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  • 51.
    Ingridsdotter, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Promises of the Free World: Postsocialist Experience in Argentina and the Making of Migrants, Race, and Coloniality2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the narrated experiences of a number of individuals that migrated to Argentina from Russia and Ukraine in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union. The over-arching aim of this thesis is to study the ways in which these migrants navigated the social reality in Argentina, with regards to available physical, material, and socioeconomic positions as well as with regards to their narrated self-understandings and identifications. The empirical data consists of ethnographic in-depth interviews and participatory observation from Buenos Aires between the years 2011 and 2014. Through the theoretical frameworks of political discourse theory, critical race studies, auto-ethnography, and theories on coloniality, the author examines questions of migration, mobility, race, class, and gender in the processes of re-establishing a life in a new context. The interviewees were not only directly affected by the collapse of the USSR in the sense that it drastically changed their terrain of possible futures as well as retroactive understandings of their pasts, but they also began their lives in Argentina during the turmoil of the economic crisis that culminated in 2001. Central to this thesis is how these dislocatory events impacted the interviewees’ possibilities and limitations for living the life they had expected, and thus how discursive structures affect subject positions and identifications, and thereby create specific conditions for different relocatory trajectories. By focusing on how these individuals narrate their reasons for migration and their integration into Argentine labor and housing markets, the author demonstrates the role Argentine and East European history, as well as the neoliberal restructuring of the postsocialist region and Argentina in the 1990’s, had for self-understandings, subject positions, identities, and mobility. Various intersections of power, and particularly the making of race and whiteness, are important for the way that the interviewees negotiated subject positions and identifications. The author addresses how affect and hope played a part in these processes and how downward mobility was articulated and made meaningful. She also examines how participants’ ideas about a “good life” were related to understandings of the past, questions of race, social inequality, and a logic of coloniality.

  • 52.
    Jaensson, Alia
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Pheromonal Mediated Behaviour and Endocrine Responses in Salmonids: The impact of Cypermethrin, Copper, and Glyphosate2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cypermethrin, copper and glyphosate on the endocrine system and subsequent response to female pheromones were investigated in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr.  Responses measured were the amount of strippable milt, blood plasma levels of both an androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)) and a progestin (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20b-P)), and behavioural changes. This was done in a two phased investigation where parr were exposed to one of the following via ambient water: 1) 0.1 or 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin, 2) 10 or 100 μg L-1 copper (Cu2+), or 3) 150 μg L-1 glyphosate for a 96 hour period.  Phase one was a priming experiment exposing parr to a treatment followed by priming with PGF or ovarian fluid (OVF). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were, also exposed to glyphosate during phase I. The second phase was centered on behavioural observations.  Exposed parr were placed in a 35,000 L stream aquarium together with two ovulated females and four anadromous males. After the experiments a blood sample was taken, milt volumes measured and testes weighed.  The plasma was analyzed for 11-KT and 17,20b-P concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA).

    Results from phase I-priming: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 17,20b-P and 11-KT; Copper exposure lowered milt volumes; glyphosate exposure lowered 11-KT in salmon and raised 17,20b-P in trout.  Results from phase II-behaviour: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 11-KT, milt and spawning behaviour; copper exposure lowered spawning behaviour and raised 11-KT; Glyphosate exposure lowered 11KT; continuous cypermethrin exposure raised 17,20b-P, 11-KT and gave a tendency towards increased aggression. It is concluded that low concentration exposure to the compounds examined can induce negative effects on male salmonid endocrine systems, either through a disruption in the olfactory system or through a direct effect.

  • 53.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Öppenhetsindustrin2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades several competing descriptions of the media and cultural industries have been put forward. The media and cultural industries have been described as creative industries, copyright industries, and as constitutive of an experience economy. One key element in these descriptions has been the importance of copyright law in a postindustrial economy.

    The present study is an analysis of an emerging idea of an industry that functions, in part, outside of the market created by copyright law, and by exploiting, or by building markets on top of, digital, cultural and informational commons. The study is about how this idea is expressed in various forms by business organisations, companies, consultants and policymakers. I have invented the concept of the openness industry to denote the businesses that these organisations and policy makers claim are forerunners and promoters of the idea of ‘openness’ as a business model for the media industry. The purpose of the thesis is to analyse the governmentality and ideology of the openness industry.

    A key element in the idea of the openness industry is that internet users can be persuaded to produce symbolic products for it by other means than the economic incentives provided by copyright. Another key element is the high value placed on single individuals in the creation of economic value; but in contrast to how the copyright industries are thought to be dependent on ‘authors’, the openness industry relies on the ‘entrepreneur’. Previous notions of the media and cultural industries have given publishers and producers of film, music and games a central role.The companies that are seminal to the idea of the openness industry are internet and technology companies.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Dissenting Democrats: Nation and Democracy in the Republic of Moldova2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Republic of Moldova was one of fifteen states to emerge from the dissolution of the Soviet Union. With weak historical legacy of statehood, deteriorating economy and serious national divisions, the young state lacked many of the prerequisites deemed necessary for successful democratization. From the very beginning of independence, Moldova became the battleground of Romanianists, propagating for the Romanian character of Moldova’s majority population, and Moldovanists, who viewed the people as a separate nation. In the literature on democracy and democratization, a divided nation is singled out as a serious threat to statehood and democratization efforts alike. Without a nation in place it is generally understood that democracy cannot take root.

    Nevertheless, Moldova in a few years time managed to make considerable progress on its path towards democracy. A main theme of the dissertation is thus the issue of national division and how it has affected political developments in general and democracy in specific. This picture is then further expanded by including close analysis of political support.

    The dissertation contributes to discussions about how nation and democracy goes together in transitional states with no legacy of either of them. The analysis shows that national division in Moldova works on different levels. While political actors often seek support from the electorate according to their positions on the nation, national identity by itself does not suffice to explain differences in political support. Instead other aspects, such as generational values, degree of urbanity and level of education, play a much larger role. Democracy, as a platform where different political ideas and ambitions may form, can both complicate transitions since it provides opportunities for conflicts, but democracy also holds the prospects to find ways to resolve disagreements. In the long run, this carries the seed of consolidation of both democracy and nation alike.

  • 55.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Fångna i begreppen?: Revolution, tid och politik i svensk socialistisk press 1917–19242017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the uses of the concept of revolution in Swedish socialist press from 1917 to 1924. Political revolution and civil wars shook several countries. The Russian February and October Revolutions were soon followed by uprisings in countries such as Germany and Finland.

    While the social and political history of this period, with its mass demonstrations for bread and voting rights, often called the Swedish revolution, has been covered extensively in existing research, we know much less about the theoretical understanding of revolution among Swedish socialists. This thesis examines the concept of revolution from a perspective inspired by the Begriffsgeschichte of German historian Reinhart Koselleck. This foundation in the history of concepts aims at understanding how Swedish socialists, in a wide sense, understood their own time, how they related to the past and what they expected from the future, during the years of the First World War and the immediately following years. By focusing on what might be the most central, but also the most contested and most difficult to define, concept I hope to complement earlier research focusing on the social and political history of the period and its socialist movements.

    The main purpose of the thesis is to analyse how the labour movement understood revolution with particular weight placed upon the theoretical and ideological tensions between revolution and reform, determinism and voluntarism and localized and universal revolution. The starting point is the political and social changes in Sweden and abroad at that time and the place of the political press as opinion leaders capable of negotiating the space of political action. A secondary aim is to discuss how focusing on temporality can inspire new perspectives on the use of conceptual history.

    My research shows that how the concept of revolution was used was shaped both by already established notions regarding the socialist revolution as well as by the political situation at hand. The October Revolution forced a sharpening of its meaning, wherein different factions elaborated their understanding of it in relation to each other, which in turn determined how the concept was used fom that point on. 

  • 56.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Suicide in Russia: A macro-sociological study2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work constitutes a macro-sociological study of suicide. The empirical focus is on suicide mortality in Russia, which is among the highest in the world and has, moreover, developed in a dramatic manner over the second half of the 20th century. Suicide mortality in contemporary Russia is here placed within the context of development over a longer time period through empirical studies on 1) the general and sex- and age-specific developments in suicide over the period 1870–2007, 2) underlying dynamics of Russian suicide mortality 1956–2005 pertaining to differences between age groups, time periods, and particular generations and 3) the continuity in the aggregate-level relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality from late Tsarist period to post-World War II Russia. In addition, a fourth study explores an alternative to Émile Durkheim’s dominating macro-sociological perspective on suicide by making use of Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems. With the help of Luhmann’s macro-sociological perspective it is possible to consider suicide and its causes also in terms of processes at the individual level (i.e. at the level of psychic systems) in a manner that contrasts with the ‘holistic’ perspective of Durkheim. The results of the empirical studies show that Russian suicide mortality, despite its exceptionally high level and dramatic changes in the contemporary period, shares many similarities with the patterns seen in Western countries when examined over a longer time period. Societal modernization in particular seems to have contributed to the increased rate of suicide in Russia in a manner similar to what happened earlier in Western Europe. In addition, the positive relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality proved to be remarkably stable across the past one and a half centuries. These results were interpreted using the Luhmannian perspective on suicide developed in this work. 

  • 57.
    Jüriado, Rein
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Learning within and between public-private partnerships2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mediated Post-Soviet Nostalgia2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-Soviet nostalgia, generally understood as a sentimental longing forthe Soviet past, has penetrated deep into many branches of Russian popular culture in the post-1989 period. The present study investigates how the Soviet past has been mediated in the period between 1991 and 2012 as one element of a prominent structure of feeling in present-day Russian culture.

    The Soviet past is represented through different mediating arenas – cultural domains and communicative platforms in which meanings are created and circulated. The mediating arenas examined in this study include television, the Internet, fashion, restaurants, museums and theatre. The study of these arenas has identified common ingredients which are elements of a structure of feeling of the period in question. At the same time, the research shows that the representations of the past vary with the nature of the medium and the genre.

    The analysis of mediations of the Soviet past in Russian contemporary culture reveals that there has been a change in the representations of the Soviet past during the past twenty years, which roughly correspond to the two decades marked by the presidencies of Boris Yeltsin in the 1990s and of Vladimir Putin in the 2000s (including Dmitrii Medvedev's term, 2008–2012). The critical and reflective component that was present in representations of the Soviet past in the 1990s has slowly faded away, making room first for more commercial and then for political exploitations of the past. Building on Svetlana Boym's conceptual framework of reflective and restorative nostalgia, the present study provides an illustration of how reflective nostalgia is being gradually supplanted by restorative nostalgia.

    Academic research has provided many definitions of nostalgia, from strictly medical explanations to more psychological and socio-cultural perspectives. The present study offers examples of how nostalgia functions as a label in ascribing political and cultural identities to oneself and to others, creating confusion about the term and about what and who can rightly be called nostalgic.

  • 59.
    Kanematsu, Makiko
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Saga och verklighet: barnboksproduktion i det postsovjetiska Lettland2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Karlberg, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Organizing the Voice of Women: A study of the Polish and Swedish women's movements' adaptation to international structures2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has become an important arena for international politics. Various actors try to influence the European-level executive and legislative authorities. Lobbyists in Brussels are not the only type of actors promoting the interests of others. Today, national-level social movement actors too are present at the European level, pushing the interests of various citizen groups and social issues. To do so, however, they need to adapt to the European Union’s multilevel governance system by speaking with one voice. As this thesis demonstrates, at the national level this adaptation may entail a number of organizational challenges for movements.

    Organizing the Voice of Women regards national-level social movements adapting to international structures. Taking the cases of the Swedish and the Polish women’s movements and their relation to the European Union as examples, the analysis follows two separate, yet similar, processes of forming and maintaining nationwide meta-organizations – that is, organizations of organizations – that can speak for the two respective movements. Through the cases of the two women’s movements’ adaptation to international structures, the study explores the challenges involved when a new layer of organization is added to a social movement.

    The results show that organizing the voice of the Swedish and the Polish women’s movements has been particularly challenging when conditions such as a tradition of umbrella organizing and stable financial resources are absent at national level. The results also show that competition and conflicts are apparent in both cases and inherent in meta-organizations, and that they have been possible to deal with differently depending on the two movements’ national settings. With an organizational perspective on social movement coalitions, this study contributes to the classic question of institutionalization, formalization and bureaucratization of social movements. It ultimately asks what it means to organize a field of social movement actors and what happens at the junction of organization and social movement, at the intersection of national and international interests. A wider implication of the study is that the issues it highlights are to be expected whenever the internationalization of national movement activities takes the form of meta-organization.

  • 61.
    Kasprzak, Krystof
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Vara - Framträdande - Värld: Fenomenets negativitet hos Martin Heidegger, Jan Patočka och Eugen Fink.2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation discusses the phenomenological concept of the phenomenon through an interpretation of the meaning of the negativity of the phenomenon in the philosophical works of Martin Heidegger, Jan Patočka and Eugen Fink. This negativity is thematised in terms of a loss and a privation that leads to a description of the appearing of the phenomenon as a sublime event, which exposes existence to an absence of meaning. A formulation of the absence in question as a dynamic movement of existence opens a new perspective on what it means to do phenomenology: phenomenological thinking does not begin with the immediate givenness of appearance, but through the trembling of meaning in the experience of a loss of the phenomenon.

  • 62.
    Kateka, Adolphine G.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Co-management Challenges In The Lake Victoria Fisheries: A Context Approach2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis examines the challenges to co-management in the Tanzania part of Lake Victoria. The study mainly addresses the Nile perch fishery and uses the fishing communities of Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania as a case study. Co-management in Lake Victoria is defined as the sharing of the management responsibilities between the state and the fishing communities. Co-management was adopted in the Lake Victoria fisheries on the understanding that it has the capacity to provide space in which the poor resource users could be empowered to sustainably manage their resource base. The assumption was that the sharing of the management responsibilities between the state and the community of users would have led to equity in resource access, poverty reduction and resource sustainability. Thus, reducing the role of the state and enhancing that of the communities was seen as a solution to the problems of poverty and illegal fishing that are threatening the sustainability of the fishery and the fishers dependent on it. However, in spite of these proclaimed efforts, illegal fishing and poverty in Lake Victoria remain major threats to the long-term sustainability of the fishery, a fact that is raising questions on the efficacy of co-management in Lake Victoria. These questions have particularly focused on the co-management model and the neo-liberal ideals that underlie it, namely decentralization, participation and accountability. The central argument in this thesis, however, is that co-management performance in Lake Victoria is to a large extent shaped by the complex international, national, and local context in which it is implemented and which in turn shapes the problems of poverty and illegal fishing that co-management is supposed to address. The study concludes that the international and national politics behind the Nile perch fishery intersect with the cultural and social context in which the fishery is embedded to shape co-management performance at the local level.

    For analysis, the study applies a multi-level approach and draws insights from the common pool resources theory, the actor-oriented approach, the entitlement framework, and the theory of the state. Detailed interviews across scale, secondary data, policy documents, and laws, supported by quantitative data are the methods applied.

  • 63.
    Katz Thor, Rebecka
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Aesthetics.
    Beyond the Witness: Holocaust Representations and the Testimony of Images2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when the very last Holocaust witnesses will soon be gone, a possible route for commemoration is to ask what testimony images can give. This book seeks to answer the question of how images can bear witness by examining them as multifaceted entities produced, reproduced, and resituated in conflicting political and historical situations. In three archive-based films by Harun Farocki, Yael Hersonski, and Eyal Sivan, the moving image is reactivated and reinterpreted. Footage produced as internal Nazi propaganda and the video recordings of a politically charged trial in the aftermath of the Holocaust have accrued new meaning. The archival status, context, and conditions for production, and the means of representation, offer a framework for an analysis through which the testimony of images can be understood. 

  • 64.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Civic experiences and public connection: media and young people in Estonia2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do young people in Estonia experience the political, politics and citizenship? How are these civic experiences connected to young peoples’ experiences with the media? Anne Kaun’s thesis Civic Experiences and Public Connection presents a theoretical and empirical investigation of how civic experiences, particularly public connection, emerge in the context of contemporary Estonia. Employing open-ended online diaries and in-depth interviews, she aims to develop an in-depth understanding of how young people experience democracy today, and how they express themselves as citizens; expression not only through the physical performance of citizenship, but also through orientation, interest in, and reflection about issues that are of common concern or should be seen as such. The empirical investigation of public connection as critical media connection, playful public connection and historical public connection, is based on narrative analysis and embedded in a theoretical exploration of key concepts in the context of civic culture studies, namely the political, politics and citizenship.

    Combining Chantal Mouffe’s conflict theory with Paul Ricoeur’s narrative identity, Kaun aims to shed light on contemporary democracy from the citizens’ perspective. The author proposes a holistic approach to both civic experiences and the role that media might play in relation to them. Following a non-media- centric approach, she shows that media, despite their ubiquity, are an important but not exclusive source of the civic experiences of young adults in Estonia.

  • 65.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the environment: Effects of citalopram on fish behaviour2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of anxiolytic and anti-depressant drugs. SSRIs act on the evolutionarily ancient serotonergic system which is virtually identical throughout the vertebrate phylum. Serotonin is involved in a wide range of processes ranging from neuronal and craniofacial embryonic development to regulation of behaviour. However, SSRIs are also emerging pollutants, mainly entering the environment via sewage treatment plants. Since the serotonergic system is virtually identical in humans and other animals, exposed animals will be affected in similar ways as humans and suspicions are rising that ecologically important behaviours may be affected in subtle ways. Using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organisms, this thesis focuses on the behavioural effects of SSRIs in fish. The SSRI used throughout this thesis is citalopram, which has been found in fish in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea and other parts of the world.

    Effects on behaviour were investigated using several different tests measuring stress response, feeding behaviour, aggression and locomotor activity. Anxiolytic effects of 0.1 μg/l, 1.5 μg/l 15 μg/l were investigated as well as effects of 0.15 μg/l and 1.5 μg/l on feeding behaviour. Because serotonin is involved in the development of the nervous system, the effects of developmental exposure to 1.5 μg/l was studied after 100 days of remediation. Finally, because SSRIs rarely occur alone in natural waters, the effects on zebrafish of citalopram in a cocktail scenario, with the anxiogenic compound 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 ) was also investigated. Citalopram was found to have anxiolytic effects on the three-spined stickleback at 0.1 μg/l, 1.5 μg/l and 15 μg/l.

    Citalopram also suppressed feeding behaviour within a week of exposure and at concentrations as low as 0.15 μg/l. Developmental exposure to 1.5 μg/l for 30 days was found to increase aggression and feeding behaviour and to reduce locomotor activity. The changes were persistent and remained in adult fish. In the cocktail scenario, citalopram in single-substance exposure had anxiolytic effects on one parameter in the novel tank test at 0.1 μg/l. Citalopram enhanced the anxiogenic effects of EE2 in the novel tank test, but in the scototaxis test citalopram appeared to counteract the effects of EE2. It is concluded that citalopram has the potential to affect behaviour in fish at concentrations that have been found in close proximity of sewage treatment plants.

  • 66.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    In the shadows of Poland and Russia: the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden in the European crisis of the mid-17th century2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines and analyses the Union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden signed in 1655 at Kėdainiai and the political crisis that followed. The union was a result of strong separatist dreams among the Lithuanian-Ruthenian Protestant elite led by the Radziwiłł family, and if implemented it would radically change the balance of power in the Baltic Sea region. The main legal point of the Union was the breach of Lithuanian federation with Poland and the establishment of a federation with Sweden. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania aspired to return to international relations as a self-governing subject. The Union meant a new Scandinavian alternative to Polish and Russian domination. The author places the events in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the general crisis that occurred in Europe in the middle of the 17th century characterized by a great number of wars, rebellions and civil wars from Portugal to Ukraine, and which builds the background to the crisis for Lithuania and Sweden. The research proved the importance of lesser powers in changing the geopolitical balance between the Great Powers. The conflict over Lithuania and Belarus was the main reason for the Swedish-Russian, Polish-Russian and Ukrainian-Russian wars. The failure of the Union with Sweden was caused by both internal and external factors. Internally, various ethnic, confessional and political groups within the nobility of Lithuania were split in favour of different foreign powers – from Muscovy to Transylvania. The external cause for the failure of the Union project was the failure of Swedish strategy. Sweden concentrated its activity to Poland, not to Lithuania. After the Union, Swedish authorities treated the Grand Duchy as an invaded country, not an equal. The Swedish administration introduced heavy taxation and was unable to control the brutality of the army. As a result Sweden was defeated in both Lithuania and Poland. Among the different economic, political and religious explanations of the general crisis, the case of Lithuania shows the importance of the political conflicts. For the separatists of Lithuania the main motive to turn against Poland and to promote alliance with Sweden, Russia or the Cossacks was the inability of Poland to shield the Grand Duchy from a Russian invasion.The Lithuanian case was a provincial rebellion led by the native nobility against their monarch, based on tradition of the previous independence and statehood period. It was not nationalism in its modern meaning, but instead a crisis of identity in the form of a conflict between Patria and Central Power. However, the cost of being a part of Sweden or Muscovy was greater than the benefit of political protection. Therefore, the pro-Polish orientation prevailed when Poland after 1658 recovered its military ability the local nobility regrouped around Warsaw. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania managed to remain on the political map of Europe, but at the price of general religious Catholization and cultural Polonization. After the crisis, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania gradually changed into a deep province of the Polish state.

  • 67.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Family (versus) Policy: Combining Work and Care in Russia and Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Kuflu, Rahel
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    Bröder emellan: Identitetsformering i det koloniserade Eritrea2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation study examines individual and collective identity formation in Eritrea during the first period of Italian colonialism (1890-1916). Drawing on an African-centered theoretical framework, my analysis of identity formation centers on the interplay between colonial and patriarchal structures, in relations formed between African evangelical reformists and Swedish missionaries. The study is African-centered in the sense that it mainly focuses on African agency, while at the same time acknowledging the local context. Additionally, the theoretical framework is heavily informed by theories of black diasporic identity formation. While this means that I rely on contemporary theoretical formulations to examine the past, I argue that the afro-diasporic concepts that I draw on, are not always necessarily time and place bound, and thus allow for the exploration of black/African identity, in ways that have the capacity to advance theory-building in the present.

    The source materials consist of reports and minutes written by Swedish missionaries in the field, as well as letters written by members of the mission board in Stockholm. These sources include a multitude of accounts of verbal exchanges and actions carried out by Africans whom these writers encountered, and are therefore used (solely) for this purpose of accessing this information. Other sources used are letters penned by African evangelists hired by the Swedish missionaries. Thus, the letters are rather unique as the evangelists speak directly to their white supervisors in these letters.

    The findings of this study show that both colonial and local patriarchal structures influenced the identity formation of the evangelists and other Africans who attended Swedish missionary schools. While focusing on maintaining their masculinity, most men ended up being trapped within the dualistic worldview of colonialism.

  • 69.
    Kunz, Barbara
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Kind words, cruise missiles and everything in between: A neoclassical realist study of the use of power resources in U.S. policies towards Poland, Ukraine and Belarus 1989–20082010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.

  • 71.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Team Entrepreneurship: A Process Analysis of the Venture Team and the Venture Team Roles in relation to the Innovation Process2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Larsson, Simon
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Intelligensaristokrater och arkivmartyrer: normerna för vetenskaplig skicklighet i svensk historieforskning 1900-19452010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 73.
    León Rosales, René
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Ethnology.
    Vid framtidens hitersta gräns: Om maskulina elevpositioner i en multietnisk skola2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the central conditions, norms and values which enable the staging of certain masculine pupil positions and hinder others at a school located in the northern part of the municipality of Botkyrka, during 2004–2005. The school and the neighbourhood in this study are characterized by a high percentage of people with immigrant background, a result of urban ethnic segregation. The methodological approach is qualitative. The empirical data consists of interviews with 15 boys in grade 6, participant observations, and official documents. The study examines the central position of socially sanctioned conceptions of “good becoming” in society. Children are expected to control their own bodies and take on certain areas of knowledge in the correct way in order to create themselves as expanding subjects: they learn to ask for “success” and “upward” social mobility. But as this study shows this does not apply equally to all pupils. The boys in this study have to create themselves as pupils on terms that make it harder for them to establish themselves as successful pupils. The teaching they encounter in school, the socioeconomic conditions and the effects of the segregation that characterises the urban landscape they live in makes it harder for them to live up to the requirements of what an “ideal pupil” should be. The study also highlights the ways in which difference is being made between girls and boys in school, creating arenas that are more open for boys than for girls to enter into in everyday life, namely football and the multiethnic youth language. These arenas allowed the boys to stage masculine coded subject positions which in one way or another were connected with a positive social status. Thus boys in this study do not have as much reason to establish themselves in the position of a good pupil in comparison to girls since there is a greater variety in how they can create themselves within subject positions connected to social status.

  • 74.
    Lilliefeldt, Emelie
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    European Party Politics and Gender: Configuring Gender-Balanced Parliamentary Presence2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 20th century, the proportions of women and men elected into European national parliaments became increasingly equal. Political parties shape these outcomes by selecting and fielding candidates in elections. Scholars recognise that parties' actions do not occur in isolation; yet there is little systematically comparative research about the configurations of conditions in which these actions occur. Previous research also often relies on studies of West European parties. This doctoral thesis investigates how conditions inside and outside parties combine to create gender-equal parliamentary presence. The thesis examines the extent to which Western European experiences apply to Central and East European parties, and explores the conditions that stand in the way of progress towards gender balance. It presents three empirical studies. The first is a qualitative comparative analysis of 57 West European parties during the late 1980s, a period in which the trend towards equality accelerated. The second study applies the knowledge produced in the first analysis to cases in Central and Eastern Europe. It uses an original dataset covering six parties in four EU member states in a structured focused comparison. Finally, the thesis presents an in-depth case study of an unexpectedly gender-balanced Latvian party. The analyses show that gender-equal parliamentary presence is achieved when conditions inside and outside parties combine, and that no condition is necessary or singularly sufficient. The absence of gender-equal parliaments is sustained by combinations other than the absence of those that lead to gender-balance. Operationalisations from Western Europe turn out to be largely applicable to cases in Central and Eastern Europe. These latter cases also demonstrate that organisational instability need not impede women’s presence in elected office.

  • 75.
    Lindelöf Söderholm, Karin
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, Ethnology.
    Om vi nu ska bli som Europa: könsskapande och normalitet bland unga kvinnor i transitionens Polen2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Lindström, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Drömmen om den nya staden: Stadsförnyelse i det postsovjetiska Riga2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on Post-Soviet urban renewal and people’s perceptions of changes that recently occurred in both the city of Riga and Latvian society more generally since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. More specifically, this study examines how these perceptions are manifest in Riga’s ongoing renewal. Through applying aspects of continuity and discontinuity, I illustrate how the urban renewal of Post-Soviet Riga uncovers imaginary and emotional aspects of the city and how these are interpreted in relation to the past, present and the future. This study introduces the concept “urban postperestroika” and one important difference between this concept and the more common concepts post-socialist, post-communist or post-Soviet is that the former highlights a process while the latter ones largely highlight the state. The starting point is how urban phantasmagorias – contemporary dreams of the future of the city – elucidate urban renewal processes in general and urban postperestroika in particular. In Riga’s ongoing renewal processes I identify three main trajectories in relation to aspects of the past, present and the future: de-Sovietization, globalization and Lettification. Together, these three trajectories constitute an engine that produces urban phantasmagorias.

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union has given rise to notions that everything is “back to normal” again, and these notions of normalcy have influenced urban renewal processes. The dilemmas, as shown in this thesis, concern the Soviet period and its remaining psychical structure which give the impression of being too conspicuous to eliminate and too contradictory to assimilate. The study illustrates the difficulties of building new urban and societal structures on the remains of pre-existing orders. Such difficulties of course lead to contradictory and ambiguous world views and to new dysfunctional situations that have to be managed in the future.       

  • 77.
    Lindvall, Daniel
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    The Limits of the European Vision in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of the Police Reform Negotiations2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Lindén, Tove
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Explaining Civil Society Core Activism in Post-Soviet Latvia2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Linnarsson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    Postgång på växlande villkor: det svenska postväsendets organisation under stormaktstiden2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Lundell, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Förkroppsligad fiktion och fiktionaliserade kroppar: Levande rollspel i Östersjöregionen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns live action role-playing (larp). Larp may be described as improvised theater without an audience, as participants simultaneously embody both audience and actor in their constant interaction with one another.  Hence, larp can be seen as a participatory culture.  The study is based on participant observation, interviews and online ethnography in Denmark, Latvia, Sweden and Norway.

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze how bodies materialize, take and are given space in larps. At the heart of the study lie questions on how processes of embodiment are enacted before, during and after the game.

    Two central concepts - larp chronotope and matrix of interpretation – shape the analysis. The first denotes the specific timespace in which a larp takes place, e.g a Soviet military camp or a fantasy world. The second concept stands for a general matrix of norms that informs participants on how to enact their characters in the larp chronotope.

    The thesis shows that participants strive to act in ways that are intelligible according to the matrix of interpretation that reigns during the game days. In addition, although game and everyday matrixes of interpretations are always inseparable, while attending a larp the participant’s ordinary lives are temporarily allowed to fade into the background. Thus, larps are complex combinations of objects, spaces and bodies that are given new relations and new meanings.

    Furthermore, the thesis shows that larp embodiment is conditioned by normative ideas of what it means to be an intelligible live action role player. White male bodies are more likely to access the sphere of larp intelligibility than others, which is evident in many of the stories and made up worlds portrayed in the study. Yet, the collaborative narration of game worlds that take place before larps can include all sorts of bodies. Consequently, larps provide an opportunity for alternative forms of embodiment and experiences.

  • 81.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, principally due to their sensitivity to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis, both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

    Generation time of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA analysis of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Quercus robur.

    The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden, between 1986 and 2003, were also compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

    Finally differences in species richness and cover of lichens on large Q. robur were examined between urban and rural environment. The results demonstrated that species number and percent cover was significantly higher on oaks standing rural compared to oaks standing urban. Effects of urban sprawl showed a decline in species richness and cover with increasing age of the surrounding buildings.

  • 82.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, since lichens are sensitive to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

    Brokind was chosen as the study site to investigate the succession of epiphytic lichens on Quercus robur using a chronosequencial approach. Fourteen of the investigated taxa out of 50 proved to be significant. The taxa were divided into three groups according to whether they occurred on young, middle-aged or old trees.

    Generation length of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    Generation length of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from the coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Q. robur.

    The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden between 1986 and 2003 were compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

    Regional gradients of abundance and size of Hypogymnia physodes at 66 sites in southern Sweden were examined. The coordinate system rotating the reference system of investigated sites around the origin was used to search for the best explanatory power for the angle of the explanatory variables. The results showed a gradient of increase in the probability of occurrence in a north-north-east direction and an increase in diameter on thallus size in a west-north-west direction.

  • 83.
    Lönn, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Bruten vithet: om den ryska femininitetens sinnliga och temporala villkor2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual signs like skin color are just one of many factors in how white femininity is being articulated and interpreted. Other important components are the concept of a Eurocentric and linear temporality and the importance of being situated as modern. This thesis explores how certain forms of white femininity, depending on their locus, are privileged while others are seen as broken according to a hierarchy of white femininity

    Key to the dissertation are fashion-oriented white Russian women living in Stockholm, St. Petersburg and Moscow who are trying to embody ideas of modernities and normative temporality through the body and the senses. One way of doing so is by controlling their sensory expressions and thus that which white subjectivity has a long history of trying to transcend: the body. An example of this is the attempt to control smell, which works as a reminder of the primitive, animal, and outdated parts of the human being.

    Instead of investigating the making of the modern body-controlled white femininity through discourses, representations or articulated thoughts, the thesis focuses on how white femininity is inscribed in racialized perceptions through the level of bodily habits – or more specifically bodily habituations of norms and body schedules. This is done through a multisensory method that centers the ways smell, the visual, the haptic and the tactile are used as a way to experience and express modernities. Another important factor is how white femininity never articulates itself alone, but is instead always-already intimately connected to other bodies and objects. Thus, white femininity must always be seen as an intercorporal exchange. 

  • 84.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Örebro universitet.
    Organizing for Efficiency: Essays on merger policies, independence of authorities, and technology diffusion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Malitska, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Negotiating Imperial Rule: Colonists and Marriage in the Nineteenth-century Black Sea Steppe2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After falling under the power of the Russian Crown, the Northern Black Sea steppe from the end of eighteenth century crystallized as the Russian government’s prime venue for socioeconomic and sociocultural reinvention and colonization. Vast ethnic, sociocultural and even ecological changes followed.  Present study is preoccupied with the marriage of the immigrant population from the German lands who came to the region in the course of its state orchestrated colonization, and was officially categorized as “German colonists.” The book illuminates the multiple ways in which marriage and household formation among the colonists was instrumentalized by the imperial politics in the Northern Black Sea steppe, and conditioned by socioeconomic rationality of its colonization. Marriage formation and dissolution among the colonists were gradually absorbed into the competencies of the colonial vertical power. Intending to control colonist marriage and household formation through the introduced marriage regime, the Russian government and its regional representatives lacked the actual means to exert this control at the local level. On the ground, however, imperial politics was mediated by the people it targeted, and by the functionaries tasked with its implementation. As the study reveals, the paramount importance was given to functional households and sustainable farms based on non-conflictual relations between parties. Situated on the crossroads of state, church, community, and personal interests, colonist marriage engendered clashes between secular and ecclesiastical bodies over the supremacy over it. The interplay of colonization as politics, and colonization as an imperial situation with respect to the marriage of the German colonists is explored in this book by concentrating on both norms and practices. Another important consideration is the ways gender and colonization constructed and determined one another reciprocally, both in legal norms and in actual practices. Secret divorces and unauthorized marriages, open and hidden defiance, imitations and unruliness, refashioning of rituals and discourses, and desertions – a number of strategies and performances which challenged and negotiated the marriage regime in the region, were scholarly examined for the first time in this book. 

  • 86.
    Mangold, Marcel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Securing the working democracy: Inventive arrangements to guarantee circulation and the emergence of democracy policy2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, Swedish democracy's ability to remain strong and renew itself became increasingly questioned in government commission reports and social-scientific writings. The perceptions of the financial crisis in 1992–1994, new identities, immigration and changes in participation in civic associations and organizations were listed as challenges to democracy. Together, they helped constitute an understanding of an emerging gap between the population and existing representative democratic forms. In response, the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s saw the emergence of several discourses, political initiatives and scientific contributions that articulated and responded to the need to secure a “working democracy”. By analyzing theoretically the arrangements of elements in policy and in attempts to shape the population's habits, dispositions and behavior, this thesis illuminates the role of aesthetics in the knowledge and power effects of these efforts. Methodologically, the thesis draws on Michel Foucault's genealogical approach in four empirical chapters. In doing so, the thesis displays why, when and how the efforts to secure a working democracy emerged, and analyzes the politics inherent to them. The chapters consist, first, of a study of the birth and changes in “democracy policy” as a distinct political domain; second, a mapping of the emergence of the discourse and dispositif of “valuefoundation”; third, a mapping of the discourse on exclusion and the discourse on and apparatus to combat “violence-promoting extremism”, and, finally, a mapping of inventive approaches in survey research that articulated how to secure a working democracy. This mapping exposes a vision of democratic dis-involvement and how to contain it infused by risk-management, benchmarking and a monitoring of changes in the population. Taken together, the chapters demonstrate the emergence of a complex network of power relations and knowledge used to achieve congruence between the population and governmental aims. This, the thesis underscores, marginalizes the role of dissent and interruptions in democratic life, to instead equate democracy with a system of congruence, smooth interactions and overall alignment to demands on circulation.

  • 87.
    McWilliams, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archaeology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Stockholms universitet.
    An Archaeology of the Iron Curtain: Material and Metaphor2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Curtain was seen as the divider between East and West in Cold War Europe. The term is closely connected to the Cold War and expressions such as ‘behind the Iron Curtain’ or ‘after the fall of the Iron Curtain’ are common within historical discussions in the second half of the twentieth century. Even if the term was used regularly as a metaphor there was also a material side with a series of highly militarised borders running throughout Europe. The metaphor and the material borders developed together and individually, sometimes intertwined and sometimes separate.

    In my research I have carried out two fieldwork studies at sites that can be considered part of the former Iron Curtain. The first study area is located between Italy and Slovenia (formerly Yugoslavia) in which the division between the two towns of Nova Gorica on the Slovenian side and Gorizia on the Italian side was investigated. The second study area is located on the border between Austria and Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia) within two national parks. A smaller study was also carried out in Berlin as the Berlin Wall is considered of major importance in the context of the Iron Curtain. This research has resulted in large quantities of sources and information and a constant need to re-evaluate the methods used within an archaeology of a more recent past.

    This thesis falls within what is usually referred to as contemporary archaeology, a fairly young sub-discipline of archaeology. Few large research projects have so far been published, and methods have been described as still somewhat experimental. Through my fieldwork it has been possible to acknowledge and highlight the problems and opportunities within contemporary archaeology. It has become clear how the materials stretch both through time and place demonstrating the complex process of how the material that archaeologists investigate can be created. The material of the Iron Curtain, is also well worth studying in its own right.

  • 88.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Molecular characterization of the Tick-borne encephalitis virus: Environments and replication2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The flavivirus genus is of major concern for world morbidity and mortality and includes viruses causing both encephalitic as well as hemorrhagic diseases. The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus. The pattern of vector distribution is also changing in Sweden, which makes it important to set up solid and successful strategies for detection and genetic characterization of novel Swedish TBEV strains.

    In this study we have generated strategies for detection of broad types of tick-borne flaviviruses in pools of I. ricinus sampled in Sweden.

    The positive collection on the island of Torö was used to generate a sequence of a complete TBEV genome straight from the arthropod reservoir. This cloned virus was used to construct a self-replicating DNA based sub-genomic TBEV replicon capable of expressing reporter genes. The replicon was used to study the effect of TBEV on neurite outgrowth, which revealed that the MTase domain of NS5 block the formation of the Scribble/Rac1/βPIX protein complex, impairing neurite outgrowth in neuronal growth factor induced PC12 cells.

    We also demonstrate that TBEV replication is affected by two PDZ binding motifs within NS5 and reveal putative PDZ binding proteins. These interactions might affect cellular pathways and might have a role in flavivirus replication.

    We also characterize the variable 3´ non-coding region (V3’-NCR) by in silico studies on TBEV. Analysis brings new evidence that V3’-NCR region carries an enhancer element important for different replication/translation dynamics during the viral lifecycle in mammalian and tick cells. We also propose a temperature-sensitive trans-acting riboswitch mechanism; altering the secondary RNA structures of a closed form at lower temperatures and a form open for translation at higher temperatures. This mechanism may explain the low TBEV level observed in sampled ticks.

  • 89.
    Mickwitz, Larissa
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Education. Södertörn University, Teacher Education. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    En reformerad lärare: Konstruktionen av en professionell och betygssättande lärare i skolpolitik och skolpraktik2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis investigates the interrelatedness between school policy and practice. In the thesis, the construction of “the teacher” is analysed in school policy documents and teacher interviews. I am particularly interested in the relation between school policy and school practice in light of the two latest curriculum reforms 1994 and 2011 and the teacher accreditation registration reform of 2011. The analysis focuses on two topics: grading and the professional teacher. In fact, an analytic link is made between the emphasis on grading and the discursive construction of the teacher in Swedish education policy. The theoretical framework is positioned within institutional theory within which I combine curriculum theory and the sociological new institutionalism with discourse theory. The analyses of policy documents reveals three types of different discursive constructions of “the teacher”. In the period of deregulation and decentralization, a professional teacher is constructed and the need for an autonomous teacher for school quality is expressed. By the 1990s -2000s an unprofessional grading teacher is constructed. In the period signifying the teacher accreditation and registration reform, a quality assured teacher is constructed. It is a teacher who is formally authorized and in need of continuing evaluation. In the focus groups interviews teachers constructs two types of professionalism. One is in line with the professionalism articulated in the policy texts and is about control and formal regulation and the other is about autonomy. Furthermore, the teachers relate to grading and teachers' ability to act in accordance with their overall teaching assignment. Grading were often constructed opposed to teaching. Demands for documentation, quality reports or the requirement of teacher accreditation is described as institutional practices defined from above. These practices make it difficult for teachers to complete their teaching assignments. The study indicates that teachers' ability to operate in an increasingly regulatory schooling culture has, through the types of requirements for transparency in teachers’ work, resulted in the decline of autonomy in their professional practice.

  • 90.
    Moberg, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions. Göteborgs universitet.
    Piety, Intimacy and Mobility: A Case Study of Charismatic Christianity in Present-day Stockholm2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm County is a post-industrial Swedish region characterized by high levels of mobility and technologization as well as ethnic and religious diversity. Among its religious minorities exist various strands of charismatic Christianity, some of which originate from the Pentecostal revival of the early 20th century and some of which belong to more recent movements.

    The aim of this ethnographic study is to examine how affiliates of the multicultural charismatic Christian congregation New Life Church practice religiosity within the context of their personal daily lives, within the framework of the general congregation and in terms of their involvements with other religious organizations in the area of Stockholm.

    Beginning with the assumption that the practice of contemporary religiosity and the development of a religious identity are part of an ongoing process of habituation, the study describes how practitioners cultivate a form of charismatic piety characterized by certain embodied orientations, patterns of ritualization and narrative genres. To shed further light on this process, it draws upon a variety of theories concerning ritualization, embodiment, performance, narratives and materiality. Apart from this, the study also constitutes an attempt to explore and measure the impact on the practitioners’ religiosity of late modern developments such as urbanization, detraditionalization and global mobility as well as the growing absorption in consumerism, emotional intimacy and the unfolding of the “authentic” inner self.

    While pursuing these ends, the study also calls into question previous assumptions about charismatic Christianity in Sweden, most particularly the assumption that today’s practitioners remain inclined to be entirely faithful to one given institution and its system of beliefs and practices. Indeed this view is directly challenged herein by the finding that contemporary charismatics are far more inclined to eclectically appropriate elements and models of thoughts from various contexts of origin as well as to affiliate with and/or visit multiple Christian institutions.

  • 91.
    Motiejūnaitė, Akvilė
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Female employment, gender roles, and attitudes: The Baltic countries in a broader context2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Nase, Marco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Academics and Politics: Northern European Area Studies at Greifswald University, 1917–19912016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The decision to institute Area Studies in German universities in 1917, was born out of a perceived need to widen the intellectual horizon of the public and academia alike. At Greifswald University this ambitious reform programme saw the foundation of a Nordic Institute, charged with interdisciplinary studies of contemporary Northern Europe. Its interdisciplinarity and implicit role in public diplomacy made the Nordic Institute, and the institutions that succeeded it, an anomaly within the university, until the institute was fundamentally reformed in the early 1990s. The study explores the institutional development of the institute under five different political regimes – Kaiserreich, Weimar Republic, Third Reich, GDR and FRG. It does so through the lens of scholars as utility-seeking actors, manoeuvring between the confines of an academic environment and the possibilities afforded by the institute’s political task. It becomes apparent that the top-down institution of interdisciplinary scholarship produced a number of conflicts between the disciplinarily organized career path on theone hand, and scholars’ investment in broader regional research on the other. Personal conflicts in a confined and competitive environment, and a persistent shortage of funding provided further incentives for scholars to overcome perceived limitations of the academic sphere by offering their cooperation to the political field. Individual attempts to capitalize on a reciprocal exchange of resources with the political field remained a feature under all political regimes, but the opportunity to do so successfully depended on the receptiveness of the political field. Cooperation, where it was established, also proved to be difficult, with the interests of political and academic actors often diverging, and the political side’s interest becoming dominant. The study examines the underlying motivations of scholars to seek assistance from outside the academic field, but also the problems connected with that approach, and demonstrates the specific problems faced by Area Studies in a German context.

  • 93.
    Nordström, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Interactive Dynamics of Regulation: Exploring the Council of Europe's Monitoring of Ukraine2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when a host of new and untested democracies seek membership in international organisations founded on liberal norms, the question of how to include new members without jeopardizing community values has become of growing concern, particularly as the regulation of practices in sovereign states often relies on soft moral or political commitment rather than on hard legal obligation. The Council of Europe’s (CoE) monitoring of new members after entry represents a soft method of socialising newcomers. In the case of Ukraine, this process has been unusually difficult, and full of strife and open confrontation. This experience runs contrary to the belief that soft regulation is either harmonic or impossible. The aim of the thesis is to explore how a regulated process of inclusion develops over time, and to discuss how such a process can safeguard community values.

    The study shows that an interactive dynamic developed between the European and the Ukrainian levels. The political struggle in Ukraine was, through the actions of the political opposition in Ukraine and the CoE’s monitors, transformed into a contest in the CoE over how to interpret Ukraine’s membership promises. European values were protected by the evolution of a mode of governance based on responsiveness to local concerns and on public discussion. In the process, the legal and political systems of the CoE and Ukraine were intertwined in ever more complex webs of dialogue. By being grounded in both the Ukrainian and European political discourses, the process was able to sustain a critical discussion on the terms of the agreement and maintain its relevance for the actors involved. The monitoring process displays how community values and autonomy of a member state can be combined in an unexpected way without resulting in a hierarchical order. This may not fulfil the requirements of the international rule of law, but it is clearly a case of soft and responsive transnational regulation of state practices.

  • 94.
    Norling, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History. Linköpings universitet.
    Mot "väst": vetenskap, politik och transformation i Polen 1989-20112014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1989, Polish research policy underwent transformation in the context of a broader societal transition from state socialism to democracy. KBN, Komitet Badan Naukowych (”The State Committee for Scientific Research”) was primarily responsible for the design of a new research policy and organization of the research system. In order to allay concerns about lingering state control, the Committee was to operate as a more or less autonomous body in relation to the workings of the Polish government. The Committee not only had responsibility for administering research grants, but also for research policy at the macro level to ensure academic freedom from political control. As a result the ambition of science policy was rather abruptly transformed from an instrumental view of science tied closely to societal progress under the Soviet regime to one recognising the intrinsic value of scientific knowledge. This transformed view of the role of science was not entirely new. It had strong roots in the political history and the structures and culture of the "old" research system, and more broadly among the Polish intelligentsia.

    However, several contextual factors acted to undermine the heralded ambition of autonomous scientific governance.  In the 1990s, economic conditions in Poland worsened.  In response mobilisation of public resources for the development of the market economy became an urgent imperative as did planning and preparation for the Poland’s accession to EU in 2004. These factors contributed to a yet another comprehensive reinterpretation and renegotiation of the role of science in Poland.  The empirical material that forms the basis for the study consists of both KBN’s periodical journal Sprawy Nauki that became the arena of science policy debate in the country and various governance documents from the study period. Using a social constructionist approach, this study analyses these transformational moments by focusing on how the dynamics of change found expression in the reinterpretations and renegotiations of the role of science in Polish research policy between 1989 and 2011.

  • 95.
    Nyman, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Lunds universitet.
    Resandets gränser: Svenska resenärers skildringar av Ryssland under 1700-talet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1700-talet kan på många sätt ses som det århundrade då den litterära genren ”reseskildringar” fick sitt genomslag i Europa. Det fanns ett stort intresse för att läsa om resor och beskrivningar av okända platser. Det var också en period när naturalhistoria och den alltmer detaljerade kartläggningen av vad som ansågs vara outforskade områden, gav en ny dimension till resenärers beskrivningar. I Resandets gränser står frågan om hur svenska resenärer skildrat det ryska riket och dess många folkgrupper i fokus. Genom en analys av svenskars rysslandsskildringar från det stora nordiska krigets dagar, fram till separationen från Finland och Napoleons intåg i det ryska riket, belyses skildringarnas mångbottnade funktioner och tillkomstsätt. Vilken roll spelade Ryssland i den svenska och europeiska omvärldsförståelsen?

    Resandets gränser är en studie som berör hur människor har förhållit sig till det främmande och annorlunda och vilka strategier som använts för att beskriva detta. Det handlar om kulturella normer, respresentationer, men även om resenärers möjligheter, och svårigheter att beskriva mänskliga möten.

    Maria Nyman är historiker och verksam vid Södertörns högskola, samt knuten till Lunds universitet och Forskarskolan i historia. Det här är hennes doktorsavhandling.

  • 96.
    Obrenovic Johansson, Sanja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Från kombifeminism till rörelse: Kvinnlig serbisk organisering i förändring2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about seven women’s organizations in Belgrade, Serbia and their relations to domestic and international donors during the period 2003-2006. My main research questions focus on their choices of either domestic or international cooperation partners. How and why did the women organize themselves? What factors were essential when selecting donors? In what ways were the organizations influenced by donors?

    Through interviews, with organization representatives’ concepts such as gift and reciprocity, power and dependency, trust and mistrust and collective identity emerged.  These concepts were used as points of departure for developing deeper understanding of women organizations’ choice of cooperation partners.

    The women organizations’ basically had two alternatives for cooperation: cooperation with foreign donors which offered funds, organizational development and social networks. Alternately, cooperation with local donors, which offered the equivalent except for the organizational development. Cooperation with the foreign donor has resulted in more professional attitudes to the work that have been desired by other international donors. A result is that they can compete with other women’s organizations’ for international funding. Cooperation with local donors has led to fewer resources but more independent working practices. For these women organizations’ independence was important so they choose partners who, they felt more respected this allowing them to write articles or discuss gender in the media with little external influence. Regardless of the chosen donor the reciprocity is embedded in the relation between the donor and the receiver of aid, which in various ways is beneficial for both parties.

     

  • 97.
    Opermann, Signe
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Generational Use of News Media in Estonia: Media Access, Spatial Orientations and Discursive Characteristics of the News Media2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary media research highlights the importance of empirically analysing the relationships between media and age, changing user patterns over the life course, and generational experiences within media discourse beyond the widely hyped buzz terms such as the ‘digital natives’, ‘Google generation’, and other digitally and technologically capable generation groups. This doctoral thesis seeks to define the ‘repertoires’ of news media that different generations use to obtain topical information and create their ‘media space’. It contributes to the development of a framework within which to analyse generational features in news audiences by putting the main focus on the cultural view of generations. This perspective was first introduced by Karl Mannheim in 1928. Departing from his legacy, generations can be better conceived as social formations that are built on self-identification, rather than equally distributed cohorts. With the purpose of discussing the emergence of various ‘audiencing’ patterns from the perspectives of age, life course and generational identity, the thesis presents Estonia – a post-Soviet Baltic state – as an empirical example of a transforming society with a dynamic media landscape which is witnessing the expanding impact of new media and a shift to digitisation.The thesis is based on data from two nationally representative cross-section surveys on media use and media attitudes (conducted during the 2002-2012 period) and focus group discussions, that are used to map similarities and differences among five generation cohorts born between 1932 and 1997 with regard to the access and use of the established news media, thematic preferences and spatial orientations of media use, and discursive approach to news formats.

    The findings demonstrate remarkable differences between the cohorts, suggesting that they could be merged into three main groups that represent the prevailing types of relations with the news media. Yet, the study also reveals that attitudes and behaviour (including media behaviour), are not necessarily divided by year of birth, but are more and more dispersed along individualised interests and preferences.

  • 98.
    Petronis, Vytautas
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Constructing Lithuania: Ethnic Mapping in Tsarist Russia, ca. 1800-19142007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Petrov, Kristian
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Tillbaka till framtiden: Modernitet, postmodernitet och generationsidentitet i Gorbačevs glasnost´ och perestrojka2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the concepts glasnost and perestroika during the Gorbachev era 1985–1991. It offers an explanation to the rise and fall of these concepts and casts light on their modern and postmodern implications, as well as their historical and generational preconditions. In light of the Soviet and Russian conceptual history, Gorbachev’s articulation of glasnost and perestroika is contrasted with the reception of these concepts in what at that time came to be called Russian postmodernism. Glasnost and perestroika both confirm and transcend Soviet modernity. They are both future-oriented but at the same time possess retrospective anchorage. The present study reconstructs the experience encapsulated in the concepts, the expectations they unleashed and the tensions they triggered. The Gorbachev era signaled a rupture in the temporal order of modernity. During this time Soviet modernity lost confidence in its self. With glasnost and perestroika a suppressed past opened up which blocked the futurist potential inherent in the present. The concept-theoretical perspective assumed in the dissertation helps explain essential aspects of the dramatic turn of events. Postmodernism’s relationship to the concepts is mainly antagonistic. At the same time glasnost and perestroika were essential to the self-identity creating process of postmodernism and its development of an understanding of a specific late Soviet postmodern situation. Beneath the surface a conflict evolves, constituted in intergenerational terms. The vast differences in deployment of the two key notions appear related to generation specific historical experiences. This is apparent in the glasnost- and perestroika discussions of the 19th and 20th centuries. In several respects the 20th century discourse reflects that of the 19th century. The analysis in the present dissertation demonstrates how Gorbachev, on the basis of his generation-specific experience as a man of the 1960s actively sought to articulate an alternative reconstruction (perestroika) and did so with a distinct ideological accent. The postmodernists, the last Soviet generation, bore the imprint of the stagnation of the Brezhnev era and had no ideal past to resuscitate. Instead of reconstructing social reality they tried to place themselves outside it. This apolitical stance however embodied both anti-political and political implications.

  • 100.
    Pettersson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    What’s in a Line?: Making Sovereignty through Border Policy2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of borders as dividers between states and markers of territorial sovereignty is central to modern statehood. Whereas the voluntary opening of a state border could therefore appear puzzling, this thesis argues that state sovereignty can be manifested either when states allow borders to become more open or more closed. To understand the relation between borders and sovereignty, the empirical focus of this study is the opening of the border between Norway and Russia through the introduction of a local border traffic permit. The sovereignty ideas attached to this border policy are analysed at two different levels: the policy making discourse at the national level and the policy-receiving context at the local level in the municipality next to the border. The empirical study draws on written material – including parliamentary debate transcripts, policy documents, and printed press – to analyse how the border policy was represented in the Norwegian public discourse in the years leading up to its implementation in 2012. The study demonstrates that the opening of the border through local visa freedom was not associated with a loss of sovereignty. At the central level, the introduction of local visa freedom was seen as a means to strengthen the economy in the border region, and to increase exchanges across the border. The expectation is that by improving local cross-border relations, the policy will strengthen Norway’s relations with Russia by securing incentives for friendly bilateral relations. In the local discourse, the main theme concerned expectations on what this border policy would mean for the growth of the local economy. Because the policy is expected to strengthen Norway’s internal cohesion and improve bilateral relations with Russia, the border policy change is seen to reproduce (rather than weaken) Norway’s territorial sovereignty. This conclusion is based on the fact that different dimensions of sovereignty are seen as mutually reinforcing and that centre and periphery are in agreement about the benefits of a more open border. The thesis concludes that we should see policies towards borders as a way to manifest and reproduce state sovereignty.

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