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  • 51.
    Ahmed, Dalia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kinas handelsrelation till OECD länder: En empirisk analys med tillämpning av gravitationsmodellen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste årtiondet har Kina genomgått en snabb tillväxt i sin exporthandel. I denna avhandling undersöks de viktigaste faktorer som påverkar Kinas export med hjälp av gravitationsmodellen. Studien observerar Kinas export till med hjälp av paneldata 30 mellan 1998 och 2007. De empiriska resultaten visar att de beroende variablerna, BNP per capita och populationen har starka och betydande effekter på Kinas exporthandel, medan distansen mellan länderna har en negativ effekt på handeln. Dessutom visar de empiriska resultaten att handelssamarbete har lett till betydande positiva effekter på exporten. Två andra förklarande variabler, regional ekonomisk organisation APEC (Asien Pacific Economic Cooperation) och växelkursen påverkar inte Kinas export betydligt.

  • 52.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Trump’s tweet and media treat: A Critical discourse analysis of US and Pakistani newspapers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trump’s new year tweet about Pakistan’s role in the fight against terrorism ignited a controversy and a war of words between Pakistani officials and the US. This thesis studies newspaper coverage of both countries on this particular issue. Dawn and The News International are chosen from Pakistan and The New York Times and The Washington Post are selected from US media. The aim of this research is to analyse and compare the media discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was adopted as the most suitable choice. A sum of eight articles, comprising two from each newspaper, is analysed intensively. Outcomes of the analysis are discussed in relation to ‘framing’ and ‘agenda setting’ theories.

    Five key elements from the theories are listed including: language (vocabulary), conflict presentation, sources, related issues and emphasis. Results reveal that Pakistani newspapers use very strong, rather harsh vocabulary while reporting response to Donald Trump’s tweet. The US newspapers adopted literary phrases and less harsh tone to report this issue. Conflict presentation was focused on Trump’s tweet as a central idea in all the newspapers. Pakistani newspapers focused on the coverage of reaction from military and government officials of the country. On the other hand, US newspapers included sources from both countries to have an objective view. But they have included some controversial issues, which do not have a direct link to this debate starting with Trump’s tweet.

    Keywords: Twitter and news media, Trump’s tweet about Pakistan, Afghan war, CDA, Framing.

  • 53.
    Ahmed, Maha
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Etableringsrätt - och sen?: En studie av privata aktörers etablering och upplevelser av villkoren på den svenska förskolemarknaden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity of operators offering training and educational care within the Swedish school system and hence the possibility for parents and students to freely choose schools, has increased as a result of allowing private pre-schools and schools. The Government believes that competition and diversity is beneficial for the quality development and give students and parents the opportunity to choose a school. Autumn 2013 was the total number of children enrolled in kindergartens around 489 300 and 97 400 of these went to a private preschool, which is approximately 20% of the total. Reform efforts in the preschool market have a history older than 20 years, but it’s still considered to be too early to speak about concrete consequences. Statistically speaking the numbers of children in private kindergartens are few in comparison to those in municipal preschools. This despite the fact that there was a political will to increase the share since friskolereformen in 1992 and especially in the last decade. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the perceived conditions for the establishment and operation of independent pre-school activities in the Swedish market.

    This study is based partly on studies of various policy documents and statistics that describe the development of the emerging preschool market and partly on interviews with seven persons who are or have been directors of private kindergartens in municipalities in Stockholm County during the past 20 years.

    The result shows that most of those interviewed preschools feel that the conditions for running private kindergartens are inadequate and that there are obstacles for continued expansion. This view seems to be more common with preschool whose preschool managers have not previously worked in responsible positions at municipal preschools. There is also a perception that competition is distorted at the pre-school market in favor for the municipal activities. Most of those interviewed have a negative attitude towards the local government twofold role as executor, the body that approves the establishments, and runs their own preschool. There is also dissatisfaction with the decision-makers where they are considered not to have an understanding of what it means to run private preschools. It is instead considered that the municipalities should renounce the role of performer and instead be a body that is in shaping the rules.

  • 54.
    Aho Huotari, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Kristin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Har en gemensam valuta resulterat i en minskad prisspridning?: En jämförande studie på priskonvergens inom euroländer i förhållande till övriga EU länder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993 the internal market within the European Union was formed and ensured free movement of goods, services, capital and people. This led to the removal of trade barriers between members of the European Union. When opening up for competition, price differences between countries decreased and more jobs were created. A single currency was introduced by eleven countries in 1999 with the goal of reducing transaction costs, eliminating exchange rate risk and to further simplify trade. In 2001 Greece joined the collaboration and introduced the euro. With a single currency, price differences are expected to decrease. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a common currency has had a significant effect on reducing price dispersion or not. Two types of convergence are tested, beta and sigma convergence. 21 different product groups are included in this study and are sorted after the speed of convergence. All of the 27 EU member states are included and divided into two groups, one euro group and one non-euro group. We also examine if differences in productivity can explain price convergence. The results indicate that the introduction of a common currency did not decrease price dispersion within the majority of product groups. For the product groups in which price convergence are evident, only one product group within the euro countries and one product group within the non-euro countries have proven to be significantly positive in terms of differences in productivity.

  • 55.
    Aho, Rabi
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Aho, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Företagsförvärvens påverkan på aktiekursutvecklingen: En eventstudie om hur förvärvsmetoden påverkar aktiekursen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the acquisition method affects the purchasing companies’ abnormal returns in the short term, and to ascertain whether the companies’ industry affiliation has an impact on the reaction. The study applied three theories and a number of previous researches that are of significance to the study. Theories used are different forms of acquisitions, the efficient market hypothesis and the signal theory. This study was made by a quantitative and comparative approach using an event study where 64 acquisitions were observed. The acquisitions were divided into four different industries and distributed in the approaches of share- and asset acquisitions. These acquisitions have been observed during an eleven-day period, five days before to five days after publication. The collected secondary processed data has been collected from Nasdaq OMX, Google Finance and the database Zephyr. The results according to this study conveys that an acquisition of asset is preferable in comparison with the acquisition of shares, except for companies in the consumer discretionary sector as seen benefits from an acquisition of shares. It is possible to discern how the healthcare sector is the one that benefits most in the publication of an acquisition, in terms of the abnormal returns.

  • 56.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (Score).
    Castillo, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Roumbanis, Lambros
    Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (Score), Stockholm University.
    Queues: Tensions between Institution and Organization2019In: Organization outside Organizations: The Abundance Of Partial Organization In Social Life / [ed] Göran Ahrne & Nils Brunsson, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 177-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57. Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Organisationer, samhälle och globalisering: Tröghetens mekanismer och förnyelsens förutsättningar2014 (ed. 2)Book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Community Mobilizations around Housing and Local Environment: Insights into the Case of Vilnius2013In: Sociologija: Mintis ir Veiksmas, ISSN 1392-3358, E-ISSN 2335-8890, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 136-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews activities of community organizations in the post-Soviet city of Vilnius. The particular attention is paid to the reasons for mobilization of the local communities; the leadership and motivation; the reasons for non-participation; and the communication with the local authorities. The findings of this paper show that mobilizations are not taking place on the massive scale. However, they are being institutionalized and have achieved noteworthy results. Communities mobilize against illegal or unwanted constructions close to their vicinity or to defend green zones in the city. The successful movement is centered around a charismatic leader who devotes his/her time and non-material and material resources to attain results. The explanations for non-participation can be found in difficult economical conditions of the majority of the population; low level of civil society; increasing individualization and income inequalities. The findings of this paper also demonstrate that the political and institutional structure is fairly unfavorable for local activists. The community organizations are not supported by the local governmental structures in a substantial way. On the contrary, they are faced, in most of the cases, with the authority’s alienation and confrontation.

  • 59.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania .
    Housing Policy Regime in Lithuania: Towards Liberalization and Marketization2014In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews housing policy development in Lithuania in the light of previous literature which reinterprets Esping-Andersen’s work on welfare regimes and adopts it to study housing policy. It seeks to highlight the major features of the Lithuanian housing policy. The findings of this paper reveal that the Lithuanian housing regime exhibits many features which are common under the liberal one. Most significant of these are low de-commodification for those who have to buy or rent a home for the market price, increasing stratification based on income and the dominant position of the market in housing production, allocation and price determination. However, a detailed examination of the Lithuanian housing policy reveals that the housing policy system, despite having many features similar to the liberal one, has been operating in different social and economic settings as a result of unique historical experience of the communist housing policy (massive production of low quality apartment blocks during the communist era, which currently need substantial renovation) and consequently drastic changes in the housing field since 1990s (massive privatization of the housing stock and decentralization of the housing management system). The Lithuanian housing policy regime could be characterized as a regime with the higher owner-occupation compared to other welfare state regimes, but the lower economic power of the owners to take care of their property maintenance, repair and renovation.

  • 60.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Lithuanian Social Research Centre.
    Post-Sovjet Vilnius: Giving meaning to abandoned buildings2016In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. IX, no 1-2, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the scope, causes, flourishing, and decline of squatting in Lithuanian society during the period of 1990-2002. Drawing on 16 in-depth interviews conducted with squatters in Vilnius, newspaper articles and legal documents, this paper shows that squatters made contributions to the city with their cultural capital, creating local subcultures and making the urban space more attractive. Squatters promoted an alternative way of life, contributed to the preservation of the city and fostered counter-cultural activities. They offered spaces for performances, exhibits, and concerts. These activities are still present up to this day in the Užupis neighborhood that hosted the most long-lived squat, which in turn was transformed into Art Incubator.

  • 61.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Fröhlich, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. National Research University, Moscow, Russia.
    Struggle over public space: grassroots movements in Moscow and Vilnius2015In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 35, no 7-8, p. 565-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore urban mobilisation patterns in two post-Soviet cities: Vilnius and Moscow. Both cities were subject to similar housing and urban policy during Soviet times, and they have implemented urban development using neoliberal market principles, provoking grassroots opposition from citizens to privatisation and marketisation of their housing environment and local public space. However, the differing conditions of democratic Lithuanian and authoritarian Russian public governance offer different opportunities and set different constraints for neighbourhood mobilisation. The purpose is to contrast local community mobilisations under the two regimes and highlight the differences between and similarities in the activists' repertoires of actions in two distinct political and economic urban settings. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs qualitative methodology using data from semi-structured interviews conducted with community activists and state officials, presented using a comparative case study design. Findings - Although, citizens' mobilisations in the two cities are reactions to the neoliberalisation of housing and local public space, they take different forms. In Vilnius they are institutionalised and receive formal support from national and local authorities. Moreover, support from the EU encourages organisational development and provides material and cognitive resources for grassroots urban mobilisations. In contrast, residents' mobilisations in Moscow are informal and face fierce opposition from local authorities. However, even in an authoritarian setting, grassroots mobilisations evolve using creative strategies to circumvent institutional constraints. Originality/value - Little attention has been paid to grassroots urban mobilisations in post-Soviet cities. There is also a lack of comparative attempts to show variation in post-Soviet urban activism related to housing and local public space.

  • 62.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania / Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania.
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Europeanisation and Urban Movements: Political Opportunities of Community Organizations in Lithuania2015In: Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Kerstin Jacobsson, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 247-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Aiello, Filip
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Haegeland, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hushållens krediter: En tidsserieanalys av svenska hushålls skuldsättning mellan 1980 och 2012, utifrån Minskys hypotes om finansiell instabilitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debt level of Swedish households has increased noticeably since the 1980’s and is today at a record high level. This has given rise to questions regarding the sustainability of the debt level, its macroeconomic implications and driving factors. Previous studies on the subject show deficiencies in the standard theory for analyzing household debt, the life-cycle hypothesis, due to lack of consideration in the theory of credit restrictions and humans’ inability to act completely rationally. An alternative framework for analysis received renewed attention in connection with the financial crisis in the U.S. in 2008 – Hyman Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis – incorporating speculation in credit and asset markets as explanations for indebtness. This thesis investigates whether Minky’s hypothesis can be applied on Swedish households and explain the change in debt levels since the 1980’s, through a linear regression model, using aggregate data for the period 1980 to 2012.

    The results of the thesis indicate that the increased debt level to a large extent can be explained by Minsky’s hypothesis, where a de-regulated credit market and falling interest rates seem to have caused increased speculation in real assets, increased risk-taking by both debtors and creditors and thus an increased level of household debt.

  • 64.
    Ajamlou, Pauline
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Cederfelt, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Är vi alla beroende av svart guld?: En eventstudie av reaktionen på företags avkastning vid signifikanta oljeprisförändringar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur utvalda bolags aktieavkastning inom branscherna flyg, fordon samt olja reagerar vid signifikanta oljeprisförändringar.

    Teoretiskt perspektiv: Den teoretiska referensramen utgörs av den effektiva marknadshypotesen samt Behavioural Finance med undergrenarna prospect theory, herd behaviour och overconfidence.

    Metod: Studien utgår ifrån ett deduktivt inslag med en kvantitativ studie. Undersökningen utgörs av sex eventstudier som datainsamlingsmetod samt en intervju som applikation på det kvantitativa resultatet. Urvalskriterium består av tio bolag inom respektive bransch med en rangordning utefter högst omsättning samt företag med en koppling till svenskt näringsliv med högst omsättning.

    Empiri: Empirin presenteras utifrån diagram och tabeller över de utförda eventstudierna. Diagrammen syftar till att redovisa den avvikande avkastningen för respektive bolag. Tabellerna ger en redogörelse över eventuellt samband mellan respektive bransch och oljeprisförändringarna.

    Slutsats: Flygbolagen uppvisade samband med oljepriset vid fyra utav sex eventen. Fordonsbranschen uppvisade samband vid ett av de sex eventen och oljebranschen vid två utav de studerade eventen. Reaktionen på aktieavkastningen för bolagen med en koppling till svenskt näringsliv var i linje med de övriga internationella bolagen i branschen. Undantag visades för oljebranschen. Resultatet är en indikation på att andra variabler påverkade aktieavkastningen och detta skapar svårigheter för aktieinnehavare att förespå framtida avkastning.

  • 65.
    Akan, Davud
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Tamimi, Mahsa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Finansiell riskbenägenhet: En studie om skillnader i riskbenägenhet mellan män och kvinnor i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Financial investments entail a certain risk which individuals can base their decision upon. Participation in the financial market varies amongst individuals. It is documented in statistical surveys in Sweden that men tend to have larger holdings of financial assets, more specifically shares, than women, which has created the question of what this might be due to. Through time, men and women have not always had the same conditions, and much has been justified with biology as a reason for it. The previous international research on risk propensity amongst the different genders have mainly based their questions on the biological factor and investigates how that factor plays a roll regarding risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in Sweden between men and women regarding financial risk propensity and to further investigate the impact of gender, financial knowledge, income, self-esteem and age on risk. With a quantitative approach, this has been investigated among 698 respondents. The data collected has been processed using statistical tests in the form of a chi-two square test to find possible relationships between the variables. The most prominent of the results is that the financial and self-esteem variables mitigates the effect on gender when it comes to risk propensity regarding financial decisions. The other variables showed an impact on risk propensity where men and women had different opinions about the role of the variable.

  • 66.
    Akay, Daniella
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Miko, Ilona
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Valet mellan K2 och K3: En studie om mindre onoterade aktiebolags val av regelverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: BFN started a project in 2004 in order to simplify for companies in Sweden. The project is called K-project. In the year of 2014 smaller unlisted limited companies was forced to choose between K2 and K3.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine whether differences in the amortization and development costs between K2 and K3 has been crucial for the choice of regulation. The aim is also to examine who has had the biggest influence in the choice and if any problems has occurred in the implementation of the selected regulatory framework.

    Conclusions: Differences in methods of depreciation and development costs has been conclusive in the choice between K2 and K3. Real estate companies wanted to avoid applying the component method and development intensive companies wanted to avoid the expensing model. The ability to be financed and continue to grow in K3 has also affected the choice of regulatory framework. Mainly auditors but also accountants has had the biggest influence in the choice of regulation, but in some cases the board has had the biggest impact. The problems that has occurred has been a consequence of the shortage in the frameworks, which is the possibility in K2 and the simplicity in K3.

  • 67.
    Akdogan, Emilia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Åslev, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    "Det är kränkande men jag behöver göra det": En kvalitativ studie om personals syn på missbrukares integritet och autonomi vid LVM2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine in which way personnel who work with LVM approach their client’s integrity, autonomy and their participation in decision making. We used a semistructured interview when we interviewed three social workers, one placement secretary and four care personnel who work at institutions for LVM. In the theoretical approach of this study we used the total institutions and the user influence by clients. The study has shown that personnel’s considerations to their client’s integrity, autonomy and participation in decisions are a convoluted problem. Care personnel who work at institutions are the unit that has the best opportunities to consider their client’s desires.  The placement secretary has a certain possibility to consider their clients desires when determining their placement. The unit of personnel that has a significant limitation when it comes to their client’s integrity and autonomy are social workers. Since LVM is a law of constraint it’s causing an insult to the client by losing their autonomy. In this regard it is impossible to consider clients integrity.

  • 68.
    Akhand, Mukut Hasina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lewenhaupt, Louise
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kvinnor som leder bland män2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how female economists and civil engineers with leading positions experience / experienced their career opportunities in a male-dominated industry. Furthermore, the study describes whether any changes have occurred over time and whether it is possible to make a difference between economists and engineers. With a qualitative research approach and interviews we carry out with eight women of different ages, it is studied how these women experienced the opportunities through their career life and their experiences and beliefs are linked to theories such as corporate culture, glass ceiling and homosociality.

    The result shows that women's career opportunities are limited to socio-cultural norms that are exercised by men as well as women themselves. Which also indicates that the changes are slower than expected. The power structure will continue to be in imbalance between the sexes, believe even distribution in the workplace and that the language of economists is "more masculine" than the civil engineers.

  • 69.
    Akhmedov, Samir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Orbring, Gustav
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Medierna och Syrien: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av tre globala mediers rapportering av Syrienkonflikten.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I september 2015 anslöt sig Ryssland som en militär part till kriget i Syrien genom att börja bomba oppositionella styrkor. I samband med detta hamnade Ryssland och USA ännu en gång på motsatta sidor av en militär konflikt, Ryssland stödjer den syriska regimen, samtidigt som USA tillsammans med flera andra länder, däribland Qatar, stödjer oppositionen.

    Vi har valt att avgränsa oss till fem specifika händelser under den pågående Syrienkonflikten och tre mediers rapportering av dessa. Medierna som kommer att undersökas är USA- baserade CNN, Ryssland-baserade RT (f.d. Russia Today) och Qatar-baserade Al-Jazeera. Att undersöka dessa tre konkurrenter är intressant då dessa är bland de största medierna i världen och når därmed miljontals människor med sin information. Dessutom står länderna där medierna är baserade i på olika sidor av den väpnade konflikten. Syftet är att undersöka om rapporteringen har varit allsidig eller tendentiös. Dessutom ska uppsatsen undersöka om rapporteringen är opartisk eller propagandistisk. Artiklarna analyseras med hjälp av en av oss konstruerad undersökningsmodell, som tar avstamp i Lundgren, Ney & Thuréns massmedieretoriska analysmodell, och som kompletterats med kritiska frågor hämtade från Hermans och Chomskys teorier om kritik av internationell krigsrapportering samt kriterier hämtade från den svenske statsvetaren Jörgen Westerståhls forskning om objektivitet och opartiskhet i medierapporteringen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att RTs och CNNs rapportering till stor del var tendentiös, och innehöll det som Herman & Chomsky kallar för propaganda på nästan alla punkter, samtidigt som de uppfyllde väldigt få av Westerståhls punkter för opartiskhet. Vanligast var att båda medierna hade en stor obalans i användningen av vilken part som får komma till tals. Den tendentiösa rapporteringen kan förklaras genom bristen på förstahandskällor, en stor mängd tendentiösa källor - men även hur CNN och RT finansieras. CNNs kommersiella syften, samt det faktum att RT finansieras av den ryska staten, kan vara faktorer som påverkar rapporteringen. Men Al-Jazeeras rapportering såg dock annorlunda ut. I undersökningen hittades inte en enda artikel där någon propagandapunkt uppnåddes, samtidigt som punkterna för opartisk rapportering till största del uppfylldes. Dessutom visades en helt annan allsidighet i rapporteringen från kanalen.

  • 70.
    Akhtar, Jeena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Reducing Inequality Through Foreign Aid: An Econometric Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global initiatives have caused renewed interest in the efficiency of aid and its impact on poverty. Whilst growth effects of foreign aid have extensively been analyzed, less attention has been paid to the distributional effect of aid. This paper aims to investigate the potential moderating effects of foreign aid on within-country income inequality using econometric analysis. Employing unbalanced panel data on 42 countries in the period 1990–2017, and conducting a multivariate regression analysis, this study finds no robust empirical support for the positive effects of foreign aid on income inequality.

  • 71.
    Akkurt, Nancy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Förväntningsgap ur kreditgivarens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem discussion: In recent years, the auditing profession has attracted attention due to a number of scandals. A misunderstanding that stakeholders have in common is that they believe that a clean audit report is a guarantee of a company's survival. The stakeholders argue that the pure audit report must ensure that the company's accounts are correctly executed and do not contain material errors. Earlier research shows that creditors have too high expectations of the auditor's obligations and responsibilities in relation to the auditor's duties according to laws and standards. The high expectations can give rise to serious consequences on the financial market if it wants to be bad, which in turn can contribute to the confidence in the auditing profession deteriorating.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine whether creditors have higher expectations on the requirements that the auditors must meet and whether the audit report is still a topical document as a basis for today's credit decision.

    Methodology: This study is based on existing literature and partly through both quantitative and qualitative methods in the form of interviews and questionnaires. The survey aims to investigate whether there is an expectation gap. In the interviews with creditors, it is examined whether the audit report has a significant role in lending.

    Theoretical perspectives:The theoretical frame of reference consists of relevant laws and standards in the audit area. It also consists of literature regarding the expectation gap and the audit report's significance as well as the credit granting process.

    Empirical foundation: The empirical study consists of a questionnaire survey that was answered by various creditors from the four major banks in Sweden regarding the auditor's role and audit. The empire also consists of interviews with creditors regarding the significance of the audit report inlending process.

    Analysis and Conclusions: Based on the data obtained in this study, the analysis leads to the following conclusions: there is an expectation gap between creditors and auditors regarding the extent of the auditor ́s work and responsibilities. Furthermore, the study also shows that an audit report does have a significant role, but at the same time it has an ambiguous role in credit decisionmaking.

  • 72.
    Akter, Applee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Grönvall, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Socialt ansvar i ett svenskt företag: En studie om hur ett företag inom livsmedelsbranschen arbetar med CSR2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Numera engagerar sig allt fler företag i sociala och miljömässiga frågor då det förekommer ett krav från intressenter om att företag ska ta sådant ansvar. Fler företag involverar verksamheten i aktiviteter som berör Corporate social responsibility (CSR), för att tillfredsställa externa intressenter och uppnå en fördelaktigare position hos verksamhetens intressentgrupper.

    Problemdiskussion: Det förekommer en uppfattning om att företag enbart involverar verksamheten i frågor kring CSR i syfte att endast främja den egna verksamheten. Forskare menar att CSR aktiviteter inom ett företag kan ha en god inverkan på varumärket medan en del anser att effekten av dessa inte är uppenbara och tydliga.

    Frågeställning: Hur inkorporerat är CSR i Coops affärsidé och hur implementeras dessa hållbarhetsstrategier på butiksnivå?

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur ett företag i Sverige arbetar med Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Vidare är syftet att undersöka hur företagets strategier inom CSR stärkt varumärket samt hur har resultatet av deras hållbarhetsstrategier gjort detta.

    Metod: Denna uppsats har utgått ifrån en kvalitativ ansats för att undersöka företaget Coop, där tillvägagångssättet delvis varit intervjuer med konsumenter och butikschefer samt företagets hållbarhetschef. Vidare har studien utgått ifrån sekundärdata för att analysera verksamheten genom relevanta teorier. Den teoretiska referensramen innehåller teorier om CSR av olika forskare samt Carrolls CSR pyramid. Vidare har den insamlade datan analyseras genom teoriernaom CSR, Carrolls Pyramid, Brand Identity, Brand Equity, Corporate Identity samt kommunikation av CSR.

    Slutsats: CSR är väl interagerat i Coops affärsidé framförallt på central nivå inom organisation. Dock har deras hållbarhets strategier inte stärkt varumärket enligt den empiriska undersökningen. Coop bör bli tydligare i sin kommunikation av sina hållbarhetsaktiviteter annars kommer detta inte att vara en avgörande faktor som stärker Coops varumärke.

  • 73.
    Al Hajderi, Dahlia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences. daaahlia@live.com.
    Produktplacering i fillm: ur konsumentens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To get an insight into consumer attitudes toward product placement and how product placement influences the consumer based on two factors, brand awareness and exposure.

    Method: This study has been conducted through a quantitative method. A survey has been in support of the gathering of empire where a movie clip has been the focus of the survey.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that product placement is perceived positively and depending on the exposure method or previous brand awareness the consumer has, it may affect consumers, which means that it can either lead to a purchase or not depending on the attitude of the consumer.

  • 74.
    Alam, Afsana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Juth, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motivation i läraryrket: En studie i vad som motiverar lågstadielärare och hur nya skolreformer påverkar deras motivation.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund - Enligt Statistiska centralbyrån kommer det saknas så mycket som 40 000 lärare inom de närmsta åren och det är endast fem procent av lärarna som anser att yrket är uppskattat av samhället. Med en utgångspunkt i svenska elevers försämrade resultat i internationella kunskapsmätningar och att detta i sin tur ses som ett resultat av den svenska skolans kunskaps- och disciplinproblem. Har man för att lösa dessa problem genomfört ett stort antal skolreformer och man har gjort en stor satsning på lärares professionella utveckling. Om dessa reformer påverkar lärares motivation är dock ett högst relevant men outforskat ämne.

    Syfte - Syftet med den här studien är att få djupare förståelse i vilka faktorer som motiverar lågstadielärare i sitt dagliga arbete och om dessa faktorer skiljer sig beroende på om de börjat arbeta innan eller efter implementeringen av de nya skolreformerna, samt studera hur skolreformerna, införandet av lärarlegitimation och den nya professionen förstelärare, som trätt i kraft de senaste fem åren har påverkat dem.

    Metod - Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsansats för att skapa en djupare förståelse över ett redan existerande fenomen. Som forskningsdesign används en komparativ studie tillsammans med semi-strukturerade intervjuer.

    Slutsats - Studien har visat på att det både finns skillnader och likheter mellan vad som motiverar lågstadielärare som har arbetat olika länge inom yrket. Alla som medverkade i den här studien ansåg först och främst att det var eleverna och att se dem lyckas som främst motiverade dem i deras yrke. Det som skilde grupperna åt var att de nya lärarna motiverades mer utav de yttre faktorerna, så som lön, vilket inte var lika viktigt för de gamla lärarnas motivation. Studien har även visat på att de nya skolreformerna inte påverkat lågstadielärare särskilt märkbart. Det råder dock delade meningar huruvida skolreformerna är av positiv eller negativ karaktär för lärarna.

  • 75.
    Alasalmi, Emmy
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hockeyspelare - kombinerar nytta med nöje: - En kvalitativ studie om proferssionella ishockeyspelares engagemang i CSR-arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the industry of sports and more precisely in regards to professional ice hockey players. The purpose of this study is to achieve a deeper understanding of how professional ice hockey players organize themselves through philanthropic CSR and why these engage in this CSR-work and in turn how it affects their brand. To attain this purpose the study need to answer the following three questions: how do ice hockey players organize themselves using philanthropic CSR, what motivates them to do philanthropic CSR-work and lastly how is their brand affected by doing philanthropic CSR.To achieve this deeper knowledge eleven interviews were carried out to collect the empirical data for the study. The interviews were conducted with a deductive viewpoint which gradually turned into a inductive one. With this in mind the study has been carried out with previous studies being taken in consideration and after the conclusion of the interviews into the position of the individual hockey players. After analysing the results a strong connection between the empirical data and the theoretical framework could be confirmed and it became clear that the players did not use CSR for their own gain or benefits. The motives behind the players engagement with CSR-activities could be connected to their unique prerequisites, but also through the encourage they received from their surroundings. The motivation for CSR seemed to come from the will to transcend into the life after sports.

  • 76.
    Albazi, Hanin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lenhart, Nicole
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Strategisk användande av sociala medier inom bankbranschen: En studie om informationschefers varumärkestänkande i förhållande till sociala medier2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Alci, Gül
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Saliba, Gabriella
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Anställningsform och stress: Hur upplever polisaspiranter sin anställningsform i relation till stress?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and aims to give the reader a greater understanding of how police cadets experiencing stress in relation to their employment status and a gender perspective on male and female cadets experience different demands and expectations. As scientists, we will also study how aspirants handle stress and how they experience the benefit of the work. This is because the one who is rejected by the aspirant will lose all possibilities of becoming a police officer. The essay will primarily highlight the impact of employment status have on stress according to police cadets and how gender can affect the stress.

    During the research process, the researcher will have worked through qualitative semi-structured interviews with six respondents who work as police cadets. We have analyzed our material by Karasek and Theorell of requirements, control and support model that is about the extent of demand and control individuals have the work-related aspects. We also give examples of how the requirements and control support model works for police cadets in the field with the help of research addressing the topic. The other theoretical starting point is an occupational stress research of Kelloway, Hurrel & Days (2008). Data collection shows, and supported by our theory that the form of employment is creating concerns over future work, and that perceived stress is equal for both men and women.

  • 78.
    Aldenhed, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Nester, Li
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Är sportjournalistiken offside?: En studie om framställningen av manliga och kvinnliga fotbollsspelare inom den svenska sportjournalistiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kandidatuppsatsen granskar fördelningen av utrymmet på sportsidorna utifrån könstillhörighet. Vi undersöker hur mycket utrymme som tilldelas herrarnas respektive damernas slutspelsperioder under Europamästerskapen i fotboll år 2012, 2013, 2016 samt 2017 i Dagens Nyheter, Aftonbladet och Expressen. Vidare undersöker vi om det förekommer skillnader i rapporteringen om manliga respektive kvinnliga fotbollsspelare i Dagens Nyheter och Expressen år 2016 och 2017. Slutligen diskuterar vi frågan gällande på vilket sätt Dagens Nyheters och Expressens rapportering under slutspelen i fotbolls-EM år 2016 och 2017 bidrar till att upprätthålla de etablerade könsrollsuppfattningarna.

    Uppsatsen utgår från ett genusperspektiv och redogör för en del av den tidigare forskning som finns inom området genus. För att besvara frågeställningarna används kvantitativ innehållsanalys samt kvalitativ diskursanalys. Resultatet av vår kvantitativa analys är att herrarnas mästerskap värderades högre ur ett nyhetsvärderingsperspektiv och tilldelades mer utrymme än damernas mästerskap. Den kvalitativa diskursanalysen visar att det under herrarnas mästerskapsår rapporteras om enbart män, medan det under damernas år rapporteras om båda könen. Den kvalitativa analysen visar därmed att männen tilldelas mer plats i medierna än kvinnorna. Detta överensstämmer med resultatet av vår kvantitativa analys, samt den tidigare forskning som lyfts fram i vår studie. Slutsatsen är att herrarna är överrepresenterade på sportsidorna samt att medierna upprätthåller de etablerade könsrollsuppfattningarna. 

  • 79.
    Aleksandrova Arnaudova, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Gender Wage Gap in Spain: An analysis of the impact of the financial crisis on the gender wage gap distribution2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Equality is part of the European policy and legislation. However there are still evident signs of women being treated unequally in the labour market. The aim of the thesis is to answer the question if women are more vulnerable to economic shocks in terms of wage distribution. The focus will be on women in Spain in the context of the financial crisis of 2008. The thesis examines the evolution of the salary structure in the period 2002-2014 using the microdata of the Structural Earning Survey. The taste-based and the statistical discrimination theory are going to be described in order to explain the causes of gender wage discrimination. The methods applied in this paper are the Mincer method, which explains the human capital theory and the Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions, which separates the gender wage gap into explained and unexplained parts. The results from the study suggest that there is a decrease in the gender wage gap in Spain following the situation before and after the crisis.

  • 80.
    Aleksandrova Arnaudova, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Gender Wage Gap in Spain: An analysis of the impact of the financial crisis on the gender wage gap distribution2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Equality is part of the European policy and legislation. However there are still evident signs of women being treated unequally in the labour market. The aim of the thesis is to answer the question if women are more vulnerable to economic shocks in terms of wage distribution. The focus will be on women in Spain in the context of the financial crisis of 2008. The thesis examines the evolution of the salary structure in the period 2002-2014 using the microdata of the Structural Earning Survey. The taste-based and the statistical discrimination theory are going to be described in order to explain the causes of gender wage discrimination. The methods applied in this paper are the Mincer method, which explains the human capital theory and the Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions, which separates the gender wage gap into explained and unexplained parts. The results from the study suggest that there is a decrease in the gender wage gap in Spain following the situation before and after the crisis.

  • 81.
    Alemayehu, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hultgren, Viktoria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Facebook: En intervjustudie om utformandet av Narcissismens kultur på nätverk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this paper is to examine and analyze the way that the youth look at their use of Facebook. A survey was conducted on 10 high school students in Stockholm to review if Facebook reveal narcissistic behavior. To explain this, we gathered information about narcissistic culture, weak band strength, symbolic interactionism and the dramaturgical perspective. To our conclusion, the narcissism dominates on the social network level, as result of their attitudes and view of other members.   

  • 82.
    Alenius, Maja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jönsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    En studie om användandet av årsredovisningen vid bostadsrättsköp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Find out how and in what way buyers of housing co-operatives use the association ́s annual report in their purchase decision and investigate whether they understand it or not.

    Method: The study is conducted using a qualitative method in the form of interviews. The Authors stood outside viewings and interviewed presumptive buyers of housing co-operatives in Stockholm.

    Empiricism: The study was conducted on 22 respondents, all interviewed outside a total of six different viewings around Stockholm. It turned out that the majority of respondents did not fully understood annual reports and most of them asked for help. The majority of those who felt they understood the annual report also asked someone in their surroundings to help them determine the stability of the housing association's economy. The result showed that homeowners usually use the annual report to see "warning signs" that indicate that a association will raise its fees. To evaluate the association ́s economy, most of the respondents used indebtness.

    Analysis: The study points out that since many homeowners did not fully understood the annual report, it could be difficult for them to make decisions based on it. This has been linked to previous research that highlighted similar problems. There are similarities between the improvement and change proposals developed by FAR together with other organizations and the results the study has shown.

    Conclusion: Presumptive buyers of housing-cooperatives generally do not understand annual reports so well that they can make a financial decision based on it. At the same time, the study has shown that even those homeowners who felt they understood asked for further help and advice from their surroundings. The study's conclusions are that there is a great deal of room for changing the accounting for housing co-opratives associations to make them more

    transparent and understandable to it ́s users. Furthermore, it was concluded that regardless of the individual's understanding of an annual report, he largely takes advantage of his surroundings as it is a major and comprehensive decision. 

  • 83.
    Alerius, Markus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Järlefelt, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En slumpmässig vandring eller genomsnittlig återgång: Råder förutsägbarhet på Stockholmsbörsen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted in order to determine the existence of predictability for the Stockholm stock exchange. With this purpose the random walk theory has been raised against the theory of mean reversion in order to determine which theory is the most substantial. Data has been collected from Nasdaq OMX Nordic and furtherly been processed using the statistical software EViews. Swedish listed companies’ daily share values between 2000-2014 have been analyzed using two tests; an Augmented Dickey Fuller test and a Variance Ratio test. The results show generally that the null hypothesis - and thus the random walk - is rejected in the short term. This means that both on an aggregated level and on an individual level, the Stockholm stock exchange is predictable in the short term - in the form of mean reversion - and that it is most evident in small cap firms.

  • 84.
    Alexander, Kasjanov
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Rebecka, Schyl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Effekter av förvärv: Hur påverkas förvärvarens ekonomiska ställning vid förvärv?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att se möjliga effekter av ett förvärv på företagets ekonomiska ställning. Denna studie är en kvantitativ studie med deduktiv ansats, vi har använt oss av sekundär data och med en metod som heter nya RIV metoden. Med hjälp av RIV metoden har vi med flera olika formler och beräkningar nått vårt resultat som säger att företag fått negativ ekonomisk ställning vid förvärv.

  • 85.
    Alexis, Liza
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Public Law.
    Penningtvätt: Myndigheternas rätt och skyldighet att förhindra penningtvätt men samtidigt beakta rättssubjektets rättssäkerhetsgarantier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the terrorist attack occurred in the United States September 11th 2001 the money laundering has been a very attentively problem. It was after the incident that the action in money laundering got more significance, both internationally just as well as nationally. The concept got a wider extent where partly funding of terrorism practiced. Money laundering can be interpreted as a definition problem because the concept is very broad, as well can money laundering implemented through many different methods and therefore needs extending arrangements. The combating today is very large, both through EU-money laundering directive, international organizations and the Swedish legislation. The global cooperation is a substantial tool to prevent the freedom of capital and services. If we can stop the funding of criminal operation, then we are a step closer to stop money laundering which is organized criminality. 

    The development in money laundering are going forward, new regulations analyses by EU and international organizations, and applies in the member countries. But sometimes to be to question oneself how far the international regulation goes in terms of the individual rights and how it stands the legal security itself to potentiation of money laundering. In Sweden it is the law enforcement authorities and regulatory authority that conducts the basis and the supervision in the acts. The operator has the most important task to practice the regulations, but how the results of the work is, is however another question. 

    This essay will be to work money laundering partly outside the European Union’s money laundering directive and other international organizations regulation, also from the Swedish legal systems regulations and compliance. Further in this paper will be affect the legal security question where the individual, both legal and physical person, rights and protection are the focus of public power and action. 

  • 86.
    Alexis, Liza
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Embaie, Lydia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Faktorer som påverkar bostadsrättspriserna i storstadsregionerna: En regional studie för sambandet mellan utvalda faktorer och prisutvecklingen på bostadsrätter i Stor-Stockholm, Stor-Göteborg och Stor-Malmö under tidsperioden 2008-20162018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the countries that has had a very strong increase in the housing prices during the recent years according to SCB’s calculations. The development has not only been seen in Stockholm but it has also affected the smaller cities as well. The factors behind the massive price increases may be many, but the purpose of the essay has been to estimate the relationship between the factors: population density, income, new constructed condominiums in relation to the population, interest rate and unemployment have on condominiums rates. The main focus will lay on the following big cities, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö from the years of 2008-2016.

    The housing prices will be analyzed from an economic perspective. Further, the study has been formed by the statistical material that has been accessible and then been tested using panel data that includes fixed effect. The study encompasses 45 municipalities with a time period of 9 years (2008-2016) which comprises to 405 observations, where the data is strongly balanced, meaning that the database is complete.

    The result of the essay shows a positive correlation between population density and housing prices, an increase of one inhabitant per increases housing prices by 15.8 kr per square meter, if all the other variables are hold constant (model 7). The regression results indicate that population density is the factor that has the main impact on housing prices in comparison to all other factors. The results also shows a positive correlation between income and housing prices, as well as a negative correlation between the factors unemployment and the interest rate on housing prices in all models. On the other hand, new production shows an unexpected result.

    Furthermore, the essay considered to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between the selected factors and its impact on the housing prices in Sweden's three largest cities, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö during the period 2008-2016.

  • 87.
    Algemo Bergfeldt, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Sundling Ahlin, Josefin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Livsplanering i en kortsiktig värld: En kvalitativ studie om tidsbegränsat anställdas möjligheter att planera.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the subject of temporary employments and how the employment status affects the personal life of the employee. The aspects of the personal life which are being investigated is the employees possibilities to plan their long term future as well as their short term future. Furthermore, the employees social relations and spare time are being investigated. The paper is qualitative and is based on semi-structured interviews with four people between the age of 25 and 35 who are experienced with temporary employment. The results of the interviews are analyzed in light of Richard Sennetts theory about ”The corrosion of character”, which shows upon a contradiction between the character-building and today's job market. The conclusions are that the employees possibilities concerning long term planning, as well as short term planning, is aggravated by their temporary employment status. Their spare time seems to become less extensive and the time devoted to the social relationships decreases. However, we can not draw any conclusions on the social relations patterns affected at a deeper level. 

  • 88.
    Ali, Sagal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Alkebring, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    På tal om heder...: En diskursanalys av dagspressens sätt att framställa hedersmord 2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study in which we use discourse analysis as a method to investigate how the media portrays honor killings and how this has changed over time. The most high-profile honor killings in Sweden is the murder of Maisam Abed Ali (Sara), Pela Atroshi, Fadime Sahindal and Maria Barin Aydin who is the subject of our review. By examining the newspaper articles that were written associated with the murder of Sara, Pela and Fadime, 1996-2002, and compare these with the articles written after the murder of Maria, 2012-2013, we want to identify discursive differences. Our theoretical framework consists of the radical feminist-, cultural- and intersectional perspective that we use to analyze our results. There was a gradual shift of the discourse in the first period, with the majority of the articles initially held a debate about whether honor killing is cultural or part of the universal patriarchal violence. After the murder of Fadime the discourse shifted to a more nuanced debate where society's responsibilities are highlighted. The discourse after the murder of Maria focuses mainly on society's responsibility and how honor killings are to be prevented. Honor killings exist and therefore it must be distinguished from other murders for its victims to get the right resources.

  • 89.
    Alin, Annika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Strand, Rebecka
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    "No cheering in the press box": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av hur sportjournalister hanterar lagsympatier i sin yrkesroll2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersöker vi hur sportjournalister hanterar lagsympatier i sin yrkesroll och hur den oskrivna regeln ”no cheering in the press box” följs i praktiken. Vi har genomfört 17 kvalitativa samtalsintervjuer med sportjournalister som bevakar fotboll och ishockey från rikstäckande medier i Stockholm. 14 av respondenterna säger sig hålla på lag. Dessa lag sträcker sig från division 4 i Sverige till topplag i olika delar av världen. En av respondenterna med lagsympatier håller på ett lag i en annan sport än fotboll och ishockey.

    Fokus i uppsatsen ligger på respondenterna som har lagsympatier, medan de respondenter som inte håller på lag blir komplement till de allmänna frågorna om lagsympatier i stort. En observationsstudie på pressläktaren genomfördes under fyra matchtillfällen för att undersöka om den oskrivna regeln följs. Studien visar att majoriteten av respondenterna är eniga att man inte hejar på pressläktaren. De är överens om att sportjournalister generellt hanterar sina lagsympatier bra, men nämner samtidigt tillfällen då lagsympatier har lyst igenom och även situationer då den oskrivna regeln har brutits.

    Journalistförbundets Yrkes- och Publicitetsregler värderas högt och därför faller sig rollen som privatperson och journalist naturligt. Flera av respondenterna som håller på lag anser att deras lagsympatier har förändrats med åren, något som till viss del har att göra med yrket, men också mognad och andra prioriteringar i livet. Studien visar också att majoriteten av respondenterna upplever ett intresse från publikens sida kring deras lagsympatier.

  • 90.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Etnisk särbehandling i regeringens genuspolitik - utmaninar för socialt arbete i storstadens mångfald2019In: Socialt arbete i storstaden: Villkor och praktik / [ed] Alinia Minoo & Songur Welat, Stockholm: Liber, 2019, 1, p. 45-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Alinia, Minoo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Songur, WelatSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Socialt arbete i storstaden: villkor och praktik2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Aljic, Arnes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Styrning inom en postbyråkratisk organisation: En fallstudie på Urb-It2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: How do post-bureaucratic organizations think about control where individual freedom and responsibility are central elements?

    Purpose: The purpose with this study is to examine and analyze how a post-bureaucratic organization sees on control and how it controls the employees.

    Method: The collection of data was done by semi structured interviews. The interviews covers three different levels of the organization in the operative business at Urb-it. The data was analyzed and compared with relevant theories and studies in governance in hope to full fill the purpose of the study.

    Conclusion: The study shows that normative control methods are the most used at Urb-it. The management team works actively with control methods where the recruitment process is the biggest one while the employees feel free rather than controlled.

  • 93.
    Alkalaf, Rawa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Bahnam, Hadil
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Avskaffandet av revisionsplikten: En studie om vilka faktorer som påverkar små aktiebolags val att ha kvar revisionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the removal of audit requirement for companies in Sweden from the first of november 2010, a lot of companies has chosen not to keep the audit requirement. So far 57 percent of the small companies has chosen to keep the audit, in spite of that they don´t need to which led us to the problem statement: Which are the factors that affect a small limited company to choose to keep the audit, in spite that now there is a possibility to choose not to use audit anymore?

    Purpose: The purpose of the essay is to examine why small limited companies choose to keep the audit, in spite that now there is a possibility to choose not to use audit?

    Method: This research founds itself in a qualitative study with a deductive research approach. We have been studying secondary data in books and articles and preformed 29 phone interviews with small ltd company owners in Sweden. The selection consisted of 14 companies with credit debts and 15 companies without credit debts. In both categories the companies were selected at random.

    Results: The study has shown that there are a variety of reasons why small business owners in Sweden choose to keep the audit. It turned out that most small limited companies use audit primarily for its own sake and interest, but also to avoid a tax audit. It was also found that the creditors had a great impact on small companies’ decisions on audit.

  • 94.
    Alkamesi, Sam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ramn, Grewal
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Insynshandeln och överavkastningen på den svenska aktiemarknaden: En eventstudie som undersöker om ett Vd-aktieköp i det egna bolaget genererar överavkastning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between insider trading and positive abnormal return. More specifically, whether CEO share purchases generates a positive abnormal return. In order to investigate this relationship, this study is based on event study methods. An event study is a statistical method which calculates the impact of an event on another variable under a specific time period, and in this paper, the impact of CEO share purchases on the stock price during 11 days. Furthermore, the result from this study is insufficient and cannot be used to generalize the concrete conclusions. It has been shown that the probability of positive abnormal return varies depending on what period of time is analyzed. A positive abnormal return did not occur when analyzing the whole period (11 days). However, the results were somewhat significant when we analyzed and compared specific periods with each other. Thus, we find it hard to justify whether CEO share purchases within the own company generates a positive abnormal return.

  • 95.
    Al-khalidi, Ali
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Failure of Democracy in Iraq2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation of the bachelor thesis is to provide an understanding of democracy in Iraq from 2003 until present. After the fall of Saddam’s regime, there have been general elections but there is still an unstable democracy in Iraq. What are the reasons behind the failure of democracy in Iraq? Of course, there are many reasons behind this but my choice is to focus on three specific ones. How do these three variables that I have chosen, affect the possibility of democracy in Iraq? These two questions will be answered in this bachelor thesis, using Path Dependence Theory and Dahl’s Polyarchy Model and its Criteria that help to analyze and answer the research questions. Iraq has many major problems but the three I have focused on are ethnic and religious divides between Shia and Sunni, the violent environment and the presence of terrorist groups.

  • 96.
    Alkhalil, Cindy
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rehioui, Sophia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Brand Equity inom B2B startups: en kvalitativ studie om hur B2B startups arbetar med brand equity för att skapa konkurrensfördelar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, branding has become a priority for companies. A brand helps companies to differentiate themselves from their competitors, which creates competitive advantages. Most of the research on brands has primarily focused on consumer marketing. However, it has been found that the brand is just as important in business to business (B2B) companies, and that it also plays a big role when it comes to the survival av newly established company like for example startups.

    Startups differ from established companies through their innovative ideas and problem solving. However, they faces challenges because of lack of capital, time and resources. As the competition in the market grows, startups need to create competitive advantages by working hard with their brand strategies to achieve strong brand equity. This study aims to highlight how B2B startups work with brand equity in order to achieve competitive advantages.

    The study has used a qualitative research strategy where the primary data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with four different startups based in Stockholm.

    The study shows that startups need to first position themselves in the market and then work on brand building. The result also shows that B2B startups are aware of the brand's importance and that they in fact work with brand equity to achieve competitive advantages. However, the strategies with the steps in the CBBE model differs depending on the industry and type of corporate activity.

  • 97.
    Alkhlif, Shaimaa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Amartushin, Narabyar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Är den traditionella arbetstiden för alla?: - En fenomenografisk studie om hur förkortad arbetstid påverkar organisationer inom den privata och offentliga sektorn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The issue of working time reduction has continued to be discussed in various contexts and has become a current social debate. Because of this, it was of interest to carry out research in the area by analyzing what effects a shortening of working time has on an activity from an economic perspective and also concerning productivity goals and result orientation.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze how shortening of working hours affects the organizations' finances, productivity goals and results in the private sector.

    Method: This research is focused on a phenomenografic method with its base in qualitative interviews.

    Result: The result section is presented in the following main themes: Arguments for the introduction of shortened working day; Organizational effects and disadvantages of the introduction of shorter working days.

    Conclusion: The difference between the private and public sector is in focus and the motivation for why an abbreviated working day has been introduced differs between them. While the private sector focuses on efficiency and increased profitability, the public sector focuses on well-being and thus productivity. One of the most important findings identified in this study is that the primary argument for introducing six hours working day, which also reflected the new organization after the change work, was to create a better balance between work and leisure.

  • 98.
    Allan, Kadir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gemvall, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    En empirisk granskning av korrelationen mellan handelsliberalism och ekonomisk tillväxt: Finns ett samband mellan handelsliberalism och ekonomisk tillväxt i länder i Mellanöstern & Asien?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis has been to investigate whether there is a link between trade liberalism and economic growth in the Asian countries. Previous research has pointed out that correlation exists between these variables, but there have also been other researchers who criticized such a relationship. We discovered that economic growth studies had previously been conducted where countries in Asia were included. This motivated us to carry out our study as our research hopefully helps to replenish existing knowledge gap. In the study, we have used cross-sectional regression analysis for 30 Asian countries where data were collected for 1990-2000. Our dependent variable in our regression is average GDP per capita, which also defines growth. We have used two independent variables as main variables, trade volume and economic freedom index. Our analysis shows that the majority of the variables in the study have a positive significant relation to economic growth.

    Keywords: economic growth, trade liberalism, trade, GDP / capita, EFI, direct investment, import, export.

  • 99.
    Allard, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Wetterström, Alexander
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Livsmedelsdistributörer och Sociala Medier: Hur livsmedelsdistributörer i Sverige använder, utvärderar och legitimerar sitt användande av sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The usage of social media in Sweden have increased steadily in recent years. These communication channels have transformed the communication between customers and companies from a passive monologue to a dialogue in which the customers gets involved in order to create new, and maintain already existing relationships which ultimately creates long-term profitability. Although, this phenomenon is not exclusive for B2C but seems to in-clude B2B as well.

    Purpose: This study aim to gain a deeper understanding around social media as a marketing channel for food distributors in Sweden. For this reason, the study also want to sort out how the companies use, evaluate and legitimize these marketing activities.

    Method: This study is based on five interviews with three B2C-companies and two B2B-companies within food distribution in Sweden.

    Result and analysis: The result of this study show that the companies aim to be represented in the social mediums where they can find their customers. The most used social mediums was revealed to be Facebook and Instagram and that the sought values of marketing through social media was to distribute digital material, brand-building, create new and maintain present relations as well as directing customers towards the company’s homepage. In this study the similarities was found to exceed the differences between the B2C-companies and the B2B-companies. However, the differences that was highlighted in this study was that B2B-companis seems to be favored by a more earnest tonality and that the receiving parties of the communication in B2B are not as likely to further distribute the company’s message, nor do they move between communication-channels as “sprawling” as regular consumers.

  • 100.
    Almqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Holmgren, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Inget förtroende, Inget köp: En studie hur förtroendet för influencers påverkar konsumtionsvanor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within today's society, social media has grown to become a more common thing than most. In Sweden, almost 83 % of the population use social media. With this marketing growth, a role that have become more common is the term ‘influencer’. Whereas an influencer is someone who inspires people in any sort of way by using social media platforms, such as Instagram. The marketing strategy that has evolved through influencers is called ‘influencers marketing’ and is a commonly used marketing strategy in today’s reality. However, the question that companies must ask themselves is - How will this affect consumers?

    By studying how ‘influencer marketing’ affect consumers whom all follow influencers on Instagram - this study presents which factors have a more deciding role when it comes to being affected by influencer marketing. Whereof we have had several semi-qualitative interviews regarding questions such as; how trustworthy a person finds influencers and if influencer marketing affects a person's consumer behaviour.

    The results of this study show that consumers feel a certain trust to influencers whereof this study presents 4 factors that affects an individual's ‘trust’. The result showed for example that a person value, genuity and personal connection to an influencer. The trust that an individual has towards influencers showed to have a direct connection to consumer behaviour.

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