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  • 51. Lipand, A.
    et al.
    Kasmel, A.
    Tasa, E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Uutela, A.
    Puska, P.
    Helakorpi, S.
    Eesti täiskasvanud elanikkonna terviseuuring, kevad 1994: [Health Behaviour among Estonian Adult Population, Spring 1994]1995Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ljungqvist, Rikard
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    I tankarnas våld: – En artikelserie om människor med tvångstankar, och den snåriga vägen till en mänsklig behandling2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alla har någon gång mot sin vilja fått en störande tanke på hjärnan. En skrämmande bild eller en känsla av att någonting är fel.

    I den här artikelserien möter du personer vars tankar och beteenden inte stannat vid vanlig skrockfullhet – de har skenat iväg och blivit ett hinder för normalt umgänge med andra människor.

    Läs om livet som tvångssjuk.

  • 53. Mackenbach, J. P.
    et al.
    Kulhánová, I.
    Bopp, M.
    Deboosere, P.
    Eikemo, T. A.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Kulik, M. C.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, P.
    Menvielle, G.
    Regidor, E.
    Wojtyniak, B.
    Östergren, O.
    Lundberg, O.
    Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: A test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health2015In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, no 127, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However, the absence of larger inequalities for preventable causes in Southern Europe and for injury mortality among women indicate that further empirical and theoretical analysis is necessary to understand when and why the additional resources that a higher socioeconomic status provides, do and do not protect against prevailing health risks.

  • 54. Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Groenhof, Feikje
    Borgan, Jens-Kristian
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Faggiano, Fabrizio
    Jozan, Peter
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Valkonen, Tapani
    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study1999In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 1800-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55. Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Roskam, Albert-Jan R
    Schaap, Maartje M
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Kunst, Anton E
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries2008In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 358, no 23, p. 2468-2481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We observed variation across Europe in the magnitude of inequalities in health associated with socioeconomic status. These inequalities might be reduced by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care.

  • 56.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Valverde, Jose Rubio
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    rije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). ational Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsnki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    INSERM, Sorbonne Universités, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    niversidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / CIBER Epidemiologí y Salud Püblica, Madrid, Spain.
    Nusselder, Wilma J.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of inequalities in life expectancy: an international comparative study of eight risk factors2019In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 4, no 10, p. E529-E537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. Methods We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. Findings In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2.3-8.2 years among men and 0.6-4.5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19.8% among men and 18.9% among women), low income (9.7% and 13.4%), and high bodyweight (7.7% and 11.7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. Interpretation Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants.

  • 57.
    Manhica, H.
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Niemi, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gunnarsson, David
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Ståhle, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions.
    Larsson, S.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Saboonchi, F.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Social participation, mental health in refugees and asylum seekers: A scoping review2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl. 4, p. 482-482Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Mengal, Muhammad Hashim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Infectious disease control knowledge and practice among health care workers in Bolan Medical College Hospital Quetta Pakistan.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hospital-acquired infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Healthcare workers during job are exposed to blood borne pathogens through contact with infected body parts, blood and body fluids. World health organization (WHO) estimated that globally about 2.5% of HIV and 40% of hepatitis viral infected cases are among health workers due to exposures. The most important mechanism of spread of these pathogens is through contaminated hands of the healthcare workers. Standard precautions measures are essential to prevent and control healthcare associated infection among healthcare workers and patients. In developing countries despite the development of detailed guideline for infection control the knowledge of standard precautions is low and not properly applied. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of health care workers regarding standard precautions and hand hygiene to infectious disease control. 

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of health care workers regarding hand wash and standard precautions to control infectious diseases in BMCH. In addition create awareness among participants and encourage them to practice regularly hand hygiene and standard precautions to control or reduce nosocomial infections in health care facilities

    Methods The study design is cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker knowledge and practices about standard precautions and hand hygiene for infectious disease control. A questionnaire administered to health care workers (doctors and nurses). The questionnaire was divided in two parts and the first part concerns demographic information, asking knowledge and practice. The second part asked opinions about risk and prevention of HAIs. The questionnaire was developed with consultation of other studies of the same kind. It has been pre tested and is finalized for survey. The ethical approval was given by hospital superintendent and informs consent from all study participants. Statistic analysis was done on Excel and statistical software SPSS version 20. Data was described in numbers, percentages and Chi Square test done for association among categorical variables, significant level was considered P= <0.05.

    Results Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to HCWs in BMCH and 169 completely fill questionnaire were returned. The male gender respondents were 42% and female respondents were 58%. The basic questions about knowledge of hand hygiene and standard precautions were answered well in both categories; about 73% were with sufficient knowledge. The practice of hand hygiene and standard precautions was not satisfactory among both categories; about 47% found with good practice. Differences found in sub groups, young age none trained doctors and nurses answered wrong and shown lack of knowledge. This study found an association of age, profession and job experience with knowledge and practice regarding hand hygiene and standard precautions. Open handed questions described well the major issue regarding HAIs and participants emphasized on risk and prevention methods. 

    Conclusions The respondents were HCWs (doctors and nurses) of both sex and this study found that majority of HCWs have good knowledge and practice about control of HAIs but difference were found in age groups, sex and profession. Above half of the HCWs were not trained for infection control in health facilities, thus getting training of infection control is important but more important is implementation of it during practice.

     

  • 59. Menvielle, Gwen
    et al.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Roskam, Albert-Jan
    Schaap, Maartje M.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonie .
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Les inégalités socials de mortalité en Europe: [Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Europe]2009In: M S.Médecine Sciences, ISSN 0767-0974, E-ISSN 1958-5381, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 192-196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60. Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Koupil, Ilona
    The contribution of parental and grandparental childhood social disadvantage to circulatory disease diagnosis in young Swedish men2008In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 66, p. 822-834Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61. Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Koupil, Ilona
    The contribution of parental and grandparental childhood social disadvantage to circulatory disease diagnosis in young Swedish men2008In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 66, p. 822-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men born out of wedlock in early twentieth century Sweden who never married have previously been shown to have a doubled mortality risk from ischaemic heart disease compared to the corresponding group of men born to married parents. This study further explores the question of childhood social disadvantage and its long-term consequences for cardiovascular health by examining the two subsequent generations. The question posed is whether the sons and grandsons of men and women born out of wedlock in early twentieth century Sweden have an increased risk of circulatory disease compared with the corresponding descendants of those born inside marriage. We examined this by use of military conscription data. The material used is the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational database consisting of individuals born at Uppsala University Hospital between 1915 and 1929 (UG1), their children (UG2) and grandchildren (UG3). Conscription data were available for UG2s born between 1950 and 1982 (n = 5,231) and UG3s born between 1953 and 1985 (n = 10,074) corresponding to 72.1% and 73.6%, respectively, of all males born in each time-period. Logistic regression showed that significant excess risk of circulatory disease diagnoses was present only among descendants of men born outside marriage, with sons and grandsons demonstrating odds ratios of 1.64 and 1.83, respectively, when BMI and height at the time of conscription, father's social class in mid-life and father's or grandfather's history of circulatory disease had been adjusted for. Separate analyses showed that the effect of the maternal and paternal grandfather was of approximately the same magnitude. Further analyses revealed an interaction between the father's social class and the grandfather's legitimacy status at birth on UG3-men's likelihood of having a circulatory disease, with elevated odds only among those whose fathers were either manual workers or self-employed. The results of this study suggest that social disadvantage in one generation can be linked to health disadvantage in the subsequent two generations.

  • 62. Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Koupil, Ilona
    The impact of early twentieth century illegitimacy across three generations: Longevity and intergenerational health correlates.2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 1633-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the understanding of how social mortality patterns are reproduced across generations by documenting associations of women's marital status at childbirth in the beginning of last century with selected health indicators across three subsequent generations of their offspring, and by highlighting a special set of plausible mechanisms linked to this particular event in history. We use the Multigenerational Uppsala Birth Cohort Study (UBCoS) database consisting of 12,168 individuals born at Uppsala University Hospital in 1915-1929 (UG1), their children (UG2) and grandchildren (UG3). Results showed that men and women born outside wedlock (BOW) in early twentieth century Sweden were at an increased risk of adult mortality compared to those who were born in wedlock (BIW), and the men were also significantly less likely to reach their 80th birthday. The question of childhood social disadvantage and its long-term consequences for health is then taken one step further by examining their offspring in two subsequent generations in terms of four specific anthropometric and psychological outcomes at the time of military conscription, all known to predict disease and mortality later in life. Results showed that sons of men BOW as well as sons and grandsons of women BOW had significantly lower psychological functioning and cognitive ability. Regarding body mass index and height, however, significant associations were found only among descendants of men BOW. The anthropometric and psychological disadvantages found among descendents of individuals BOW were partly mediated by their social class background. The four outcomes observed early in the lives of UG2s and UG3s do in fact constitute early health determinants, each potentially influencing longevity and mortality risk in these generations. We conclude that the social disadvantage imposed on those BOW in early twentieth century Sweden appears to be reproduced as a health disadvantage in their children and grandchildren, with likely consequences for mortality among these.

  • 63.
    Molin, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    From Policy to Action: A study on the implementation of gender policies and a gender perspective in Swedish humanitarian assistance work2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade has now passed since the concept of “gender mainstreaming” and polices addressing a gender perspective first appeared on the international agenda, yet evaluations on these policies’ implementation show that progress has been slow in the field of humanitarian assistance. As executive workers, the humanitarian field staff have in policy documents been identified as crucial actors in the “gender mainstreaming” work, however, no previous research have been found evaluating their achievements in the field.

    This study examines if formulated gender policies, within Swedish humanitarian organisations and agencies, are implemented and translated into action in the field. This was carried out by investigating Swedish humanitarian fieldworkers’ gender sensitiveness and experiences of working with a gender perspective in the field. The empirical material was collected from qualitative deep interviews with ten fieldworkers from four different humanitarian organisations/agencies. The interview data was then analysed by using a theoretical framework based on Gender theory, Postcolonial feminist theory and Policy implementation theory.

    The results show that even though most of the interviewed fieldworkers mean that they are aware of gender issues and the importance of using a gender perspective in the field, they have a general low understanding of the gender concept. An emerging “cultural sensitivity versus gender policy implementation” dilemma was valid and possibly affecting the informants’ attempts to act on formulated policies. Moreover, the method that the organisations/agencies use when educating staff on gender issues seem to have an impact on this dilemma. It became apparent that the fieldworkers underestimate their own responsibility in using a gender perspective in the field; at the same time the organisations/agencies overestimate their workers’ capacity to implement their gender policies. Much also indicate on how a still old-fashioned gender discourse is produced, and reproduced, in gender policy formulations and among the fieldworkers. In conclusion, it seems like a gap occur between the initial intention of a policy, its formulation, interpretation and the final intervention result.

  • 64.
    Niemi, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Manhica, Hélio
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gunnarsson, David
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Ståhle, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Swedish Red Cross University College / Karolinska Institutet.
    A Scoping Review and Conceptual Model of Social Participation and Mental Health among Refugees and Asylum Seekers2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 20, article id E4027Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social participation plays a key role in the integration of refugees and asylum seekers into their host societies, and is also closely tied to the mental health of those populations. The aim of this scoping review was to study how the concept of social participation is described in empirical research, and how it is associated with mental health outcomes.

    METHODS: In total, 64 studies were identified through searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Sociological Abstracts. These studies describe various forms of social participation among refugees and asylum seekers, and 33 of them also addressed various forms of mental health outcomes.

    RESULTS: The identified studies described forms and conditions of social participation-both in the host country and transnationally-that could be synthesized into three broad dimensions: (1) Regulatory frameworks, conditions and initiatives; (2) Established societal organizations and social structures; and (3) Community organized groups. Each of these consisted of several sub-domains. The identified dimensions of social participation were also associated with psychosocial well-being and decreased psychological distress.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for policies to enable and support the participation of refugees and asylum seekers in various dimensions of social structures in host societies. Social participation enhances resilience, re-establishes social lives, and acts as a protective factor against poor mental health outcomes.

  • 65.
    Niemi, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Science / Integrative Care Science Center, Järna.
    Ståhle, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions. Integrative Care Science Center, Järna.
    The use of ayurvedic medicine in the context of health promotion: A mixed methods case study of an Ayurvedic centre in Sweden2016In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ayurveda has its historical roots in India, but has also been internationalised, partly via migration and partly through an increased interest in alternative medicine in the West, where studies point toward increased use. However, there is to date scarce knowledge about the use and experiences of ayurveda in Sweden.

    Methods

    We have conducted a case study of a center for ayurvedic healthcare in Sweden. We have collected information on client background data from the center’s documentation, and compiled data from all clients who visited the centre for ayurvedic consultation during spring 2014. In total, 55 individuals were included in the study, and 18 of them were chosen for individual semi-structured interviews, to gain a deeper understanding of their motives for seeking, and experiences of ayurvedic health care. The material was analysed and compiled through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods.

    Results

    Among the 55 clients, 91 % were female the mean age was 47 years, and 64 % gave a specific illness as a reason for seeking ayurveda. The most common illnesses were respiratory, musculoskeletal, circulatory, tumor, and cutaneous illnesses. The qualitative results showed that ayurveda was being used in combination with other methods, including various diets, other alternative medicine methods and conventional medicine. Some participants recounted having sought ayurveda as a complement to conventional medicine, or in cases when conventional medicine had been experienced as insufficient in terms of diagnosis or treatment. However, some participants experienced it as difficult to follow the ayurvedic life-style advice in the midst of their everyday life. Many participants reported positive experiences of pulse diagnostics, which was the main diagnostic method used in ayurvedic consultation. Some reported concrete, physical improvement of their symptoms.

    Conclusions

    This study points towards important aspects of participant experience of ayurveda, that may be subject to further research. The positive effects experienced by some clients should be studied more systematically in order to discern whether they are specific or non-specific.

  • 66.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    The Hidden Victims of Disasters: Avoiding Stress-Related Disorders among Swedish Relief Workers through Preparedness2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since September 11, 2001, the focus on health among relief workers has become an important issue. The focus on mental health has caught the attention of researchers and as a fairly new research area, there are still many issues that need to be answered. This study evaluates the preparation of relief workers in two Swedish organizations (Swedish Civil Contingency Agency and Swedish Red Cross) by investigating how these preparations contribute in avoiding stress-related disorders among relief workers. The organizations were evaluated by comparing data of preparations, collected from interviews and documents, with a criteria mostly based on Walsh (2009) and scholars from the Antares Foundation Guidelines (2012). Compared to the criteria the organizations' strengths are found in information of the operation with the score 9 out of 10 (which is the fulfillment of the criteria). SRC's weakness is the education of relief workers with the score 6 out of 10. MSB is relatively strong in that category, but weaker in requirements for employment with 2 out of 4 points. However, these weaknesses must not obscure the overall good results for both MSB and SRC. This study establishes that the preparation of relief workers, in two of the most important relief organizations in Sweden, is good. However, further research is necessary to facilitate the creation of generally recognized guidelines for how to prepare relief workers.

  • 67. Oja, Leila
    et al.
    Matsi, Ardo
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006: Methodological report2008Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Petäjävaara, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Sustainability and Health in Disaster Waste Management2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to see if, and how, future aid efforts can be improved and better contribute to a more sustainable and resilient society this essay is about how management of solid waste generated in emergency situations work and what effects the waste have on public health. This is investigated using information collected from secondary sources and interviews with three persons who have knowledge and experience in the subject. Health and sustainability are of importance in the guidelines that deal with management of waste in disaster situations. However, there are no documentations of real experiences of disaster waste impacts on human health. Even so the waste might contaminate drinking water and increase the amount of disease-carrying vectors in the area. Previous conditions in the country, low priority of waste and information to the public are some of the main features preventing optimal function of a sustainable and healthy waste management.

  • 69. Plug, Iris
    et al.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Artnik, Barbara
    Bopp, Matthias
    Borrell, Carme
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Esnaola, Santi
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Regidor, Enrique
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Strand, Bjorn Heine
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical interventions: do they reflect inequalities in access or quality of health care?2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, article id 346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported large socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention, but it is unclear whether these can be attributed to inequalities in access or quality of health care, or to confounding influences such as inequalities in background risk of diseases. We therefore studied whether inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention vary between countries in patterns which differ from those observed for other (non-amenable) causes of death. More specifically, we hypothesized that, as compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use and less strongly with inequalities in common risk factors for disease such as smoking. Data and methods Cause-specific mortality data for people aged 30-74 years were obtained for 14 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-standardized mortality rates and relative risks comparing a lower with a higher educational group. Survey data on health care use and behavioural risk factors for people aged 30-74 years were obtained for 12 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-and sex-adjusted odds ratios comparing a low with a higher educational group. Patterns of association were explored by calculating correlation coefficients. RESULTS: In most countries and for most amenable causes of death substantial inequalities in mortality were observed, but inequalities in mortality from amenable causes did not vary between countries in patterns that are different from those seen for inequalities in non-amenable mortality. As compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are not more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use. Inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are also not less strongly associated with common risk factors such as smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that inequalities in mortality from amenable conditions are related to inequalities in access or quality of health care. Further research is needed to find the causes of socio-economic inequalities in mortality from amenable conditions, and caution should be exercised in interpreting these inequalities as indicating health care deficiencies.

  • 70. Podar, T
    et al.
    Solntsev, A
    Rahu, M
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Tuomilehto, J
    LaPorte, R E
    Mortality of childhood-onset IDDM patients in Estonia1996In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1238-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71. Pray, Leslie
    et al.
    Cohen, ClaraMäkinen, Ilkka HenrikSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).Värnik, AiriMacKellar, F. Landis
    Suicide in Eastern Europe, the CIS, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants. A Foundation for Designing Interventions. Summary of a Conference2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Reile, R
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Differentiating positive and negative self-rated health: results from a cross-sectional study in Estonia2013In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Factors associated with improving diet and physical activity among persons with excess body weight2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, article id ckz170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in Eastern Europe, the study examined the trends and factors associated with self-reported weight reducing behaviours among individuals with excess body weight in Estonia.

    METHODS: Study used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 2006 to 2016 including 4302 men and 3627 women aged 20-64 years with excess body weight (BMI ≥ 25). Trends in the prevalence of changing eating habits and physical activity and their sociodemographic and health-related correlates were studied using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among overweight or obese respondents, 41% of men and 48% of women reported improvements in dietary habits and 19% of men and women reported increase in physical activity during the past 12 months in 2016. Positive trend for 2006-2016 regarding both outcomes was observed for men whereas no statistically significant differences were found for women. Women and those with lower than tertiary education had higher odds for reporting change in eating habits whereas older age and smoking or excessive alcohol consumption reduced the odds. Improvement in physical activity was more likely among younger respondents, women, ethnic Estonians and those with tertiary education, whereas poorer health and smoking reduced the odds. Weight-related advice from health professionals or family had strong effect on both outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic and health profiles differentiate the self-reported behavioural change among persons with excess body weight. Advice from either health professionals or family may have a potential to facilitate positive changes in eating habits and physical activity among those individuals.

  • 74.
    Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Gilmore, Anna
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rotman, David
    Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Haerpfer, Christian
    Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 20102012In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 102, no 7, p. 1320-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

  • 75. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 1079-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. Methods Using household survey data from 18 420 (2001) and 17 914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. Results Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. Conclusions Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

  • 76. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. Aims To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Methods Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Results Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia ( although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and nonsmokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. Conclusions A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

  • 77. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Gilmore, Anna B.
    Danishevski, Kirill
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union2013In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 22, no 6, p. e12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.

    Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.

    Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.

    Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  • 78.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Stockholm University.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholm University.
    Peer Status Position within School-Based Hierarchies and Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood-A 30 Year Follow up of a Stockholm Cohort2019In: Behavioral sciences, ISSN 2076-328X, Vol. 9, no 8, article id E85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged socioeconomic status is arguably the one exposure that has most consistently been linked to obesity, even more strongly so than diet and physical inactivity, which are the two main perceived root causes of weight gain. However, we still know very little about the relationship between having a disadvantaged social position and excessive fat accumulation, particularly when it comes to whether the relationship in question can also be seen as a long-term one, i.e., spanning from childhood to adulthood. By making use of the unique Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, the present study uses generalized ordered logistic regressions to examine the association between sociometrically assessed peer status position in school at age 13 and excessive fat accumulation at age 32. The results suggest that the odds of having excessive fat accumulation are about 0.5 times lower among popular and accepted children (ORs = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively), compared to those with a marginalized peer status position, independent of other obesogenic risk factors measured both prior and subsequent to peer status position. Our results give support to the notion that improved weight status may be another positive consequence of policies aiming to increase social inclusion within schools.

  • 79.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dependence of HIV drug resistance on the early warning indicator drug stock out, especially in middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV drug resistance is presumed to be inevitable due to the error-prone nature of the virus. However, poor adherence to the antiretroviral drugs is proven to be an impending factor for HIV drug resistance development. Of these two explanations, which is the most common reason for HIV drug resistance?Method: A total of 40 published studies about HIV drug resistance, were retrospectively collected in Pubmed (May 2017), from 36 different countries for this paper. From each study was participants, percentage of HIV drug resistance and HIV-1 subtype extracted for analysis. All studies were than classified by either high-income, middle-income or low-income, based on a country income status, defined by the World Bank. HIV drug resistance was tested against: continents, HIV-1 subtypes, number of study participants, income levels, GDP per capita and EWI’s. All statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing.Result: This paper show, that HIV drug resistance primarily is caused by poor adherence which is closely associated with drug stock out. Highest HIV drug resistance levels was found in middle-income countries. However, number of participants enrolled per study was important for the outcome and this indicates that HIV drug resistance would be higher in low-income countries if larger studied had been carried out in these settings. This means that there is a large unrecorded prevalence of HIV drug resistance in low-income countries.

  • 80.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    HIV-knowledge and Attitudes in Swedish Nursing Homes: A collective case study of three nursing homes in Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the effective antiretrovirals are people living with HIV expected live up to 70 years of age. Approximately half of the people living with HIV in Sweden are above 50 years old and estimated to become enrolled into the Swedish elderly care system. Concern about the Swedish elderly care preparedness for greeting people living with HIV is growing, based on previous experiences of stigma in the general society, many are feeling anxious that they will become victims of stigmatization and discrimination in the Swedish elderly care system.  

    Method: A collective case study was conducted of three nursing homes with different organizational background in Nacka municipality, Stockholm. Interviews with superintendents from each nursing home was performed and 95 health care workers at the nursing homes completed a questionnaire. Collected data was entered to Excel for descriptive analysis and all statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing. Pearson´s Chi-squared test was used to analyze categorial data, e.g., to find potential statistical significance between the variables and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to examine if the variables fluctuate together.

    Result: The general knowledge about HIV was not more than average among the participating health care workers and many stated concern towards HIV, which might impact on their attitudes and their practical performance when attending a person living with HIV. One of the nursing homes had experience of attending a person living with HIV and showed less feelings of concern compared to the other participating nursing homes. This support the idea that experience of attending a person living with HIV minimizes feelings of concern and negative attitudes to HIV. Like previous studies, this study highlights the relationship between higher degree of education and less negative attitudes towards HIV. However, none of the mentioned results showed a statistically significance outcome possibly due to the small sample size. To reduce risk of HIV stigma and feelings of concern among health care workers must HIV be discussed and prioritized in the Swedish elderly care system, as well as in municipalities.

  • 81.
    Rådelius, Elias
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Songs of an epidemic: responding to HIV/AIDS through song, poetry and drama in Nakuru, Kenya2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of songs, poems and drama to raise awareness of, and respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nakuru, Kenya. The primary focus is that of youth-oriented interventions, but additional examples are also examined and analyzed. A qualitative approach is used and the study is based on semi-structured interviews with teachers, performers, students, NGO-representatives and former students conducted during four weeks in November and December 2012. Additionally, songs, poems and dramas have been collected and observed and finally analyzed using a theoretical framework that combines the Health Belief Model, the Social Cognitive Theory as well as principles of the research discipline of Medical Ethnomusicology. The study shows that songs, poems and drama are important methods to communicate messages and play an important role in shaping the local HIV/AIDS discourse. Due to its effectiveness, it is vital that the messages promoted are culturally appropriate as well as correct since the study shows that false information through these methods can hamper a desired behavior change.

  • 82. Schaap, M. M.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Ekholm, Ola
    Dzurova, D.
    Helmert, Uwe
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Santana, P.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries2008In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 248-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower educational groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from national health surveys from 18 European countries. In the analyses we distinguished between country, sex, two age groups (25-39 and 40-59 years) and educational level. Age-standardised quit ratios were calculated as total former-smokers divided by total ever-smokers. In regression analyses we explored the correlation between national quit ratios and the national score on the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). Results: Quit ratios were especially high (> 45%) in Sweden, England, The Netherlands, Belgium and France and relatively low (< 30%) in Lithuania and Latvia. Higher educated smokers were more likely to have quit smoking than lower educated smokers in all age-sex groups in all countries. National score on the tobacco control scale was positively associated with quit ratios in all age-sex groups. The association of quit ratios with score on TCS did not show consistent differences between high and low education. Of all tobacco control policies of which the TCS is constructed, price policies showed the strongest association with quit ratios, followed by an advertising ban. Conclusion: Countries with more developed tobacco control policies have higher quit ratios than countries with less developed tobacco control policies. High and low educated smokers benefit about equally from the nationwide tobacco control policies.

  • 83. Schaap, Maartje M
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Regidor, Enrique
    Espelt, Albert
    Ekholm, Ola
    Helmert, Uwe
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1271-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities and economic development and women's emancipation. Data on smoking were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries. For each country, age group (25-39, 40-59 and 60+ years), educational level (4 standard levels), and cumulative ever-smoking rates were calculated as the proportion of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years who were less educated were less likely to have ever smoked in all countries, except Norway and England. The size of inequalities varied considerably between countries and reversed within three age groups. For women 25-39 years, the association of ever-smoking rates with GDP was positive, especially for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion of smoking in different ways for more and less educated women.

  • 84. Sparén, Pär
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Shestov, Dmitri B
    Plavinskaja, Svetlana
    Parfenova, Nina
    Hoptiar, Valeri
    Paturot, Dominique
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: prospective cohort study2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7430, p. 11-14AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To determine whether starvation during periods of increased growth after birth have long term health consequences.Design Analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in a longitudinal follow up after the 1941-4 siege of Leningrad. Mortality measured from 1975 up to the end of 1999.Setting St Petersburg, Russia (formerly Leningrad).Participants 5000 men born 1916-35 who lived in Leningrad, randomly selected to take part in health examinations in 1975-7. Of the 3905 men who participated, a third had experienced the siege.Main outcome measures Relative risk of ischaemic heart disease and mortality from stroke by siege exposure. Odds ratios and means for several cardiovascular risk factors.Results Three to six decades after the siege, in men who experienced the siege around the age of puberty blood pressure was raised (mean difference in systolic 3.3 mm Hg, in diastolic 1.3 mm Hg) as was mortality from ischaemic heart disease (relative risk 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.79) and stroke (1.67, 1.15 to 2.43), including haemorrhagic stroke (1.71, 0.90 to 3.22). The effect on mortality was partly mediated via blood pressure but not by any other measured biological, behavioural, or social factor.Conclusions Starvation, or accompanying chronic stress, particularly at the onset of or during puberty, may increase vulnerability to later cardiovascular disease.

  • 85. Stenberg, Sten-Ņke
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Cohort Profile: The Stockholm birth cohort of 19532006In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 35, p. 546-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86. Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Österman, Reidar
    Arvidsson, Emma
    von Otter, Cecilia
    Janson, Carl-Gunnar
    Stockholm Birth Cohort Study 1953-2003: A new tool for life-courses studies2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To create a new tool for life-course studies of health outcomes as well as social outcomes. Methods: Two anonymous data sets, one a local birth cohort and the other a nationwide registry, covering information from early and middle life, respectively, were matched using a "key for probability matching" based on a large number of variables, common to both data sets. The first data set provides social and health information from birth, childhood, and adolescence on boys and girls, born in Stockholm in 1953. The second data set provides information on income, work, and education as well as any inpatient visits and any mortality from mid-life for the entire Swedish population. Results: For 96% of the original cohort it was possible to add data from mid-life. Thus, a new database has been created, referred to as the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study, which provides rich and unique life-course data from birth to age 50 for 14,294 individuals: 7,305 men and 6,989 women. Comparison of matched and unmatched cases in the original cohort suggests that those individuals that could not be matched had slightly more favourable social and intellectual circumstances and had often moved away from Sweden in the 1980s. Conclusion: The new database provides excellent opportunities for life-course studies on health and social outcomes. It allows for studies that have not previously been possible in Sweden or elsewhere. Further, it provides an opportunity for collaborative work with similar databases in Copenhagen and Aberdeen.

  • 87.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    The social and economic determinants of smoking in Moscow, Russia2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow - the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 - a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow's larger population. Information was obtained about subjects' smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women ( 18 - 30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking ( locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia's changing social environment.

  • 88.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents2019In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

  • 89.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health.

  • 90.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Andreev, Evgueni
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, Martin
    Alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union, 1970-20022007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 444-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute alcohol poisoning has now reached unprecedented rates in parts of the ex-USSR with worrying trends among men as well as among women. Effective action by the governments concerned is now essential.

  • 91.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 92.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Bopp, Matthias
    Strand, Bjorn Heine
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Artnik, Barbara
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries2012In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 877-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5 % at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  • 93.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mckee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Injury and depression among 212 039 individuals in 40 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsAlthough injuries have been linked to worse mental health, little is known about this association among the general population in low- A nd middle-income countries (LAMICs). This study examined the association between injuries and depression in 40 LAMICs that participated in the World Health Survey.MethodsCross-sectional information was obtained from 212 039 community-based adults on the past 12-month experience of road traffic and other (non-traffic) injuries and depression, which was assessed using questions based on the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.ResultsThe overall prevalence (95% CI) of past 12-month traffic injury, other injury, and depression was 2.8% (2.6-3.0%), 4.8% (4.6-5.0%) and 7.4% (7.1-7.8%), respectively. The prevalence of traffic injuries [range 0.1% (Ethiopia) to 5.1% (Bangladesh)], and other (non-traffic) injuries [range 0.9% (Myanmar) to 12.1% (Kenya)] varied widely across countries. After adjusting for demographic variables, alcohol consumption and smoking, the pooled OR (95%CI) for depression among individuals experiencing traffic injury based on a meta-analysis was 1.72 (1.48-1.99), and 2.04 (1.85-2.24) for those with other injuries. There was little between-country heterogeneity in the association between either form of injury and depression, although for traffic injuries, significant heterogeneity was observed between groups by country-income level (p = 0.043) where the pooled association was strongest in upper middle-income countries (OR = 2.37) and weakest in low-income countries (OR = 1.46).ConclusionsAlerting health care providers in LAMICs to the increased risk of worse mental health among injury survivors and establishing effective trauma treatment systems to reduce the detrimental effects of injury should now be prioritised.

  • 94.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 62, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.

    METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.

    RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.

  • 95.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    The effects of beverage type on homicide rates in Russia, 1970-20052012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Previous research from Western Europe and North America has suggested that consuming different types of alcoholic beverage may have differing effects on homicide rates both within and between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and homicide rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Design and Methods. Age-standardised male and female homicide data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained from the Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time series analysis (autoregressive integrated moving average modelling) was used to examine the relation between the sale (consumption) of different alcoholic beverages and homicide rates. Results. Total alcohol consumption and vodka consumption as measured by sales were significantly associated with both male and female homicide rates: a 1 L increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 5.9% increase in the male homicide rate and a 5.1% increase in the female homicide rate. The respective figures for vodka were 16.4% and 14.3%. The consumption of beer and wine was not associated with changes in homicide rates. Discussion and Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the consumption of distilled spirits has had an especially detrimental impact on lethal violence in Russia from at least 1970 onwards. In order to reduce homicide rates in this context, alcohol policy should focus on reducing overall consumption as well as attempting to shift the beverage preference away from distilled spirits.

  • 96.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Z
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Oh, H
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    DeVylder, J E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Jacob, L
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Koyanagi, A
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Physical injury and psychotic experiences in 48 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002-2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53-2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84-2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22-2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).

    CONCLUSIONS: Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.

  • 97.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Jacob, Louis
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Psychotic experiences and accidents, injuries, and poisonings among adults in the United States2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 282, article id 112610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic experiences (PEs) have been linked to an increased risk for accidents and injuries. However, this association remains little researched in many countries. To address this research gap, the current study used cross-sectional data from the United States to examine the association between PEs and accidents, injuries, and poisoning in a general population sample. Data were analyzed from 2274 individuals who completed the psychosis screen as part of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on PEs (hallucinations and delusions) and the experience of past 12-month accidents, injuries, and poisoning. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association while adjusting for demographic variables and common mental disorders (CMDs). In a fully adjusted model past 12-month PEs were associated with almost three times higher odds for reporting accidents, injuries, and poisoning (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.74). The results of this study indicate that PEs are associated with higher odds for accidents and injuries among adults in the United States. Research is now needed to determine the direction of this association and the factors linked to it.

  • 98. Stirbu, Irina
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E
    Bopp, Matthias
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Regidor, Enrique
    Esnaola, Santiago
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Borrell, Carme
    Deboosere, Patrik
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Artnik, Barbara
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Educational inequalities in avoidable mortality in Europe2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 913-920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequalities in avoidable mortality were present in all European countries, but were especially pronounced in CEE and Baltic countries. These educational inequalities point to an important role for healthcare services in reducing inequalities in health.

  • 99.
    Stjerna, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Education.
    Worth, A.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Harden, J.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Olin Lauritzen, S.
    Stockholm University.
    Risk as a relational phenomenon: a cross-cultural analysis of parents’ understandings of child food allergy and risk management2017In: Health, Risk and Society, ISSN 1369-8575, E-ISSN 1469-8331, Vol. 19, no 7-8, p. 351-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western culture can be seen as permeated by risk-consciousness. In particular, parents are under scrutiny in their roles as risk managers. In this article, we address parental experiences of children more at risk than other children, children with food allergy, and the management of allergy risk in everyday life. Drawing on a notion of risk as ‘situated’ in local everyday life, we argue that a further exploration of parental understandings of child food allergy risk would benefit from an analysis of studies across different local contexts. In this article, we draw on a secondary qualitative cross-cultural analysis of interview data from several studies of parents in Sweden and Scotland through 2006–2010, which focused on parents’ understandings of the nature of food allergy and the children’s management of the allergy risk. We found some common themes in the different data sets. First, parents depicted food allergy as life-threatening, a ‘death risk’ lurking in the background, more or less constantly present in different everyday situations, amounting to an existential condition in parenting. Second, they talked about food allergy risk as a relational phenomenon, meaning that the risk emerged in the encounter between the young person’s individual competence to manage allergy risk and the understandings of allergy risk in others – thus depending on contexts and interaction between several actors. Finally, the analysis showed that unpredictability and risk in constant flux are the prominent aspects of living with food allergy. We also discussed the ways risk and trust are related, as well as how the involvement of others can be seen as both a risk and a safeguard. 

  • 100.
    Tanaka, Hirokazu
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lee, Jung Su
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Kobayashi, Yasuki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mortality inequalities by occupational class among men in Japan, South Korea and eight European countries: a national register-based study, 1990–20152019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 73, no 8, p. 750-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We compared mortality inequalities by occupational class in Japan and South Korea with those in European countries, in order to determine whether patterns are similar.

    Methods: National register-based data from Japan, South Korea and eight European countries (Finland, Denmark, England/Wales, France, Switzerland, Italy (Turin), Estonia, Lithuania) covering the period between 1990 and 2015 were collected and harmonised. We calculated age-standardised all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men aged 35–64 by occupational class and measured the magnitude of inequality with rate differences, rate ratios and the average inter-group difference.

    Results: Clear gradients in mortality were found in all European countries throughout the study period: manual workers had 1.6–2.5 times higher mortality than upper non-manual workers. However, in the most recent time-period, upper non-manual workers had higher mortality than manual workers in Japan and South Korea. This pattern emerged as a result of a rise in mortality among the upper non-manual group in Japan during the late 1990s, and in South Korea during the late 2000s, due to rising mortality from cancer and external causes (including suicide), in addition to strong mortality declines among lower non-manual and manual workers.

    Conclusion: Patterns of mortality by occupational class are remarkably different between European countries and Japan and South Korea. The recently observed patterns in the latter two countries may be related to a larger impact on the higher occupational classes of the economic crisis of the late 1990s and the late 2000s, respectively, and show that a high socioeconomic position does not guarantee better health.

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