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  • 51. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    "She" and "He" in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 52.
    Hallberg, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Betydelsen av ekonomisk sakerhet och typ av socialt stod for arbetslosas upplevda grad av kontroll och autonomi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att arbetslösas välmående och livskvalitet påverkas negativt av arbetslöshet. Upplevd kontroll och autonomi kan medföra ökade coping-resurser för arbetslösa och ökar möjligheten till god mental hälsa och livskvalitet. Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka hur graden av kontroll och autonomi hos arbetslösa påverkades beroende på faktorerna ekonomisk säkerhet, stöd av särskild person, stöd i handling, samt arbetsmarknadsåtgärd. Resultatet visade att den enskilt starkast predicerande faktorn för upplevd kontroll var ekonomisk säkerhet, medan stöd av person predicerade upplevd autonomi till störst utsträckning. Ökad ekonomisk säkerhet och stöd av särskild person hade ett positivt samband med både kontroll och autonomi. Stöd i handling hade ett negativt samband med både kontroll och autonomi, vilket var det mest överraskande fyndet då stöd i handling haft ett positivt samband med liknande resultatvariabler i tidigare studier. Studien visar vikten av ekonomisk säkerhet och stöd av person, samt att typen av socialt stöd utformas individuellt efter den arbetslösas egna val. Detta för att möjliggöra en ökning av den upplevda graden av kontroll och autonomi och därmed mental hälsa och livskvalitet.

  • 53.
    Halldin, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ålder men inte studietid påverkar psykologistudenters prestationsbaserade självkänsla2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 54.
    Halldin, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ålder men inte studietid påverkar psykologistudenters prestationsbaserade självkänsla2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 55.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Postmaterialistic environmental attitudes: From attitudinal change to behavioural implications2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that economic development and increased socioeconomic security tend to foster postmaterialistic attitudes including an increased concern for the environment. According to the postmaterialist hypothesis, individuals who grow up under favorable materialistic conditions tend to place a higher value on non-materialistic issues, not only during their adolescence but also for the rest of their lives. During a modernization process where people’s socioeconomic welfare increases with time, a generational effect is created where younger cohorts systematically demonstrate a higher concern for postmaterialistic values. In contrast to the postmaterialist hypothesis, a link between current income and postmaterialism has been suggested as an alternative explanation for the alleged spread of postmaterialistic attitudes. This would imply that the generational effect is substituted for a current income effect where societies with more affluent citizens tend to have a more postmaterialistic outlook. In this article, concern for the environment is taken as an example of a postmaterialistic outlook. Survey data about attitudes towards environmental issues in Estonia (2001) is used to show that no clear correlation can be found between either personal income or age and the adoption of a positive attitude towards environmental issues. This finding is taken as a starting point for a theoretical elaboration about the relationship between income, attitudes and the consumption of postmaterialistic goods. It is suggested that the important link might not be between attitudes and socioeconomic security but between income and spending on postmaterialistic goods. Changes in behavior are therefore dependent on differences in income elasticity between materialistic and postmaterialistic goods. The most important implication is that the observed changes in attitude in a postmaterialistic direction probably entail less consumption of materialistic goods in relative terms but not in absolute terms.

  • 56.
    Hedberg, Per H.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Svahn, M.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Total gamification and the limits of our imagination2016In: The Business of Gamification: A Critical Analysis / [ed] Mikolaj Dymek; Peter Zackariasson, New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 208-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Stenson, Johanna T.
    Uppsala University.
    Jylhä, Kirsti M.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Uppsala University.
    What's (not) underpinning ambivalent sexism?: Revisiting the roles of ideology, religiosity, personality, demographics, and men's facial hair in explaining hostile and benevolent sexism2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambivalent sexism is a two-dimensional framework that assesses sexist and misogynous attitudes. The current corpus of research on such attitudes suggest that they are predicted by numerous variables, including religious beliefs, ideological variables, and men's facial hair. Most studies, however, have treated such predictors as if they are independent – inferring that zero-order correlations between sexism and its predictors are not confounded by omitted third variables. In the current work, we address ambivalent sexism using a large array of known correlates of sexist attitudes in two large and demographically diverse samples. We show that low empathic concern is the primary driver of hostile-, but not benevolent sexism (Study 1); that social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, religiosity, and low Openness and Agreeableness differentially predict ambivalent sexism (Study 2); along with male gender and low education level (Study 1 and 2). Contradicting an earlier finding, men's facial hair was not correlated with hostile sexism in either studies and a short full beard predicted lower scores on benevolent sexism in Study 2. Thus, we replicated the main findings from most previous research except for men's facial hair, and we also show the paths through which predictors of sexist attitudes exert their effects.

  • 58.
    Hiitti, Ansel
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Hur Big Five-personlighetsdrag och självkänsla skiljer sig mellan entreprenörs- och icke entreprenörsstudenter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien undersöks hurvida individer som söker sig tillentreprenörskap i sitt yrkesval har en specifik personlighetsprofil somgår att urskilja från människor som väljer andra yrken. Detta görsgenom en enkätundersökning som jämför Big Five personlighetsdragoch självkänsla hos 21 entreprenörstudenter och 18 filosofistudenter.Resultaten visar att det existerar signifikanta skillnader hosentreprenörstudenter vad gäller neuroticism, öppenhet ochextraversion. Det uppkom också skillnader mellan kvinnligaentreprenörstudenter och kvinnliga deltagare i kontrollgruppen vadgäller självkänsla. Resultaten antyder att personlighet har en påverkannär en individ väljer att bli en entreprenör, och att hög självkänsla kanvara en viktig komponent för kvinnor som bestämmer för att satsa på yrket.

  • 59.
    Humlemark, Carolina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Mona-Lisas leende: Upplevelsen av mäns och kvinnors glada och arga ansiktsuttryck2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kunna ge uttryck för emotioner och förstå andra individers emotionella signaler kan vara skillnaden mellan liv och död eller mellan social gemenskap och utanförskap. Det finns inom forskningen spridda resultat om hur emotioner upplevs i män och kvinnors ansikten samt motstridigheter i forskningen om vilka emotioner som har företrädesrätt, även kallad superiority effect. Viss forskning visar att arga ansikten har en dominerande företrädesrätt något som kan kopplas till överlevnadsmekanismen. Andra studier visar motsatsen, att glada ansikten går före arga ansikten. Två syften skapades för studien, det första var att undersöka om det fanns någon skillnad i hur män och kvinnors glada respektive arga ansikten upplevs. Det andra syftet var att undersöka om det fanns en superiority effect bland arga och glada ansikten. I undersökningen deltog 23 universitetsstudenter som fick i uppgift att skatta arga, glada och neutrala ansikten på VAS-skalor i ilska, sorg, vänlighet och glädje. Analyser på insamlad data gjordes med beroende ANOVA-test. Resultaten visade att mäns arga ansikten upplevdes som argare än kvinnors arga ansikten samt att kvinnors ansikten upplevdes som vänligare i jämförelse med männens ansikten. Diskussionen förklarade resultaten i förhållande till forskning om genusskillnader, män och kvinnors ansiktsformer samt hur glädje och ilska relateras till män och kvinnor. En förklaring till resultaten kan vara att män oftare förknippas med negativa egenskaper som ilska och hot samt att kvinnor förknippas med omhändertagande och vänlighet. Forskning behöver göras i ett bredare perspektiv där stereotyper, status och teorier om drifters eventuella samband undersöks närmare. 

  • 60.
    Jerkner Kjellman, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Kan språket ha betydelse för en könsmässigt jämställd arbetsmarknad?: En studie om kommunalt och agentiskt språkbruk vid rekrytering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en segregerad arbetsmarknad och det finns en skillnad i vilka yrken män och kvinnor väljer att arbeta inom. Språket kan vara en källa till detta och kommunala och agentiska adjektiv har visat sig finnas i jobbannonser. Föreliggande studie undersökte betydelsen av språkbruk i organisationsbeskrivningar, mer specifikt om kvinnor och män bedömer organisationsbeskrivningar olika beroende på om de läst en agentisk eller kommunal organisationsbeskrivning. De beroende variabler som testades var organisationens attraktivitet, känsla av samhörighet, upplevd jämställdhet, liksom skattning av andelen kvinnor och män inom organisationen. 138 deltagare deltog i studien, varav 75 definierade sig med pronomen hon och 63 definierade sig med pronomen han. Deltagarna deltog genom att besvara och fullfölja en internetbaserad enkät. Signifikanta resultat uppstod och ett av huvudfynden visade att kommunala texter aktiverade högre samhörighet, men det gällde för både män och kvinnor. Ett annat huvudfynd var att män upplevde större jämställdhet, i både den kommunala och agentiska organisationsbeskrivningen, än vad kvinnor gjorde. Resultaten i sin helhet visade att kvinnor och män till viss del skattar texter olika och att språkbruk kan få konsekvenser för hur organisationen upplevs. Framtida studier bör fokusera på språket ur ett intersektionellt perspektiv, detta så att fler individer inkluderas i jämställdhetsarbetet. 

  • 61. Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Bolin, Karl
    Partial loudness assessment of wind turbine sound through continuous judgment by category-ratio scaling2016In: BNAM 2016 conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Bohlin, Karl
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Annoyance and Partial Masking of Wind Turbine Noise from Ambient Sources2019In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1035-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates noise annoyance from wind turbines of different sizes and in different acoustic surroundings. A listening test was conducted where wind turbine noises were rated alone and together with background sounds from a deciduous forest, a busy city and road traffic. A magnitude production procedure was implemented which showed high correlation between repeated measurements and the results were analysed using A-weighted sound levels, signal-to-noise ratios and time varying loudness and partial loudness. Ratings for wind turbine sound heard alone showed no coherent statistically significant differences between wind turbine types, neither for A-weighted sound levels nor loudness. The masking test indicate that road traffic noise is a superior masker compared to forest sound. However, these effects where only statistically significant at low sound levels, below the range 35–45 dB(A), where noise guidelines for wind turbine noise usually are stipulated.

  • 63.
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Att förändra eller försvara status quo: Uppfattad tid och svårighetsgradens påverkan på attributionsbias2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 64. Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Feedback learning of musical expressivity2004In: Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance / [ed] Aaron Williamon, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2004, p. 247-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotion is of fundamental importance to the performance of music. However, recent research indicates that expressive aspects of performance are neglected in music education, with teachers spending more time and effort on technical aspects. Moreover, traditional strategies for teaching expressivity rarely provide informative feedback to the performer. In this chapter we explore the nature of expressivity in music performance and evaluate novel methods for teaching expressivity based on recent advances in musical science, psychology, technology, and acoustics. First, we provide a critical discussion of traditional views on expressivity, and dispel some of the myths that surround the concept of expressivity. Then, we propose a revised view of expressivity based on modern research. Finally, a new and empirically based approach to learning expressivity termed cognitive feedback is described and evaluated. The goal of cognitive feedback is to allow the performer to compare a model of his or her playing to an “optimal” model based on listeners’ judgments of expressivity. This method is being implemented in user-friendly software, which is evaluated in collaboration with musicians and music teachers.

  • 65. Juslin, Patrik N.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Lindström, Erik
    Friberg, Anders
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Play It Again With Feeling: Computer Feedback in Musical Communication of Emotions2006In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotions is of crucial importance in music performance. Yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. This article presents and evaluates a computer program that automatically analyzes music performances and provides feedback to musicians in order to enhance their communication of emotions. Thirty-six semi-professional jazz/rock guitar players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. Performance measures revealed the greatest improvement in communication accuracy for the computer program, but usability measures indicated that certain aspects of the program could be improved. Implications for music education are discussed.

  • 66.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala University.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults: Prevalence and causal influences2011In: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 174-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have indicated that listeners value music primarily for its ability to arouse emotions. Yet little is known about which emotions listeners normally experience when listening to music, or about the causes of these emotions. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the prevalence of emotional reactions to music in everyday life and how this is influenced by various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to a random and nationally representative sample of 1,500 Swedish citizens between the ages of 18 and 65, and 762 participants (51%) responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-two items explored both musical emotions in general (semantic estimates) and the most recent emotion episode featuring music for each participant (episodic estimates). The results revealed several variables (e.g., personality, age, gender, listener activity) that were correlated with particular emotions. A multiple discriminant analysis indicated that three of the most common emotion categories in a set of musical episodes (i.e., happiness, sadness, nostalgia) could be predicted with a mean accuracy of 70% correct based on data obtained from the questionnaire. The results may inform theorizing about musical emotions and guide the selection of causal variables for manipulation in future experiments.

  • 67. Kantrowitz, J. T.
    et al.
    Scaramello, N.
    Jakubovitz, A.
    Lehrfeld, J. M.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Elfenbein, H. A.
    Silipo, G.
    Javitt, D. C.
    Amusia and protolanguage impairments in schizophrenia2014In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 2739-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Both language and music are thought to have evolved from a musical protolanguage that communicated social information, including emotion. Individuals with perceptual music disorders (amusia) show deficits in auditory emotion recognition (AER). Although auditory perceptual deficits have been studied in schizophrenia, their relationship with musical/protolinguistic competence has not previously been assessed. Method. Musical ability was assessed in 31 schizophrenia/schizo-affective patients and 44 healthy controls using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). AER was assessed using a novel battery in which actors provided portrayals of five separate emotions. The Disorganization factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used as a proxy for language/thought disorder and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to assess cognition. Results. Highly significant deficits were seen between patients and controls across auditory tasks (p<0.001). Moreover, significant differences were seen in AER between the amusia and intact music-perceiving groups, which remained significant after controlling for group status and education. Correlations with AER were specific to the melody domain, and correlations between protolanguage (melody domain) and language were independent of overall cognition. Discussion. This is the first study to document a specific relationship between amusia, AER and thought disorder, suggesting a shared linguistic/protolinguistic impairment. Once amusia was considered, other cognitive factors were no longer significant predictors of AER, suggesting that musical ability in general and melodic discrimination ability in particular may be crucial targets for treatment development and cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

  • 68.
    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.
    et al.
    Schizophrenia Research Center, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY / Columbia University, New York.
    Leitman, David I.
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Lehrfeld, Jonathan M.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Uppsala University.
    Butler, Pamela D.
    Schizophrenia Research Center, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY / New York University, New York.
    Silipo, Gail
    Schizophrenia Research Center, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY .
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Schizophrenia Research Center, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY / New York University, New York.
    Reduction in Tonal Discriminations Predicts Receptive Emotion Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder2013In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Schizophrenia patients show decreased ability to identify emotion based upon tone of voice (voice emotion recognition), along with deficits in basic auditory processing. Interrelationship among these measures is poorly understood. Methods: Forty-one patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 41 controls were asked to identify the emotional valence (happy, sad, angry, fear, or neutral) of 38 synthesized frequency-modulated (FM) tones designed to mimic key acoustic features of human vocal expressions. The mean (F0M) and variability (F0SD) of fundamental frequency (pitch) and absence or presence of high frequency energy (HF500) of the tones were independently manipulated to assess contributions on emotion identification. Forty patients and 39 controls also completed tone-matching and voice emotion recognition tasks. Results: Both groups showed a nonrandom response pattern (P < .0001). Stimuli with highest and lowest F0M/F0SD were preferentially identified as happy and sad, respectively. Stimuli with low F0M and midrange F0SD values were identified as angry. Addition of HF500 increased rates of angry and decreased rates of sad identifications. Patients showed less differentiation of response across frequency changes, leading to a highly significant between-group difference in response pattern to maximally identifiable stimuli (d = 1.4). The differential identification pattern for FM tones correlated with deficits in basic tone-matching ability (P = .01), voice emotion recognition (P < .001), and negative symptoms (P < .001). Conclusions: Specific FM tones conveyed reliable emotional percepts in both patients and controls and correlated highly with deficits in ability to recognize information based upon tone of voice, suggesting significant bottom-up contributions to social cognition and negative symptom impairments in schizophrenia.

  • 69.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 773-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 70. Karlsson, Jessika
    A Novel Approach to Teaching Emotional Expression in Music Performance2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important aspects of music performance is the expression of emotions, yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. The aim of this thesis was thus to develop and test a novel and empirically-based approach to teaching emotional expression in music performance.

    Study I explored the nature of instrumental teaching in its natural context, with a focus on emotional expression. Although there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was a lack of clear goals, specific tasks, systematic teaching patterns, and informative feedback.

    Study II presented and tested a computer program that analyzes music performances and offers informative feedback, including specific suggestions on how to enhance the emotional expression. Performers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. The results indicated the greatest improvements in communication accuracy for the computer feedback group, but although the computer program was rated as easy to understand and use, performers did not want to use it in the future.

    Study III explored whether the negative views towards the computer program were due to negative attitudes towards computers or a dislike of the characteristics of the actual feedback contents. Results from a deception experiment revealed that the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. The latter feedback was perceived as more detailed.

    The thesis shows that it is possible for performers to improve their abilities to express emotions through computer-assisted teaching, but suggests that the feedback may benefit from including human-like aspects such as encouragement, examples, and explanations in order to make it more attractive in the eyes of its potential users.

  • 71. Karlsson, Jessika
    et al.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Musical expression: an observational study of instrumental teaching2008In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 309-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on expression and emotion. Lessons featuring five music teachers and 12 students were videofilmed, transcribed, content analyzed, and coded into categories of feedback and language use. Results suggested that the focus of teaching was mainly on technique and on the written score. Lessons were dominated by talk, with the teacher doing most of the talking. Issues concerning expression and emotion were mostly dealt with implicitly rather than explicitly, although some teachers used a variety of strategies to enhance expression. Though there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was the lack of clear goals, specific tasks, and systematic teaching patterns.

  • 72. Karlsson, Jessika
    et al.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Teaching Musical Expression: Effects of production and delivery of feedback by teacher vs. computer on rated feedback quality2009In: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that a computer program may improve performers' abilities to express emotions through their performance. Yet performers seem reluctant to embrace this novel technology. In this study we explored possible reasons for these negative impressions. Eighty guitarists performed a piece of music to express various emotions, received feedback on their performances, and judged the quality of the feedback they received on rating scales. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design, we manipulated (a) the performers’ belief about whether the feedback was produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback delivery) and (b) the feedback contents in terms of whether they were really produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback production). Results revealed significant main effects of both production and delivery, but no interaction between the two. That is, the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. While both types of feedback were rated as equally easy to understand, feedback from teachers was rated as more detailed. Additional analyses revealed that teacher-produced feedback was appreciated because it offered encouragement, examples, and explanations. Implications for computer applications in music education are discussed.

  • 73.
    Karlsson, Pauline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Personlighetsdrag som förklaring för motivation på arbetet: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan extraversion och upplevelsen av inre motivation på arbetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ständiga uppkomsten av nya teorier inom både personlighet och motivation intresserar många och används flitigt av organisationer i sitt personalarbete. Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns en tydlig koppling mellan olika personlighetsdrag och motivation, vilket ger möjligheten till att skräddarsy arbetetsuppgifterna utefter vilka personlighetsdrag medarbetaren visar höga nivåer av. Syftet med den aktuella studien är att undersöka om extroverta, jämfört med introverta upplever mer inre motivation på sitt arbetei enlighet med Organismic Integration Theory, som är en teori inom Self Determination Theory. Syftet var även att se hur extraversion ställde sig i relation till både yttre motivation och amotivation. För att undersöka detta genomfördes en enkätstudie, som besvarades av 108 deltagare. Resultatet visade att det fanns ett samband mellan extraversion och inre motivation. Det fanns även ett samband mellan extraversion och med två av underkategorierna till yttre motivation. Förslag på vidare forskning skulle vara att kartlägga vilka arbetsuppgifter extroverta och introverta har, samt specifikt rikta in på bransch eller en yrkesgrupp där för att se om det föreligger en inre motivation hos dessa medarbetare.

  • 74.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Är du omtänksam eller tävlingslysten?: Betydelsen av kommunalt och agentiskt språk i rekryteringsannonser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges har en könssegregerade arbetsmarknad där kvinnor och män arbetar inom olika yrken och branscher. Enligt tidigare studier innehåller jobbannonser flera agentiska (manliga) adjektiv och färre kommunala (kvinnliga) vilket påverkar kvinnors uppfattning av organisationer negativt och delvis bidrar till att kvinnor fortsätter söka sig till kvinnodominerade yrken. Kvinnor har dessutom tidigare visat lägre tilltro till sin förmåga (self- efficacy) generellt, i karriären och för stereotypiskt manliga yrken, jämfört med stereotypiskt kvinnliga. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur könsstereotypiskt språk (agentiskt och kommunalt) påverkar kvinnor och mäns uppfattning av en organisation vad gäller attraktivitet och samhörighet. Studien syftade även till att jämföra nivåer av self-efficacy i ett försök att förstå varför effekterna av språk tidigare varit större för kvinnor än män. Deltagarna (n=170, varav 155 identifierade sig som ’hon’ och 55 som ’han’) randomiserades att läsa en av två betingelser i form av organisationsbeskrivningar via en webbenkät. Huvudfynden i studien visade att kommunalt språk hade positiva effekter och att agentiskt språk hade negativa effekter vad gäller organisationens attraktivitet och förväntad samhörighet, både för kvinnor och män. För mäns del motsäger det tidigare studiers resultat. Ytterligare huvudfynd visade att kvinnor hade lägre self- efficacy för stereotypiskt manliga yrken (STEM) jämfört med män. Resultaten i studien belyser språkets betydelse för att attrahera kvinnor till stereotypiskt manliga yrken och vikten av att stärka kvinnors self-efficacy för stereotypiskt manliga yrken för att motverka en könssegregerad arbetsmarknad. Framtida studier föreslås inkludera icke-binära samt queerpersoner för ytterligare inkludering samt undersöka self-efficacy som medierande variabel för attraktivitet och samhörighet.

  • 75.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Järvelä, Simo
    CKIR.
    An Embodied Cognition Approach for Understanding Role-playing2012In: International Journal of Role-playing, ISSN 2210-4909, Vol. 3, p. 18-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article proposes that the theories of grounded cognition and embodiment can be utilized in explaining the role-playing experience. Embodied cognition theories assume that cognition is not only a feature of the brain, but the body as a whole and it’s interaction with the environment  it operates in. Grounded cognition proposes that an action, perceiving an action, and thinking about an action rely on the same processes. Moreover, knowledge is inseparably grounded to bodily states and modalities. Based on the grounded cognition theory and especially embodiment, we argue the character immersion and bleed are natural consequences on how the brain works. Also we illustrate how the operation of  simulators explain some of the central features in the creation of fiction and it’s similarities to our everyday experiences. In general, grounded cognition provides a rather simple explanation how fiction is experienced as in this theoretical framework action and thinking about an action largely utilize the same brain mechanics and so are phenomenally similar.

  • 76.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Konflikter och konflikthantering bland unga och ledare på en fritidsgård i Nacka: Möjligheter och och faror med konflikter2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I have examined how teenager and leaders handle conflicts on a recreation centre in Nacka, outside of Stockholm in Sweden.

    I have made qualitative interviews with two leaders and ten teeangers. Also I have read researchlitterature about conflicts and how to handle them. Then I have made observations watching how leaders and teeangers communicate and behave.

    The purpose of the examination is to describe differences with constructive and destructive handle with conflicts. I have also shown how conflicts can give possibilites for the involved people to get to understand themselves, the other parts and the whole complex social behavior better.

    But that demands that the involved people choose a constructive solution where both parts cooperate, understand eachother and can see how themselves have contributed in developing the conflict.

    I have worked as an employee at the recreation centre two evenings a week in sex months. During that time I have observed conflicts and different strategies among teeangers and leaders.

    My conclusions are that conflicts give opportunities for people to grow as human-beeings and get a mentally richer life. Thererfore it is extremely important that teachers and other leaders have good knowledge in these subjects.

  • 77. Larsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Haglund, Liza
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Education.
    Halldén, Ola
    Cognitive conflict: Actions taken in the process of conceptual change2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual change is described as a multifaceted process involving restructuring and reorganization of already embraced beliefs. Twenty-nine preschool children were interviewed about their conceptions of the earth every year from the year they were four to the year they were six years of age. For the children the incentive for changing ideas about the earth was their processing of incoherencies.  The children processed a lot of conflicting information. However, there does not appear to be any major conflict that causes the process of conceptual change to occur. This process is affected by incoherencies revealed in a relation between three entities, that is, two or more different facts or conceptions that conflict when related to one specific context. Conceptual change involves a simultaneous processing of information and complex conceptions, on the one hand, and revisions and changes at a model level on the other.

  • 78.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Audibert, Nicolas
    Université Sorbonne, Paris , France.
    Aubergé, Véronique
    Université Joseph Fourier—Université Stendhal , Grenoble , France.
    Exploring the determinants of the graded structure of vocal emotion expressions2012In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 710-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined what determines the typicality, or graded structure, of vocal emotion expressions. Separate groups of judges rated acted and spontaneous expressions of anger, fear, and joy with regard to their typicality and three main determinants of the graded structure of categories: category members’ similarity to the central tendency of their category (CT); category members’ frequency of instantiation, i.e., how often they are encountered as category members (FI); and category members’ similarity to ideals associated with the goals served by its category, i.e., suitability to express particular emotions. Partial correlations and multiple regression analysis revealed that similarity to ideals, rather than CT or FI, explained most variance in judged typicality. Results thus suggest that vocal emotion expressions constitute ideal-based goal-derived categories, rather than taxonomic categories based on CT and FI. This could explain how prototypical expressions can be acoustically distinct and highly recognisable but occur relatively rarely in everyday speech.

  • 79.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
    Sikkim Univ, Gangtok, India.
    Yamasaki, Teruo
    Osaka Shoin Womens Univ, Nara, Japan.
    Beller, Gregory
    IRCAM, Paris, France.
    Universal and Culture-Specific Factors in the Recognition and Performance of Musical Affect Expressions2013In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 434-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  • 80.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Elfenbein, H.A.
    Chui, W.
    Thingujam, N.S.
    Iraki, F.K.
    Rockstuhl, T.
    Althoff, J.
    Presenting the VENEC corpus: Development of a cross-cultural corpus of vocal emotion expressions and a novel method of annotating emotion appraisals2010In: Proceedings of the LREC 2010 Workshop on Corpora for Research on Emotion and Affect / [ed] L. Devillers, B. Schuller, R. Cowie, E. Douglas-Cowie, & A. Batliner, Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association , 2010, p. 53-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Vocal Expressions of Nineteen Emotions across Cultures (VENEC) corpus and present results from initial evaluation efforts using a novel method of annotating emotion appraisals. The VENEC corpus consists of 100 professional actors from 5 English speaking cultures (USA, India, Kenya, Singapore, and Australia) who vocally expressed 19 different affects/emotions (affection, amusement, anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, happiness, interest, lust, negative surprise, neutral, positive surprise, pride, relief, sadness, serenity, and shame), each with 3 levels of emotion intensity, by enacting finding themselves in various emotion-eliciting situations. In all, the corpus contains approximately 6,500 stimuli offering great variety of expressive styles for each emotion category due to speaker, culture, and emotion intensity effects. All stimuli have further been acoustically analyzed regarding pitch, intensity, voice quality, and durational cues. In the appraisal rating study, listeners rated a selection of VENEC-stimuli with regard to the characteristics of the emotion eliciting situation, described in terms of 8 emotion appraisal dimensions (novelty, intrinsic pleasantness, goal conduciveness, urgency, power, self- and other-responsibility, and norm compatibility). First, results showed that the inter-rater reliability was acceptable for all scales except responsibility. Second, the perceived appraisal profiles for the different vocal expressions were generally in accord with predictions based on appraisal theory. Finally, listeners’ appraisal ratings on each scale were significantly correlated with several acoustic characteristics. The results show that listeners can reliably infer several aspects of emotion-eliciting situations from vocal affect expressions, and thus suggest that vocal affect expressions may carry cognitive representational information.

  • 81.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, MO, USA .
    Emotion Appraisal Dimensions can be Inferred From Vocal Expressions2012In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 529-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal expressions are thought to convey information about speakers' emotional states but may also reflect the antecedent cognitive appraisal processes that produced the emotions. We investigated the perception of emotion-eliciting situations on the basis of vocal expressions. Professional actors vocally portrayed different emotions by enacting emotion-eliciting situations. Judges then rated these expressions with respect to the emotion-eliciting situation described in terms of appraisal dimensions (i.e., novelty, intrinsic pleasantness, goal conduciveness, urgency, power, self-and other responsibility, and norm compatibility), achieving good agreement. The perceived appraisal profiles for the different emotions were generally in accord with predictions based on appraisal theory. The appraisal ratings also correlated with a variety of acoustic measures related to pitch, intensity, voice quality, and temporal characteristics. Results suggest that several aspects of emotion-eliciting situations can be inferred reliably and validly from vocal expressions which, thus, may carry information about the cognitive representation of events.

  • 82.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Söder, Nela
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen..
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen..
    Althoff, Jean
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Chui, Wanda
    University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Iraki, Frederick K.
    United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Rockstuhl, Thomas
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
    Sikkim University, Gangtok, India.
    Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, article id 353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals? We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations.

  • 83.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. .
    Neiberg, Daniel
    KTH.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington Univ, USA.
    Evidence for Cultural Dialects in Vocal Emotion Expression: Acoustic Classification Within and Across Five Nations2014In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 445-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of cultural differences in the fundamental acoustic patterns used to express emotion through the voice is an unanswered question central to the larger debate about the universality versus cultural specificity of emotion. This study used emotionally inflected standard-content speech segments expressing 11 emotions produced by 100 professional actors from 5 English-speaking cultures. Machine learning simulations were employed to classify expressions based on their acoustic features, using conditions where training and testing were conducted on stimuli coming from either the same or different cultures. A wide range of emotions were classified with above-chance accuracy in cross-cultural conditions, suggesting vocal expressions share important characteristics across cultures. However, classification showed an in-group advantage with higher accuracy in within-versus cross-cultural conditions. This finding demonstrates cultural differences in expressive vocal style, and supports the dialect theory of emotions according to which greater recognition of expressions from in-group members results from greater familiarity with culturally specific expressive styles.

  • 84.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Quick, Lina
    University of Gävle.
    Emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise: A questionnaire study among athletes2013In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both quantitative items that assessed the prevalence of various uses of music, and open-ended items that targeted specific emotional episodes in relation to music in sports. Results showed that the athletes most often reported listening to music during pre-event preparations, warm-up, and training sessions; and the most common motives for listening to music were to increase pre-event activation, positive affect, motivation, performance levels and to experience flow. The athletes further reported that they mainly experienced positive affective states (e.g., happiness, alertness, confidence, relaxation) in relation to music in sports, and also reported on their beliefs about the causes of the musical emotion episodes in sports. In general, the results suggest that the athletes used music in purposeful ways in order to facilitate their training and performance.

  • 85.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina .
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University.
    Neurofunctional correlates of expressed vocal affect in social phobia2011In: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 413-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the neural correlates of expressed vocal affect in patients with social phobia. A group of 36 patients performed an anxiogenic public-speaking task while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed using oxygen-15 positron emission tomography. The patients’ speech was recorded and content masked using low-pass filtering (which obscures linguistic content but preserves nonverbal affective cues). The content-masked speech samples were then evaluated with regard to their level of vocally expressed nervousness. We hypothesized that activity in prefrontal and subcortical brain areas previously implicated in emotion regulation would be associated with the degree of expressed vocal affect. Regression analyses accordingly revealed significant negative correlations between expressed vocal affect and rCBF in inferior frontal gyrus, putamen, and hippocampus. Further, functional connectivity was revealed between inferior frontal gyrus and (a) anterior cingulate cortex and (b) amygdala and basal ganglia. We suggest that brain areas important for emotion regulation may also form part of a network associated with the modulation of affective prosody in social phobia.

  • 86.
    Ledin, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Samuelsson, Robin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Play and imitation: Multimodal interaction and second language development in preschool2017In: Mind, culture and activity, ISSN 1074-9039, E-ISSN 1532-7884, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets the multimodal character of children’s play and its potential for scaffolding second language development. We follow children who are newcomers to a Swedish preschool, and analyze their interactions. Play is, we argue, based on rules or tacit agreements between children, originating in the human capacity of imitation, and creates an opportunity to test out cultural patterns. Despite their limited language abilities, the children naturally engage in bodily play interactions where different objects are deployed. This can potentially underpin second language development, not least when a child or teacher with better Swedish language proficiency participates.

  • 87. Leitman, David I.
    et al.
    Wolf, Daniel H.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ragland, J. Daniel
    Valdez, Jeffrey N.
    Turetsky, Bruce I.
    Gur, Raquel E.
    Gur, Ruben C.
    Not pitch perfect: Sensory contributions to affective communication impairment in schizophrenia2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia patients have vocal affect (prosody) deficits that are treatment resistant and associated with negativesymptoms and poor outcome. The neural correlates of this dysfunction are unclear. Prior study has suggested that schizophrenia vocal affectperception deficits stem from an inability to use acoustic cues, notably pitch, in decoding emotion.

    Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control subjects, during theperformance of a four-choice (happiness, fear, anger, neutral) vocal affect identification task in which items for each emotion variedparametrically in affective salient acoustic cue levels.

    Results: We observed that parametric increases in cue levels in schizophrenia failed to produce the same identification rate increases as incontrol subjects. These deficits correlated with diminished reciprocal activation changes in superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri andreduced temporo-frontal connectivity. Task activation also correlated with independent measures of pitch perception and negativesymptom severity.

    Conclusions: These findings illustrate the interplay between sensory and higher-order cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Sensorycontributions to vocal affect deficits also suggest that this neurobehavioral marker could be targeted by pharmacological or behavioralremediation of acoustic feature discrimination.

  • 88. Leitman, David I.
    et al.
    Wolf, Daniel H.
    Ragland, J. Daniel
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Loughead, James
    Valdez, Jeffrey N.
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Turetsky, Bruce I.
    Gur, Ruben C.
    “It’s not what you say, but how you say it”: A reciprocal temporo-frontal network for affective prosody2010In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 4, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans communicate emotion vocally by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and voice quality. Research has documented how the relative presence or absence of such cues alters the likelihood of perceiving an emotion, but the neural underpinnings of acoustic cue-dependent emotion perception remain obscure. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 subjects we examined a reciprocal circuit consisting of superior temporal cortex, amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus that may underlie affective prosodic comprehension. Results showed that increased saliency of emotion-specific acoustic cues was associated with increased activation in superior temporal cortex (planum temporale (PT), posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and posterior superior middle gyrus (pMTG)) and amygdala, whereas decreased saliency of acoustic cues was associated with increased inferior frontal activity and temporo-frontal connectivity. These results suggest that sensory-integrative processing is facilitated when the acoustic signal is rich in affective information, yielding increased activation in temporal cortex and amygdala. Conversely, when the acoustic signal is ambiguous, greater evaluative processes are recruited, increasing activation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and IFG STG connectivity. Auditory regions may thus integrate acoustic information with amygdala input to form emotion-specific representations, which are evaluated within inferior frontal regions.

  • 89.
    Lidbrink Landberg, Disa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    ”Det kanske inte bara var att vifta bort det”: Hur attityder gentemot sexuella övergrepp upplevs ha förändrats efter metoo-uppropet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att det finns köns- och generationsskillnader gällande attityder till sexuella övergrepp. De har också visat att flera andra faktorer påverkar, bland annat viljan att se världen som rättvis och våldtäktsmyter. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka hur attityder gentemot sexuella övergrepp upplevs ha förändrats efter #metoo. Frågeställningen är: Upplevs attityder gentemot sexuella övergrepp ha förändrats efter metoo, och i så fall hur? Sexuella övergrepp är ett utbrett problem som tidigare varit tabu att prata om och det är därför intressant att se om uppropet har gjort en skillnad. Ämnet ansågs särskilt intressant eftersom det är viktigt att veta hur uppropet har fått för reaktioner för att kunna lägga upp fortsatt arbete med att upplysa om sexuella övergrepp. Eftersom ämnet tidigare är outforskat är studien explorativ. En kvalitativ studie med 11 semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts och intervjusvaren har sedan analyserats med hjälp av tematisk analys. Deltagarna bestod av fem män, fem kvinnor och en icke-binär person och var mellan 20 och 70 år. Fyra teman framkom, ökad kunskap och förståelse, distansering, förflyttande av skam och omdefiniering av tidigare upplevelser. Resultatet visade att det finns en större medvetenhet hos deltagarna om sexuella övergrepp och att deras syn på problemet har förändrats. Åsikterna hos deltagarna var polariserade och det fanns köns- och generationsskillnader. En svaghet för studien var att den endast bygger på de 11 deltagarnas egna teorier om sina egna och andras attitydförändringar. För framtida studier föreslås att göra en kvantitativ undersökning för att se om resultaten från denna studie går att generalisera.

  • 90.
    Lindqvist, A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Bäck, E.
    Gothenburg University.
    Vem tycker om hen?2016In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 26, p. 101-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish is the first language that has a gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun, hen, that has spread from transgender and queer communities to the broader society and now exists in parallel with the two traditional gendered pronouns representing 'she' and 'he'. Many strong emotions have arisen during this process, both for and against hen. This study aims at analyzing what background factors may explain the attitudes towards hen. In total, 240 individuals participated in our online questionnaire where they indicated their attitude towards hen, as well as responded to questions assessing attitudes towards sexist language (i.e. gender discriminating language), modern sexism (i.e. the belief that gender-discrimination is no longer an issue), political views (from left to right), interest in gender issues and their identification with their own gender identity. The results show no gender difference in attitudes towards hen, but participants strongly identifying themselves with their gender identity had a tendency to be more negative towards the word. Political view was not a significant predictor. However, participants with sexist attitudes had a tendency to dislike hen, whereas those who were interested in gender issues and were negative towards sexist language had a tendency to like the word. Finally, younger age implied a stronger tendency to like hen.

  • 91.
    Lindqvist, J. Axel
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Kroppsbild och självförtroende hos manliga datorspelare och styrketränare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka självförtroende och kroppsbild hos datorspelare, styrketränare och en kontrollgrupp. En webbenkät med manliga medlemmar på dator- och idrottsrelaterade internetforum genomfördes. Kontrollgruppen var medlemmar på dessa forum som varken styrketränade eller spelade datorspel. Skalorna Social physique anxiety scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale och Drive for muscularity scale administrerades. Resultatet visar att grupperna inte var signifikant skilda åt gällande social fysisk ångest eller självförtroende. Medan styrketränare hade signifikant högre poäng än datorspelare och kontrollgruppen på önskan att bli muskulös och dess subskalor. Kanske har alla män på grund av social press från massmedia samma nivåer av kroppsbild och självförtroende. Att önskan att bli muskulös var högre hos styrketränare stöds av resultat från andra studier. Att önskan att bli muskulös var normalt hos datorspelare går emot self-discrepancy theory men kan bero på identifiering med spelkaraktärer. Framtida studier föreslås undersöka skillnader i graden av identifiering med datorspelskaraktärer mellan datorspelare som sportar och datorspelare som inte sportar.

  • 92.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University.
    Hawley, Caitlin B.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University.
    Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 171091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  • 93.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS): Development and Validation of a Novel Olfactory Disgust Assessment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 499-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors. Collected data from 3 studies (total n = 528) show that the scale can be used either as a unidimensional scale or as a scale that reflects two hypothesized factors: sensitivity to one's own body odors versus those of others. Guided by our results, we reduced the scale to 12 items that capture the essence of these 2 factors. The final version of the BODS shows an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha s > 0.9). The BODS subscales show convergent validity with other general disgust scales, as well as with other olfactory functions measures and with aspects of personality that are related to pathogen avoidance. A fourth study confirmed the construct validity of the BODS and its measurement invariance to gender. Moreover, we found that, compared with other general disgust scales, the BODS is more strongly related to perceived vulnerability to disease. The BODS is a brief and valid assessment of trait body odor disgust sensitivity.

  • 94.
    Malmgren, Caroline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Emotioner och motivationer vid musiklyssnande och spelande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning inom emotioner som upplevs genom nöjen har visat att det emotioner kan upplevas genom nöjet och att det oftast handlar om positiva emotioner. Personer använder nöjen till att till exempel framkalla känslor eller för att glömma bort vardagen. Tyvärr har tidigare forskning om emotioner och motivationer ofta uteslutit ett nöje: Spelande. Att spela olika typer av spel är ett växande nöje. Denna studie undersökte emotioner och motivationer till musiklyssnande och spelande, samt jämförde de två nöjena för att försöka lägga en grund för framtida forskning inom psykologin bakom nöjen. Även den musik som finns inbyggd i spel undersöktes. Detta gjordes genom en enkät som besvarades av 165 personer. Resultaten visade att olika känslor uppstår beroende på nöje, där musiklyssnande framkallade bland annat känslor av nostalgi, njutande, sorgsenhet och lugn medans spelande framkallade känslor som frustration, nyfikenhet, intresse för nöjet och att vara road. Nöjena hade också vissa likheter, till exempel att de framkallade känslor av glädje, pigghet eller att känna sig avspänd. Det framgick även att deltagarna använde olika nöjen till olika situationer, där musiklyssnande framförallt användes för framkallande av olika känslor medans spelande oftare användes i underhållande syfte. Det fanns vissa korrelationer mellan deltagarnas preferens för musik- respektive spelgenrer. Den inbyggda musiken i spel var också viktig, framförallt för att  det är stämningsskapande. Slutsatserna som dras från denna studie är att olika nöjen fyller olika funktioner i deltagarnas liv och att spelande borde inkluderas i framtida forskning om psykologiska aspekter av nöjen.

  • 95.
    Moe, Zaza
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Skillnader i minnesåtergivning mellan verbalt och motoriskt inkodade handlingsmeningar med hänsyn till motorisk aktivitetsgrad2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har visat sig att när en person motoriskt får utföra en handlingsmening (t ex ”kasta en boll”) blir minnet för den specifika meningen (subject-performed task, SPT) bättre än om personen bara kodar in meningen verbalt, t ex genom att säga meningen högt (verbal task, VT). Detta fenomen har kommit att kallas för enactmenteffekten. När orsakerna till enactmenteffekten har studerats har det tagits lite hänsyn till karakteristikan av handlingsmeningarna. Studien syftar till att undersöka betydelsen av graden av motorisk aktivitet i handlingsmeningarna som en potentiell förklaringsfaktor till enactmenteffekten. I experimentet deltog 50 studenter i åldern 21-41 år. Resultaten visade att man minns handlingsmeningar som kräver mindre grad av motorisk aktivitet bättre än handlingsmeningar med högre grad av motorisk aktivitet. Förklaringar kan vara att personen får mer tid att koncentrera sig på meningen när den är lätt att utföra motoriskt, alternativt att handlingsmeningar med lägre grad av motorisk aktivitet är mer familjära. I framtiden bör undersökningar ta hänsyn till fler dimensioner för att kunna utesluta eventuella bakomliggande variabler.

  • 96.
    Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. University of Latvia.
    Temporal distance and the perception of political proposals in terms of their favorability, feasibility and desirability2015In: 2015 Program The Society for Personality and Social psychology 16th Annual Convention: Long Beach, February 26-18, 2015, 2015, p. 56-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifty-one university college students were presented with 10 political proposals, recently advanced in Sweden. For each participant, each of the 10 proposals  was described as being implemented in the near future and in a more distant future. The participants were asked to judge the proposals in terms of their favorability, desirability, and feasibility. In line with Construal Level Theory (CLT, Trope & Liberman, 2010), it was found that feasibility better predicted favorability of close future proposals (as compared to temporally distant proposals) whereas the opposite pattern was found for desirability.  Also in line with CLT, correlational data suggested that participants to a larger extent as compared to the near future tailored their representations of the distant future such that feasibility co-varied positively with the desirability of a proposal, suggesting an optimism bias. Presumably, this was possible because feasibility is less concrete and more malleable for more distant events.

  • 97.
    Moran, Paul
    et al.
    Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Batty, G. David
    University of Glasgow, and University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Childhood Intelligence Predicts Hospitalization with Personality Disorder in Adulthood: Evidence from a Population-Based Study in Sweden2009In: Journal of Personality Disorders, ISSN 0885-579x, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although low pre-morbid IQ is an established risk factor for severe mental illness, its association with personality disorder (PD) is unclear. We set out to examine whether there is a prospective association between childhood intelligence and PD in adulthood. Using a population-based prospective cohort study, we linked childhood IQ scores to routinely collected hospital discharge records in adulthood. Lower IQ scores were related to higher risk of being hospitalized with a PD across the full range of IQ scores, (odds ratio per one SD increase in IQ was 0.60; 95% CI: 0.49–0.75; p(trend) = 0.001). Adjusting for potential confounding variables had virtually no impact. We conclude that low childhood IQ predicts hospitalization with PD and may be an important factor in the development of PD.

  • 98.
    Mühleisen, Isis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Blocket, pennan och kaffet: Konstnärers kreativa arbetsprocess och vilken roll tristess spelar i den2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anekdoter kring konstnärers arbetsrutiner indikerar att vardagliga sysselsättningar kan vara viktigt för kreativt arbete, då kombinationen av tristess och kreativitet är ett återkommande tema. Tidigare forskning visar att tristess kan vara negativt för personers välmående och prestationsförmåga, samtidigt som annan forskning visar att det kan gynna kreativitet. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur konstnärers arbetsprocess ser ut och vilken roll tristess spelar i den. En kvalitativ enkätstudie genomfördes med ett urval bestående av nio konstnärer som arbetade med visuell konst, musik och text. Genom induktiv tematisk analys fann denna studie att den konstnärliga arbetsprocessen bestod av fem olika faser; förberedelseoch inspirationsfas, koncentrationsfas, inkubationsfas, illuminationsfas och avslutningsfas. Tristess uppstod för många i olika delar av arbetsprocessen, och upplevdes som fysiskt och psykiskt obehagligt och stressande. Tristess kunde fungera som motivator att leta upp ny stimulans genom utåtvänt eller inåtvänt sökande. Att uppsöka tristessartade situationer kunde användas som en medveten strategi i arbetsprocessen, och effekterna av tristessperioder upplevdes påverka den kreativa arbetsprocessen både positivt och negativt. Huruvida effekten var positiv eller negativ berodde i stor grad på definitionen av tristessbegreppet samt om det var frivilligt att uppleva tristessen eller inte.

  • 99. Neiberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    Classification of affect in speech using normalized time-frequency cepstra2010In: Speech Prosody 2010 Conference Proceedings, 2010, p. 100071-1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subtle temporal and spectral differences between categorical realizations of para-linguistic phenomena (e.g., affective vocal expressions) are hard to capture and describe. In this paper we present a signal representation based on Time Varying Constant-Q Cepstral Coeffcients (TVCQCC) derived for this purpose. A method which utilizes the special properties of the constant Q-transform for mean F0 estimation and normalization is described. The coeffcients are invariant to segment length, and as a special case, a representation for prosody is considered. Speaker independent classifcation results using v-SVM with the Berlin EMO-DB and two closed sets of basic (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral) and social/interpersonal (affection, pride, shame) emotions recorded by forty professional actors from two English dialect areas are reported. The accuracy for the Berlin EMO-DB is 71.2 %, and the accuracies for the first set including basic emotions was 44.6% and for the second set including basic and social emotions the accuracy was 31.7% . It was found that F0 normalization boosts the performance and a combined feature set shows the best performance.

  • 100. Neiberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Intra-, inter-, and cross-cultural classification of vocal affect2011In: Procedings of INTERSPEECH 2011: 12th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association : Vol. 3, International Speech Communication Association , 2011, p. 1581-1584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present intra-, inter- and cross-cultural classifications of vocal expressions. Stimuli were selected from the VENEC corpus and consisted of portrayals of 11 emotions, each expressed with 3 levels of intensity. Classification (nu-SVM) was based on acoustic measures related to pitch, intensity, formants, voice source and duration. Results showed that mean recall across emotions was around 2.4-3 times higher than chance level for both intra- and inter-cultural conditions. For cross-cultural conditions, the relative performance dropped 26%, 32%, and 34% for high, medium, and low emotion intensity, respectively. This suggests that intracultural models were more sensitive to mismatched conditions for low emotion intensity. Preliminary results further indicated that recall rate varied as a function of emotion, with lust and sadness showing the smallest performance drops in the crosscultural condition.

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