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  • 51.
    Brändström, Linda-Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Implementeringsprocessen för en hållbar livsmedelsförsörjning: - En kvalitativ studie av Jönköpings och Örebro läns regionala livsmedelsstrategier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017 the Swedish government established a national food strategy “A National Food Strategy for Sweden -more jobs and sustainable growth throuout the country” which aims to achieve a long-termed sustainable and competitive food chain. The purpose of the strategy is to serve as a platform for which the Swedish politics is to form the food industry to the year 2030. The government urge that engagement and cooperation between participators in the food industry at local, regional and national level are necessary to make the food strategy possible to implement. The global challenges with a growing population with the need for food and climate change makes it more urgent to act faster within national frontiers. Implementing political strategies is proved to be somewhat difficult as studies shows that it is often produced isolated at different political levels with different ambitions. This study views the regional food strategies made by Jönköpings country och Örebro country through a policy analysis. The aim is to explore which implementation arenas and mechanisms the policy documents include through a theoretical lens. The result shows that implementing the policy in this case mainly plays within a Top-down arena. The outcome of the strategy depends on how well the process mechanisms are managed. The clarity of political decision, stakeholders shearing the same goals and cooperation between differen actors are important mechanisms for the implementation of the national food strategy.

  • 52.
    Burfoot, Christopher
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tourism as a tool for communicating complex environmental issues: Applying the ecosystem services framework to nature-based tourism activities across Iceland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the twenty-first century, the lowering cost and increased availability of travel options has resulted in virtually uninterrupted economic growth of the international tourism sector. While financially beneficial, the increased movement of people has also been shown to have a negative impact on the environment, leading to the growth of a more environmentally-friendly approach to travel called nature-based tourism. One country at the forefront of the nature-based tourism movement is Iceland, and while the sector has grown significantly in the country over the past decade, the way in which information concerning environmental issues is communicated to tourists has not been widely researched. Being the case, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which environmental issues are communicated to the general public through the use of the ecosystem services framework. Four popular nature-based tourism activities were selected for analysis; a whale watching tour, a horse riding tour, a boat tour of a glacial lagoon and a spa experience in a geothermal hot spring. A literature review concerning how the ecosystem services framework related to each of these tours was carried out and findings were compared to observatory data gathered through participation in said tourism activities. Results showed that while scientific publications could be found for each tour/ecosystem service combination, information concerning environmental issues was not widely communicated to participants in the nature-based tourism activities using the ecosystem services framework.

  • 53.
    Båverman, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Effekter av habitatstorlek, konnektivitet och områdesskydd på förekomst av revlummer Lycopodium annotinum och mattlummer Lycopodium clavatum i Södermanland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to test theories of the effects of habitat size, connectivity, area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation on the occurrence of single species, plus examining the existence of a fragmentation threshold and an extinction threshold. Occurrence of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum and stag’s-horn clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum was examined in 61 forest fragments scattered over 10 large 2,5×2,5 km plots, located in the county of Stockholm in Sweden. In each forest an area covering 500m2 was searched for the two species. Lycopodium annotinum occured in 13 and L. clavatum in 10 of the investigated fragments. Lycopodium annotinum occurred in at least 1 fragment in 7 large plots, 8 large plots was the corresponding number for L. clavatum. The results showed a significant positive effect of habitat size on the occurrence of both species and a significant positive effect of connectivity on the occurrence of Lycopodium clavatum. Area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation had no observed effect on the occurrence of these species, and no fragmentation threshold or extinction threshold was found. These results indicate the importance of preserving large forest fragments with high connectivity, to assure continued viability of the examined species.

  • 54.
    Bökmark, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Miljön som handelsvara: en diskursanalys över utsläppsrättssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Växthusgasnivåerna i atmosfären har nått nivåer som påverkar klimatet på jorden. Det här ställer krav på politiska överenskommelser som effektivt kan verka för en minskning av växthusgaser i atmosfären. Kyotoprotokollet implementerades 1997 och innehåller lagbindande krav på medlemsländerna att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och presenterar utsläppsrätter som styrmedel för att nå målen. Utsläppsrätter innebär att politiker sätter ett pris på rätten att släppa ut och låter verksamheter som förorenar handla med rätterna, vilket enligt nationalekonomisk marknadsteori är det mest effektiva sättet att gå tillväga. Detta kan däremot kritiseras av ekologiska ekonomer som motsätter sig prissättande av miljön.

    Diskursteori används för att studera vad som har normaliserats med införandet av utsläppsrättssystem och därför inte ifrågasätts. Analysen visade att två diskurser primärt råder i den utvalda empirin; ekonomisk liberalism och teknologisk tilltro. Fokus på vinst, tillväxt, kostnadseffektivitet samt teknikoptimism återkom i alla tre dokumenten och framställs som avgörande för att nå målen för utsläppsreduktion.

    Utsläppsrätter är ett ekonomiskt styrmedel vars styrka ligger i marknadsmekanismer, men ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv finns problematik med prissättande av miljön; framförallt att det vilar på svag hållbarhet. Även marknadens otillräckliga förmåga att ta hänsyn till moraliska angelägenheter, prissättning av miljön och att ansvarsförskjutning mot företag placerar en större klyfta mellan människa och miljö kan tolkas som problematiskt.

  • 55.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. natasja.borjeson@sh.se.
    Toxic Textiles: Towards Responsibility in Complex Supply Chains2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The governance of the environmental and health problems that follow in the wake of globalised trade is one of the great contemporary challenges. One of these challenges is the management of chemical pollution and associated risks, and one sector facing this challenge is the textile industry, which has complex supply chains spread across continents. At the same time the role of actors on the playing field are changing and market actors are being called on to responsibly manage the issue of chemical risks and associated challenges. However, governance and control are often obstructed due to complexity and considerable knowledge uncertainty. This situation complicates responsibility-taking and makes it difficult to ascribe liabilities to specific actors, as it is not obvious who is responsible for what. This thesis is concerned with the process of how a group of market actors – private and public textile buyers – assume responsibility of chemical risks in their supply chains in a situation that is characterized by uncertainty and complexity. This thesis aims to contribute to an understanding of what happens when market actors are called on to manage the negative side effects of globalisation. The focus is on Swedish textile-buying private and public organisations. The thesis constructs an analytical model based on the key concepts responsible governance, responsibilisation, and responsible supply chain management (RSCM). The thesis explores the barriers, challenges and opportunities that exist for buyers seeking to assume RSCM and whether a process of responsibilisation can be observed in the textile sector. The thesis uses an exploratory approach and interviews, participatory observations and literature studies, as well as case studies to understand the process and to investigate barriers, challenges, opportunities. In summary, the thesis shows that a process of responsibilisation is ongoing on the organisational and sector levels. Further, it is shown that due to the complex structures of the chains, there are more barriers and challenges than opportunities for buyers striving for RSCM. However, it is argued that cooperation, stronger public and private policy, and a reflexive approach could be ways forward towards RSCM and increased responsibilisation in the textile sector.

  • 56.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro Universitet.
    Towards reflexive responsibility in a textile supply chain2018In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 230-239Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Knowledge challenges for responsible supply chain management of chemicals in textiles - as experienced by procuring organisations2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

  • 58.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Green Chemistry, the REACH Regulation and Textile CompaniesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Börjesson, Hannah
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Miljömärkning av logianläggningar: En studie av effekterna på Green Key-märkta hotell och vandrarhems miljöprestanda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accommodation sector accounts for a significant proportion of resource consumption and environmental impact of the tourism industry. Today, there are a growing number of ecolabels in the accommodation sector to help establishments become more sustainable. One of them is the international eco-label Green Key. Lodging establishments have different motives for joining an eco-label in addition to an internal commitment to the environment; cost savings, competitive advantages, more guests and increased profitability.

    This study investigated if there is any difference when it comes to the effects of Green Key depending on the type of facility, and if the number of ‘scoring criteria’ affect environmental performance. The purpose was mainly to find out whether Green Key reduces the environmental impact over time, and if the label leads to an increased number of guests, depending on the type of guests.

    A quantitative method was chosen and longitudinal data over Green Key hotel and hostel's annual water, electricity and energy consumption was collected. Data on the number of guest nights per year, type of guests and total indoor area was also collected. Statistical tests were conducted and they showed that there was no correlation between the number of ‘scoring criteria’ and environmental impact. Only hotel and hostel's electricity consumption differed - hotels had a significantly higher electricity consumption/m2 than hostels. The results showed that there was an effect of Green Key on the establishments' resource consumption over time, although the effect differed. However, the majority of the establishments had reduced their resource consumption over time. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in water consumption per guest night from the starting year with Green Key in comparison with 2015. There was no difference in the increase of guest nights, depending on the type of guests. Although, the number of guest nights in total had significantly increased after the establishments had been rewarded with Green Key. However, it is difficult to demonstrate that the effect depends on Green Key.

  • 60. Castillo, Luisa Eugenia
    et al.
    Martinez, Eduardo
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Savage, Candida
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Pinnock, Margareth
    Solis, Efrain
    Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 1, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufas, cadusafos and carbofuran). Consequently, the results presented here show that multivariate analysis of community composition was more sensitive in distinguishing pesticide effects than the toxicity tests and richness and composition measures used. We conclude that monitoring macroinvertebrate communities can be a powerful tool in the assessment of ecological effects of banana production.

  • 61.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Involvement without Influence?: Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women´s Empowerment in Development Programmes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to discuss how the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches of development programmes affect their possibilities to empower women and to enhance gender equality. This will be done through a study of the gender approaches of six development programmes for democratic and economic governance in the water and sanitation sector located in Angola, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Philippines respectively. The programmes strive towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals and are financed by the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund. The programmes‟ gender approaches are defined as: the way the programmes interpret the concepts of women‟s empowerment and gender equality; the way they incorporate the concepts into their programme design and organisational structure, and; the activities and strategies implemented to enhance women‟s empowerment and gender equality in the programme areas. The analysis of the gender approaches of the programmes will be centred on the five theoretical assumptions which together state that a) a gender approach based on a collective postulation, with; b) adequate mechanisms for women‟s influence and; c) a purposeful involvement of men, backed-up by; d) adequate resource and responsibility allocation, and; e) a gender integrated design enabling evaluation and monitoring, is more probable to empower women. The main findings of the thesis are that: 1) all of the six gender approaches of the programmes are fundamentally individualistic and driven by efficiency rationales; 2) women‟s possible influence is generally limited and partial because of inadequate scope of participatory spaces; 3) men are not considered in any of the gender approaches; 4) the responsibility allocation for gender issues is the most important organisational feature for the implementation of the approaches, but it is weak in the majority of the programmes; 5) the integration of gender in the programme design and the funding mechanisms appear to not affect the implementation directly. Based on the results of the thesis it is concluded that both the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches create small possibilities for the programmes to empower women and to enhance gender equality. The results also point to what appears to be fundamental structural weaknesses in the present gender interpretation, integration and implementation of international development agencies.

  • 62.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Swedish Environm Protect Agcy.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes2015In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 22, p. 5193-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tolerance to herbivory is an adaptation that promotes regrowth and maintains fitness in plants after herbivore damage. Here, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on tolerance can be different for different genotypes within a species and we tested how tolerance is affected by competitive regime and damage type. We inflicted apical or leaf damage in siblings of 29 families of an annual plant Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) grown at high or low competition. There was a negative correlation of family tolerance levels between competition treatments: plant families with high tolerance to apical damage in the low competition treatment had low tolerance to apical damage in the high competition treatment and vice versa. We found no costs of tolerance, in terms of a trade-off between tolerance to apical and leaf damage or between tolerance and competitive ability, or an allocation cost in terms of reduced fitness of highly tolerant families in the undamaged state. High tolerance bound to a specific competitive regime may entail a cost in terms of low tolerance if competitive regime changes. This could act as a factor maintaining genetic variation for tolerance.

  • 63.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1597-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 64.
    Dick, Jan
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Verweij, Peter
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Carmen, Esther
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Andrews, Christopher
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Testing the ecosystem service cascade framework and QUICKScan software tool in the context of land use planning in Glenlivet Estate Scotland2017In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ecosystem services has been extensively studied in recent decades. Most studies have focused on describing the specific aspects such as production, spatial extent, valuation of services and the trade-off between services. Few studies however assess the practitioners? views on the frameworks, models or tools developed. In this paper, we report on a multi-stakeholder workshop where two tools were tested (i) the ecosystem service cascade framework was tested as a means to frame the issues and (ii) a participatory-spatial modelling method, QUICKScan, was tested as an aid to support discussion over natural resource management and planning in a multi-use landscape. A focused group discussion was utilised to determine stakeholders? views of the cascade framework and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires quantified the stakeholders? views of the QUICKScan method. The stakeholders identified both positive and negative aspects of both tools. The diversity of views expressed were associated with (i) the past experience of the individual with the issues discussed, (ii) the technical aspects of the tools i.e. the ability with GIS and (iii) the level of new shared knowledge they reported acquiring on the day which was related to their initial knowledge of the issue and area studied.

  • 65.
    Dicks, Lynn
    et al.
    University of East Anglia, UK .
    Haddaway, Neil
    Stockholm Research Institute.
    Hernández-Morcillo, Monica
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Mattsson, Brady
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Randall, Nicole
    Harper Adams University, UK.
    Failler, Pierre
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    Ferretti, Johanna
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany.
    Livoreil, Barbara
    FRB, France.
    Saarikoski, Heli
    SYKE.
    Santamaria, Luis
    Spanish Research Council, Spain.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Velizarova, Emiliya
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Wittmer, Heidi
    UFZ.
    Knowledge synthesis for environmental decisions: an evaluation of existing methods, and guidance for their selection, use and development : a report from the EKLIPSE project2017Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    DIALOGIK Non-Profit Institute for Communication and Cooperation Research, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Participatory Deliberation, Risk Governance and Management of the Marine Region in the European Union2014In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, marine environmental risks are governed in a complex multi-level system. The role that the marine region could or should play as a level of risk governance has attracted growing attention of late. In this context, reference has been made to the regional sea as one level at which participatory processes in the future governing of European Union's (EU) marine environment and resources are required. The paper unfolds the particular challenges that one faces when trying to implement stakeholder and citizen participatory deliberation at marine region level. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive is highlighted as a key European environmental policy initiative and participatory deliberation at regional sea level is underlined as a requirement for the Directive's successful implementation. The paper's account of participatory deliberation is informed by perspectives of inclusive risk governance and reflexive governance. The discussion of the challenges draws on the distinction between horizontal and vertical risk governance. The paper's main argument is that frequently encountered problems of participatory deliberation are exacerbated when deliberation is to be carried out at the regional sea level, i.e. at a large trans-boundary scale. These problems include the 'inclusivity-effectiveness dilemma', a fragmentation of participation efforts and a loose connection to actual decision-making.

  • 67. Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    Sellke, Piet
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Structures and processes of stakeholder and public communication on Baltic Seaenvironmental risks: RISKGOV Deliverable 102011Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Dublinowska, M.
    et al.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Zabrzańska, S.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait2016In: American Malacological Bulletin, ISSN 0740-2783, E-ISSN 2162-2698, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.

  • 69.
    Edlund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gaspar, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jordbruksfåglarnas minskning i Stockholms län: En kvantitativ studie av fåglarna i jordbrukslandskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s, a breeding bird survey was conducted to see how many birds are breeding in Sweden. This was done because the research at the time pointed out that there was a decrease in the number of bird species. This inventory became known as atlas inventory 1, and an additional inventory was done in the 2000s, which was called atlas inventory 2. The second inventory was carried out in order to see trends in bird population distribution and to be compared with atlas inventory 1. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is possible to compare the inventories with each other to see if there are any changes in the number of breeding birds in Sweden. The study was limited to the Stockholm report area, which includes all municipalities in Stockholm County except for Norrtälje. A limitation was also made to only examine agricultural birds, where six species were selected. The results show that the number of atlas squares with data for breeding birds within the Stockholm report area have decreased between atlas inventory 1 and atlas inventory 2. To obtain these results, information was retrieved from the website Artportalen, and was then compiled and processed in Excel and ArcMap. A comparison between the period 2013-2016 and atlas inventory 2 was also done, which showed a decrease in the number of atlas squares with available data, as well as a reduction in the number of observations of breeding birds.

  • 70. Einarsson, Peter
    Policy interventions for ecological recycling agriculture: Available options for governments in the Baltic Sea region2012Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Ekblom, Mikaela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Challenges Facing Food Processing MSEs in Tanzania: A Qualitative Case Study of the Sunflower Oil Industry in Babati, Manyara2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) play an important role in the national economic development of Tanzania. Though many of them have great growth potential, they face a number of constraints hindering further development, and large amounts of cooking oil are imported each year. The aim of thesis has therefore been to identify and analyse the different factors affecting these MSEs in order to find out which the major growth challenges are. The case study is mainly based on individual semi-structured interviews with sunflower oil processors and farmers in Babati districts, conducted in February and March 2016, and earlier research and studies on the topic of MSE growth make up the theoretical framework used for analysis of the data. The findings show that there are indeed numerous challenges facing these processors, and the major constraint was found to be lack of capital; an issue causing or worsening a majority of the other challenges at hand. Other problems are related to raw material, equipment & electricity for processing, regulations, market accessibility, and competition. These obstacles need to be overcome in order to enable the industry's expansion within and outside of Tanzania, and further research is recommended.

  • 72.
    Ekblom, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Green Wave: How communication, advocacy andparticipation measures are included indocuments important for increase bicycling inStockholm City and Nacka Municipality2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is becoming increasingly urban. This puts pressure on a number of functions within cities, not the least the transportation system. Motorized traffic is responsible for a number of negative environmental effects, such as carbon dioxide emissions and particle pollution. To halt this development an increased share of bicyclists is needed. Stockholm County is an area with rapid urbanization. Therefore, a comparative study was undertaken to analyse how Stockholm City and Nacka Municipality are including communication, advocacy and participation measures in documents important for increased bicycling. This as those measures are important to increase the number of bicyclists. The analysis was undertaken by using two typologies, a modified version of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) to understand how the two cases include communication and advocacy measures whereas Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizens Participation was chosen to understand how participation is included in the documents. The findings suggest many similarities between the two cases but Nacka Municipality perform better with their use of social media, and the activities ”bicycle-friendly workplace” and ”winter bicycling”. From the findings three recommendations where provided: create bicycle councils to improve inclusion of bicyclists in the processes. Second, it is important to have different type of role models across the municipality, both in socio-economic strong and weak areas. And third, create dedicated outlets for bicycle issues, tentatively on a social media outlet. This will increase the status of bicycles, it will promote bicycling as a good transportation choice and it open ups channels for citizens interaction.

  • 73.
    Ekedahl, Sanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Trädet, tillståndet, turerna: Konflikten i samband med beslutet om TV-ekens fällning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2011 a veteran oak of protective value, ”TV-eken”, located on Oxenstiernsgatan in the city district Östermalm in Stockholm, was felled. The decision to fell the tree – officially a technical decision to fell a high-risk tree, whereas protesting people interpeted the decision completely different – caused a conflict between responsible decision-takers and people fighting to preserve the tree. The aim of this study is to understand what events and processes lead up to the conflict arising from the decision to fell the ”TV-eken” tree. Responsible decision-taking public official at the traffic administration in the city of Stockholm has been interviewed as well as three oak activists. The interviews have been complemented by reviews of some relevant documents. Due to the background of the conflicting parties and the parties' preconceived view of the opposite party, the conflict developed to be all about more questions than the factual question (i.e. the felling of the oak). New studies that were performed in order to examine the state of the oak exacerbated the conflict as none of the studies were considered legitimate by both parties. Both parties have expressed substantial suspiciousness towards the other party and many actings have been interpreted as strategical. Inadequate communication between the parties is the general explanation to the origin and increase of the conflict.

  • 74.
    Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Loftsson, Elfar
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhälle, Political science.
    Norling, Sofia
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Strandskyddsproblematiken på Ornö: En kritisk diskussion kring miljöpolitisk decentralisering2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofta hävdas att de lokala, direkt berörda parterna är mest lämpade att fatta beslut i miljöfrågor. I denna pilotstudie sätts det ifråga. En undersökning presenteras av hur lagen om strandskydd fungerar på kommunal nivå, mer specifikt dess tillämpning i Haninge kommun och skärgårdsön Ornö.

  • 75.
    Elander, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Diatom analyses of sediment from Himmerfjärden estuary, southern archipelago of Stockholm: has the water discharge from a constructed sewage treatment plant led to eutrophication?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment core from Himmerfjärden estuary, south of Stockholm, was examined to detect records of eutrophication on the site since the opening of the sewage treatment plant Himmerfjärdsverket in 1974. The core was analysed with respect to the diatom record and lithology. Four macrofossil that were found in the sediment were dated using 14C-dating.    This study aims to detect changes in the environment of Himmerfjärden by using the diatom stratigraphy record. The results have been interpreted and discussed regarding natural environmental and climate change and/or anthropogenic impact, and detected changes will be associated with the history of the sampling site. The results show that the lowermost zone started to deposit around 1300-1490 cal yr BP and the homogeneous sediment indicates that the area was not suffering from hypoxia at that time. There is a successive transition towards more distinct lamination further up in the core which show that the environment in Himmerfjärden have changed and become hypoxic. This may have to do with factors such as the opening of heavily trafficked Södertälje Canal, and also the increased nutrient input from Himmerfjärdsverket.    This study could be a part of the process of working towards a “good environmental status” in the Baltic Sea. However, continued and improved work is needed for further and more accurate interpretations.

  • 76.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    Uppsala University.
    Matsdotter, Elina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Arntyr, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of climate information on milk demand: Evidence from a field experiment2016In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 58, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that carbon labelling of food, on voluntary or non-voluntary basis, could reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the influence of such labels on consumer purchases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether voluntary carbon labelling affects the demand for milk. A randomized field experiment was conducted in 17 retail stores in Sweden, where a sign provided consumers with qualitative information about the carbon impact of climate-certified milk. The results suggest that the sign increased the demand for the climate-certified milk by approximately 6-8%, and the result is robust to alternative model specifications. The effect is entirely driven by large stores, such as supermarkets. We find no statistically significant impact on total milk sales, and the dataset is too small to verify the consequences for other milk brands. The effect on the demand for the labelled milk is short-lived. (C) 2015 The Authors.

  • 77.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Gilek, MichaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Rudén, Christina
    Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ebert, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Well salinization risk and effects of Baltic Sea level rise on the groundwater-dependent Island of Öland, Sweden2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 79.
    Espínola, Fernando
    et al.
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Borglin, Sharon
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Brislawn, Colin J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Instituto Antártico Argentino, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes2018In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, no 1, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  • 80.
    Franzen, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. KTH.
    Kinell, Gerda
    Walve, Jakob
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Participatory Social-Ecological Modeling in Eutrophication Management: the Case of Himmerfjarden, Sweden2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 27-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as central in natural resource management. It is also required by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which identifies three levels of participation; information, consultation, and active involvement. In this paper we discuss the active involvement of stakeholders, using our experience from a case study in the Himmerfjarden region, which is a coastal area southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Our study used the systems approach proposed by the European Union research project called Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA), in which local stakeholders and a study site team constructed an integrated simulation model of a crucial coastal management issue. In this case the issue was nitrogen enrichment. We showed how stakeholder participation in the modeling process helped identify interesting and currently relevant management scenarios, and how the modeling process facilitated communication of the likely ecological, economic, and social effects of these scenarios to the stakeholders. In addition, stakeholders also reported social gains in terms of network building. We managed to actively involve local stakeholders in water issues, and the research process clearly strengthened the social capital in the Himmerfjarden region, and created a basis for future collaboration regarding water management. Our experience indicates that the approach we tried is a useful tool for promoting active stakeholder involvement in water management projects. Also, the results of our science and policy integration approach indicated that the study site team assumed a leadership role, which is a commonly recognized factor in successful natural resource management.

  • 81.
    Franzén, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    From words to action: Lessons from active stakeholder participation in water management2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water governance worldwide is going through a shift towards more holistic and participatory approaches. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000, aims at protecting surface water and groundwater. The WFD emphasizes the importance of stakeholder participation in planning and implementation of the directive, and in order to reach environmental objectives. However, the empirical findings are insufficient regarding how stakeholder participation can lead to improved decisions and implemented plans. In Sweden, a major water quality problem is eutrophication caused to a large extend by diffuse nutrient leakage from agriculture. Therefore, it is important to involve farmers in water management, since their participation can lead the commitment of mitigation measures for reduced nutrient leakage. The overall aim of this study is to contribute the knowledge and understanding of active stakeholder participation in water management, in particular how it can lead to implementation of water quality objectives. The thesis addresses stakeholder participation in eutrophication management in local Swedish catchments, with a particular focus on farmers’ participation in the commitment of mitigation measures. The results are based on case study research, involving four catchment areas in Sweden with severe eutrophication problems. The thesis identified socio-demographic factors, farmers’ knowledge, and the level of existing information and economic support for wetland creation, as factors affecting farmers’ willingness to participate in wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage. In the local catchment groups studied, farmers and other local stakeholders participated to discuss potential mitigation activities. In these, farmers emphasized other emitting actors’ responsibility and commitment in local action plans. Where this was realized, social capital within the group increased and led to further collaboration. The thesis also analyzed large-scale wetland programmes at catchment scale, where the organizational and institutional arrangements were central to realize farmers’ participation: inter-municipal agreements entailed sufficient resources, the organization involved the most relevant actors; and leadership resources were important. The thesis argues that organizing water management at a catchment level can be important to cope with challenges related to stake-holder participation for mitigating diffuse nutrient leakage. In particular for dissemination and collection of information, suggesting potential measures for all concerned actors, provide resources needed to realize actions, and to build trust and collaboration. The thesis also emphasized that stakeholder participation has to be underpinned by a genuine meaning, both for the initiators and the participants.

  • 82.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in eutrophication mitigation: a case study of preferences for wetland creation in Sweden2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 130, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local stakeholder participation in water management is emphasized in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage from agriculture is one example where participation of local farmers is needed. In this case study of the Himmerfjärden coastal catchment area, south of Stockholm, Sweden, we assessed both the importance of several demo-graphic factors, and of the main subsidy factors in the present Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) for their effects on farmers’ willingness to create wetlands on their farms. The farm and farmer characteristics analyzed were age, gender, knowledge of the WFD, education, farm size, land ownership, current measures to reduce nutrient leakage and trust for other actors. The main factors from the AES were defined as five attributes in a discrete choice experiment approach related to the current agri-environmental policy instrument for wetland creation applied in the area. The results showed that approximately 30 % of the farmers were interested in wetland creation at their farms. The most common reason for not wanting to create a wetland was economic cost. Males were significantly more willing than females to create wetlands. Younger farmers were significantly more willing than older. Prior knowledge of the WFD increased willingness almost threefold, and land owners were significantly more willing than leaseholders. The choice experiment showed that higher cost ceiling for subsidies, higher compensation percentage and higher annual subsidies can significantly increase the willingness to create wetlands. However to attract also the remaining 70% of all farmers to join the AES we must look at other options than only using action based AES.

  • 83.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Institutional development for stakeholder participation in local water management-An analysis of two Swedish catchments2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 43, p. 217-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) promotes a change of European water governance towards increased stakeholder participation and water management according to river basins. To implement the WFD, new institutional arrangements are needed. In Sweden, water councils have been established on the local level to meet the requirements of the WFD of a broad stakeholder involvement in water management. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge on institutional arrangements for meeting the WFD requirements on stakeholder participation in local water management. A case study of two adjacent catchments in southern Sweden is presented to analyze how institutional legacy affect organizational arrangements and stakeholder participation. Based on literature studies and semi-structure interviews, the case study is analyzed with special emphasis on the scope, the organization and the activities in practical water management in catchments. The result shows different institutional arrangements for water management, despite similarities of the catchments' characteristics and the regulatory framework on national and regional level.The study identifies four important factors regarding institutional arrangements for water councils and local stakeholder participation in water management. Firstly, an organization involving key stakeholders that are committed to the scope and goals of the water council and willing to provide resources for the implementation of the planned activities. Secondly, institutional arrangements that include a willingness for flexibility and awareness of the need to include the most relevant stakeholders. Thirdly, a clear leadership to drive the process to realize the specific goals and assess the outcome. Fourthly, voluntary involvement of farmers to take part in the implementation of the measures and contribute with knowledge and experiences regarding local conditions.

  • 84.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Involving farmers in local water eutrophication management: lessons learnt from two Swedish catchmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly important in water governance worldwide. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member states to encourage the active involvement of stakeholders in planning and implementation of the WFD. In Sweden, eutrophication is one of the major water quality problems, which is primarily caused by diffuse nutrient leakage from agriculture. Farmers are, therefore, increasingly invited to participate in local water groups to discuss potential local action to mitigate nutrient leakage. This paper presents the lessons learnt from two Swedish catchments, where farmers and other local stakeholders participated in local water groups. Both catchments have severe eutrophication problems, and have been pointed out as “hot-spots” for wetland creation as mitigation measure. The overall aim of this study was to identify farmers’ primary concerns regarding local water management and wetland creation in particular. The results were based on data from meeting observation, interviews and a questionnaire. The paper identified four major aspects: (i) farmers’ concern about the commitment of other actors in local action plans; (ii) farmers desired improved information on local water management, monitoring of water quality, as well as improved information on wetland creation; (iii) farmers were concerned about phosphorus scarcity, and were interested in wetlands as phosphor traps; and, (iv) farmers requested developments in catchment-based platforms. Therefore, the paper suggests that organization of water management at catchment level could play an important role to cope with farmers’ primary concerns: Catchment platforms should disseminate information on local water management, identify information and data gaps, distribute responsibilities and commitment, enhance incentives for farmers’ commitment and enable trust-building. Consideration of these aspects could lead towards more robust forms for participation, inducing action and, consequently, improved water quality.

  • 85.
    Fredrikson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Biofuel Production: Examining the development of sub-Saharan Africa through the concepts of land grabbing, environmental justice and different views on development theories2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and problematize the effects of biofuel production by focusing on local communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The premise lays in a critique of neoliberal thoughts of development and the concept of sustainable development. The establishment of biofuel production in SSA has been depicted to carry with it opportunities of development for the rural population. However, there have been a big interest from foreign actors looking to invest in sub-Saharan biofuel production which have raced concern for land grabbing. A conflict of interest has emerged between Southern and Northern interests. A literature study is used as the method to examine reported outcomes on local communities in the proximity of biofuel production in order to determine if sub-Saharan biofuel production is established for the development need of SSA or the interest of the North. To analyze the results a theoretical framework has been constructed from concepts of large-scale land acquisition (land grabbing), environmental justice and the four worldviews market liberalism, institutionalism, bioenvironmentalism and social greens. The paper concludes that the large-scale production of biofuels is highly problematic due to the risk of land grabbing and Northern mitigation schemes are based on Southern lands raises the question of environmental justice. Depending on which worldview one adopts there can be several explanations to why this occur. 

  • 86.
    Frost, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Populationsdifferentiering hos kransalger2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Charophytes are an important key species in the Baltic Sea. They reproduce by using oospores and this study aims at distinguish morphological differentiation between oospores within and between individuals and populations. Mainly I asked myself the question whether the differences and similarities in morphology could be associated with differences between geographic distance and habitat, and to what extent oospores could be reassigned to the correct population and individual. Charophytes of the genus Chara aspera were collected in eastern Svealand and harmonics from elliptic Fourier transforms have been used to describe the contours of the oospores. The parameters of the harmonics were then used for statistical analyses. The results showed that the different populations could be separated morphologically when the population affiliation of the oospores has been known to the analysis. It was difficult to separate individuals from each other, but it worked well in the population in which most oospores were collected. When the identity of the oospores was unknown to the analysis only half of them were returned to the correct population, and it did not work to reassign unknown oospores to individuals. The three populations from brackish water grouped together in the discriminant analysis, separated from the two freshwater populations, which, in turn, were clearly distinct from one another. Dispersal between the different populations in brackish water is likely. However, dispersal between the populations in fresh water is not likely. There is nothing to indicate dispersal between brackish and freshwater habitats. I can conclude that there is enough information in the morphology of the oospores to measure relative differences between individuals and groups, as well as to estimate variability.

  • 87.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community2018In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agri-pastoralist communities of the semi-arid region of Chile, with their unusual common land ownership, have not escaped economic neo-liberalism. The general pattern of insatiable demand of land for agricultural production, mining, energy generation and real-estate development has become a challenge for these communities. How are these processes affecting the traditional practices of these localized agri-food systems, based on rain-fed-agriculture, pastoralism and the fading practice of transhumance? In this article, we look at how the Huentelauquén Agricultural Community in the Canela Commune has dealt with, reacted to, and been affected by regional economic shifts geared towards market liberalization. In particular, we analyze the structural changes in the community in regard to alienation of the commons and changes in land tenure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants in this setting. To provide a richer contextual setting, this article draws on several other empirically-based works on the commons’ emergence and evolution, land commoditization and local struggles for livelihoods. Our study shows that a community can adopt different strategies when dealing with powerful sectoral development that can involve resistance as well as positioning that seeks to find favorable terms of engagement. Our findings highlight that processes affecting the traditional commons are resulting in the re-appropriation and re-occupation of the land. This is resulting in social differentiation, weakening of the community’s social bonds, depeasantization and further degradation of an already vulnerable ecosystem. In sum, these shifts are posing an existential threat to this form of traditional agri-pastoralism. 

  • 88. Gallardo, Gloria
    et al.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Efterord – förändringens horisont2018In: Ekonomi för Antropocen: skiftet till en hållbar värld / [ed] Robert Österbergh ; Mikael Malmaeus, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2018, p. 338-349Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 89.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sokolov, Tatiana
    Uppsala University.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University .
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017In: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, p. 667-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

  • 90. Garnier-Laplace, J.
    et al.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilbin, R.
    Alonzo, F.
    Ciffroy, P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Agueero, A.
    Björk, Mikael
    Oughton, D. H.
    Jaworska, A.
    Larsson, C. M.
    Hingston, J. L.
    Issues and practices in the use of effects data from FREDERICA in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 1474-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

  • 91.
    Gee, Kira
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum, Germany.
    Blazauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Dahl, Karsten
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kannen, Andreas
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum, Germany.
    Leposa, Neva
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Weig, Barbara
    s.Pro – sustainable projects, Germany.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Can tools contribute to integration in MSP?: A comparative review of selected tools and approaches2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 179, p. 1-11, article id 104834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of tools and approaches is currently much debated in maritime spatial planning (MSP). Past evaluation has mainly concentrated on decision support tools and the tangible outputs these can provide for MSP, but little attention has so far been been given to the soft or indirect benefits tool use can have in MSP. This paper assesses the potential benefits of tool use in the context of four common integration challenges in MSP. Drawing on case study material from the Baltic Sea region, the paper reviews the potential contribution of five selected tools and approaches to multi-level and transboundary, policy and sector, stakeholder and knowledge integration. Specific end points are defined for each integration challenge, including general desired outcomes of integrated MSP processes as a template for assessment. Our review shows that the selected tools play different roles in moving towards the various end points of MSP integration. There is an important difference between the potential of each tool, or its inherent capacity, and how it is applied, e.g. in a participative or non-participative setting. Another lesson is that some integration benefits can be achieved by the tools alone, while others – often secondary benefits - depend on how the outcomes of tool use are taken up by the subsequent MSP process. Although the nature of a tool does restrict its potential contribution to MSP integration challenges, the secondary “soft” benefits that can be achieved through certain styles of application and good links to the MSP process can add important integration benefits up and beyond the tool itself. The results presented here may also be relevant to other types of spatial planning and conservation management.

  • 92.
    George, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Social responsibility and import of certified organic food: A case study of 13 Swedish firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores how social responsibility is addressed by firms importing certified organic food from developing countries to Sweden. The approaches to social responsibility of 13 Swedish firms were investigated, of which the majority were small or medium size (< 250 employees) and none belonged to the market-dominating group of grocery retailers. The results show that a majority of the firms consider social responsibility in relation with their suppliers but in view of scarce resources trust intermediary firms for follow up. Many mix ethical trading approaches focused on production conditions, and fair trade initiatives focused on community development. Companies experience uncertainty as to whether organic certification that includes requirements for social responsibility will render a higher price premium. The co-existence of multiple social schemes related to organic trade enables flexibility but in some cases resulted in a perception of subjectivity and differentiation of control measures, which risks to result in a loss of systemic trust. Working through intermediaries has benefits but at the same time leads to the loss of connection to the place and people that the social responsibility targets. Organic certification schemes need to be clearer about the scope and purpose of included social aspects. Further research is needed to understand and compare the social effects and differences at farm or factory level, in relation to the four identified approaches to social responsibility in organic trade. The four approaches were:  organic certification according to a standard with social requirements, combining organic certification according to minimum production standard either with a separate social label, or with a business supplier code of conduct, or finally the belief that conversion to organic farming will automatically bring about social benefits.

  • 93.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Final report : Deliverable 122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.

    These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).

    The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

  • 94.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    RISKGOV – Environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 95.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Kern, Kristine
    The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan: challenges of implementing an innovative ecosystem approach2013In: Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Tobias Etzold and Anna-Lena Pohl, Copenhagen: Baltic Development Forum , 2013, p. 58-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 249-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Jönsson, Anna MariaSödertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.Karlsson, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    AMBIO Special Issue: Coping with Complexity in Baltic Sea Risk Governance2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 109-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Science and Policy in the Governance of Europe’s Marine Environment: The Impact of Europeanization, Regionalization and the Ecosystem Approach to Management2015In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 141-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Wageningen University, Holland.
    Environment2011In: Political State of the Region Report 2011 / [ed] Bernd Henningsen & Tobias Etzold, Köpenhamn: Baltic Development Forum , 2011, p. 68-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
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