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  • 51.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business HIstory.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Är svensk ömsesidig försäkring unik?2017In: Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift, ISSN 0348-6516, E-ISSN 2001-1741, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska insititutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ömsesidig försäkring: Bolag, kunder och marknad2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan den moderna försäkringsbranschen började utvecklas vid mitten av 1800-talet har den ömsesidiga bolagsformen haft en stark position i Sverige. I dag dominerar ömsesidiga företag på såväl liv- som skadeförsäkringsmarknaden, och under de senaste decennierna har de dessutom stärkt sin position.I boken diskuteras skillnaderna mellan ömsesidiga och aktiebolagsgrundade bolag, liksom orsakerna till den ömsesidiga bolags formens framgångar i Sverige. Har det att göra med nationell tradition, lagstiftning eller konkurrenstryck?Boken är uppdelad i tematiska kapitel som behandlar olika aspekter av försäkring i allmänhet och ömsesidig försäkring i synnerhet. Bland dessa teman finns frågor om regelverk och marknad, men också kundernas medbestämmande och lojalitet.

  • 53.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.Winroth, KarinSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Entreprenörskap och varumärken2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innovationer och entreprenörer betraktas ofta som nödvändiga faktorer för att skapa nya företag och marknader. Varumärken har med tiden fått en allt större betydelse i näringslivet, eller kanske är det mer rättvist att säga att vi blivit mer medvetna om deras ekonomiska värde för producenter och sociala värde för konsumenter. Denna bok illustrerar att det finns många intressanta forskningsfrågor i skärningspunkten mellan entreprenöriella aktiviteter och uppbyggnaden och vidmakthållandet av välkända varumärken.

  • 54.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Winroth, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Entreprenörskap och varumärken: en introduktion2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Varumärkets roll i innovationsprocessen i nya företag: Fallet Cariel Spirits AB2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Larsson, Mats, Lönnborg, Mikael, Winroth, Karin, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, p. 257-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Spear, Roger
    Open University, UK.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises in the Nordics: Narratives Emerging from Social Movements and Welfare Dynamics2016In: Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives / [ed] Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Roger Spear, New York and London: Routledge, 2016, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
    et al.
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Gawell, MalinSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.Spear, RogerOpen University, UK.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises: Nordic Perspectives2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle. These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way for the Nordic solicaristic welfare state.

    As the welfare state grew, civil society organizations and co-operatives lost ground, to a certain extent. But in recent decades, the welfare state has been restructured and, simultaneously, the concepts social entrepreneurship and social enterprises have gained attention. The Nordic context, with extensive public welfare structures and a high degree of citizens’ participation in public affairs, might affect the emergence of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises.

  • 58.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation.
    An Innovator and an Entrepreneur: Carl Gustaf von Koch and the Introduction of Modern Risk Management in Sweden2016In: Proceedings of the International Sessions of the 52nd Japanese Business History Society of Japan (BHSJ), Chuo University, Japan, 8-9 October, 2016, 2016, p. 135-152Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Senter for Business History.
    Elden är lös!2014In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 3, p. 41-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Oslo .
    Försäkringsvärlden i gungning2015In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 1, p. 47-51Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Svenska försäkringsbolags internationella verksamhet2018In: Ett liv som handledare: Mats Larsson 65 år / [ed] Peter Hedbergoch Mikael Lönnborg, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, no 23, p. 17-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Swedish Reinsurers in the Non-Life Sector2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Waves of Globalization: Swedish Insurers on Foreign Markets2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Waves of Internationalization: Swedish Insurers on Foreign Markets2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Moderna varumärken och historiska entreprenörer2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, p. 49-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Law and Governance, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The rise and fall of the Baltic Sea Region?: The economic and political underpinnings of a northern European macroregion, 1990-20152017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to trade and investment in the quarter of a century that has passed since the fall of the communist regimes that divided the European continent At the same time we look into the political developments that brought the 2009 adoption of the European Union’s first macroregional strategy, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a ‘Mare Dividum’ to a European ‘Mare Nostrum’ was indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes.

    However, it may also be argued that the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there was more to be wished for with regard to this region. Further, more recent political developments in Europe as such as well as the constituent countries of this macroregion has cast some doubts on the future. In this paper we ask ourselves whether developments with regard to investments and trade are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region; does it make economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region or is the eastwest divide still present? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to foreign direct investment and trade flows. In addition, in a concluding section, we open up an analysis on whether recent political development risk nullifying the progress made on the economic arena – or whether Brexit and connected developments are actually reinforcing the European macroregional agenda?

  • 67.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Foreign Direct Investment and Post-Communist Banking: The Case of the Baltic States2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 177-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 68.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Law and Governance, Centre for Business History, Oslo, Norway.
    Rafferty, Michael
    The Royal Melbourne Technical Institute (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    The Rationality and Effects of Lender of Last Resort Policy in Scandinavia2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Oslo .
    Rafferty, Michael
    Sydney University.
    Winners and Losers in Times of Financial Crises2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take the current global financial crisis as a point of departure for a comparative and longitudinal study of such crises in Sweden during the last 100 years. A focus of our attention is how the state (or entities close to the state) chooses to manage the financial crises and thus how they distribute the direct and indirect costs connected to these crises, i.e. how the state in attempting to resolve crises effectively also helps pick the winners and losers of these recurring phenomena. However, this is only a pilot study of a new research project and here we will focus on how Scandinavian countries have dealt with financial crises, and particular how the state have acted in connections with financial crises.

  • 70.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ögren, Anders
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rafferty, Michael
    Sydney University.
    Banks and Swedish financial crises in the 1920s and 1930s2013In: History and Financial Crisis: Lessons from the 20th century / [ed] Christopher Kobrak & Mira Wilkins, London & New York: Routledge , 2013, p. 56-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in the Baltic Sea Region, 1990-2015: Lessons from attempts at regional integration in post-communist Europe2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Trade and Investment in the Baltic Sea Region, 1990-2015: Lessons and Implications for Region-Building2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    External finance and ‘transition’: A  review of market developments in Central Europe and the Baltics in the run-up to EU membership2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transtition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 59-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 74.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: Introduction of the Key Themes2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 75.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.Rafferty, MichaelRMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 76.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Nakamura, Richard
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Building the Baltic Sea Region through investment and trade, 1989-20092017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some twenty years after the fall of the communist dictatorships that divided the European continent the European Union in late 2009 adopted its first ever macroregional strategy – the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a Mare Dividum to a European Mare Nostrum is indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes. However, at the same time the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there is more to be wished for with regard to this region.

    It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we thus approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to investment and trade flows during the last twenty years.

    We ask ourselves whether these developments are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region and whether it makes economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to trade and investment flows.

  • 77.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Toward a Post-Transition Political Economy Theory of Transformation: The Case of Financial Services2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 29-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Unplanned from Plan to Market: A Concluding Analysis2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 281-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 79.
    Ragnar, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Axolot Solutions.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hedh, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Åkerbär: Europas godaste bär2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De vilda åkerbären är en alltmer sällsynt och utrotningshotad del av vårt biologiska kulturarv, men de är också en inspirationskälla till litteratur och konst och på grund av sin smak och doft är den också en mycket uppskattad norrländsk delikatess. Denna populärvetenskapliga bok belyser historien om bäret, om de försök som gjorts för att domesticera bäret, den forskning den gett upphov till, samt hur den gestaltats i vår dåtid och samtid. Boken omfattar också ett antal recept författade av kocken, konditorn och kokboksförfattaren Jan Hedh.

  • 80.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Before the invention of the “New World” Argentinean and Chilean wines in Sweden before 19502019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the new world became a concept related to the upswing of wines from Australia, Latin America, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States, occasionally, wines from these countries could be sold in countries like Sweden. One such point in time was during WWII, when importing wines from Europe became impossible and a very short window of trade opened-up between Argentina, Chile and Sweden. This paper partially describes this story, based on the scarce sources found at the archive of the former Museum of Wines and Spirits in Stockholm. The purpose of the paper is to shed light on the amount of wine imports from Argentina and Chile during the trade window between Sweden, Argentina and Chile caused by WWII. Some sources analyzed are sales statistics of the Swedish wholesale and import monopoly Aktiebolaget Vin & Spritcentralen, price lists of the regional alcohol monopoly in Stockholm (Stockholmssystemet) and by analyzing the labels of the wines found in the archive. Some of the questions to be answered are: How much wine from Argentina and Chile was sold during the studied period? Who were the exporters? Why was this trade window opened and closed?

  • 81.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Culinary Heritage, Governance and Rural Development In Jämtland and Västernorrland (Sweden)2016In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen and Ursula Hård, Huddinge: Södertörns Högskola, 2016, p. 33-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades a remarkable process of rural development based on the revival of local culinary heritage has been set in motion all over Sweden. In Västernorrland and Jämtland, two counties that share the same culinary heritage and history and at least in some parts, have common geographical features, the shift towards this culinary place based development has been quite different. Differences can partly be explained through institutional explanations. But as will be showed by this study, there are also important historical and other reasons behind different patterns. What was left of a once common culinary heritage has been decisive for the possibility of economic success. In this article the main emphasis is put on how the nature and character of culinary heritage influences the possibility of promoting rural development. 

  • 82.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    De-Localizing the Agri-Food System Governance, Livelihoods and Vulnerability in El Alfalfal (Chile)2016In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen and Ursula Hård, Huddinge: Södertörns Högskola, 2016, p. 173-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the impact of the of the hydro-power plant Alto Maipo, on a localized agri-food system (LAFS) in Cajón del Maipo (Chile). Although extensive research was done before starting the construction of Alto Maipo, the possible impact on transhumance and thereby on the ancient LAFS in the area that carries important elements of the cultural heritage and national identity has until now been neglected. Results show how an exogenous impact on the local institutions that linked landscape, people, animals and products together in the conformation of a LAFS have been disturbed through the creation of alternative income opportunities and enforced change. Current events generated alternative short term income opportunities, but also a long term negative impact on livelihoods and nature. 

  • 83.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Genus, företagande och politik2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 7-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a review of some of the most important contributions in the field of gender and entrepreneurship in Sweden. The gender perspective is one of society's most important organizing principles, while entrepreneurship is seen as important for promoting growth, creating jobs, etc. The study of gender and entrepreneurship in combination is therefore important to understand the forces that shape our history, our present and our future. This field of research focuses on the study of the entrepreneur,  enterprise, entrepreneurship, business relevant organizations, industries, and business and how these are affected by gender issues and gender contracts. It involves formal and informal institutional arrangements that influence, highlights and explains differences in conditions for women and men in employment and in their roles as business owners, as well as the socio-economic consequences of the same. Gender orders put an imprint on both the public and private sectors, the division of labor inside and outside the home, in education, in the allocation of resources in society, etc. Gender issues are embedded in a variety of institutional and contextual circumstances and for instance also of a dimension and such class of ethnicity. Therefore intersectionality both a common and important approaches in gender studies in general and in the study of gender and entrepreneurship in particular. Today therefore research on female and male immigrant entrepreneurship and conditions of the same are becoming more frequent, but also how the deregulation of the public sector has funneled low-income people, mainly women in health care to low-profit businesses. The chapter also raises the recent criticism raised about how this research field has now matured and a need to move towards more critical and problem oriented research is needed. The critical voices argue that improving and increasing the contextualization of  research by problematizing the state's support to women in business, to analyze the restructuring of the public sector restructuring, which in practice promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurialism is a viable way to address current shortcomings in current research.

  • 84.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hur vinet blev populärt i Sverige: en historia om välstånd, nya tider och alkoholpolitik2019In: 1959 års ekonomiska historia: en festskrift i samband med professor Lena Andersson-Skogs 60-årsdag 2019 / [ed] Strömberg, Helén, Umeå: Enheten för ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 60-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är vin en ganska vanlig dryck i Sverige. Men det var först under 1900–talets andra hälft som vinkonsumtionen ökade. Varför blev vin så populärt i Sverige? Och vilken roll spelade 1950–talets samhällsförändringar i nämnda utveckling? Tidigare forskning brukar lyfta två huvudförklaringar till att det konsumeras vin i Sverige. Den första betonar att vinet blev ett substitut till brännvin under motbokstiden (1919–1955). Den andra hävdar att den ökade vinkonsumtionen berodde på den vinpropaganda som lanserades av Systembolaget under 1958 med syfte att minska alkoholkonsumtionen genom att förmå befolkningen att ersätta konsumtion av brännvin, med konsumtion av drycker med lägre alkoholhalt. Båda hypoteserna verkar rimliga, men förklaringarna förenklar bilden av det som skedde eftersom de bortser från de stora sociala, ekonomiska och kulturella förändringar som ägde rum i Sverige, särskilt efter andra världskrigets slut. I ekonomisk neoklassisk teori behandlas förändringar i konsumtion i relation till de marknadsförutsättningar som konsumenten upplever vid en viss tidpunkt. I teorin antas konsumenten kunna fatta rationella beslut och variabler som pris anses vara centrala för konsumentens köpbeslut, därför antas exempelvis skatter kunna påverka den mängd alkohol som konsumeras i ett land. Men det finns många andra faktorer som påverkar konsumtion av alkohol. Under de senaste decennierna har exempelvis sambandet mellan modernisering och vinkonsumtion uppmärksammats i en rad empiriska studier om EU:s vinproducerande länder. Men även kulturella faktorer och dolda samhällsstrukturer rörande vad som är accepterat beteende liksom socialt och kulturellt inbäddade normer som påverkar konsumtionen av alkohol har alltmer betonats. Därtill kopplas alkohol ofta till skapandet och firandet av olika typer av traditioner och kulturuttryck. Denna artikel syftar till att ge en vidgad förklaring till orsakerna bakom ökningen av vinkonsumtion i Sverige efter andra världskriget genom att belysa ett bredare socialt och kulturellt perspektiv. Artikelns fokus ligger på ”lättviner”, dvs. den produkt som vi idag till vardags benämner som vin. Källorna utgörs av årsböcker, offentliga rapporter, samtida tidningsartiklar, tidigare forskning, samt intervjuer. I så stor utsträckning som möjligt har triangulering av källor tillämpats.

  • 85.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    ”Jag är en fäbodjänta”: Arbetsdelning, institutioner företagande och identiteter inom gårdsnära mejerihantering igår och idag2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 79-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter studies the development of the dairy sector from a gender perspective from the early 1900s to today. During the first part of the century agriculture was modernized and milk processing moved out from the farms and into the emerging food industry. During this process technological change was one of the main driving forces behind the outcrowding of women, who dominated the elaboration of dairy products, by men who became dominant in the emerging industry. During the outset of the 20th century, on-farm elaboration of dairy products became marginalized and decimated as a farm activity. But since the 1970’s farm elaboration of dairy products has made a comeback and has become and emblematic case for the emergence of the new rurality in Sweden. Results show that the prevalance of female examples has contributed to inspire women into starting new businesses within the trade, this is why the majority of the business owners within the trade are women. The main challenges for this trade are not related to gender issues, but are the result of the struggle between the productivist production system in which farm elaboration of food had no place and the post-modern one, in which farm elaboration and a variety of farm sizes (including small ones) are key elements. Farm dairy owners are therefore called ”jam makers” by representatives of the old structure. But despite the resistance, farm dairy owners are slowly creating new spaces for their businesses and creating a gradual change of current institutional arrangements.

  • 86.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Girard, Chloe
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bringing the Consumer Back in—The Motives, Perceptions, and Values behind Consumers and Rural Tourists’ Decision to Buy Local and Localized Artisan Food—A Swedish Example2018In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the motivational factors behind consumers’ and tourists’ decisions to buy local artisan cheese in Jämtland (Sweden). Empirically, the case itself diverts from the typical Franco-Mediterranean case in which both the actions of producers and consumers are embedded in historical, long-term culinary traditions and territorial features, nor is it the typical farmers’ market or another market-driven direct produce system. The main purpose is to shed light on the motivational factors behind the purchasing decision of consumers and tourists by studying the attributes that consumers embody in the products. The article is based on two consumer surveys/short interviews, the first conducted in June 2012 and the second in February 2017. The results were tested against/related to the wider local food discussion conceptualized through four types of attributes. Namely, intrinsic and extrinsic attributes; post-modernity and environmental attributes; geographical and territorial attributes; and local and rural development attributes. The results in this article clearly show that consumers value a combination of different attributes from both market-driven direct produce systems and close typicity systems. Therefore, the construction of proximity from the point of view of the consumer can be derived from a complex set of attributes and motivational factors not normally highlighted in the localized food discussion

  • 87.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hård, UrsulaEkonomisk historiska institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World was the title of the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems. The contributions in this volume are written by conference participants. The themes highlighted relate to four topics. The first topic refers to various aspects of the articulation of the New Rurality and its challenges and opportunities, with a specific focus on the Nordic countries, the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, and the Eastern European Countries. Also in focus is the role of knowledge in the promotion of rural development and ‘glocal’ links as enablers of opportunities and sources of challenges in relation to entrepreneurship and rural development – in theory and practice in particular Europe and the Americas. The second topic highlights various aspects of territorial governance and localized agri-food systems in particular Europe, North and South America. The third topic relates to the impact of the market on localized agri-food systems, with a special focus on short food chains, public procurement and tourism. The fourth and final topic highlights questions related to the connection between localized agri-food systems and the environment. Special interest was devoted to possible synergies, (organizational) innovations and challenges between localized agri-food systems and environmental benefits, proposing agroecology as a framework for action in the transition from conventional production to more sustainable agro-food production systems.

  • 88.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Kinossian, NadirLeibniz Institute for Regional Geography, Germany.
    Life in the Archipelago: The Baltic Sea Region Archipelagos and Islands: Conditions and challenges2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att inventera de utmaningar och möjligheter som före­tagarna i Stockholms skärgård står inför. Rapporten har skrivits inom ramen för Interreg-projektet Archipelago Business Development och omfattar en inventering av skärgårdsföretagarnas behov, utmaningar och möjligheter i Stockholms skär­gård.

    Undersökningen har bland annat gjorts genom gruppintervjuer med företagare på Dalarö, Ornö, Sandhamn och Utö. Därutöver har enskilda in­ter­vjuer genomförts med företagare i fem olika kommuner. Geo­grafiskt fördelas urvalet på Stockholms södra och mellersta skärgård.

  • 90.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bele, Bolette
    Norskt Institut för Bioekonomi.
    Affärsutvecklingsmanual för fäbodbrukare och mathantverkare2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärsutvecklingsmanual för fäbodbrukare och mathantverkare kan användas av alla företagare som har en verksamhet som är baserad på natur- och kulturvärden, men särskilt livsmedelsproducenter av olika slag. Den beskriver affärsutveckling utgående från koncept som sensoriska egenskaper, terroir, koppling till natur- och kulturvärden, historia och tradition samt frågor om lokala allianser. Målet är att trycka på konsten att värdera en vara utifrån dess unika egenskaper och att föra den insikten vidare till konsumenten. Denna manual har tillkommit inom ramen för interregprojektet Biologiskt kulturarv som hållbar värdeskapare (2016–2019) som hade som mål att gynna företagande baserat på traditionellt nyttjande av utmarken, främst i form av utmarksbete av olika slag.

  • 91.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lundström, Anders
    IPREG.
    Cross-Sector Collaboration - Mission Impossible?: Lessons From A Case Of Social Responsibility In The Integration Process2018In: The 7th International Conference on Social Responsibility, Ethics, and Sustainable Business: Oslo, Norway, October 12 & 13, 2018 / [ed] Dr. Georgiana GRIGORE, Alin STANCU, Caroline D DITLEV-SIMONSEN, Bucharest: ASE Publishing , 2018, Vol. 8, p. 19-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sector collaboration has become a prominent feature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in business organizations. In the past few years in Sweden, for example, a wide range of policies, programs, and projects have been initiated to facilitate the labor market integration of new migrants. A common feature of these projects is cross-sector collaboration between the private sector, the public sector, and civil society (nonprofit organizations). However, the phenomena is not yet well understood. Why are cross-sector CSR initiatives increasing? How are they organized? What are the sources of values? What factors influence cross-sector collaborations? How are cross-sector collaborations evaluated? Our main concern in this paper is how tri-sector CSR collaborations are initiated, implemented, and create values for various stakeholders. Furthermore, we explore the factors that influence the effectiveness of tri-sector collaborative efforts. The objective is to contribute to our understanding of the 20 conditions for cross-sector collaboration in addressing social issues. Understanding tri-sector collaboration is important because these have the potential to generate transformative values for individuals and society

  • 92.
    Tunón, Håkan
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bele, Bolette
    Norsk institutt for bioøkonomi (NIBIO), Ås, Norge.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Biologiskt kulturarv som som hållbar värdeskapare - slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the interreg project with the same name (Interreg project 20200961 / IR2016.04). The project was carried out between March 2016 and September 2019. The intention was to investigate how natural and cultural values ​​and especially biological cultural heritage can be used to create value through economic business development in the enterprise for livestock farmers and others who utilize resources from the outlying land. The aim has thus been to show ways to create better financial conditions for the farmer to continue to practice customary use without influencing the contribution of transhumance to biodiversity, cultural heritage and other aspects of biological heritage in a negative way. During the course of the project, we have consequently focused on concepts such as biodiversity, biological cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, terroir and sensory evaluation in order to show values ​​that are maintained through continued use of the outfield, which is now largely a growing resource for the future. The project has mostly been participatory and with elements of recurring workshops with farmers to help them develop their companies.

  • 93.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Mittuniversitetet / KTH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Samhällsentreprenörskap: Kontexter, organisering och perspektiv för hållbar utveckling2014In: Samhällsentreprenörskap: Samverkande för lokal utveckling / [ed] von Friedrichs, Y., Gawell, M. & Wincent, J., Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2014, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Gawell, MalinSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Mittuniversitetet / KTH / Institutet för entreprenörskap och småföretagnade.Wincent, JoakimMittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Samhällsentreprenörskap: Samverkande för lokal utveckling2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Landsbygden står inför stora utmaningar. I en allt mer konkurrensutsatt värld utmanas etablerade modeller i välfärdssamhället och bland annat har serviceutbudet och möjligheterna till försörjning minskat på den svenska landsbygden. Samtidigt vill många bo kvar då landsbygden upplevs bidra med livskvalitet samt närhet till kulturella och sociala sammanhang. Därför engagerar sig många människor för att skapa förutsättningar för att det ska vara möjligt att arbeta och bo även utanför större städer. Samhällsentreprenörskap har kommit att bli ett attraktivt alternativ för att bryta nedåtgående trender i lokalsamhället och för att finna nya lösningar för en hållbar utveckling. Inom ramen för forskningsprojektet Societal Entrepreneurship in Sparsely Populated Areas (SESPA), som bedrivits vid Mittuniversitetet mellan åren 2010- 2014, har forskare från olika ämnesdiscipliner studerat samhällsentreprenörskapets roll i den lokala utvecklingen. SESPA:s forskning har kunnat genomföras med hjälp av stöd från EU:s regionala strukturfondsprogram samt Mittuniversitetet och Länsstyrelserna i Jämtland och Västernorrland. Forskningen har bedrivits i nära samspel med företrädare från det lokala näringslivet, ideella organisationer samt offentliga institutioner. De studier som presenteras i denna antologi visar att samhällsentreprenörskapet kan ta sig många olika uttryck. Det rör sig dock genomgående om människors engagemang, idérikedom och aktiva handlingar. Det rör sig om individer, kreativitet och organiserande processer. Och att alla initiativ har sin egen kontext. Syftet med den här boken är dels att sprida resultat från den forskning om samhällsentreprenörskapets roll för den lokala utvecklingen som utvecklats inom ramen för SESPA men även att bidra till en ökad förståelse om fenomenet samhällsentreprenörskap ur ett välfärdssamhälles perspektiv. Vår förhoppning är att boken ska bidra till reflektion men även fungera som inspiration till fler samhällsentreprenöriella initiativ.

  • 95.
    Winroth, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Co-authors of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes: cases from the digital world2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development in the last decades and the practice of digital consumption are shifting the conditions of contemporary branding (Denegri-Knott and Molesworth 2010; Sanz 2014). The Internet enriches the possibility of communication around brands as it opens an autonomous arena still very accessible in everyday life. The net is not so much about transactions as about offering an arena for dialogue and relations. But as consumption has become a central lotus for community in our society, the conversation often shifts into a dialogue of transactions. 

    The Internet offers a ‘third space’ where social relations can be playfully constructed, creating a perfect arena for the shaping of a persona. It offers a space for exchange of information and for constituting an audience as members of a community. So participation in the Internet can be both ‘a formal social enterprise’ and ‘an organized public’ involving various forms of interaction between these two (Fish, Murillo, Nguyen, Panofsky and Kelty, 2011). The Internet opens possibilities for consumers to exchange information and sometimes build their own brands, as for instance bloggers, creating a public arena for their taste, suggestions and knowledge. As a consequence, for being an opportunity to building brands, the arena become a platform for these brand builders to develop their entrepreneurial talents.

    Even though many theories and models concerned with strategic branding suggest that brand managers seduce their consumers into consuming products and services, this point of view has been seriously questioned. Instead branding has become understood as a process where several actors contribute imbedded in socio-spatial interactions (Holt, 2004; Lury 2004; Power and Hauge, 2007). When trying to understand how a brand emerges out of the various voices that give meaning and significance to it, Holt (2004) introduces the concept of ‘co-authors’. By this, Holt means that several possible actors influence the symbolic message that is conveyed by a brand. Corporations, consumers, mediators (e.g. critics and agents) and the cultural industry are suggested to be the so-called ‘co-authors of significance’. Following Lury’s (2004, 1) suggestion brand is here understood not as a commodity set but ‘a set of relations between production and services’, emerging out of a network of relationships.

    Researchers in marketing and entrepreneurship (Hills & Hultman 2011, Whalen & Akala 2016) have increasingly incorporated the concepts of effectuation(Sarasvathy 2001) to emphasize the role of stakeholders in the processes of co-creating opportunities, values and markets. Sarasvathy’s (2001) critical view of the traditional marketing approach highlight the role of uncertainty and ambiguity in the marketing process of a new venture start-ups (Read et al 2009; Read & Sarasvathy 2012) and have opened up for compelling new research perspectives and questions in the area of marketing and entrepreneurship. However, the role of the brands and the process of branding in effectuation processes are still undeveloped topics. A proposed research contribution is to incorporate the concept of ‘co-authors’ in the effectuation literature.

    With a focus on how brands emerge out of a network of relations, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to illustrate brands as emerging out of a network of co-authors; and (2) to demonstrate how this process can be integrated into the idea of entrepreneurship as effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001). The discussion will be illustrated by using two examples of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes in the digital world.

    One example of this is how the Internet can be, and often is, used for creating ‘celebrity’ (Hackley and Hackley, 2015) or in other words using the possibility offered by the web for ordinary consumers to reach a mass audience. The cause of this celebrity are shifting and sometimes only about somebody making themselves visible on the Internet, like for instance on Youtube, or a fashion blogger building a blog that has turned out to attract consumers.The phenomenon of fashion bloggers initially developing personal brands on the ‘labour market’ and later developing their brands into various entrepreneurial ventures has been acknowledged (Phil 2013). Bloggers’ personal brands have a possible competitive advantage, as their names are already known and established with an audience.Also, the visual economy assemble access through a screen, and it needs celebrities to give visual resonance and market definition to images of consumption (Schroeder, 2005). The cases illustrate how a fashion-blogger and a digital media-entrepreneur build and evolve their initial brand to expand into several well-established ventures. 

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