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  • 51.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Evolution, Teaching and Assessment of Students in Pre-Service Primary School Teacher Education2015In: Conference proceedings. New perspectives in science education, 4th ed., Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2015, p. -3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims at assessment of learning outcome of teaching evolutionary theory to pre-service primary school teacher students. The quality of the students understanding and use of evolutionary theory after their participation in seminars and lectures was made by analysing written reflections of the students. The texts were primarily written by students to show that the knowledge requirements of the course were accomplished but they were here used to analyse their ability to communicate the content but also to evaluate the depth of their understanding of evolutionary theory. For this assessment two different methods were used aiming at the two different targets. One was focused on the students’ use of evolutionary terminology and to what extent they used the language of an evolutionist. Here, we also analysed whether the students gave accurate explanations or descriptions without using the traditional evolutionary terminology. Thus, mainly the students´ ability in their own writing to present evolutionary reflections in an everyday language was here investigated. This ability may be useful when teaching young students without using a theoretical framework. For the assessment of quality of the students’ own understanding of the theory Doll’s criteria, the four R´s, richness, recursion, relations, and rigor, were used. Richness refers to the depth, the layers of meaning in their texts. Recursion is here referring to the students’ use of making thoughts loop back on themselves and earlier experiences. The use of relations are important when developing thinking in different areas. Here, both the students’ references to relations to other persons as well as to objects, theories, places etc. were recorded. Rigor means in this context to purposely look for different alternatives, relations, connections, new combinations, interpretations and patterns.

    The results may briefly be summarized as follows: 1) most of the students use evolutionary terminology and 2) are fairly good at presenting their thoughts within the theoretical framework in everyday language, although 3) they often show problems in distinguishing processes on molecular, individual, and population levels.

  • 52.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Digestion as an example of integrated teaching of chemistry and biology2017In: Conexão Ciencia, ISSN 1980-7058, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 89-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people are uncertain about how nutrients enter and are distributed in the body. They may be capable of naming the different parts of the digestive system on a torso but have vague ideas of the relation between these organs and the chemical processes they govern. Reasons for this are poor understanding of gas exchange, the role of the circulatory system, and that most processes are intracellular. In order to create a more holistic view of the biology and chemistry of digestion these subjects may be taught simultaneously and integrated. Here practical exercises and lectures about digestion and nutrients for pre-service primary school teachers are presented. The practical work included food preparation in order to investigate the change of the properties of the macromolecules of nutrients. A simple drawing of a body was used in order to visualize the routes of nutrients and the role of gas exchange in digestion. An evolutionary perspective on digestion was used in order to explain the ancient origin of most chemical processes in the digestive system and in the whole body. The material produced by the students at their final examinations was used for assessing their use and understanding of concepts, the quality based on Doll’s 4R’s and the degree of holistic understanding of the digestive system. The findings show that the pedagogic design used gives a general picture of digestion and energy transfer usable for teaching in primary school.

  • 53.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Observation not only perception but also cognition2016In: Conference proceedings: New perspectives in science education : 5th conference edition : Florence, Italy, 17-18 March 2016, Padova: Libreria Universitaria, 2016, p. 365-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish curriculum for primary school it is important in science subjects to develop skills to observe, to describe the observations and to put them into a theoretical framework already starting year 1–3.

    Thus, it may be important for the teacher not only to be accustomed to the methods of observing but also to be an expert on using these observations in order to design teaching situations where these skills may be developed.

    Here we present a study where 25 pre-service primary school teacher students at the beginning of a 20 weeks course established a relation to a study site focused on ecological questions. The task during the first week of that course was to observe and describe two habitats in the field and suggest what abiotic and biotic factors that had shaped the variation focussing at competition as an important ecological factor. In order to connect those ecological aspects with evolutionary aspects, specimen of the common species in the two habitats were collected and brought to the lab where the students constructed phenetic trees based on morphology but also on ecologically relevant properties like roots/no roots, expecting the set-up to awake evolutionary reflection. A main goal with this week was to give the students tools to investigate nature – to observe and describe patterns and to explain them by observing abiotic and biotic variation and evolutionary features and limitations.

    Later during the course we created other, often not obviously similar, situations where the students had the opportunity to use the experiences of this first training week. We used open questions for reflections and examinations in order to get written material to assess the development of the skills.

    We found notable personal development in most students and a greater awareness about the importance of personal cognitive activities in order to create better understanding and ability to use achieved knowledge in different situations.

  • 54.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Technology in preschool: from idea to product2017In: Conference proceedings New perspectives in science education: 6th Conference Edition: Florence, Italy: 16-17 March 2017, Limena: Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2017, p. 604-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching pre-service preschool teachers in technology is a challenge. Technology is a fairly new subject in school, students lack experiences and are not aware of the aim of the subject. In addition technology also include the consequences of technological choices for individuals, society and environment. The curriculum for pre-school in Sweden emphasize development of children´s knowledge in science, technology and their ability to identify technology in everyday life. The education of pre-service teachers involves visualization of their own tacit knowledge and experiences to be used in the teaching of technology. Here a course during a three weeks period with 55 pre-service teacher students is presented. They worked in groups with construction exercises, museum visit and outdoor technology walk. The students wrote summaries of the processes together with critical reflections. The written exams on the identification of technology in everyday life were analysed by using the quality markers 4R’s of Doll’s and compared with marks on their examination tasks. Our results show that many students could describe the processes of construction with high quality showing several perspectives of understanding, e.g., the advantage of group activity, their own development of understanding and how to teach children in preschool.

  • 55.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bedömning av praktiska färdigheter i naturvetenskap (1–3): Workshop2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi kommer att i mindre grupper genomföra olika bedömningstillfällen av praktiska färdigheter anpassade till de nya betygskriterierna och med användande av olika metoder som samtidigt kan utgöra exempel på hur man t.ex. kan arbeta med estetiska lärprocesser (ELP), IKT, laborationer, kamratbedömning utifrån de nya läroplanernas betygskriterier för naturvetenskapliga ämnen.

  • 56.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bedömning av praktiska färdigheter i naturvetenskap (4–6): Workshop2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi kommer att i mindre grupper genomföra olika bedömningstillfällen av praktiska färdigheter anpassade till de nya betygskriterierna och med användande av olika metoder som samtidigt kan utgöra exempel på hur man t.ex. kan arbeta med estetiska lärprocesser (ELP), IKT, laborationer, kamratbedömning utifrån de nya läroplanernas betygskriterier för naturvetenskapliga ämnen.

  • 57.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Big ideas in science education in teacher training program2015In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 167, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New curricula from primary school to higher education include performance assessments of achieved skills. The study investigates if it is possible to respond to this by focusing on some core ideas regarding content and design of learning situations. It was made on pre-service primary school teacher students in science and technology. It shows how the achievement of useable knowledge is enhanced by close relations between teachers and students in combination with open and visible processes of the learning.

  • 58.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Evaluation and assessment of student learning and development2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general process towards an understanding of knowledge not as a question of remembering facts but to achieve the skill to use what is learnt under different circumstances. According to this, knowledge should be useful at different occasions also outside school. This process may also be identified in the development of new tests performed in order to assess knowledge.

    In courses in biology, chemistry and physics focused on didactics we have developed performance assessments aimed at assessing the understanding of general scientific principles by simple practical investigations. Although, designed to assess whether specific goals are attained, we discovered how small alterations of performance assessments promoted the development of didactic skills. Performance assessments may act as tools for the academic teacher, school teacher and enhancement of student understanding of the theory.

    This workshop is focused on performance assessments of the ability to present skills and to develop new ideas. We will present, explain and familiarize a practical approach to performance assessments in science education. The emphasis is to demonstrate and to give possibility and experience of this assessment tool.

    We will perform elaborative tasks as they may be used by teachers working at different levels, assess the performance and evaluate the learning outcome of the activity. Different types of assessment matrixes will be presented and tested at the workshop. Learning by doing will fill the major part of the workshop but there will also be opportunities for discussion, sharing ideas and suggestions for further development

    The activities performed may be seen as models possible for further development into new assessments.

  • 59.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Performance assessment of practical skills in science in teacher training programs useful in school2014In: Ebook proceedings of the ESERA 2013 Conference: Science Education Research For Evidence-based Teaching andCoherence in Learning / [ed] Constantinou, C. P., Papadouris, N. & Hadjigeorgiou, A.(co-ed. Millar, R and Dolin, J.), Nicosia, Cypern: European Science Education Research Association , 2014, p. 1946-1955Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general process towards an understanding of knowledge not as a question of remembering facts but to achieve the skill to use what is learnt under different circumstances. According to this, knowledge should be useful at different occasions also outside school. This process may also be identified in the development of new tests performed in order to assess knowledge.

    In courses in biology, chemistry and physics focused on didactics we have developed performance assessments aimed at assessing the understanding of general scientific principles by simple practical investigations. Although, designed to assess whether specific goals are attained, we discovered how small alterations of performance assessments promoted the development of didactic skills. Performance assessments may act as tools for the academic teacher, school teacher and for enhancement of student understanding of the theory.

    This workshop was focused on performance assessments of the ability to present skills and to develop new ideas. We presented, discussed, explained and familiarized a practical approach to performance assessments in science education together with the other participants. The emphasis was to demonstrate and to give experience of this assessment tool.

    We performed elaborative tasks as they may be used by teachers working at different levels, assessed the performances and evaluated the learning outcome of the activity. Different assessment rubrics where be presented and tested at the workshop. Learning by doing filled the major part of the workshop but there were also opportunities for discussions, sharing ideas and suggestions for further development.

    The activities performed may be seen as models possible for further development into new assessments.

  • 60.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    The impact of performance assessment on science education at primary school2014In: Ebook proceedings of the ESERA 2013 Conference: Science Education Research For Evidence-based Teaching andCoherence in Learning / [ed] Constantinou, C. P., Papadouris, N. & Hadjigeorgiou, A. : (co-ed. Avraamidou, L. and Michelini, M.), Nicosia, Cypern: European Science Education Research Association , 2014, p. 1778-1785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new curriculum in Sweden for the primary and secondary school contains more distinct educational targets. Further, assessment is linked to the usage of knowledge in a specific subject not only in a specific subject but also in other contexts rather than remembering facts. Science education at school now has to be linked to the students own experience and shall develop critical thinking of the student.

    This is supposed to the ability to review arguments and to develop their ability to argue in situations where knowledge of science is of big importance. The performance assessment according to the curriculum shall be used to evaluate if the student have achieved the capacity to use knowledge in discussions within scientific contexts. The student’s practical investigations and documentation of these are important parts in science education. To achieve the required knowledge, students have to train abilities or skills before the assessment.

    In order to assess the required knowledge and to view the development of a student, the teacher has to accomplish several practical assessments and training occasions. The new curriculum expects the teacher to design learning situations where the students get the possibility to have relevant training before the performance assessment. The earlier Swedish curricula had a stronger emphasis on theoretical knowledge whereas the new curriculum highlights the ability to use knowledge.

    The presentation will briefly describe how science teaching is performed according to the new curriculum and to what extent it is applied to the new required knowledge. We will also discuss how the new curricula changed the way of teaching science at school.

  • 61.
    Mutvei, Ann
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    The use of conceptual profiles in performance assessments2016In: Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2015 Conference : Science education research: Engaging learners for a sustainable future, Part 11 / [ed] J. Lavonen, K. Juuti, J. Lampiselkä, A. Uitto & K. Hahl (Eds.);co-eds. J. Dolin & P. Kind, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016, p. 1607-1618Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The curriculum for primary school in Sweden articulates the contextual dependence of concepts used in science. The students’ ability in different situations to use the knowledge achieved makes it important to understand differences in the meaning of words in different contexts in order to avoid conflicts between the intentions of the writer and the interpretation of the reader. The theory of conceptual profiles takes into account the variation in classrooms, which is common in Sweden, and promotes the teacher to achieve better communication. In the workshop the diversity of participants’ backgrounds made it possible to study the importance of mother tongue for conceptual understanding. Thus, the workshop was focused on two questions: 1) What influence does the mother tongue have on understanding and communicating science concepts? 2) Will these influences (if present) affect student communication and assessment? Learning by doing filled the major part of the workshop with opportunities for discussion, sharing ideas, and suggestions for further development. Participants were given assignments to assess students’ answers in biology, physics, and chemistry. Assessments were based on performance criteria of students’ use of concepts to describe processes in different contexts. Our results indicate that mother tongue is important for conceptual understanding while academic traditions seem to be important in assessment.

  • 62.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ask, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Olsén, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei 2014In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 148, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1μgL-1. In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15μgL-1 for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15μgL-1. They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15μgL-1 significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.

  • 63.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lundh, T.
    SLU.
    Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758)2016In: Aquaculture Reports, ISSN 2352-5134, Vol. 4, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin) gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg) and finally with only alanine (128 mM). Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100 mM) but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species. © 2016 The Authors

  • 64.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Maack, Lotta
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Morff, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk & University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 175, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Örebro University.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska University Hospital Laboratory.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2017In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 193, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.

    Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.

    In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.

  • 66.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Testis transcriptome alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with reduced fertility due to developmental exposure to 17α-ethinyl estradiol2018In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 262, p. 44-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant shown to decrease fish fertility at low concentrations, especially in fish exposed during development. The mechanisms of the decreased fertility are not fully understood. In this study, we perform transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing of testes from zebrafish with previously reported lowered fertility due to exposure to low concentrations of EE2during development. Fish were exposed to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L (measured concentration; nominal concentrations 3 and 10 ng/L) of EE2 from fertilization to 80 days of age, followed by 82 days of remediation in clean water. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 249 and 16 genes to be differentially expressed after exposure to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L, respectively; a larger inter-sample variation was noted in the latter. Expression of 11 genes were altered by both exposures and in the same direction. The coding sequences most affected could be categorized to the putative functions cell signalling, proteolysis, protein metabolic transport and lipid metabolic process. Several homeobox transcription factors involved in development and differentiation showed increased expression in response to EE2 and differential expression of genes related to cell death, differentiation and proliferation was observed. In addition, several genes related to steroid synthesis, testis development and function were differentially expressed. A number of genes associated with spermatogenesis in zebrafish and/or mouse were also found to be differentially expressed. Further, differences in non-coding sequences were observed, among them several differentially expressed miRNA that might contribute to testis gene regulation at post-transcriptional level. This study has generated insights of changes in gene expression that accompany fertility alterations in zebrafish males that persist after developmental exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of EE2 that persist followed by clean water to adulthood. Hopefully, this will generate hypotheses to test in search for mechanistic explanations.

  • 67.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univesitet.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transcriptome and Behavior2017In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • 68.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Persistent effects of developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain transcriptome and stress behaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.2014In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, ISSN 1532-0456, E-ISSN 1878-1659, Vol. 164, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25ng/L EE2for 14days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25ng/L, but not 5ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  • 70.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Persson, Ylva
    Goat cheese production in Sweden - a pioneering experience in the re-emergence of local food2013In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 63, no SI, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-emergence and modernization of traditional goat-cheese production in Jamtland led to the articulation of a localized agri-food system that represents the frontline of the return and reinforcement of local food in Sweden. Already in the 1970s, some initiatives were undertaken to formalize the productive activities of this branch and to improve the product quality. The most important project was the articulation of a cooperative that, unlike all other Swedish cooperatives, engaged its members in the development of a joint trademark, development of a standardized assortment, common marketing efforts and finding creative solutions for infrastructure problems. Despite the overall success, we also found some downsides. Producing goat cheese requires that at least two people are involved, because the workload often leads to body injuries and illness for people working alone. By studying the institutional frameworks, rules and regulations, the economic function and entrepr! neurial dynamics, and the dynamics of knowledge and competences, the article highlights how and why farm dairies in Jamtland became reinforced and modernized. This grasps both the actions of individual economic agents and their interaction with their environment. A special emphasis was put on the role of regional authorities in this process. Even though many obstacles have been removed and the trade has found successful ways to solve strategic issues concerning product development and marketing, there are still important structural shortcomings that might decrease the profitability and endanger the future development of the trade. There is a lack of experience and infrastructure to solve more complex problems like animal healthand the potential risks related to the consumption of unpasteurized cheese and the increasing incidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE).

  • 71.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently: A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity Conservation2013In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions  of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.

  • 72.
    Smialowska, Agata
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Karolinska instiutet.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Wang, Jingwen
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Karolinska instiutet.
    RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe2014In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 444, no 2, p. 254-259Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its role in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.

  • 73.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males is influenced by the social environment2016In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 153, no 12, p. 1419-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social environment of animals, particularly in the early stages of life, can have great impact on species-specific and sex-specific behaviours. These changes can be irreversible and continue during the entire life. In the present study we asked the question whether the social environment of male Endler's guppies, Poecilia wingei, housed in an all-male community could affect their preference response to female or male odour cues in a flow through Y-maze. After 30 days in an all-male group males were tested for their preference-avoidance responses to conspecific odours. The males were attracted to male-scented water but not to water scented by females. In simultaneous choice between male and female odours they demonstrated no significant preference. The males were attracted to male-scented water after they were kept for 48 h or 12 days with females. After the Y-maze tests the males' were placed with two females and their courting behaviour were recorded. The males showed low frequencies of reproductive behaviours. In the all-male group the males had been courting each other. The results show that the social environment influence sexual odour preference and courting behaviour in guppy males.

  • 74.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Science for Life Laboratories / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 75.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Coping with uncertainties in science-based advice informing environmental management of the Baltic Sea2013In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 29, p. 12-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing uncertainty is a main challenge for sustainable management of complex socioecological systems, such as marine ecosystems. Today, a growing number of scientific publications address decision-making practices under conditions of high uncertainty. However, very few studies have analyzed how science treats uncertainty before it reaches decision-makers, especially for various marine environmental issues. This study aims to fill these research gaps by identifying the main theoretical approaches to science-based uncertainty management proposed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, by scrutinizing advisory documents, current approaches and methods to assess and treat uncertainty in science-based advice are analyzed and compared for five significant environmental issues in the Baltic Sea (eutrophication, fisheries, invasive species, chemical pollution, and oil spills). Specifically, the study analyzes the types of uncertainties acknowledged, how strategies and practices present and address uncertainties, and whether new theoretical proposals identified in the scientific literature affect existing practices. The study's results reveal that current scientific practices do not adequately address uncertainty in advice formulation. First, no common guideline is in use, resulting in significant differences among studied environmental issues and a common lack of structure, clarity, established terminology, and transparency in the assessment and treatment of uncertainty. Furthermore, new theoretical developments connected with uncertainty appraisal (such as theoretical typologies) and new tools and methods for handling uncertainty (such as precautionary and participatory approaches) are hardly utilized in practice in the management of the Baltic ecosystem. Consequently, although theoretical approaches for coping with uncertainty in complex socio-ecological systems are ample, the challenge for the future is to implement these approaches more effectively in assessment and management frameworks. The study discusses possible improvements to current practices in environmental management of large-scale socio-ecological systems such as the Baltic Sea and other regional seas, acknowledging that these measures will not reduce all existing uncertainty but rather contribute to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties.

  • 76. van Leeuwen, Judith
    et al.
    Kern, Kristine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. University of Potsdam.
    The External Dimension of European Union Marine Governance: Institutional Interplay between the EU and the International Maritime Organization2013In: Global Environmental Politics, ISSN 1526-3800, E-ISSN 1536-0091, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 69-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the emergence of a decentralized institutional complex, interplay management, and the institutional interplay between the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the EU in the issue area of environmental shipping policies. It shows that the synergistic relationship between both institutions has been driven primarily by commitment and compliance mechanisms. By influencing IMO decision-making and improving the implementation and effectiveness of IMO conventions, the EU has become a driving force in international environmental shipping policies, and its new initiatives may even enhance its leadership role within the IMO in the future. Despite the still-existing lack of cognitive leadership by the EU, the synergies between both institutions provide evidence for the EU's leadership capacities in global environmental politics.

  • 77.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Edge effects on plant species diversity in forest landscapes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest interior and the forest edge are different due to the characteristics of the adjacent land cover surrounding the edge. When large forest areas are divided into smaller fragments the interface between the forest interior and surrounding environments increases and various processes start affecting remaining forest ecosystems and forest species. Urban or rural landscapes, cultivated monocultures or grasslands can influence the edge regions differently.

    This review is focusing on edge effects in forested environments. Edge effects on plant species diversity and species composition are expected to vary according to forest patch size, patch configuration and placement in the landscape. In general, edge effects are expected to have higher impact on species diversity and composition when the remaining forest patches are small, have an irregular shape or when the surrounding land use is significantly different from the forest patch. Edge effects depend on both biotic and abiotic factors, applied management regimes and on land use history. Further studies on landscape level can shed more light on the underlying mechanisms generating the observed patterns.

  • 78.
    Vinter, Tiina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species2016In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 1071-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of landscape configuration on local plant species richness, we tested whether local species richness of forest understory plants is affected by the total forest area and forest edge length in the adjacent landscape. We also tested whether the landscape effect on species richness is different for forest and edge species. We estimated species richness from 113 forest sites in four regions in Northern Europe. At each site, we studied two plots, one at the edge and one in the core of the forest. Total forested area and forest edge length in circles with a 1-km radius, together with plot-specific variables of environmental conditions and temporal continuity of forests, were recorded at each plot. The amount of forest and the length of the forest edge in the adjacent landscape had a significant positive effect on local species richness of all understory plant species. As expected, edge species were positively affected by increasing length of the forest edge in the landscape, but surprisingly there was no effect of forest area on species richness of forest species. Temporal forest continuity had a negative effect on species richness of edge species but no effect on species richness of forest species. Our results suggest that forest edge length had a stronger landscape effect on understory plant species richness than forest area. Implications of these findings for the management of forest landscapes depend on priorities given to different species groups in biodiversity conservation, i.e. if emphasis is in total species richness or species richness of forest or edge species.

  • 79.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Fishy behavior: persistent effects of early-life exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) of concern due to its persistent nature and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. In mammals, effects of developmental EDC exposure on reproduction and behavior not only persist to adulthood after discontinued exposure, but are also inherited by several consecutive unexposed generations. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that non-reproductive behavior in fish is highly sensitive to the influence of EE2 during development and the effects do not appear to be restored after a long recovery period in clean water. We have shown that exposure to low doses of EE2 during development results in increased anxiety in two fish species (zebrafish and guppy) and their offspring. We have also demonstrated that the effects of EE2 on anxiety are apparent in both sexes and are transgenerationally transmitted to two consecutive generations of unexposed offspring in the guppy. In order to investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the observed persistent effects on non-reproductive behavior, we also performed an RNA sequencing analysis of the whole-brain transcriptome in developmentally exposed zebrafish after remediation in clean water until adulthood. Differential expression of 33 genes in males and 62 genes in females were observed as a result of EE2 exposure, with only one gene affected in both sexes. Functional analysis revealed cholesterol biosynthesis and circadian rhythm to be the top two affected pathways in males and females, respectively. Both pathways have previously been implicated in anxiety behavior and represent possible candidates connecting the transcriptome alterations to the observed behavioral phenotype. The study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by means of RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • 80.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny2015In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 73, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.

  • 81.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Uppsala university.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Transgenerational effects of 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol on anxiety behavior in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata2015In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 223, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Wigerius, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Dalhousie University.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Scribble controls NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells2013In: European Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0171-9335, E-ISSN 1618-1298, Vol. 92, no 6-7, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurite outgrowth is mediated by dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton and is largely controlled by Rho GTPases and their regulators. Here, we show that the polarity protein Scribble controls PC12 cell neurite outgrowth in response to nerve growth factor. Scribble knockdown decreases neurite numbers and increases neurite length. This effect is linked to TrkA the cognate receptor for NGF as pharmacological inhibition of phosphorylated TrkA (pTrkA) reduces Scribble expression. Moreover, Scribble forms a complex with the MAPK components ERK1/2 in a growth factor dependent manner. In RNAi experiments where Scribble expression is efficiently depleted sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation is reduced. Conversely, siRNA with intermediate Scribble silencing efficiency fails to match this effect indicating that ERK1/2 activation depends on basic Scribble protein levels. Finally, Scribble translocates to the plasma membrane in response to growth factor where it complexes with HRas and Rac1 suggesting that the phenotype activated by loss of Scribble may be a result of altered GTPase activity. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role for Scribble in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells.

  • 83.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Gyula Hovráth: Spaces and Places in Central and Eastern Europe. Historical Trends and Perspectives2015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 993-995Article, book review (Other academic)
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