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  • 51. Balogun, H. A.
    et al.
    Vasconcelos, N. -M
    Lindberg, Robert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Haeggström, M.
    Moll, K.
    Chen, Q.
    Wahlgren, M.
    Berzins, K.
    Immunogenicity and antigenic properties of Pf332-C231, a fragment of a non-repeat region of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf3322009In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen Pf332, a megadalton protein has been shown to be associated with the membrane of infected erythrocytes Detailed functional studies on the antigen have remained hampered by the cross-reactive nature of antibodies generated to Pf332 PB32-C231, identified in the C-terminal region of Pf332 was cloned and antibodies against the C231 fragment were shown to react with intact Pf332 antigen by both immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses Antibodies to C231 inhibited in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth efficiently In addition. human sera from malaria-exposed individuals reacted with recombinant C231 We show that Pf332-C231 represents a functional domain and is expected to facilitate further studies on Pf332 as a potential target for protective immune responses and the function of the antigen.

  • 52. Ban, L.
    et al.
    Didon, Andrea
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, L. M. V.
    Glinwood, R.
    Delp, Gabriele
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    An improved detection method for the Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) allows monitoring of its presence in aphids and movement within plants2007In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 142, no 1-2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhopalosiphumpadi virus (RhPV) is an insect RNA virus that infects aphids, reducing their lifespan and fecundity. It can be transmitted vertically between aphids and horizontally via the plant. An improved detection method for the virus in aphids and plants using RT-PCR was developed; this allowed individual aphids to be tested for RhPV. Testing of R. padi aphids collected from different sites in Sweden revealed the presence of RhPV in wild aphid populations for the first time in Europe. Virus could be detected in several life stages of R. padi, including sexual individuals and eggs, establishing an over-wintering route for the virus. Using RT-PCR, systemic transport of the virus in plants was tracked. Virus spread from the aphid feeding site to all parts of the plant, including roots, within 7 days, and could be acquired by virus-free aphids feeding on the same plant.

  • 53. Ban, Liping
    et al.
    Ahmed, Elham
    Ninkovic, Velemir
    Delp, Gabriele
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Glinwood, Robert
    Infection with an insect virus affects olfactory behaviour and interactions with host plant and natural enemies in an aphid2008In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 108-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aphid ecology and population dynamics are affected by a series of factors including behavioural responses to ecologically relevant chemical cues, capacity for population growth, and interactions with host plants and natural enemies. Using the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae), we showed that these factors were affected by infection with Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV). Uninfected aphids were attracted to odour of uninfected aphids on the host plant, an aggregation mechanism. However, infected aphids were not attracted, and neither infected nor uninfected aphids were attracted to infected aphids on the plant. Infected aphids did not respond to methyl salicylate, a cue denoting host suitability. Infected aphids were more behaviourally sensitive to aphid alarm pheromone, and left the host plant more readily in response to it. RhPV reduced the lifespan and population growth rate of the aphid. The predacious ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), consumed more infected aphids than uninfected aphids in a 24-h period, and the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) attacked more infected than uninfected aphids. However, the proportion of mummies formed was lower with infected aphids. The results represent further evidence that associated organisms can affect the behaviour and ecology of their aphid hosts.

  • 54.
    Bartish, Galyna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Elongation factor 2: A key component of the translation machinery in eukaryotes: Properties of yeast elongation factor 2 studied in vivo2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of proteins is performed by the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex. Apart from the ribosome, numerous protein factors participate in this process. Elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is one of these factors. eEF2 is an essential protein with a mol. mass of about 100 kDa. The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. The role of eEF2 in protein synthesis is to participate in the translocation of tRNAs from the A- and P-sites on the ribosome to the P- and E-sites. This movement of tRNAs is accompanied by a simultaneous movement of mRNA by one codon. eEF2 consists of six domains referred to as domains G, G′ and II-V, belongs to the G-protein super-family and possesses all structural motifs characterizing proteins in this family. eEF2 binds to the ribosome in complex with GTP. After GTP hydrolysis and translocation, it leaves the ribosome bound to GDP. The rate of protein synthesis in the cell can be regulated by phosphorylation of eEF2. Phosphorylation occurs on two threonine residues, situated in the G domain of the factor. Phosphorylation of eEF2 is catalysed by Rck2-kinase in yeast which is activated in response to osmotic stress. Despite the high degree of conservation of the threonine residues, they are not essential for yeast cell under normal growth conditions. However, under mild osmotic stress the growth rate of the cells lacking threonine residues was decreased. Region where threonine residues are located, called Switch I. Cryo-EM reconstruction shows that this region adopts ordered conformation when the eEF2•GTP complex is bound to the ribosome but became structurally disordered upon GTP hydrolysis. Mutagenesis of individual amino acids in Switch I resulted in both functional and non-functional eEF2 depending on the site of mutation and the substituting amino acid. Both functional and non-functional Switch I mutants were able to bind to the ribosome, indicating that mutations did not abolish the capacity of the factor to bind GTP. Yeast eEF2 with Switch I region from E. coli was able to substitute the wild type protein in vivo, though the growth rate of these cells was severely impaired. The eEF2-dependent GTP hydrolysis can be activated by ribosome from heterologous sources as seen in vitro. However, eEF2 from A. thaliana, D. melanogaster and S. solfataricus could not substi-tute yeast eEF2 in vivo. This may indicate additional roles of eEF2 in the yeast cell, apart from translocation itself.

  • 55.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Moradi, Hossein
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Amino acids Thr56 and Thr58 are not essential for elongation factor 2 function in yeast2007In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 274, no 20, p. 5285-5297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yeast elongation factor 2 is an essential protein that contains two highly conserved threonine residues, T56 and T58, that could potentially be phosphorylated by the Rck2 kinase in response to environmental stress. The importance of residues T56 and T58 for elongation factor 2 function in yeast was studied using site directed mutagenesis and functional complementation. Mutations T56D, T56G, T56K, T56N and T56V resulted in nonfunctional elongation factor 2 whereas mutated factor carrying point mutations T56M, T56C, T56S, T58S and T58V was functional. Expression of mutants T56C, T56S and T58S was associated with reduced growth rate. The double mutants T56M/T58W and T56M/T58V were also functional but the latter mutant caused increased cell death and considerably reduced growth rate. The results suggest that the physiological role of T56 and T58 as phosphorylation targets is of little importance in yeast under standard growth conditions. Yeast cells expressing mutants T56C and T56S were less able to cope with environmental stress induced by increased growth temperatures. Similarly, cells expressing mutants T56M and T56M/T58W were less capable of adapting to increased osmolarity whereas cells expressing mutant T58V behaved normally. All mutants tested were retained their ability to bind to ribosomes in vivo. However, mutants T56D, T56G and T56K were under-represented on the ribosome, suggesting that these nonfunctional forms of elongation factor 2 were less capable of competing with wild-type elongation factor 2 in ribosome binding. The presence of nonfunctional but ribosome binding forms of elongation factor 2 did not affect the growth rate of yeast cells also expressing wild-type elongation factor 2.

  • 56.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Importance of individual amino acids in the Switch I region in eEF2 studied by functional complementation in S. cerevisiae2008In: Biochimie, ISSN 0300-9084, E-ISSN 1638-6183, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 736-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is a member of the G-protein super family. G-proteins undergo conformational changes associated with binding of the guanosine nucleotide and hydrolysis of the bound GTP. These structural rearrangements affects the Switch I region (also known as the Effector loop). We have studied the role of individual amino acids in the Switch I region (amino acids 25-73) of S. cerevisiae eEF2 using functional complementation in yeast. 21 point mutations in the Switch I region were created by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutants K49R, E52Q, A53G, F55Y, K60R, Q63A, T68S, 169M and A73G were functional while mutants R54H, F55N, D57A, D57E, D57S, R59K, R59M, Q63E, R65A, R65N, T68A and T68M were inactive. Expression of mutants K49R, A53G, Q63A, 169M and A73G was associated with markedly decreased growth rates and yeast cells expressing mutants A53G and 169M became temperature sensitive. The functional capacity of eEF2 in which the major part Switch I (amino acids T56 to 169) was converted into the homologous sequence found in EF-G from E. coli was also studied. This protein chimera could functionally replace yeast eEF2 in vivo. Yeast cells expressing this mutant grew extremely slowly, showed increased cell death and became temperature sensitive. The ability of the mutant to replace authentic eEF2 in vivo indicates that the structural rearrangement of Switch I necessary for eEF2 function is similar in eukaryotes and bacteria. The effect of two point mutations in the P-loop was also studied. Mutant A25G but not A25V could functionally replace yeast eEF2 even if cells expressing the mutant grew slowly. The A25G mutation converted the consensus sequences AXXXXGK[T/S] in eEF2 to the corresponding motif GXXXXGK[T/S] found in all other G-proteins, suggesting that the alanine found in the P-loop of peptidyltranslocases are not essential for function.

  • 57.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    The functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions in elongation factor 2 from S. cerevisiaeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Basarani, Sukrie
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Sandberg, Jessica
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Tumer, Gulcin
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Segmentmarknadsföring av turistiska attraktioner: En fallstudie av Gröna Lunds tivoli2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, consumers are individuals with varying needs. This means that companies need to adapt their products accordingly. The competition between companies is strong and mass marketing is no longer useful to the same extent. That is when segment marketing can be suggested as an alternative.

    The purpose with this bachelor thesis is to examine whether segment marketing is used in thetourism industry, when marketing attractions. The purpose is also to examine whether segment marketing is used in relation to foreign tourists and what pros and cons segment marketing has. The primary material of this bachelor thesis is based on interviews with the attraction Gröna Lunds Tivoli, Stockholm Visitors Board, Kungliga Djurgårdens Intressenter, Pool Interactive AB and promotion material of Gröna Lund. The secondary sources consist ofliterature, scientific articles and websites.

    This examination, with a case study of Gröna Lunds Tivoli, has shown that a form of segmentation is used when marketing attractions. This is done in combination with general marketing. Segmentation has been done by ads on selected platforms to reach the main target groups. The case study has shown that no segment marketing is done in relation to foreign tourist. Gröna Lunds Tivoli refer their foreign tourist to the Stockholm Visitors Board, where information is available in brochures, and to the official website where information in Englishis available. All marketing is targeted to domestic tourist in the Stockholm and Mälardalen regions, where the majority of Gröna Lunds visitors come from.

    Segmented marketing is used in combination with general marketing which makes it difficultdo discern any clear benefits. The main disadvantage of segment marketing is the costs. It is not considered to be profitable because of the high costs of developing various strategies fordifferent sub-markets. At the same time it can be risky to exclude any visitors since attractionsare dependent on every single visitor.

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  • 59. Bayne, Elizabeth H.
    et al.
    Portoso, Manuela
    Kagansky, Alexander
    Kos-Braun, Isabelle C.
    Urano, Takeshi
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Alves, Flavia
    Rappsilber, Juri
    Allshire, Robin C.
    Splicing factors facilitate RNAi-directed silencing in fission yeast2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 322, no 5901, p. 602-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterochromatin formation at fission yeast centromeres is directed by RNA interference (RNAi). Noncoding transcripts derived from centromeric repeats are processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) effector complex to engage centromer transcripts, resulting in recruitment of the histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase Clr4, and hence silencing. We have found that defects in specific splicing factors, but not splicing itself, affect the generation of centromeric siRNAs and consequently centromeric heterochromatin integrity. Moreover, splicing factors physically associate with Cid12, a component of the RNAi machinery, and with centromeric chromatin, consistent with a direct role in RNAi. We propose that spliceosomal complexes provide a platform for siRNA generation and hence facilitate effective centromere repeat silencing.

  • 60.
    Beckman, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Freeman, Craig
    Parish, Christopher R.
    Small, David H.
    Activation of cathepsin D by glycosaminoglycans2009In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 276, no 24, p. 7343-7352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that heparin can increase the activity of the proenzyme form of Alzheimer's beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Cathepsin D (CD) is a member of the aspartic protease family and has sequence similarity to BACE1. Therefore, we examined whether heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) can influence the activity of CD. Heparin and other GAGs were found to stimulate the activity of recombinant proCD. Desulfation of heparin almost abolished the stimulation, indicating that sulfate groups were important for the stimulatory effect. In addition, the stimulation was dependent on the length of the GAG chain, as larger GAGs were more potent in their ability to stimulate proCD than shorter fragments. In the presence of heparin, limited autocatalytic proteolysis of the proenzyme was increased, suggesting that heparin increases the activity of proCD by accelerating the conversion of proCD, which has little activity, to pseudoCD, an active form lacking residues 1-26 of the prodomain. Furthermore, the activity of spleen-derived mature CD, which lacks the entire 44 amino acid residue prodomain, was also increased by heparin, indicating that the catalytic domain of CD contains at least one region to which GAGs bind and stimulate enzyme activity. Because heparin also stimulated the activity of pseudoCD, proenzyme activation was probably accelerated by the interaction of heparin with the catalytic domain of pseudoCD. However, it is possible that heparin may also activate the proenzyme directly. On the basis of this study, we propose that GAGs may regulate CD activity in vivo.

  • 61. Bensch, Staffan
    et al.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Müller, Nils
    Gay, Laurene
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Genetic, morphological, and feather isotope variation of migratory willow warblers show gradual divergence in a ring.2009In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 3087-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular distribution of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus around the Baltic Sea shares many features with the classic examples of ring species; however, the system is much younger. It has previously been shown that a secondary contact zone is located in central Scandinavia, where there are narrow clines for several morphological traits coincident with a migratory divide. Here we analyse multiple traits and genes from > 1700 males captured on breeding territories at 77 sites spread around the Baltic Sea to test the following hypothesis. If the secondary contact zone in Scandinavia is a result of divergence in two allopatric refuge populations during the last glaciation, we expect to find a similar secondary contact zone somewhere else around the circular distribution. Our results show that the trait clines were wider and displaced from each other along the eastern side of the Baltic Sea. Analyses of 12 microsatellite loci confirmed that the genome is very similar between the terminal forms (F(ST) = 0). Two AFLP-derived markers filtered out from a genomic scan instead appear to be maintained by selection. These markers exhibited steep clines at the secondary contact zone in Scandinavia, but as for the phenotypic traits, had vastly different cline centres east of the Baltic Sea. The trait clines along the ring distribution outside the Scandinavian secondary contact zone thus seem to have been shaped by independent action of selection or drift during the process of postglacial colonization.

  • 62.
    Benulic, Kajsa-Stina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    The most responsible and sustainable electricity company: A rhetorical analysis of corporate environmental communication in the energy sector2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy sector has gone through changes, it has been liberalised, sustainable development has added a new dimension, and companies operating in it are increasingly expected to demonstrate environmental responsibility. In this thesis how the concepts of sustainable development and environmental responsibility are treated rhetorically in the corporate environmental communication of three Swedish electricity companies is analysed. The corporate environmental communication is viewed as a part of the companies’ public relations strategies. Rhetoric is used by companies to establish and maintain good relations with their stakeholders. If the premise that rhetoric has the ability to do something through its creation and promotion of meaning is accepted, the corporate rhetor plays a part in the definition and shaping of societal values, standards of business and public policy. It is argued that the electricity companies all present themselves as being responsible and sustainable though these claims contribute little to the definition of what environmental responsibility means and what sustainable electricity production is. The rhetoric used is a means for gaining legitimacy and competitive advantages to go on with business as usual. The electricity companies’ very similar rhetorical strategies pose an obstacle for stakeholders trying to evaluate the environmental performance of the companies.

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    masterthesis_kajsastinabenulic
  • 63. Berger, Juerg
    et al.
    Senti, Kirsten-Andre
    Senti, Gabriele
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Newsome, Timothy P.
    Åsling, Bengt
    Dickson, Barry J.
    Suzuki, Takashi
    Systematic identification of genes that regulate neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system2008In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 4, no 5, p. Online-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward genetic screens in model organisms are an attractive means to identify those genes involved in any complex biological process, including neural circuit assembly. Although mutagenesis screens are readily performed to saturation, gene identification rarely is, being limited by the considerable effort generally required for positional cloning. Here, we apply a systematic positional cloning strategy to identify many of the genes required for neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system. From a large-scale forward genetic screen selecting for visual system wiring defects with a normal retinal pattern, we recovered 122 mutations in 42 genetic loci. For 6 of these loci, the underlying genetic lesions were previously identified using traditional methods. Using SNP-based mapping approaches, we have now identified 30 additional genes. Neuronal phenotypes have not previously been reported for 20 of these genes, and no mutant phenotype has been previously described for 5 genes. The genes encode a variety of proteins implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, and cell signalling. We conducted a comprehensive phenotypic analysis of 35 genes, scoring wiring defects according to 33 criteria. This work demonstrates the feasibility of combining large-scale gene identification with large-scale mutagenesis in Drosophila, and provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms that regulate visual system wiring.

  • 64.
    Bergkvist, Tomas
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunalt naturskydd som en del av markanvändningsplaneringen: en fallstudie av olika synsätt i samband med upphävande av naturreservat2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In metropolitan areas where the exploitation pressure increases, also the importance to point out nature areas grows, both for the sake of outdoor life and for biodiversity conservation. Since nature conservancy and spatial planning constitute two different parts of the municipalities land use control, a case study has been carried out in two municipalities in the Stockholm region, Huddinge and Järfälla. Both these municipalities have protected about one third of their land and today there are plans to repeal parts of the reserves to enable exploitation. This thesis shows – from the theoretical concept of sustainable development – officials, politicians and non-governmental organizations perspectives on questions concerning land use together with the work with nature reserves and repeals. The study focuses on how different basic attitudes and paradigms emphasizes different aspects of sustainable development and how this in turn affects the work to repeal nature reserves. Interviews with stakeholders in the municipalities and documents concerning land use and nature reserves demonstrates that there is distinct differences between the planning-paradigm, based on spatial planning, and the environmental-paradigm, based on nature conservation. From the planning-paradigm it is considered that nature reserves had to big impact on the munici­pality's land use and that valuable nature more frequently should be protected by the Swedish planning and building act. From the environmental-paradigms view the nature conservancy is – and should also in the future be – an important tool in the long-term prevention to stop valuable nature from being exploited. The thesis also stresses the importance to in the work with repeals take all effects that this kind of decision can lead to into account – not just in the repealed area but also for the future work with nature reserves on the whole.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 65.
    Berglund, Anneli
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Val av område och områdesskydd för Natura 2000 med skogshabitat: En jämförande studie av fyra län i Sverige2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Natura 2000 Network is one of the European Unions many tools concerning nature conservation, and is without comparison the premier contribution when it comes to halting the loss of biodiversity. This essay is a case study on how the regional work with the Natura 2000-network has been carried out in four different counties. These counties are Södermanland, Västernorrland, Jämtland and Örebro. They have been compared based on the theoretical concept of sustainable development. This essay describes how the officials in the County Administrations view the regional implementation of Natura 2000 when it comes to the selection of Natura 2000-sites with forest habitats and the creation of an additional protective measure. This study takes its basis in a bottom-up approach which focuses on value conflicts that have emerged regionally and how different fundamental attitudes brings forward different aspects of sustainable development. Interviews with County Administration officials show that there are differences in the approach and different key factors that have affected the selection of sites and the work with area protection. One approach starts from an ecological point of view while the other takes the socio-economic aspect more into consideration during the selection process. Two main factors that have emerged are also the importance of the regional landowner-structure and the evident time- and staff shortage that has been experienced in all four counties. The results also show that the nature reserve form is the most common area protection for Natura 2000-sites with forest habitats in the four examined counties.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 66.
    Bergman, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Johnson, Ann-Louise
    A short synthesis of the carbazole alkaloid clausine E2006In: Organic preparations and procedures international, ISSN 0030-4948, E-ISSN 1945-5453, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 593-599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Bergman, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjöfartsmiljöer2005Book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Bergman, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Bylund, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet.
    Komplexitet, kreativitet och konflikt i planeringspraktiken för hållbar utveckling: Hamnomvandlingar i tre svenska städer2012In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 132, p. 251-239Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Berleen Musoke, Solange
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Foreign Doctors and the Road to a Swedish Medical License: Experienced barriers of doctors from non-EU countries2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis in Global Development has looked at the personal experiences of non-European medical doctors that have migrated to Sweden to find out what they have encountered during the process of trying to obtain a Swedish medical license and if there are signs of discrimination. Sweden has a shortage of doctors, but has not resorted to brain drain. Contrary, it is difficult for non-European doctors to work as doctors in Sweden.

    This thesis has used a qualitative research strategy and five non-European unemployed doctors that were trying to get Swedish medical licenses as well as one non-European doctor that was working, were interviewed. Empirical data from a seminar with Swedish doctors about the pro-cess that foreign doctors have to go through to be able to work in Sweden has also been used in this thesis.

    The results showed that doctors from non-European countries have stricter requirements to fulfill in order to be able to practice medicine in Sweden than doctors coming from European countries. The system for accepting foreign doctors and validating their competence was flawed. The pro-cess was confusing, frustrating and unnecessarily long. Although there was no direct discrimina-tion or prejudice, European doctors were favored by the system.

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    fulltext
  • 70.
    Berleen Musoke, Solange
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Vulnerabilities and Urban Flooding in Bwaise Parish III, Kampala, Uganda2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This minor field study has explored what factors cause vulnerability to community members living in informal settlements exposed to localized urban flooding. Particularly, the effects of flooding that women living in Bwaise Parish III, Kampala, Uganda have to encounter were studied. Eight weeks were spent in Kampala, Uganda for field work, which included interviews and a workshop with community members from Bwaise Parish III, interviews with scientists at Makerere University and thesis writing.

    Generally, small-scale disasters surface because of poor urban management. The results showed that inadequate urban planning was affecting the poor that were living on marginal lands. Bwaise Parish III had emerged on a location that was both hazardous and unhealthy. The analysis showed that poor people were limited in their options of risk limitation because of their lack of basic capabilities.

    Women in Bwaise Parish III were affected by flooding directly and indirectly through the loss of livelihoods and belongings and through time spent getting water out of their houses. Women were generally disproportionally affected by flooding because of their vulnerabilities such as lower socioeconomic status and responsibilities that confined them to their homes.

    The way forward in order to mitigate localized flooding impacts would entail reducing vulnerabilities, strengthening capabilities and developing infrastructure.

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    fulltext
  • 71. Bernard, Pascal
    et al.
    Schmidt, Christine Katrin
    Vaur, Sabine
    Dheur, Sonia
    Drogat, Julie
    Genier, Sylvie
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Uhlmann, Frank
    Javerzat, Jean-Paul
    Cell-cycle regulation of cohesin stability along fission yeast chromosomes2008In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but the process of cohesion establishment during S-phase is still enigmatic. In mammalian cells, cohesin binding to chromatin is dynamic in G1, but becomes stabilized during S-phase. Whether the regulation of cohesin stability is integral to the process of cohesion establishment is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that fission yeast cohesin also displays dynamic behavior. Cohesin association with G1 chromosomes requires continued activity of the cohesin loader Mis4/Ssl3, suggesting that repeated loading cycles maintain cohesin binding. Cohesin instability in G1 depends on wpl1, the fission yeast ortholog of mammalian Wapl, suggestive of a conserved mechanism that controls cohesin stability on chromosomes. wpl1 is nonessential, indicating that a change in wpl1-dependent cohesin dynamics is dispensable for cohesion establishment. Instead, we find that cohesin stability increases at the time of S-phase in a reaction that can be uncoupled from DNA replication. Hence, cohesin stabilization might be a pre-requisite for cohesion establishment rather than its consequence.

  • 72.
    Bertrand, Yann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France / Göteborgs universitet.
    Contrasting the general with the particular in phylogenetics - a proposal to keep the meanings of mono/paraphyletic and clade/grade separated2008In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 705-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clade and monophyletic group on one hand and grade and paraphyletic group on the other hand are commonly used as pairs of interchangeable terms. I question this apparent synonymy and propose that "monophyly" and "paraphyly" should refer to a property of a set, whereas "clade" and "grade" should apply to individuals resulting from evolutionary process.

  • 73.
    Bertrand, Yann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Göteborgs universitet.
    Relationships between nomenclature, phylogenetics and systematics2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematists have become increasingly aware of the limits imposed by the current system of nomenclature for accurately representing evolutionary relationships and managing efficiently names associated with clades. In reaction, a new system of nomenclature, the PhyloCode is being developed that fully recognizes the historical nature of taxonomy and the importance of the cladistics revolution. As a consequence, questions emerge about the new historical entities of systematics, questions that can be apprehended through the lens of epistemology, philosophy of language and metaphysics. What is the ontological nature of entities that lack any other essential features besides spatiotemporal properties? How to depart from the fixed realm of immutable and transcendental essence into a worldview wherein all biological entities are characterized by their temporality and materiality? What are the consequences of nomenclatural decisions on other sectors of biology? With the ever growing sequencing capacity and tree reconstructing abilities, our conceptualization of phylogenetic relationships is changing at an unprecedented pace. Then it begs the question, what prevents communication break down when the references of clades’ names are changing almost on a daily basis. These are some of the fundamental issues I am tackling in the present work. Addressing the ontological issue, I argue that species and clades are best perceived as mereological sums of individuals, which means that each biological individual is the unique individual composed of all its less inclusive individuals and nothing more. I propose to separate the meanings of “clade” and “monophyletic group”. I suggest to use “monophyletic” for an epithet referring to a defining property of a set (a natural kind) and “clade” for a noun which corresponds to a historical entity (an individual) resulting from evolutionary process. I present the idea that a phyloname is not attached to a single clade but to a natural kind containing as members the clades that would be selected in counterfactual phylogenies. The defining properties of this natural kind are provided by the phylogenetic definition. Finally I stress that taxonomists are also driven by the will to narrate the same sort of history, when they adjust the reference of names in light of new phylogenetic data, which leads me to submit that taxa can also be perceived as narratives.

  • 74.
    Bertrand, Yann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France / Göteborgs universitet.
    Species individuality and integrationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France / Göteborgs universitet.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Historicism and essentialism in phylogenetic biologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France / Göteborgs universitet.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Phylogenetic hypotheses, taxonomic sameness and the reference of taxon names2008In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 337-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When scientists use a taxon name like Mammalia, it is important that they talk about the same thing. But, what does it mean to be the same thing in different phylogenetic hypotheses? And, how is taxonomic reference maintained across hypotheses? Here, we discuss the differences between real and hypothetical clades, and how such a distinction relates to the sameness problem. Since hypotheses influence how we perceive things and pursue science, we find it important to have a functioning nomenclatural system for clades as perceived in phylogenetic hypotheses. As a solution to the sameness problem for such clades, we argue that a taxon name does not primarily refer to a single clade that somehow mirror the reality of branches in the tree of life. Instead we suggest that a taxon name refers to a set, or natural kind, of counterfactual and reconstructed clades.

  • 77.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Stability and universality in the application of taxon names in phylogenetic nomenclature2006In: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 848-858Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
    Pteijel, F.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rouse, G. W.
    Adelaide University, Australia.
    Taxonomic surrogacy in biodiversity assessments, and the meaning of Linnaean ranks2006In: Systematics and Biodiversity, ISSN 1477-2000, E-ISSN 1478-0933, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of biodiversity assessments use species as the base unit. Recently, a series of studies have suggested replacing numbers of species with higher ranked taxa (genera, families, etc.); a method known as taxonomic surrogacy that has an important potential to save time and resources in assesments of biological diversity. We examine the relationships between taxa and ranks, and suggest that species/higher taxon exchanges are founded on misconceptions about the properties of Linnaean classification. Rank allocations in current classifications constitute a heterogeneous mixture of various historical and contemporary views. Even if all taxa were monophyletic, those referred to the same rank would simply denote separate clades without further equivalence. We conclude that they are no more comparable than any other, non-nested taxa, such as, for example, the genus Rattus and the phylum Arthropoda, and that taxonomic surrogacy tacks justification. These problems are also illustrated with data of polychaetous annelid worms from a broad-scale study of benthic biodiversity and species distributions in the Irish Sea. A recent consensus phylogeny for polychaetes is used to provide three different family-level classifications of polychaetes. We use families as a surrogate for species, and present Shannon-Wiener diversity indices for the different sites and the three different classifications, showing how the diversity measures rely on subjective rank allocations.

  • 79.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Töpel, Mats
    Göteborg University.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    First Dating of a Recombination Event in Mammalian Tick-Borne Flaviviruses2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31981-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group (MTBFG) contains viruses associated with important human and animal diseases such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. In contrast to mosquito-borne flaviviruses where recombination events are frequent, the evolutionary dynamic within the MTBFG was believed to be essentially clonal. This assumption was challenged with the recent report of several homologous recombinations within the Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). We performed a thorough analysis of publicly available genomes in this group and found no compelling evidence for the previously identified recombinations. However, our results show for the first time that demonstrable recombination (i.e., with large statistical support and strong phylogenetic evidences) has occurred in the MTBFG, more specifically within the Louping ill virus lineage. Putative parents, recombinant strains and breakpoints were further tested for statistical significance using phylogenetic methods. We investigated the time of divergence between the recombinant and parental strains in a Bayesian framework. The recombination was estimated to have occurred during a window of 282 to 76 years before the present. By unravelling the temporal setting of the event, we adduce hypotheses about the ecological conditions that could account for the observed recombination.

  • 80. Beskow, Anne
    et al.
    Wright, Anthony P. H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Comparative analysis of regulatory transcription factors in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeasts2006In: Yeast, ISSN 0749-503X, E-ISSN 1097-0061, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 929-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory transcription factors (rTFs), which bind specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of genes and subsequently activate or repress transcription, play a central role in programming genomic expression. The number of rTFs in a species might therefore reflect its functional complexity. For simple organisms like yeast, a relatively small number of rTFs might be expected that is fairly constant between yeast species. We show that the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains 201 rTfs, which is one of the largest rTF numbers found in yeast species for which genome sequences are available. This is a much higher number than the 129 rTFs found in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which is currently the yeast with the lowest number of rTFs. Comparative analysis of several different budding yeast species shows that most of the 'extra' rTFs found in S. cerevisiae were probably acquired as a result of a whole genome duplication (WGD) event that occurred in an ancestor of a subset of budding yeast species. However, we also show that budding yeast species that have not been affected by the WGD contain a greater number of rTFs than S. pombe (mean = 145). Thus, two or more mechanisms have led to the 60% increase in rTFs in S. cerevisiae compared to S. pombe. This difference may correlate with a more extensive functional divergence in budding yeasts compared to fission yeasts. The relatively small number of rTFs in S. pombe make this organism an attractive model for global studies of mechanisms that programme gene expression.

  • 81.
    Bidla, Gawa
    et al.
    Stockolms universitet.
    Lindgren, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet.
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase in Drosophila larvae2005In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 669-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to wounding in insects. Although studies have been performed in large-bodied insects such as the moth Galleria mellonella, less is known about clotting in Drosophila melanogaster, the insect most useful for genetic and molecular analyses of innate immunity. Here we show the similarities between clots in Drosophila and Galleria by light- and electron microscopy. Phenoloxidase changes the Drosophila clot's physical properties through cross-linking and melanization, but it is not necessary for preliminary soft clot formation. Bacteria associate with the clot, but this alone does not necessarily kill them. The stage is now set for rapid advances in our understanding of insect hemolymph coagulation, its roles in immune defense and wound healing, and for a more comprehensive grasp of the insect immune system in general.

  • 82. Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Rydberg, Johan
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, p. 2132-2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Malaren - Sweden’s third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  • 83. Björck, S.
    et al.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Jensen, J. B.
    An attempt to resolve the partly conflicting data and ideas on the Ancylus - Littorina transition2008In: Proceedings of the workshop "Relative sea level changes - from subsiding to uplifting coasts" / [ed] Szymon Uścinowicz, Joanna Zachowicz, 2008, p. 21-26Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Björk, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Synthesis of sulfur and seleniumn heterocycles, including derivatives of imidazopyridine and benzimidazole2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemistry developed in this thesis can be divided into two parts. The first part, which is the major part of the thesis, contains syntheses towards analogues to mutagenic heterocyclic amines found in e.g. meat fried at high temperatures. The second part concentrates on the palladium-(0)catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 4- and 5-substituted 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazoles. The heterocyclic amines described can be divided into the linear and the angular compounds. Five linear imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines were synthesised via the Friedländer reaction: 2-amino-1 - methylbenzothieno[2,3-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-amino-1-methy-benzothieno [3,2-e] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 2-amino-1-methylthieno[2,3-elimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine, 2-amino-1methylthieno[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and the sulfur analogue to the cooked-food mutagen IFP, 2-amino- 1,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Attempts were made to form three thienoimidazo[4,5-b]pyridines via stepwise condensation. The first condensation between creatinine and 2-nitro-3-thiophene-carbaldehyde, 3-amino-2thiophenecarbaldehyde and 4-azido3-thiophenecarbaldehyde yielded thenylidenomethyleneimidazolinones, but only one of these gave the ring closed compound 2-amino-1-methylthieno[2,3-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by a second condensation. In addition, 2-amino- 1 methyl benzoth ieno[3,2-e] imidazo[4,5 -b] pyridine was transformed into the 2-nitro- and 2-hydroxy derivative. The last linear isomer 2-amino-1methylimidazo[4,5-b]benzothiophene, was synthesized by a different route. The series of angular compounds are considered analogues to the food-mutagen IQx. A series of six homologues of 7-amino-imidazo[4,5-e]-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazoles. Four ring systems were obtained by treating 4-methylamino-3-nitro-phenylenedianmine with a range of biselectrophiles, namely: 2-amino-1-methylbenzo-thiadiazole, -triazole, -diazepinone and 2amino1 -methylimidazobenzimidazole. Among the palladium-(0)-catalyzed cros s- couplings, the Suzuki, Stille, Fleck and Sonogashira reactions were used. These were applied to 4-, or 5-bromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazoles. In addition, the 4- and 5-trimethyltin-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole were synthesized.

  • 85.
    Björk, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Grivas, Spiros
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Classical conditions of Suzuki, Stille, Heck and Sonogashira couplings applied on 4- and 5-substituted 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazolesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Björk, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Grivas, Spiros
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Synthesis of imidazo[4,5-e]-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazoles and derivatives thereofManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Björk, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Grivas, Spiros
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Synthesis of novel 2-aminoimidazo[4,5-b]pyridines, including the thieno analogue of the cooked-food mutagen IFP2006In: Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-152X, E-ISSN 1943-5193, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight new compounds, including three new ring systems obtained via the Friedlander condensation of ortho-aminothiophenecarbaldehydes 11, 21 and 24 with creatinine (8), are reported. The condensation afforded 1, which is the thieno analogue of the cooked-food mutagen IFP (2-amino-1,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and the benzothieno[2,3-e]- and benzothieno[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 and 3. Attempts to condense 11 with isocreatinine (12) were unsuccessful. Desulfurization of 3 gave the known cooked-food carcinogen PhIP. The 2-nitro (4) and 2-hydroxy (5) derivatives of 3 are reported. The related 2-amino-1-methyl-imidazo[4,5-b]benzothiophene (25) was synthesized by a different route. Fully assigned H-1 and C-13 nmr data of all new compounds are reported.

  • 88.
    Björk, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Grivas, Spiros
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Synthesis of thienoimidazo[4,5-b]pyridines and thenylidenoimidazolinones2005In: Heterocycles, ISSN 0385-5414, E-ISSN 1881-0942, Vol. 65, no 10, p. 2369-2380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two isomers 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]thieno[3,2-e]pyridine (3) and 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]thieno[2,3-e]pyridine (4) were synthesized by the Friedlander reaction starting from creatinine and the appropriate aminothiophenecarbaldehydes (11 and 13). Creatinine was also condensed with 2-nitro-3-thiophenecarbaldehyde (10) in ethylene glycol to yield the 2-amino-1-methyl-5-[2-(2-nitro-3-thenylidene)]-2-imidazolin-4-one (7a), with 3-amino-2-thiophenecarbaldehyde (13) under Perkin conditions to yield 2-acetamido-5-[2-(3-acetamido-2-thenylidene)]-1-methyl-2-imidazolin-4-on e (8), and with 4-azido-3-thiophenecarbaldehyde (17) in acetic acid to yield 2-amino-5[2-(4-azido-3-thenylidene)]-1-methyl-2-imidazolin-4-one (9). The thenylidenoimidazolinonc (8) was converted into compound (4).

  • 89.
    Björkander, Camilla
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Gotlands landsbygd och invånarnas framtidstro: En studie av människors känsla för bygden med sikte på planering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines resident experiences and notions of the Gotland countryside and their ideas about the future. In particular the countryside is studied as both space and place. In space and place people interacting. People are therefore important components in the study of the landscape. One can say that the landscape and the interaction between people affect resident experiences and notions of the countryside, as well as people certainly affect the landscape. From that point of view is the landscape seen as a social construction. Moreover, the study examines the residents’ attitudes to tourism in the countryside, tourists being a group of importance for Gotland’s regional development. The study also identifies reasons behind experiences and attitudes. The study is based on questionnaires and interviews with residents’ and three different groups are studied; the general public, farmers, and public servants, who in one way or another work with regional development.

    The study shows residents’ positive and negative opinions as well as similarities and differences among the three studied groups. One important finding is that public servants tend to think that other people are more positive towards the future than they really are. Nevertheless, positive and negative perspectives are important to be aware of to understand residents’ situation, likewise to be able to have an influence on people, their attitudes and situations. Eventually, it is clear that sense of place and experience of space affect residents’ ideas about the future and vice versa. Therefore these aspects need to be taken into consideration in physical planning and regional development.

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  • 90.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Gelhaar, Joachim
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Tv-serien Färjan: Ett marknadsföringsverktyg för Viking Line? 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with how a company in the experience industry is using a new way to communicate with their customers and how that communication can affect the image of the company's brand. Furthermore, the paper addresses how storytelling and community is created and can be used to improve the communication with customers and with the new communication medium. The selected firm for the paper is ferry company Viking Line. Year 2008 was the collaboration with Channel 5 that they could make a TV series depicting life on board the Viking Line's cruise ship M / S Cinderella. TV series which was named the Ferry has been aired on Channel 5 since autumn 2008 and has been seen by about half million viewers per episode. In the chapter "Background" provides a general description of how communication within the marketing has changed and what risks there might exist with the Ferry as a means of communication. In the chapter "Method" provides a description of the essay writer’s procedures and the research method used. A qualitative research method was chosen for the purpose of the paper. In the Theory section the reader may take note of the selected theories. These theories deal with communications with the traditional means of communication, storytelling and community, image and brand theory. Theory section followed since the empirical material writers has collected. The empirical material consists of secondary sources collected on the TV series Ferry and primary sources consist of interviews with Viking Line, Channel 5, Metronome, and a PR expert.

    In the analysis section theoretical and empirical material are analyzed and discussed. The writers assumed their chosen theories and compared these with the empirical evidence he has collected, a comparison between traditional communications and the ferry as a means of communication have been made. The results of the survey show that the ferry as a means of communication differs from traditional marketing communications.

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  • 91. Blacque, O E
    et al.
    Perens, E A
    Boroevich, K A
    Inglis, P N
    Li, C M
    Warner, A
    Khattra, J
    Holt, R A
    Ou, G S
    Mah, A K
    McKay, S J
    Huang, P
    Swoboda, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Jones, S J M
    Marra, M A
    Baillie, D L
    Moerman, D G
    Shaham, S
    Leroux, M R
    Functional genomics of the cilium, a sensory organelle2005In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 935-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cilia and flagella play important roles in many physiological processes, including cell and fluid movement, sensory perception, and development [1]. The biogenesis and maintenance of cilia depend on intraflagellar transport (IFT), a motility process that operates bidirectionally along the ciliary axoneme [1, 2]. Disruption in IFT and cilia function causes several human disorders, including polycystic kidneys, retinal dystrophy, neurosensory impairment, and Bardet-Bledl syndrome (BBS) [3-5]. To uncover new ciliary components, including IFT proteins, we compared C. elegans ciliated neuronal and nonciliated cells through serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and screened for genes potentially regulated by the cillogenic transcription factor, DAF-19 [6]. Using these complementary approaches, we identified numerous candidate ciliary genes and confirmed the ciliated-cell-specific expression of 14 novel genes. One of these, C27H5.7a, encodes a ciliary protein that undergoes IFT. As with other IFT proteins, its ciliary localization and transport is disrupted by mutations in IFT and bbs genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ciliary structural defect of C. elegans dyf-13(mn396) mutants is caused by a mutation in C27H5.7a. Together, our findings help define a ciliary transcriptome and suggest that DYF-13, an evolutionarily conserved protein, is a novel core IFT component required for cilia function.

  • 92.
    Blomdahl, Katja
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Hållbar utveckling och ekologisk modernisering i partipolitiken: En jämförande studie av Socialdemokraternas och Moderaternas miljöpolicys2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development as a concept is frequently utilized nowadays in our society and is additionally used as a comprehensive goal of Swedish national strategy. The purpose of this essay is approach this issue and to examine whether sustainable development and/or ecological modernization best describes the environmental policy of the two major political parties in Sweden. Socialdemokraterna and Moderaterna belong to opposite ideological parties, one on the left wing and the other one on the right wing.

    The result of this essay concludes that there are essential differences between the environmental policies of the two parties that are related to the underlying political ideology. Socialdemokraterna, on the one hand, has its root in democracy, social justice and welfare issues and the environmental policy mostly agrees with sustainable development. Moderaterna, on the other hand, takes its starting point in liberal-conservative thoughts with individualism and market-based economies and their environmental policy is in almost every aspect in accordance with ecological modernization. Yet, the differences in environmental policies are to some extent unexpected since both parties support the national strategy of sustainable development. Besides, the latest chairman of the Commission on Sustainable Development was the party leader of Moderaterna.

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  • 93.
    Boalt, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Ecology and evolution of tolerance in two cruciferous species2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tolerance to herbivory is the ability of plants to maintain fitness in spite of damage. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the genetic variation and expression of tolerance within species, determine whether and in what conditions tolerance has negative side-effects, and how tolerance is affected by different ecological factors. Tolerance is investigated with special focus on the effects of different damage types, competitive regimes, history of herbivory, and polyploidization in plants. Studies are conducted as a literature review and three experiments on two cruciferous species Raphanus raphanistrum and Cardamine pratensis.

    In the tolerance experiments, plants are subjected to artificial damage solely, or in a combination with natural damage. A literature review was conducted in order to investigate the effects of damage method. We found that traits related to tolerance, such as growth and fitness were not as sensitive in regard to damage method as measures of induced chemical traits, or measures of secondary herbivory.

    Genetic variation of tolerance was demonstrated within populations of R. raphanistrum and between subspecies of C. pratensis. In R. raphanistrum, traits involved in floral display and male fitness were positively associated with plant tolerance to herbivore damage. A potential cost of tolerance was demonstrated as a negative correlation between levels of tolerance in high and low competitive regimes. I found no evidence of other proposed costs of tolerance in terms of highly tolerant plants suffering of reduced fitness in the absence of herbivores or trade-offs in terms of a negative association between tolerance to apical and leaf damage, or between tolerance and competitive ability. In C. pratensis, higher ploidy level in plants involved higher levels of tolerance measured as clonal reproduction. Furthermore, populations exposed to higher levels of herbivory had better tolerance than populations exposed to lower levels of herbivory. In this thesis, I demonstrate evidence of different components for the evolution of tolerance in plants: genotypic variation, selective factors in terms of costs and ploidization, and selective agents in terms of changing environment or herbivore pressure.

  • 94.
    Boalt, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Arvanitis, Leena
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    The association among herbivory tolerance, ploidy level, and herbivory pressure in Cardamine pratensis2010In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1101-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested whether differences in ploidy level and previous exposure to herbivory can affect plant tolerance to herbivory. We conducted a common garden experiment with 12 populations of two ploidy levels of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis (five populations of tetraploid ssp. pratensis and seven populations of octoploid ssp. paludosa). Earlier studies have shown that attack rates by the main herbivore, the orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines, are lower in populations of octoploids than in populations of tetraploids, and vary among populations. In the common garden experiment, a combination of natural and artificial damage significantly reduced seed and flower production. We measured tolerance based on four plant-performance metrics: survival, growth, seed production and clonal reproduction. For three of these measurements, tolerance of damage did not differ between ploidy levels. For clonal reproduction, the octoploids had a higher tolerance than the tetraploids, although they experience lower herbivore attack rates in natural populations. Populations from sites with high levels of herbivory had higher tolerance, measured by seed production, than populations with low levels of herbivory. We did not detect any significant costs of tolerance. We conclude that high intensity of herbivory has selected for high tolerance measured by seed production in C. pratensis.

  • 95.
    Boalt, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Tolerance to apical and foliar damage: costs and mechanisms in Raphanus raphanistrum2007In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 116, no 12, p. 2071-2081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to herbivore damage, we used apical and foliar damage as experimental treatments to study whether there are similar tolerance mechanisms to different types of damage. We also studied whether tolerance to different types of damage are associated, and whether there is a cost involved in plant tolerance to different types of herbivore damage. Our greenhouse experiment involved 480 plants from 30 full-sib families of an annual weed Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish, which were subjected to control and two different simulated herbivore damage treatments, apex removal and foliar damage of 30% of leaf area. Apical damage significantly decreased seed production, whereas foliar damage had no effect. There was a significant genetic variation for tolerance to foliar, but not apical damage. No costs were observed in terms of negative correlation between tolerance to either damage type and fitness of undamaged plants. Tolerances to apical and foliar damage were not significantly correlated with each other. We observed a larger number of significant associations between tolerance and reproductive traits than between tolerance and vegetative traits. Plant height and leaf size of damaged plants interacted in their association to tolerance to foliar damage. Inflorescence number and pollen quantity per flower of damaged plants were positively associated with tolerance to apical damage. In late-flowering genotypes, petal size of undamaged plants and pollen quantity of damaged plants were positively associated with tolerance to foliar damage. In summary, traits involved in floral display and male fitness were associated with plant tolerance to herbivore damage.

  • 96.
    Bolin, Göran
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Media and Communication Studies.
    Hammer, MonicaSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences.Kirsch, Frank-MichaelSödertörn University, School of Language and Culture, German language.Szrubka, WojciechSödertörn University, School of Political Science, Economics and Law, Political science.
    The challenge of the Baltic sea region: culture, ecosystems, democracy2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union the Baltic Sea Region and Eastern Europe have attracted increasing interest from researchers from various disciplines. This book gathers researchers from the humanities, the social and natural sciences, who in their respective ways, and from a wide range of perspectives, attempt to come to grips with the challenges that the region poses for research.

  • 97. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Pålsson, Karl-Johan
    Torstensson, Peter
    Genetic and phenotypic differences between thistle populations in response to habitat and weed management practices2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 797-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid evolutionary change is increasingly being recognized as commonplace, but the evolutionary consequences for species and ecosystems under human-induced selection regimes have not been explored in detail, although many species occur in such environments. In a common garden experiment and with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we examined whether genetic differentiation has taken place between spatially intermixed populations of creeping thistles Cirsium arvense (Asteraceae) collected from a natural habitat (maritime shores), a semi-natural habitat (road verges) and arable fields under two management regimes: conventional and organic farming. Populations of C. arvense have altered genetically and locally adapted their growth patterns with changed land use. Although plants from different habitats showed similar total biomass production, shoot and root production was higher for maritime populations, suggesting selection for increased competitive ability. Competitive ability then declined in the order semi-natural, conventional farms and organic farms. Thistles in arable fields may be more selected for tolerance against disturbances from herbicides and mechanical weed control. In addition, early shoot sprouting and genetic analysis showed differentiation between plants originating from conventional farms and farms that were converted to organic 9–30 years ago, suggesting some adaptation to altered crop cultivation practices

  • 98.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Det fria stångskiftet i Västergötland2008In: Jordvärderingssystem från medeltiden till 1600-talet / [ed] Alf Ericsson, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2008, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Fieldtrips as a pedagogic tool2007In: Relationen mellem læreruddannelsen og skoleudviklingen: Kongresrapport til den 10. nordiske læreruddannelses kongres / [ed] Kristín Jónsdóttir, Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir, Reykjavik: School of Education, University of Iceland , 2007, p. -10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 100.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Geographia didactica2010In: Tradition och praxis i högre utbildning: tolv ämnesdidaktiska studier / [ed] Anders Burman, Ana Graviz, Johan Rönnby, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2010, p. 163-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Geographia didactica
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