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  • 51. Nygren, Gunnar
    Medier och medborgare i den digitala kommunen: en undersökning om lokal politisk kommunikation i medier och på kommunala webbplatser2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Multiskilling in the newsroom: De-skilling or re-skilling of journalistic work?2014In: The Journal of Media Innovations, ISSN 1894-5562, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 75-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiskilling in a journalism context is not a case of “de-skilling” of the profession. There are problems related to the quality in newsrooms adapting multiskilling strategies, but in general multiskilling is more correctly defined as a re-skilling or an up-skilling. This is the conclusion from results of a survey of 1,500 journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden, along with interviews with 60 journalists in these three countries. Multiskilling in journalism gives more room for creativity and more power to the individual journalist, according to those with experience of working as multi-reporters. It allows them more freedom to make their own decisions in their daily tasks, e.g., choosing subjects and stories. At the same time, from the perspective of the media company, multiskilling is a strategy to increase production in the newsrooms. But multiskilling has no direct correlation with downsized newsrooms: it is rather an industry norm for how to organize work in newsrooms of today.  Multiskilling is also changing the journalistic culture, putting more focus on production and adapting content for different channels.

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  • 53.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies, Journalism.
    Nyhetsfabriken: journalistiska yrkesroller i en förändrad medievärld2008Book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Passing through journalism2010In: Journalism education, training and employment / [ed] Bob Franklin, Donica Mensing, New York: Routledge , 2010, p. 207-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professionalization and autonomy2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 12-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professionalization, media development and comparative journalism studies2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 19-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of  ongoing professionalization has been a key area in journalism studies for many years (Zelizer, 2004; Schudson, 2003; Waisbord, 2013). Journalism has been described as gaining influence within the media system, mainly in relation to political power and state. With common standards and professional institutions, journalism has grown stronger in modern society. But is this still the case in an emerging interactive network society? Is the development the same in different media systems – is it possible to still have a process of professionalization in some parts of the world, and the reverse process in other parts of the world; a de-professionalization? Is professionalization the same in different media systems?

    This theoretical introduction gives some background to these questions covered in the project “Journalism in Change”. It gives different perspectives from research in four areas:

    -  Professions and professional logic, based on sociological research on professions.

    -  Ideals and standards as described in comparative journalism research.

    -  Professional autonomy and pressure from the political and economic spheres.

    -  Professionalization and media development, professional control and open participation.

     

    In the title, the object of study is labelled as “professional journalistic cultures” in Poland, Russia and Sweden. We know from cultural studies that cultures are not fixed, but remain in a constant flux and develop under influences from outside – from other cultures and areas. In journalism this becomes clear in the study of the history of journalism; for example in Sweden journalism has developed since the 18th century under French, German, British and American influence (Gustafsson and Rydén, 2010). The question is not if but how  journalistic cultures are changing; if globalization brings a more homogeneous journalistic culture, or if the development rather can be labelled as a hybridization where some element of global values and standards in journalism are adapted to national journalistic cultures (Hallin and Mancini, 2012:286).

    “Culture” is one of the key notions in this project, and the other is “professional”. To be a professional demands some kind of control over your own work, to have some kind of autonomy to follow the standards and values of the profession. Research in professions emphasize this autonomy as a question of power, about creating institutions making it possible for the members of the profession “to make a living while controlling their own work” (Freidson, 2001:17). Research has described a professionalization of journalism during the 20th century, but the question is how this is influenced by media development. Digital technology and commercialization are global trends, but how does this influence nationally rooted professional cultures? Are the consequences for professional autonomy the same in different kinds of media systems?

    For example: in Western countries, some researchers describe a de-professionalization of journalism: more unclear borders around the profession, harder economic conditions for traditional media and professional control questioned by an interactive network society (Nygren, 2008b:168, Örnebring, 2010b:568, Waisbord, 2013:60). But at the same time, journalists and media in many developing countries struggle for more professional control in relation to authoritarian regimes and also use new kinds of media platforms to achieve this. In countries with authoritarian regimes, professionalization can still be a strategy towards a greater degree of press freedom (Harro-Loit et al., 2012:153).

    In the project “Journalism in Change” we use theories on professionalization and comparative journalism research to analyze how  professional cultures are influenced by media development. Our basic assumption is that the changes are not the same in countries as different as Poland, Russia and Sweden. But it is also likely to find similarities – and these might bring  journalistic cultures closer to each other.

    In the  end there is also the underlying question about  media content; how are standards and practices among journalists influencing  journalistic content, which is so important for all citizens to construct their picture of the world? This project does not include analyses of media content, but the basic assumption is that journalists´ belief about standards and values and their professional practice also influence the results in newspapers, broadcasts on TV and radio and in online news sites.

    That is why professional journalistic cultures are not only a question for journalists, but for society as a whole.

  • 57.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Rysk journalistik mellan makt och professionalism2023In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 173-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian journalism has always existed in the tension between political power and a more or less independent intelligentia. This was the case during the old czar regime as well as during different periods of the Soviet Union era. At the end of the Cold War liberalization followed, which offered Russian journalism a kind of freedom it had never known. However, despite an increased indepen-dence, journalism continued to be used as a political tool and what autonomy that had been achieved by journalists as a professional group remained limited. At the same time and despite exposing themselves to great risks there were Russian journalists who maintained their autonomy and continued to challenge the regime. Since Putin came to power, the room of maneuver for independent journalism has gradually diminished. As a result, Russian journalism and independent media institutions develop and carry out their work in exile mimicking a pattern of a 19th century tradition. The regime tries to control various information flows but finds it increasingly difficult to do so with global digital networks and VPN-services that circumvent any blocking.

  • 58. Nygren, Gunnar
    Skilda medievärldar: Lokal offentlighet och lokala medier i Stockholm2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to study mediated political communication in Stockholm, focusing on media content as well as media consumption and the role media play in a democracy. The study is based on content analysis of local and regional media (newspapers, tv and radio) in the greater Stockholm region and on a survey with 2 440 answers from people living in different parts of the region.

    Three different theoretical perspectives are combined in the thesis:

    • Political communication and the question whether media has a positive or negative impact on political processes.

    • The perspective of media as a part of the public sphere as described by Habermas, and the publis spheres in a society with a fragmented media use.

    • The role of media in the integration of people in local society and in creating a place identity.

    The results show that a large part of the region is in a ”media shadow”, seldom covered by the regional media. When the big media report about suburbs where most people live the picture is full of negative stereotypes creating a picture of the dangerous suburb. The picture in the local papers distributed for free is different. They are the only source of local information for citizens in the suburbs and are very important for local identity.

    The results also show that the public sphere in Stockholm is divided. The wealthier areas of Stockholm read daily subscription newspapers, and the less affluent suburbs rely mostly on thin free newspapers like Metro. In wealthy areas people use public service channels in radio and tv, and in suburbs the commercial channels are as big as the national public service. High quality political news for the wealty areas and free short news and entertainment is an important factor behind the knowledge gap and the gap in political interest between different social groups.

    Consequently, the models that work on the assumption that media and citizens are homogeneous groups in the political communication correspond less to the realities of political communication. Instead a politically divided society emerges, where large groups of citizens find themselves outside the processes of political communication. Today one third are neither interested in politics nor do they have faith in politicians. They abandon politically relevant media content and switch to entertainment. This is the group which does not see any point in engagement and more and more often stays at home on polling day.

  • 59.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Sverige: Geopolitik och en mänsklig vinkel2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 161-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Sverige: Geopolitik och en mänsklig vinkel
  • 60.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Tillfällig och flexibel: Arbetsmarknad och yrkesroller för journalister i förändring2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den journalistiska professionen växte sig stark på 1900-talets stora redaktioner. Två studier vid Södertörns högskola undersöker hur den journalistiska arbetsmarknaden förändras under 2000-talet, och vad detta betyder för professionen. Det handlar om en växande andel tillfälligt anställda, om produktion som läggs utanför redaktionerna och om otydliga gränser mellan journalistik och andra områden. De två studierna undersöker vilken typ av arbeten som 436 nyutexaminerade studenter går till, samt varför journalister lämnar facket (Journalistförbundet).  Resultaten visar att den journalistiska arbetsmarknaden förändras – de flesta nyutbildade journalister får jobb utanför de stora redaktionerna och en stor andel har olika typer av tillfälliga anställningar. Allt fler arbetar i journalistikens gränsland mot information och PR och Journalistförbundet har svårt att organisera de unga journalisterna. En majoritet av dem som lämnar Journalistförbundet fortsätter arbeta med journalistik, och bland dem som också lämnar yrket är de osäkra anställningsförhållandena den viktigaste orsaken.

  • 61. Nygren, Gunnar
    Vi mot dom: mediernas bild av den lokala politiken2001In: Demokratins konflikter / [ed] Håkan Hvitfelt, Lauri Karvonen, Sundsvall: Demokratiinstitutet , 2001, p. 102-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vilseledning och förfalskning – desinformation som vapen2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 223-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Vilseledning och förfalskning – desinformation som vapen
  • 63.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies, Journalism.
    Yrke på glid: om journalistrollens de-professionalisering2008Book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Althén, Kajsa
    Landsbygd i medieskugga: nedmonteringen av den lokala journalistiken och bilden av landsbygden i Dagens Nyheter2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 65.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelberg, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Mid Sweden University.
    Swedish journalists - a profession in decline?2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 115-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data journalism in Sweden: introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is an evolving form of investigative journalism. In previous research and handbooks published on this topic, this form of journalism has been called computer assisted reporting and data-driven journalism, as well as precision, computational or database journalism.

    In Sweden, this form of journalism is still fairly uncommon. Since 2011, researchers at Södertorn University have been working together with data journalists at SVT (Swedish public service television) to develop knowledge about methods and challenges. In November 2012, the project group was expanded to include five daily newspapers, Aftonbladet (national tabloid), Svenska Dagbladet (national morning paper), Norrköpings Tidningar (regional publishing house), Helsingborgs Dagblad (regional morning paper) and Mittmedia (regional publishing company), the Swedish public service radio as well as the software company, SAS. The expanded project will end in 2014.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of data journalism at these media companies, using action research methods. The content of this paper is based on an online survey of journalists working at the participating media companies and in-depth interviews with editors at these companies. The results indicate that, based on how this field is currently perceived by the journalists in the survey, there is a common definition of data journalism. Furthermore, the attitudes towards data journalism during the process of introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations are correlated to the level of perceived experience in data journalism working methods. The main challenges facing the working methods of data journalism today are a shortage of time and the need for training and developing data journalism skills.

  • 67.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Färre journalister som producerar mer för fler kanaler2015In: Mediestudiers årsbok - tillståndet för journalistiken 2014/2015 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2015, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir färre journalister på de svenska nyhetsredaktionerna. De två senaste åren har fem procent av journalistjobben försvunnit.

    Men det är tydliga skillnader mellan olika typer av medier: På dagstidningar har antalet journalister minskat med 13 procent, medan redaktionerna inom public service är stabila. På gratistidningar och prenumererade endagarstidningar har redaktionerna däremot blivit större. Det visar enkäten Svenska nyhetsredaktioner som gjordes i augusti-september 2015 vid Södertörns högskola. Enkäten gick ut till 236 redaktioner i alla typer av nyhetsmedier. Svar inkom från 143 redaktioner, en svarsfrekvens på 59 procent. Bortfallet är relativt jämnt fördelat, förutom gratistidningar som är underrepresenterade och att TV4 saknas i enkäten[1].

    Medieföretag är kunskapsföretag. Det innebär att deras främsta tillgång är de resurser och kompetenser som finns hos de anställda, hos de journalister som producerar innehållet. När resurser och kompetens förändras och skärs ner, så påverkar det också mediernas möjligheter att uppfylla sitt samhällsuppdrag när det gäller information och granskning. Redaktionell kompetens och journalisternas arbetsvillkor är därför inte någon intern fråga för mediebranschen, det handlar om vilken typ av journalistik som medierna har möjlighet att producera. Med detta perspektiv är redaktionella resurser och kompetenser i grunden en demokratifråga, till exempel att det finns nyhetsmedier som informerar och granskar i hela landet (Strömbäck 2009).

    Enkäten kretsat kring tre områden:

    • Redaktionernas resurser och sammansättning.

    • Redaktionernas organisation och arbete på olika plattformar.

    • Redaktionernas kompetens både när det gäller bevakade ämnesområden och behov av fortbildning.

    Svaren redovisas inte för enskilda medieföretag, utan för grupper av företag.  Ett antal stora medieföretag har valt att inte svara på enkäten 2015, bland dem t ex Expressen, Sydsvenska Dagbladet/HD, TT och TV4 med hänvisning till att det efterfrågas interna uppgifter. I några av dessa fall används offentliga uppgifter ur årsredovisningar och branschpress för att beskriva utvecklingen av resurser och kompetens.

  • 68.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalistik hittar nya vägar till användarna2014In: Nordicom-Sveriges Mediebarometer 2013 / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, 1, p. 165-166Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Datajournalistik - ett växande område2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 81-88Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Computer assisted reporting (CAR). Datadriven journalism. Databasjournalistik. Datajournalistik.

    Det finns många namn på den växande genre inom undersökande journalistik som använder statistisk analys, datorstödd textanalys och olika typer av grafisk visualisering. Detta område har varit föremål för ett samarbete mellan forskare vid Södertörns högskola och Pejlredaktionen vid Sveriges Television (SVT) under 2011/12. Syftet med samarbetet har varit att utveckla kunskap om arbetsmetoder inom datajournalistik och om publikens användning av den. Projektet har haft stöd från den statliga forskningsstiftelsen Vinnova, och går från hösten 2012 över i en ny fas där ytterligare sju medieföretag ska vara med under en tvåårsperiod.

  • 70.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Degtereva, Elena
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Russian and Swedish Journalists: Professional roles, ideals and daily reality2012In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 6, no 5-6, p. 732-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To strive for autonomy is key to professional journalistic culture, although the degree of autonomy varies between countries and media systems. A survey distributed to 100 journalists in Sweden and Russia explores their views on journalistic autonomy: the professional duties of journalists, the degree of autonomy they enjoy in their day-to-day work, as well as journalists’ opinions about the development of press freedom. The findings reveal that journalists in both countries share many professional values but also feel pressures on their professional autonomy in Sweden mostly a commercial pressure and in Russia predominantly a political pressure but also the commercial interests of owners and advertisers. There are also some clear differences. Independence in daily work is less for Russian journalists and the obstacles ahead of publishing more common and they have a negative view on the development of press freedom.

  • 71.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Degtereva, Elena
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Pavlikova, Marina
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Tomorrow's journalists: Trends in the development of the journalistic profession as seen by Swedish and Russian students2010In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 113-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article describes trends in the development of the journalistic profession as seen by Swedish and Russian students in journalism. The study focuses on the results of a survey carried out among students at three Swedish and three Russian institutions of higher education. The survey demonstrates numerous similarities in ideals and values as well as in understanding of the professional code of journalism among students in Russia and Sweden. Historical background is evident in the students' different interpretations of key problems of journalism and in their assessment of freedom of the press. Finally, the research questions the professional future of journalism, focusing on possible threats and presenting several development scenarios for the industry.

  • 72.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, B.
    University of Wroclaw, Poland.
    Anikina, M.
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation.
    Professional autonomy: Challenges and opportunities in Poland, Russia and Sweden2015In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degree of autonomy is one of the key dimensions of professionalization in journalism. However, the strive for autonomy looks different in different media systems, where pressure on autonomy can come from both political and commercial powers, outside and within the media. Media development also changes the conditions for professional autonomy for journalists, in both a positive and a negative sense. In the comparative research project “Journalism in change”, the journalistic cultures in Russia, Poland and Sweden are studied. In a survey involving 1500 journalists from the three countries, journalists report on their perceived autonomy in their daily work and in relation to different actors inside and outside the media. The survey covers how the work has been changed by media developments, and how these changes have affected journalists’perceived autonomy. The results show similarities in the strive for autonomy, but also clear differences in how autonomy is perceived by journalists in the three countries.

  • 73.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, Boguslawa
    University of Wroclaw, Poland.
    Introduction: Journalism, professionalization and juournalistic culture as a matter of research2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 9-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, BoguslawaUniversity of Wroclaw, Poland.
    Journalism in change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A transnational research project: “Journalism in Change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia, and Sweden”

    The purpose of the project “Journalism in Change” is to identify common parts of a transnational journalistic culture and common changes in journalism in general in different media systems, as well as the differences among the three selected countries. It is also possible to relate the results to national differences in history and culture, to analyze the relationship between globalization and national differences.

    The research design can be described as a “most-different” selection of cases. The project includes three countries representing different media systems, of different historical and political backgrounds and different sizes – Sweden, Russia and Poland, situated on the Baltic Sea. All of them have had  relationships in the past. They were intense between Poland and Sweden in the times of the 16th and 18th centuries, and between Sweden and Russia from the 12th to 19th century, and Poland and Russia have had a very deep relationship from medieval times until today. The communist period (1945-1989) was significant for Polish and Russian journalism and professional cultures. Despite a common geographical location and history, the three states are different in many aspects: journalistic culture  being influenced by different external factors, such as a democratic tradition (or lack of this experience), religion, education systems, economic development, and access to  new technologies of communication. In  fact, “Journalism in Change” is the first comparative project covering journalistic culture in these three countries.

    We were aware of these differences from the beginning, , but we also wanted to look at whether there are any similarities. With the study design it has become possible to analyze what changes in journalism in different types of society have in common, and what kind of differences come from the characteristics of each society.

    Who  takes part in the project and why?

    Journalism has experienced deep changes in recent  decades. For this reason, it seemed interesting to verify this general opinion in the case of only a few countries using  empirical research. The points of departure for this book are based on two variables – technical and economic; it was our  goal to observe how these two types of changes are influencing different media systems. The research project “Journalism in Change – professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden” was conducted in the period  2011-2014. The project assumes a multidisciplinary approach, with researchers in journalism, media sociology, and political science. Researchers from Södertörn University (Sweden), Moscow State University (Russia) and University of Wrocław (Poland) worked together in the project to produce this final monograph. Two additional reports were published at the earlier stages of the project (Nygren et al., 2012; Anikina et al., 2013). Dissemination activities also include a number of articles published in scientific journals (Anikina, Dobek-Ostrowska and Nygren, 2013; Dobek- Ostrowska, Barczyszyn and Michel, 2013; Dobek-Ostrowska, Barczyszyn, Michel and Baranowski, 2013; Johansson, 2013, 2014; Johansson and Nygren, 2014; Nygren, 2012c).

    HypothesesWe formulated the two groups of hypotheses (see more 2.2.1.), which are important from the comparative perspective. The first group is linked with similarities/differences among journalistic cultures in three countries:

    H1: There is an increasing similarity in journalistic cultures in different media systems; market influence and liberal ideals are more common in pushing journalism in the direction of a commercialized Western model.

    H2: The similarities between journalistic cultures are mostly superficial, nationally rooted traditions of history and culture still deeply influence journalistic cultures and preserve differences between them.

    The liberal ideals in journalism are getting stronger with market liberalism; a global media culture is emerging (Hallin and Mancini, 2004). This hypothesis can be defined as a homogenization of journalism in different media systems under the influence of technological and economic development, and the counterhypothesis can be the opposite that the similarities are mostly superficial:

    H3: Media development makes the profession weaker as a collective, the borders of journalism are more diffuse and professional autonomy weaker. Journalism, both as media content and as a profession, will be more difficult to perceive, because it will be different from that which we knew during the 20th century.

    H4: Media development can strengthen the position of the individual journalist, giving him/her new possibilities both in research and in publishing. This can give journalists a new kind of autonomy.

    Other research shows that social institutions like journalism are  hesitant to abandon their  conventions even in the “age of the net” when communication patterns in  society are changed (O’Sullivan and Heionen, 2008). A professional culture is sluggish, and moves only slowly in spite of changes in the surroundings – technical, economic and political. Journalists are often seen as conservative, and research shows that fast changes also promote a reaction of defense of old values (Witschge and Nygren, 2009). This can also be defined as hybridization, when hybrid systems emerge, melting together elements from the global development and national history and traditions (Hallin and Mancini, 2012).

    Research questionsThe hypotheses presented below provoke a long list of research questions, which are presented by the authors in each chapter. The research questions are linked with an area of analysis, but in general, three fundamental questions were addressed:

    RQ1: What are the differences and similarities among  journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden when it comes to the basic dimensions (age, sex, education and professional training, membership of  professional associations), working conditions, professional autonomy of the individual, organizational and societal level, ideals, standards and values of research’s participants, their relationship with politics and politicians, their attitudes towards commercialization, the new technologies used in  journalistic practice?

    RQ2: What are the most important factors explaining the differences observed between media systems?

    RQ3: How are the factors mentioned in RQ1 influenced by media development in the three countries?

    MethodsThe researchers from the three countries participated in the research workshops and in accomplishing the research. Three methods were used:

    Survey/quantitative data analysis: A total 1500 respondents – a sample of 500 journalists from each country - Poland, Russia and Sweden, participated in the survey (see more 2.2.3.).

    Interview/qualitative data analysis: 60 in-depth interviews were conducted with a broad selection of 20 journalists in each country (see more 2.2.4).

    The survey and the interviews have covered several areas:

    Who are the journalists? – age, gender and social position, income, and education.

    The daily work – employment and conditions, perceived autonomy and influence.

    Professional identity and relation to politics, commercialism and media owners.

    Attitudes towards technology, interactivity and change in work. Social media use and multiskilling.

    Professional roles in society, quality and press freedom.

    Quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis: Surveys and interviews which were conducted in the three countries allowed  us to use the received results for analyzing data sets by listing and counting all the combinations of variables observed in the data set. We compared the unique combination of values of its independent and dependent variables. We compared the data as numbers, percentages, standard deviation, means, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation.

    The project has not studied journalism performance and media content. It has focused on the journalists, on how they think about their role in society and in  media companies, about their daily work and their reflections on change. For example,  journalists gave opinions on the quality of journalism, answering the question of whether it could be said to decrease, or not. There are no empirical data to support these opinions, no content analyses. The results are only the opinions of the journalists.

    But in a comparative perspective, this still can bring new knowledge. It is possible to compare different generations, journalists in different kinds of media and in different media systems. What the journalists say has  relevance, as long as we believe there is a connection between what you think and how  you act.

    Monograph “Journalism in Change”This book is designed as a series of comparative chapters in different areas. Each author is responsible for the chapter, but the results have been discussed in the group and were carefully evaluated.

    In Chapter One Gunnar Nygren gives a theoretical background to comparative journalism studies. The study covers theories on professions, autonomy, as well as research on how current media developments influence journalism.

    In Chapter Two, background information on media systems in three selected countries is provided by Gunnar Nygren, Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska, and Elena Johansson. The manuscript also contains a description of methods in the survey and the interviews and how the results have been analyzed.

    In   Chapter Three Michał Głowacki makes attempts to answer the question “Who is a journalist today?” He puts the emphasis on selected dimensions of comparative studies of journalism: demographic traits and facts on education, conditions of employment and the role professional associations.

    In   Chapter Four  Jöran Hök analyzes  daily work practices, working conditions, multiskilling and other dimensions of daily work.

    In Chapter Five Gunnar Nygren focuses on the perceived autonomy among journalists and the degree of freedom within given frames in the three countries, as well as on political and commercial pressure on journalists in their daily work.

    In Chapter Six Maria Anikina analyzes ideals and values, professional ethics and attitudes towards society. Also verification and other key values are analyzed in relation to media developments.

    In Chapter Seven Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska analyzes the relationship between journalism and politics, both the political preferences of journalists and how politics interferes in news processes.

    In Chapter Eight Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska analyzes the relationship between journalism and commercialization. This includes foreign ownership and also external economic pressure.

    In   Chapter Nine Elena Johansson analyzes how journalists relate to social media, how they use social media and for  what purposes.

    In   Chapter Ten Gunnar Nygren and Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska summarize the analysis, and relate the results to other comparative research in journalism. They discuss the questions of homogenization of journalism globally, or if  development is more likely to be described as hybridization of journalism with new forms of media systems emerging.

     

  • 75.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, Boguslawa
    University of Wroclaw, Poland.
    Journalistic cultures between national traditions and global trends2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 259-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To be a journalist in Poland, Russia and Sweden means - in many ways - to be a part of the same community: the most important ideals are the same, the daily work is performed with similar tools, formats and expressions are similar. On the surface there are many similarities, but still there are important differences when it comes to the conditions for  professionals. The frames in the daily work  describing the boundaries for each journalist are different – commercial and political limitations for what is possible in journalistic practice. There are commercial pressures from owners and advertisers and political influence on media companies and newsrooms on journalists to adapt in their daily work. Additionally, what is more important, these limitations differ between the three countries and among different types of media.

    These are some of the results presented in previous chapters in this anthology. The point of departure for the project has been the rapid changes in media technology, society (changes in users’ behaviour) in combination with crisis for business models and increasing market influence in the media sector. The question is how these changes influence professional journalistic cultures in different media systems. Poland, Russia and Sweden represent different traditions in journalism, and the position of media in relation to political power and society differs as well. We knew from the beginning that there were differences – but is it also possible to identify similarities between journalistic cultures in the era of globalization of professional cultures (Waisbord, 2013)?

    The project has researched the changes in journalism from the perspective of representatives of this profession. With a survey to a representative sample of 500 journalists in each country, opinions and experiences were  studied. In 20 in-depth interviews in each country journalists were asked to give more detailed answers going beyond the questions in the survey. All the empirical work was accomplished by national teams in 2012, and the results were analyzed and presented at international and national conferences in 2013-2014 (see Chapter 2).

    The results of the project have been presented in thematic chapters. In this final conclusion we summarize and present answers for the following research questions:

     

    -      How is technological and economic development influencing professional journalistic cultures in the three countries?

    -      Do the changing practices influence journalists’ perception of routines and values?

    -      What are the consequences for professional autonomy – in daily work and in relation to other social fields such as politics and the economy?

    -      Is media development making journalism more similar in spite of differences in traditions and media systems? Is there a homogenization of journalism or is it more correct to label it hybridization?

    -      Is the status of journalism as a social field changing; is there a de-professionalization as a result of media development?

  • 76.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, Boguslawa
    University of Wroclaw.
    Anikina, Maria
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univeristy.
    Towards new questions2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 165-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, Boguslawa
    University of Wroclaw, Poland.
    Johansson, Elena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professional journalistic cultures: Design and methods in the research2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study is professional cultures among journalists in three countries. The first question in the process is to decide who is a journalist – and the answer is not evident. Deuze (2007:141) describes contemporary journalism as only one kind of work in the broad media sector – an industry with unclear borders between different parts and media workers going in and out of different professional roles. He calls them “portfolio workers” going between assignment and professional roles, which become liquid. Other research describes journalism as a profession passing through on the way to other  better paid jobs (Nygren, 2011:219; Pasti et al., 2012:280).

    In this study, journalists are defined as people professionally producing content based on facts (not fiction or entertainment) for what  we traditionally label as “mass media”, in contemporary debate also called “legacy media”: newspapers and magazines, TV and radio channels, online and digital formats connected to the traditional media industry. Also the growing number of “content producers” outside  media companies is included; freelancers  and those employed in production companies. This classic definition of a journalist has problems, for example the borders towards public relations, content marketing and towards entertainment in feature journalism. It also means that independent bloggers and people producing all kind of content produced for  social media platforms are not included in the definition, even if this content has journalistic qualities and sometimes also can generate incomes making it professional in some sense.

    It is likely that the definition of “journalists” is going to change, professional borders are not fixed forever and media development changes the industry quickly (Anderson et al., 2013). But still this old definition has relevance in relation to the content for daily media consumption. This old definition also makes it possible to connect to earlier research on journalists and their professional cultures in the coming analysis.

    In this chapter we give the reasons behind the choice of Poland, Russia and Sweden, and some background on professional journalism in these three countries. We also describe the design of the project and the research questions to be answered. The methods in accomplishing the survey and interviews are described in detail.

  • 78.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Glowacki, M.
    University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hök, Jöran
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Kiria, I.
    Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
    Orlova, D.
    School of Journalism, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Taradai, D.
    School of Journalism, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Journalism in the Crossfire: Media coverage of the war in Ukraine in 20142018In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1059-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War reporting has mostly been analyzed as a struggle between political and military control over information and journalistic professionalism. An analysis of reporting in mainstream media from the conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014 shows that many other aspects must also be considered. In a comparative study, mainstream media coverage in four countries, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, and Sweden, was analyzed and interviews were held with journalists in the media included in the content analysis. Findings revealed significant variations in the framing of the conflict, portrayal of actors involved, and word choice across national settings. Interviews with journalists also highlighted crucial differences in approaches and perceptions. Results show that the specific journalistic culture in each country, self-censorship, and the degree of activist approach among journalists similarly play an important role in war reporting. Researchers from all four countries participated in the project.

  • 79.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hök, JöranSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikten mellan Ryssland och Ukraina har beskrivits som ett ”informationskrig”. Annekteringen av Krim och kriget i östra Ukraina sommaren 2014 var högst påtagliga händelser, men beskrivningen av vad som egentligen hände skiljer sig beroende på vilken sida som stå bakom berättelsen. Är de ryska rebellerna ”terrorister” eller en ”folkmilis” som bara försvarar ryssar? Var det en rysk invasion eller bara humanitärt och frivilligt stöd till befolkningen i Donetsk och Luhansk? Vem sköt ned det malaysiska passagerarplanet MH17?

    I denna rapport analyserar medieforskare i fyra länder hur konflikten beskrivs i ledande medier. Forskarna kommer från både Ukraina och Ryssland, men också från två grannländer som berörs indirekt – Polen och Sverige. I resultatet av detta samarbete framträder mediebilder som till stor del sluter upp bakom de politiska/militära eliterna och lämnar dem som vill kunna se flera perspektiv i sticket. Konflikten pågår också i medierna med ett ständigt flöde av desinformation och propaganda.

    Författarna som har varit med och bidragit till denna boken är:

    Gunnar Nygren, professor i journalistik vid Södertörns högskola

    Jöran Hök, lektor i journalistik vid Södertörns högskola

    Andreas Widholm, lektor i journalistik vid Södertörns högskola

    Ilja Kiria, professor i journalistik vid Higher School of Economics i Moskva

    Anna Shpyntova, journalistikforskare vid Higher School of Economics i Moskva

    Daria Taradai, PhD vid Kyiv-Mohyla akademin, School of journalism i Kiev

    Dariya Orlova, PhD vid Kyiv-Mohyla akademin, School of journalism i Kiev

    Michal Glowacki, PhD vid University of Warzaw

    Roza Smolak, doktorand vid University of Wroclaw

  • 80.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hök, Jöran
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vänner och fiender i mediebilder av Ukrainakriget2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 243-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Vänner och fiender i mediebilder av Ukrainakriget
  • 81.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö högskola.
    Facebook och hyperlokalt i de lokala mediernas ekosystem2016In: Ekvilibrium: SOM-undersökningen 2015 / [ed] Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson, Maria Solevid, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2016, p. 329-348Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De lokala tidningarna har varit ryggraden i det svenska mediesystemet. Men de senaste tio åren har lokaltidningar minskat bevakningen och stängt lokalredaktioner, samtidigt som medborgarna i ökande grad håller sig orienterade om det lokala  samhället på andra sätt än genom traditionella lokalmedier. Frågan är hur detta syns i människors medievanor och i synen på lokala medier? SOM-undersökningen 2015 visar att de traditionella medierna fortfarande är viktigast för människor, men gratistidningar, lokala nyhetssajter och Facebook har många användare. Framför allt går det en skiljelinje mellan de som är över och under 50 år. Även andra nätbaserade medier anses viktiga, t ex tidningarnas nyhetssajter, fristående lokala nyhetssajter och kommunens hemsida. Men trots utveckling av interaktivitet är det fortfarande mycket få som bidrar med innehåll, speciellt till traditionella lokalmedier. Nya typer av lokala medier har alltså ännu inte ersatt de gamla, men fyller en allt större roll i människors vardag.

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  • 82.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hyperlocals and Legacy Media: Media Ecologies in Transition2018In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining legacy media seriously affects local journalism in Sweden. Since 2004, nearly every second local office for local newspapers has been closed, and local coverage is diminishing. In a parallel development, new types of hyperlocal media are growing, according to a national mapping of local media ecologies. The study presented here is based on two surveys: one of local municipalities and one of independent hyperlocals. The key question is: are hyperlocals filling the gap? In many cases, the motivation behind new hyperlocal media has been discontent with declining media coverage from legacy media. In general, however, the pattern is more complicated; most hyperlocals grow in places where legacy media is also present. The main conclusion is that hyperlocals are only partly filling the gaps from declining legacy media, while parts of Sweden are becoming “news deserts.” Another important result is that hyperlocals are developing both in print and online, often in combination, to create a sustainable business model. 

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  • 83.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Lindblom, Terje
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Bland multireportrar och innehållsleverantörer2019In: På väg mot medievärlden 2030: Journalistikens villkor och utmaningar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 121-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rosalinda är Mittmedias mest produktiva medarbetare. På ett år skrev hon 41 000 artiklar om lokalsport, resultat för fotbollen, ishockey och innebandy i de lägre divisionerna. För sportreportrarna på de 28 tidningarna inom Mittmedia innebar det att de kunde ägna mer tid åt mer kvalitativ sportjournalistik än pliktrapportering, i alla fall enligt Rosalindas skapare inom företaget United Robots. En liknande textrobot har också gått in i Mittmedias bevakning av fastighetsmarknaden, och skriver 480 artiklar i veckan om fastighetsförsäljningar med automatiskt genererade bilder från Google Streetview – ett innehåll som har dragit in hundratals nya prenumeranter.

    Textrobotar som Rosalinda är ett exempel på hur den tekniska utvecklingen påverkar det journalistiska arbetet. Kommer det att behövas journalister i framtiden, eller kommer Rosalindas efterföljare att ta över ännu mer av journalistiken? Vilken roll kommer journalister av kött och blod ha i framtidens medieföretag, hur kan journalistiken ha glädje av den tekniska utvecklingen och skapa en journalistik som engagerar publiken och som ger något mer än publiken får i det dagliga Facebookflödet?

    Det är några frågor i detta kapitel om de journalistiska yrkesrollerna nu och i framtiden. Kapitlet utgår från det dagliga journalistiska arbetet och den traditionella yrkesroll som har växt fram med de moderna massmedierna, men diskuterar också hur denna yrkesroll påverkas av nätverkssamhället. Centralt är antagandet att värderingar och yrkesideal inte är något konstant, utan något som förändras i takt med det journalistiska arbetet och i växelverkan med den publik som möter journalistiken. Med andra ord, journalistikens och journalisters yrkesroll påverkas av de dagliga föränderliga arbetsprocesserna som utförs på medieföretagen. Men samtidigt är normer och ideal kring vad en journalists arbetsuppgift ska vara och vad journalistik är, något som är trögrörligt och förändras relativt långsamt. 

  • 84.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Niemikari, Risto
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Media logics as parts of the political toolkit: A critical discussion on theories of mediatisation of politics2019In: Close and Distant: Political Executive–Media Relations in Four Countries / [ed] Karl Magnus Johansson & Gunnar Nygren, Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2019, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on mediatisation, the political system is often described as a victim of media logics. According to this theory, the logics of politics are overruled by media logics, and the political institutions become dependent on the media. This chapter questions this dichotomy between the two logics and asks to what extent media logics are used by political actors to achieve political goals. Based on the results from interviews in four countries, the relationship between politics and the media is discussed from both perspectives. The chapter also discusses different logics and functions of the media and describes a complex picture of interdependency and mutual interests. It concludes that new types of political instrumentalisation of the media are developed in the close relationship between the news media and their sources in government.

  • 85.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nord, Karolina Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Färre nyhetsproducenter - men fler nyheter i nätverkens flöden2017In: Mediestudiers årsbok: tillståndet för journalistiken 2016/2017 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2017, p. 32-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt färre journalister producerar innehållet i det dagliga nyhetsflödet. De senaste två åren har redaktionerna krympt med sju procent, totalt ca 370 färre journalister producerar nyheter 2017 jämfört med 2015 på de 150 redaktioner som svarat på årets studie av de redaktionella villkoren för svensk nyhetsjournalistik.

    Men utvecklingen är ojämn. De stora regionala dagstidningarna har tappat nästan var femte journalist på två år, minus 18 procent. Storstadstidningar har lyckats behålla sina redaktioner bättre, bara en minskning med några få procent. Inom public service stärker både SVT och SR sina redaktioner med fler journalister och större resurser.

    Trots detta är det fortfarande dagspressen som har de största resurserna för nyhetsproduktion – tre av fyra journalister som arbetar med nyheter finns på kommersiella medieföretag, de allra flesta på redaktioner med sin ekonomiska tyngdpunkt i papperstidningen.

    Även om det blir färre redaktionella medarbetare, så är det fler journalister inblandade i produktionen av varje enskilt nyhetsflöde. Redaktionerna förvandlas till noder i nätverk där innehåll flödar mellan utgåvorna – inom koncernerna och från utomstående producenter som nyhetsbyråer och produktionsbolag. Genom denna nätverksproduktion kan medierna delvis kompensera de minskade resurserna. Gemensamma ”fabriker” för sidproduktion, webbdeskar och innehåll som ”recyclas” i många tidningar är några exempel.

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  • 86.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nord, Karolina Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Svenska nyhetsredaktioner 2019: Krympande redaktioner och läsardata i centrum2019In: Mediestudiers årsbok: Tillståndet för journalistiken 2018/2019 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för Mediestudier , 2019, p. 22-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter flera år med stora nedskärningar har utvecklingen planat ut. Antalet journalister på de svenska nyhetsredaktionerna har bara minskat drygt fyra procent sedan 2017. I ett längre perspektiv har redaktionerna bantats mer – sedan 2013 har dagstidningarnas redaktioner krympt 24 procent, medan redaktionerna inom public service har behållit sin styrka. Men det blir allt svårare att definiera vad som är en redaktion. Inom de stora koncernerna produceras innehåll i ett växande samarbete mellan olika redaktioner, en nätverksbaserad produktion där innehåll används i många olika tidningar och program. Samtidigt står publiken i fokus – nya metoder för publikanalys utvecklas i koncernerna. Även om de redaktionella resurserna är mer stabila, så syns orosmoln inför framtiden. Annonsintäkterna 22 | Gunnar Nygren och Karolina Olga Nord Krympande redaktioner – nätverksproduktion och läsardata i centrum | 23 dyker snabbt under hösten 2019. Ägarkoncentrationen har fortsatt och många mindre lokala tidningar och nyhetssajter har lagts ner plus landets största gratistidning Metro. Redaktionscheferna befarar fortsatta minskningar av antalet journalister inför 2020–2021.

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  • 87.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Schjærff Engelbrecht, Nønne
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Vita fläckar och medieskuggor - stora skillnader i mediernas kommunbevakning2018In: Mediestudiers årsbok: Tillståndet för journalistiken 2017/2018 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för Mediestudier , 2018, p. 22-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De lokala mediernas kommunbevakning lever – men den är ojämnt fördelad. I högbevakade kommuner kan medborgarna ta del av 50-60 nyheter varje vecka som berör den lokala politiken och kommunens verksamhet. I lågbevakade kommuner stannar det på 5-10 nyheter varje vecka, varav många notiser och insändare.

    Kommunbevakningen har vissa gemensamma drag i alla typer av kommuner: de dominerande källorna är kommunpolitiker och tjänstemän, den vanligaste typen av konflikter handlar om missnöjda medborgare mot kommunen. Kritik mot kommunen finns mest i opinionsmaterial, två av tre nyhetsartiklar är positiva gentemot kommunen. Men det finns också skillnader i bevakningen mellan hög- och lågbevakade kommuner. Siffrorna tyder på att det är en ”snällare” bevakning i lågbevakade kommuner – färre konflikter, mindre kritik mot kommunen och mer positiva nyheter.

    Finns det då ”vita fläckar” i kommunbevakningen, delar av landet som inte bevakas alls av några lokala eller regionala nyhetsmedier? Det korta svaret är nej. Ingen av de 17 kommunerna saknade helt mediebevakning under den aktuella veckan. Men studien visar också att det finns mycket stora skillnader både i omfång på bevakningen och hur bevakningen ser ut. Medieskuggorna ligger tunga över landsbygdskommuner utan lokalredaktioner och storstädernas förorter som ofta har en gratistidning som enda nyhetskälla.

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  • 88.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Stigbrand, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Formation of a Professional Identity: Journalism students in different media systems2014In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 841-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism education plays an important role in the formation of a professional identity. With the results from a survey to 527 journalism students in five countries (Poland, Russia, Sweden, Estonia and Finland) similarities and differences are analysed – motives to become a journalist, competences and character traits, ideals and values and relations to other professional areas as PR and politics. The main question is whether there is a process of homogenization among future journalists as a result of globalization, or whether there still are clear differences connected to history, politics and different media systems.  The results shows that it is not possible to talk about one similar professional identity, but rather hybrid forms of professional identities that combine some universal journalistic values with cultural heritage and social/political conditions of the different countries.

  • 89.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Tenor, Carina
    Karlstads universitet.
    Vita fläckar och svarta hål i det lokala medielandskapet2019In: På väg mot medievärlden 2030: Journalistikens villkor och utmaningar / [ed] Gunnar Nygren och Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 211-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Medierna har en viktig roll i demokratin, enligt de medieutredningar som lagts fram sedan 1970-talet. Medier ska ge medborgarna information, de ska ge utrymme för samhällsdebatt och fungera som oberoende granskare av makthavare. Detta gäller inte minst de lokala medierna, och när dåvarande demokratiminister Alice Bah Kuhnke tillsatte en ny medieutredning 2015 var försvagningen av de lokala medierna en viktig del av bakgrunden.

    Några av medieutredningens förslag blev verklighet i riksdagens beslut 2018 om en ny mediepolitik, till exempel att fler lokala medier ska kunna få statligt utvecklingsstöd och att medieföretag ska få stöd för att förbättra lokaljournalistiken i svagt bevakade kommuner. Men om detta kommer att kunna vända utvecklingen är ännu osäkert. Även om människors intresse för lokala nyheter finns kvar, så är de ekonomiska förutsättningarna för lokala medier osäkra:

    • Dagstidningarnas pappersupplagor fortsätter sjunka, och det är svårt att öka andelen betalande läsare på webb och mobil. Annonsintäkterna minskar och går än mer till de digitala giganterna Google och Facebook.
    • Public service (SVT och Sveriges radio P4) är ekonomiskt mer stabila. Men de är beroende av politiska beslut, och det finns en osäkerhet inför framtiden med en växande kritik från både kommersiella medieföretag och från högerkrafter i politiken.
    • Hyperlokala medier fortsätter att växa fram, men hållbarheten är osäker både ekonomiskt och professionellt. Många startar och många lägger ner.

     

    Kommer det att finnas lokala journalister kvar 2030? Ja, människor kommer fortfarande vilja ha lokala nyheter och åtminstone en del kommer att vara villiga att betala för dem.  Men det kommer troligen finnas färre professionella lokaljournalister – och fler amatörer eller halvprofessionella lokalreportrar som vill berätta om det lokala, som vill stärka den lokala identiteten och göra något ”för bygden”.

    Jokern i varje framtidsspaning är sociala medier som Facebook, Instagram, Twitter och Snapchat. Andelen som använder Facebook för att få nyheter minskar i USA och ökar inte längre i de flesta västeuropeiska länder. Troligen kommer det att växa fram nya plattformar som vi idag inte känner till, och mycket pekar på att de lokala aktörerna själva blir mer aktiva i sin digitala kommunikation, såväl kommunen och polisen som politiska partier. Det innebär att allt mer lokal information kommer också att vara partisk, det vill säga komma från parterna själva, vare sig det är nätverk, organisationer, kommuner eller politiker – information som kanske ofta presenteras i en journalistisk form.

    Men hur går det då med den oberoende och granskande lokaljournalistiken? Det som kommer att avgöra detta är i vilken mån läsarna och lyssnarna är villiga att betala för den lokala journalistiken, antingen via prenumerationer eller via skatten till public service.

     

  • 90.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Förändring och tröghet: framtidsspaningens svåra konst2019In: På väg mot medievärlden 2030: Journalistikens villkor och utmaningar / [ed] Gunnar Nygren och Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På samma sätt som det inte är möjligt att säga något om klimatförändringar på grundval av vädret enskilda år, är det heller inte möjligt att säga så mycket om medieutvecklingen utifrån förändringar mellan två år. Det är nödvändigt att anlägga ett mycket längre tidsperspektiv, och det är också viktigt att studera de faktorer i omvärlden som påverkar medierna. Enskilda företagsledningar har ingen möjlighet att styra den övergripande medieutvecklingen, men däremot kan de reagera och möta den på den på olika sätt. För att få förståelse för medieutvecklingen behövs både stadiga backspeglar och god omvärldskunskap, parallellt med ett visionärt och framåtblickande prognosticerande.

    Precis vid sekelskiftet, år 2000, gavs boken På väg mot medievärlden 2020 ut för första gången. Den var en fortsättning av en seminarieserie vid JMK på Stockholms universitet, och blev en lärobok för studenter på universiteten. Boken kommer nu 2019 i sin sjätte och helt omarbetade upplaga. I boken medverkar 17 medieforskare från de flesta universitet med medieforskning, och de skriver om allt från teknikutveckling, sociala medier och läsardata till etik och relationen mellan journalistik och politik.

    År 2000 var framtidstron stark och år 2020 låg behagligt långt bort. Nu är vi nästan framme vid 2020, och siktet är därför istället inställt på 2030. Men hur gick det med alla de förhoppningar och farhågor som forskarna diskuterade i den första antologin? Och vad vågar vi tro om 2030?

  • 91.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Wadbring, IngelaMittuniversitetet.
    På väg mot medievärlden 2030: Journalistikens villkor och utmaningar2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När internet nådde medieanvändarna i mitten av 1990-talet var det få som kunde ana vilken omvälvning av hela samhället som då påbörjades. Den tekniska konvergensen har gjort att medieformer glidit samman samtidigt som publikerna nischats och kunnat bli medskapare av innehåll. Digitaliseringen har lett till att de ekonomiska förutsättningarna förändrats genom att annonspengarna i stor utsträckning hamnar hos Google och Facebook och inte hos de journalistiska medierna. Internet har inte blivit den demokratiska plattform som många hoppades på innan sekelskiftet, utan lika mycket en plattform för hot och hat. Samtidigt har människor fått plattformar att uttrycka sig på som alls inte fanns för 20 år sedan. De unga som vuxit upp i den digitala världen har ett annat förhållningssätt till medievärlden än de som vuxit upp i den gamla analoga världen.

    Förändringen leder till utmaningar för journalistiken – ekonomiska och tekniska, sociala och demokratiska utmaningar. I denna sjätte och helt omarbetade upplaga av På väg mot medievärlden 2030 analyserar medieforskare från olika ämnesområden och lärosäten hur dessa utmaningar kan se ut, och vad som är rimligt att tro om de kommande tio åren.

  • 92.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Tretton år senare2013In: På väg mot medievärlden 2020: Journalistik, teknik, marknad / [ed] Gunnar Nygren och Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 5, p. 13-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första upplagan av På väg mot medievärlden 2020 är daterad i februari år 2000. Millennieskiftet hade just firats med champagne och fyrverkerier och datorsystemen hade klarat den befarade millenniebuggen. Framtidstron var stor och år 2020 låg behagligt långt bort.

    När denna femte upplaga av samma bok går i tryck har två tredjedelar av tiden gått. Omläsningar av framtidsscenarier är förvisso oftast roligare att läsa för andra än för de som skrivit dem, eftersom spådomar om framtiden ofta tenderar att präglas mer av samtidens trender än av framtiden i sig – och den framtid man siat om infinner sig sällan. Det är helt enkelt svårt att förutsäga framtiden. Men ändå, hur gick det med alla de förhoppningar och farhågor som forskarna diskuterade i en seminarieserie i slutet av 1990-talet, och som resulterade i en antologi med titeln På väg mot medievärlden 2020?

  • 93.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Stockholm University.
    Changing Norms Concerning Verification2018In: Trust in Media and Journalism: Empirical Perspectives on Ethics, Norms, Impacts and Populism in Europe / [ed] Otto, Kim; Köhler, Andreas, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2018, p. 39-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, journalism has undergone dramatic changes as a result of digitalization and multi-platform news production. Online, news is no longer a static product, but a flow of liquid news packages under constant alteration. This chapter discusses how the digital news environment has influenced attitudes towards verification among journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden. The analysis builds on a survey to 1500 journalists in these countries. Results show a strong support for verification in general, but the new liquid news environment has also created softer attitudes towards verification. Between 30–40 per cent of the journalists believe that the audience has lower demands on news published online. As many hold the view that verification of facts can be done during rather than before publication. The analysis also reveals important differences between organizational cultures and between countries. Broadcast journalists keep their old values of verification to a larger extent, and newspaper journalists seem to accept a higher amount of inaccuracy in online news. Journalists in Poland and Russia have softer attitudes towards verification than journalists in Sweden, reflecting a journalistic culture oriented towards opinions, in contrast to the Anglo-Saxon fact-oriented tradition that characterizes Swedish journalism.

  • 94.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Taradai, Daria (Contributor)
    Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Orlova, Dariya (Contributor)
    Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Ukraina och informationskrigets nya vägar: Sociala medier, krigsrapportering och desinformation2024 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier spelar en central roll i nyhetsflödet från kriget i Ukraina. Både som källor och som plattformar för distribution och cirkulation av innehåll. I de sociala medieflödena finns viktiga vittnesskildringar från människor som befinner sig i krigets centrum, men också desinformation och konspirationsteorier. I Ukraina har den sociala medieplattformen Telegram blivit den viktigaste källan till information för många människor, trots att den har ryska rötter. 

    Den här boken undersöker nyhetsflödet från kriget i Ukraina, men också människors medieanvändning och förtroende för den information de möter genom olika typer av medier. Den är resultatet av ett samarbete mellan svenska och ukrainska forskare som analyserat tusentals artiklar och uppdateringar på sociala medier, gjort intervjuer med medieanvändare i Ukraina, och analyserat svenska folkets nyhetskonsumtion. Allt detta lägger grunden för en analys av ett nytt och framväxande hybridmediesystem, där traditionella, alternativa, och sociala medier konkurrerar om människors uppmärksamhet, men också ger olika bilder av krigets orsaker och konsekvenser. 

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  • 95.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Zuiderveld, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    En himla många kanaler: flerkanalpublicering i svenska mediehus2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I boken analyseras drivkrafterna bakom mediehusens flerkanalpublicering. Boken bygger på innehållsanalyser av dagstidningars websidor samt ett 20-tal intervjuer med chefredaktörer, direktörer och webbutvecklare i fem mediehus: Aftonbladet, Sydsvenska dagbladet, Norrköpings tidningar, Smålandsposten och Bonnier Tidskrifter

  • 96.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Journalistiken i ett jämförande perspektiv2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson och Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 23-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många av journalistikforskningens centrala frågor kräver ett jämförande perspektiv för att kunna beskrivas på ett meningsfullt sätt. Dagens svenska larmrapporter om tidningsdöd och neddragningar på redaktioner beskriver ändå ett medielandskap som med nordamerikanska mått mätt är idylliskt: i USA är nyhetsorganisationernas ekonomiska kris väsentligt mer akut och långtgående än här. Vi vet att digitalisering och annan teknologisk förändring förändrar nyhetsmediernas villkor och det journalistiska arbetet, men ser det likadant ut överallt?

    Journalistikens eventuella bidrag till demokratin kan bara förstås utifrån den typ av samhälle som journalistiken verkar inom. Många pratar om en gradvis ”amerikanisering” av journalistiken i många länder, men nyare forskning visar att inte ens amerikansk journalistik nödvändigtvis är särskilt ”amerikaniserad” längre med starkt åsiktspräglade kanaler som FOX News som bryter med den traditionella objektiviteten.  Många påståenden om huruvida olika aspekter av journalistiken har ökat, minskat, förändrats eller varit stabila saknar given referenspunkt. Har något ökat/minskat mer än vad man kan förvänta sig? I förhållande till vad? Är den egna nationen ett undantag eller ett helt genomsnittligt exempel på internationella trender? Dessa och andra, liknande frågor sysselsätter den allt mer populära komparativa (jämförande) journalistikforskningen.

    Det här kapitlet går igenom de viktigaste inriktningarna i den komparativa journalistikforskningen. I första hand handlar det om jämförelser av journalistikens ställning i olika samhällen och olika kulturer, om journalisters värderingar och sätt att arbeta och om hur journalistiskt innehåll kan jämföras. I praktiken har komparativ journalistikforskning kommit att bli synonymt med transnationell komparativ forskning, d v s det som jämförs är journalistiken i olika länder eller delar av världen. Andra komparativa alternativ inte alls fått samma utrymme inom journalistikforskningen; man kunde t ex tänka sig att det också vore högintressant att jämföra journalister med andra yrkesgrupper (till exempel med avseende på teknikanvändning och föreställningar om yrkesroller). Men detta har alltså gjorts i relativt liten utsträckning.

    Journalistikforskningen har länge varit dominerad av forskning från USA och Västeuropa. Denna forskning utgår från journalistiken i dessa delar av världen, och beskriver journalistens roll i dessa samhällen. Men dessa resultat kan inte generaliseras till alla länder och alla mediesystem – journalistiken ser olika ut i olika delar av världen. Detta har varit en viktig drivkraft bakom den växande komparativa forskningen; att bredda synen på journalistikens roll genom att jämföra journalistik i olika mediesystem (se t ex Curran & Park 2001).  Man måste utgå från olika länders olika grundförutsättningar – historia och kulturella traditioner, teknisk och ekonomiska faktorer och typ av samhällssystem. Det handlar också om att ifrågasätta vad som är centrum och periferi i journalistikforskningen, då många forskningsresultat baserade på studier i USA och Storbritannien tämligen oreflekterat används som måttstock för journalistikens utveckling globalt (se texterna i Hallin & Mancini 2012 för en kritik av detta fenomen).

     

  • 97.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Verification of Digital Sources in Swedish Newsrooms — A Technical Issue or a Question of Newsroom Culture?2023In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1678-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses and discusses attitudes and practices concerning verification among Swedish journalists. The research results are based on a survey of more than 800 Swedish journalists about their attitudes towards verification (Journalist 2018) and a design project where a prototype for verification in newsrooms – the Fact Check Assistant (FCA) – was developed and evaluated. The results of the survey show a lack of routines when it comes to verifying content from social media and blogs and considerable uncertainty among journalists about whether this kind of verification is possible.

    The development of the prototype initially created reactions of interest and curiosity from the newsroom staff. Gradually, however, the degree of scepticism about its usability increased. A lack of time and a lack of knowledge were two of the obstacles to introducing new verification routines. It is not enough to introduce new digital tools, according to the journalists. Management must also allocate time for training. The paper’s ultimate conclusion is that changing journalists’ and editors’ attitudes towards verification in this digital age appears to be guided by newsroom culture rather than technical solutions.

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  • 98.
    Springer, Nina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Orlova, Dariya
    National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Taradai, Daria
    National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sourcing Dis/Information: How Swedish and Ukrainian Journalists Source, Verify, and Mediate Journalistic Truth During the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict2023In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1111-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalists form the middle links of global information chains, playing a decisive role in detecting and dismantling or amplifying problematic information. Information sourcing, verification, and transparency are important tools for journalists when they transmit their sense-making of events, i.e., the journalistic truth, to the audiences. This mixed-methods study of the disinformation-prone conflict between Russia and Ukraine investigates how journalists at different positions on the information chain-i.e., on the ground (Ukraine) and at a distance (Sweden)-source, verify, and narrate their journalistic truth to audiences. We found that, even in high-pressure situations created by hot conflicts, sourcing and verification remain mostly individualized practices that are shaped by internalized unwritten, professional rules of an oral newsroom culture. Verification protocols or specialized tools are largely absent. Sources were sometimes hard to detect in the journalistic content; claims about their verification status even harder. There was a fear that being overtly transparent about sources would jeopardize journalists' authority. Especially problematic are the precarious working and living conditions for journalists on the ground. These conditions make them vulnerable sources for journalists abroad.

  • 99.
    Springer, Nina
    et al.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Orlova, D.
    National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Taradai, D.
    National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Narrating “Their War” and “Our War”: the Patriotic Journalism Paradigm in the Context of Swedish and Ukrainian Conflict Coverage2022In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 178-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Patriotic journalism, ” a deviation from objectivity, has become an important paradigm and well-documented phenomenon in the analysis of conflict coverage. However, studies rarely focus on the link between journalists' perceptions and narratives. We investigated how journalists from two countries, one involved in a conflict (Ukraine) and the other observing it from a distance (Sweden) relate to the objectivity norm in sourcing and narrating seven conflictive news cases in Ukraine (2017 to 2018). We found pragmatic commitment to objectivity in both countries, which was not always reflected in the content produced. For Swedish journalists, our results hint toward a value-based ally loyalty, which seems less stable than a tribe-based bond. In Ukraine, official Ukrainian perspectives were undisputedly disseminated; however, we did not find that they were generally positively laden, as one would expect for patriotic journalists. Trust in public institutions might be a deciding factor over the extent of patriotism.

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  • 100.
    Stigbrand, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professional Identity in Changing Media Landscapes: Journalism Education in Sweden, Russia, Poland, Estonia and Finland2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism programmes are popular; they are growing in number the world over despite an often insecure labour market. What do journalism students expect? How do they see their future as journalists? What kind of training is offered by the Academy?

    This report presents journalism education in five universities, in the Baltic Sea Region, from different perspectives: the teachers and the students’ goals in relation to wishes and needs of the sector and common challenges in changing media landscapes.

    The comparative project was financed by the Foundation of Baltic and Eastern European Studies in Sweden.

    Interviews with teachers, as well as the student survey, were made possible thanks to the collaboration with Maria Lukina, Moscow State University; Dominika Rafalska, University of Warsaw; Halliki Harro Loit, University of Tartu and Raimo Salokangas, University of Jyväskylä.

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