depth interviews as well as secondary data from countries in Europe, Asia and North America. Much lower medical treatment prices in many Asian and Latin American countries act as driving forces for medical tourism attracting Western medical tourists to seek treatment in those countries.

  • 85.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ganzheitliche und avancierte, doch teure medizinische Dienstleistungen.: Beobachtungen in renommierten US-amerikanischen Krankenhäusern.2017In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbranche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch; Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, 1, p. 213-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    International Market-Oriented Strategies for Medical Tourism Destinations2018In: International Journal of Market Research, ISSN 1470-7853, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 621-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients seeking medical care are travelling greater distances for treatment. The globalisation of healthcare has given rise to a thriving global medical services industry. The ability to gain access to more advanced treatments, differences in cost and inflexible national healthcare systems encourage patients to seek treatment abroad. In the new information age, patients seek information about available treatment opportunities with less regard to national boundaries. International hospitals are seeking new marketing strategies for their services. Today, much of the marketing takes place on the Internet, which is accelerating the internationalisation of the medical services industry. This article presents a comparative and interpretive study. We have interpreted the market orientation and degree of specialisation of hospitals in Singapore and in Sweden, which in turn are compared to leading hospitals in the US. In this research, we present evidence of different approaches to medical tourism based on different organisational frameworks for the marketing of medical services to international patients. The study indicates that market orientation results in greater emphasis on superior service quality of health care. This in turn leads to the delivery of improved services to patients.

     

  • 87.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Thailands kulturelle und medizinische Voraussetzungen zur Aufnahme internationaler Patienten2017In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbranche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch; Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, 1, p. 251-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hajighasemi, Ali
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Enterprises in the suburbs and the locality of entrepreneurship2017In: Great regional awakening: new directions / [ed] Lesa Reynolds, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suburbs represent an essential subject for regional studies and have a rapidly increasing economic significance within wider metropolitan regions (Phelps 2010). It is necessary to create inclusive suburbs with a stronger identity. The current growth of populations in major cities requires an ability to reorganize existing cities and a massive restructuring of urban infrastructure (Modarres and Kirby 2010). The interpretation of the needs of suburbs have previously called for a transdisciplinary and collaborative strategy (Després et al. 2004). We look at entrepreneurship and different types of 21 businesses as a source of vitalization of suburbs. These ventures are studied in the context of the diversity of the population of suburb. Entrepreneurial investments, the establishment of high impact enterprises as well as networking among local and migrant businesses represent elements that can vitalize previously marginalized suburbs. Enterprises that are clustered in suburban neighborhoods reflect the different impacts of suburban and city spatial forms. Newly arrived citizens draw upon the critical mass of ethnic members to form a niche market for ethnic business (Fong et al. 2007). Minorities may have limited access to financial capital in the larger urban economy, but ethnic enclaves may provide a source of a unique competitive advantage (Cummings 1999). Entrepreneurship rooted in a suburban surrounding represent a specific opportunity to become embedded in an economic and spatial dimension. The migrant may be seen as representing a diversity capital which penetrate specific market conditions located in ethnically diverse neighborhoods situated in the suburbs of major cities. The spatial and entrepreneurial dimension of ethnic business can thereby be given a relevant context for interpretation.

  • 89.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vigerland, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    High Adventure: The Implications and Consequenses of Stock Market Listing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Borg, Erik A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vigerland, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Winroth, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Corporate governance networks between international financial market actors within investment banking2017In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies" : Dubai, United Arab Emirates July 2-5, 2017 / [ed] Sarianna Lundan & Tunga Kiyak, East Lansing, USA: Academy of International Business , 2017, p. 19-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study of networks in the financial services market. We invoke network theory to study the role of connection between market actors within investment banking. We look at the relationship between corporate governance and the networks and performance of financial market actors. A comprehensive set of secondary data is analyzed with a multiple correspondence analysis methodology. The data is compared with evidences of rankings of the financial service divisions of investment banks. We have found that the forming of formal networks ties between market actors can be associated with the rating of financial banking service. Actors with more network connections are rated higher in customer ratings than those with fewer network ties. The forming of formal ties in boards and committees has a positive impact on the performance ratings of providers of financial services. Our data consists of three clusters. The first entails international banks with high turnover and superior customer reviews. The second cluster consists of small unranked banks with considerably lower turnover, and the third cluster is represented by the midsized banks.

  • 91.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Interpreting Brand Development as Entrepreneurship: The Role of Brand Strategies2013In: Journal on GSTF Business Review, ISSN 2010-4804, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research has been driven by the apparent lack of rigorous theory within the branding literature. Theoretical concepts have seldom been linked to business theory. This article presents an approach to branding which links branding to different approaches to entrepreneurship and uncovers the essential role of brand strategies when connecting branding to the management literature. Strategy and branding overlap and strategy links contemporary branding and entrepreneurship literature. There are various approaches to entrepreneurship which is relevant to the analysis of brand strategies. For the sake of simplicity we have divided them into two strands, the business school approach and the Schumpeter school. Essential to our understanding of brands is the ability of brands to decrease the transaction cost and reduce the information asymmetries between consumers and producers in the market. By relying on brands the actors in the market can reduce their search and information cost and the total cost of performing a market transaction.

  • 92.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Theories of Brands and Entrepreneurship: Conceptualizing brand strategies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— Research into entrepreneurship has previously paid little attention to the role of brands. This article synthesizes theories of entrepreneurship, branding, transaction cost, and strategy. By developing a strong brand, managers distinguish their companies, products, or services from those of competitors. Brand theories can be linked to various entrepreneurship research perspectives. Brands can be regarded as innovations that reduce transaction costs for the buyer who can better make purchase decisions. The management literature defines brands in two main ways, using business-oriented and consumer-oriented definitions. The strategy literature encompasses both these approaches, linking the entrepreneurial function and brand development. It is through the use of strategy that entrepreneurs can develop their brands, making them integral to a modern definition of entrepreneurship.

  • 93.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe2014In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014), Singapore: GSTF , 2014, p. 47-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health service industry is becoming increasingly internationalized. People are travelling increasingly longer distances for medical treatment. A new rapidly expanding medical tourism industry has emerged. For health service providers to compete they have to specialize and become more innovative. These innovative strategies are not limited to technical innovation, but also organizational- and service-related innovations. Treatment costs which influence the price paid for treatment are becoming a major factor influencing competition. We have looked at recent changes made within the European health care sector, to find evidence of a new innovative climate for the provision of medical treatment to patients. The emergence of Centers of Excellence is an example of responses to a new competitive climate in a global industry.

  • 94.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kirsch, Frank-Michael
    Södertörn University.
    Travel for medical care: the rise of global medical tourism2017In: Abstracts 13th Annual International Conference on Tourism 29-31 May & 1 June 2017 Athens, Greece / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, 2017, p. 13-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kirsch, Frank-Michael
    Mångkulturellt Centrum.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Destination Schweden: Medizintourismus durch regionale Gesundheitsdienstleister2014In: Materialien der 4. Medizintourismus-Konferenz an der Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Sankt Augustin: Fachhochsch. Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Fachbereich Wirtschaft , 2014, p. 99-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Harris, Christopher
    Hospitals with Hospitality: The adaptation of hospitality management, concepts and training to the management of hospital services, a tri-continental case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This paper focuses on contemporary applications of hospitality expertise, concepts and training to the management of hospitals. When viewed at one end of the Product-Service Continuum, traditional hospitals may be argued to resemble a factory assembly line where medical treatments are produced as rationally as possible. However, given the complexities of job roles, variability of personal relationships, perishability of beds, and intangibilities associated with patient experiences, hospitals are nowadays increasingly being perceived and managed as services, where the service is provided to individual patients. By defining the hospital as a service provider new insights into how individual care is offered from different service industries can shed new light on the treatment of hospitalized patients. We have studied service systems in hospital settings. The paper seeks to demonstrate the ways in which hospitals are using expertise and training from organizations within the hospitality sector across the whole hospital organisation. Research presented from 3 international high-end hospitals shows that intensive care and nutrition treatment are seen as examples of areas in which a service orientation can potentially improve treatment outcome. Our method is a qualitative tri-continental case study with semi-structured interviews from three countries, the United States, Sweden and Singapore.

  • 97.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rao, PM
    Long Island University, C.W. Post Campus, Brookville, New York, USA.
    Four Models for the Globalisation of Health Care: Alternative Approaches to International Marketing2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to describe and analyse four different strategies for the internationalisation of healthcare. We have looked at four major international hospitals that have taken alternative routes to reach a global health care market. The Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital are all receiving international patients, but are pursuing different approaches to the international marketing of healthcare. We have conducted a large number of in-depth interviews with representatives for these hospitals and present four comparative case studies of the internationalisation of health care and what has become described as medical tourism. A growing number of patients are today seeking healthcare outside their country of residence. International health care is today one of the fastest growing industries with an annual growth rate of more than 20 per cent. Understanding the dynamics of this potent globalization is essential to researchers of international business. We have identified three modes of services offshoring development and two variables that have been essential to the understanding of hospitals internationalisation. First, the price range they are operating which determines which international markets they can penetrate. Secondly, the stage to which they have come in their internationalisation which influences movements into international markets. The four internationalisation strategies represent four distinct corners in a two by two matrix.

  • 98.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vigerland, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Winroth, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Formal Ties in Financial Networks: Professional Clusters in Financial Services Marketing2016In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of formal ties in the marketing of financial services and thus provide evidence concerning the relationship between formal ties and the customer appeal of banks and investment banks.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The article uses correspondence analysis to study formal ties between financial market actors and relates them to customer rankings. The formal ties are described as intra-, inter- and extra-organizational ties.

    Findings

    We find that there are several formal ties between financial market actors and provide compelling evidence illustrating how the attractions between financial service providers are related in several ways to the existence of formal ties between market actors.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research is limited to formal, as opposed to informal, ties. We examine the essential implications of such ties.Practical implicationsIn practice, banks and investment banks should consider the implications of formal ties and market connections to improve their performance.

    Originality/value

    The originality of this study consists in showing the relevance of various attributes in studying networks in financial markets and in contributing to an understanding of social attributes and formal organization.

  • 99.
    Borg, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Källström, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) i kontroversiella industrier: En kvalitativ studie om Svenska Spels CSR-arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: There is no clear definition of the concept of CSR and a lot of research suggests that it is up to the company to define what CSR means to them. Many advocates believe that CSR can be seen as a tool for global governance and as a method of contributing to sustainable development. In controversial industries, the term is often used to achieve legitimacy, as their products can harm society and its individuals. The interesting thing about the study is therefore to see how a company within a controversial industry, applies CSR, when the concept and its meaning to most deals with working for society at large.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how a company within a controversial industry applies Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    Method: The methods used for this qualitative case study are semi-structured interviews and a telephone interview. The interviews conducted with three respondents selected through a subjective selection and by a convenience selection. The selection process of the respondents was based on people suitable for the purpose of the study and not for random reasons. In a company selection, Svenska Spel was chosen.

    Result: The state requires Svenska Spel to take a social responsibility in order to maintain its monopolistic position. The part of CSR that Svenska Spel engages in the most is the gaming responsibility, because the field is in line with the core business. Common to all institutions of Svenska Spel is that they limit the age for all their players and require mandatory registration for all gaming. In addition to the common rules, the gaming responsibility differs in various ways depending on the institution.

  • 100.
    Botrous, Delin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    New Public Management i svenska förskolor: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskollärare arbetar och därmed ser på arbetssituationen på kommunala förskolor jämfört med privata förskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if preschool teachers work and experience the work situation in the same way in private preschools compared to municipal preschools in Stockholm County. A qualitative method was used to accomplish the study, where semistructured interviews were used to gather data, in the form of semi-structured interviews. The previous theories and previous research this study is based on has shown that the public sector has started to imitate the private sector, and the reforms that the school has undergone in recent decades are called New Public Management (NPM). The results of the study indicate that when it comes to administrative work and documentation, the difference between the way private and municipal preschools work is different. Municipal preschools works with documentation more thank private preschools does. The study also showed that preschool teachers at both private and municipal preschools work quite similarly when it comes to how resources are used. However, the municipal pre-schools worked more in a goal-oriented and result-oriented manner than the private preschools. The conclusion in the study pointed out that, despite some differences in how they work, all preschool teachers who were interviewed in this study experienced that their work situation was good in broad terms as it is today. No major changes were desired.

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