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  • 401. Sohlenius, Gustav
    et al.
    Sternbeck, J
    Andrén, Elinor
    Westman, P
    Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as recorded in a sediment core from the Gotland Deep1996Ingår i: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 134, s. 183-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A 4 m long sediment core from the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea, was investigated by means of biostratigraphical and chemical parameters and C-14 datings. This multidisciplinary approach allows us to evaluate the regional changes in salinity and redox conditions during the Holocene. According to the diatom assemblages and C-14 datings, the sediments were deposited in the brackish and freshwater phases of the Yoldia Sea (10,300-9600 C-14 yr B.P.), the freshwater Ancylus Lake (9600-8000 C-14 yr B.P.) and in the brackish water Litorina Sea (8000-3000 C-14 yr B.P.). Of several palaeosalinity indicators evaluated, the diatoms are the least ambiguous. Nevertheless the B content and, under some premises, the C/S ratio may be used for palaeosalinity information. Iron sulphides in the lowermost freshwater sediments formed below the prevailing, oxic sediment-water interface. Pyrite in the uppermost freshwater sediments was to a large extent formed in Litorina time, by diffusion of Sigma H2S from overlying brackish water sediments. The Ancylus Lake/Litorina Sea transition can be traced by the marked changes in both the siliceous microfossil assemblages and in the chemical properties of the sediments. An early Litorina phase is characterised by increased primary production, progressively increasing salinity and the development of euxinic conditions. In the Litorina Sea laminated clay gyttjas (def. as a clay containing 6-30% organic matter) containing pyrite and laminae of Ca-rhodochrosite, (Mn,Ca)CO3, accumulated. Both these minerals formed in close connection with sediment deposition. The rhodochrosite laminae formed during occasional inflow of oxygen rich, marine water through the Danish Straits. Rhodochrosite is by far the most common mineral in the laminae and formed on average with a periodicity of two to three years.

  • 402. Solgaard, A. M.
    et al.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. GEUS, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Langen, P. L.
    Japsen, P.
    Hvidberg, C. S.
    Mountain building and the initiation of the greenland ice sheet2013Ingår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 392, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new hypothesis about mountain building in Greenland on ice sheet initiation are investigated using an ice sheet model in combination with a climate model. According to this hypothesis, low-relief landscapes near sea level characterised Greenland in Miocene times until two phases of km-scale uplift in the late Miocene and in the latest Miocene-Pliocene (beginning at 10 and ~. 5. Ma, respectively) initiated the formation of the present-day mountains. The topography of Greenland, prior to these uplift events is reconstructed from the present-day, isostatically compensated bedrock by mapping the two main steps in the landscape that resulted from the two uplift phases. Ice sheet initiation is studied using the topography before uplift and after each phase of uplift by applying different forcing conditions relevant for the late Cenozoic, which was characterised by long-term cooling superimposed by cold and warm excursions. The modelling results show that no ice initiates in the case of the low-lying and almost flat topography prior to the uplifts. However, the results demonstrate a significant ice sheet growth in response to the orographically induced increase in precipitation and the cooling of surface temperatures accompanying the uplift. Large amounts of ice are able to form after the first uplift event, but the ice sheet is sensitive to changes in climate. The results show that the second phase of uplift facilitates ice sheet build-up further and increases the stability of the ice sheet by providing anchoring points which are not available to the same extent in the lower topographies. However, the results also reveal a Föhn effect that inhibits ice sheet expansion into the interior Greenland and thus shifts the threshold of formation of inland ice towards colder temperatures. Under conditions that are colder than the present, the ice can overcome the Föhn effect, flow into the interior and form a coherent ice sheet. The results thus indicate that the Greenland Ice Sheet of today is a relict formed under colder conditions. The modelling results are consistent with the observed climatic variability superimposed on the general cooling trend in the late Cenozoic: e.g., ice rafted debris in late Miocene deposits off southeast Greenland and the mid-Pliocene Warmth. The late Cenozoic mountain building in Greenland augments the effects of the climatic deterioration leading to the Northern Hemisphere glaciations, and without the second phase of uplift, the Greenland Ice Sheet would have been more sensitive to the changes in climate over the past millions of years.

  • 403.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    et al.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Self, Angela E.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    Jones, Vivienne
    University College London, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation / University of Cologne, Köln, Germany.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Lepskaya, E.V.
    Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, Russian Federation.
    Nazarova, L.B.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula2015Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, s. 55-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history.

  • 404.
    Sommer, Christian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Processes and factors governing benthic community dynamics—environmental change in the Baltic Sea2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As drivers of biogeochemical cycles and nutrient recycling, such as carbon turnover, the microbial community is essential in sustaining functioning ecosystems. Together with the metazoan community, the microbial community constitute the majority of all life in the benthos. Environmental change in biotic and abiotic factors may influence the dynamics of these communities, for example through a sorting or driving effect on the community structure through assembly processes. Environmental change, e.g. change in dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity and temperature, can directly or indirectly affect community composition. How, in what way, and to what extent, benthic bacterial and meiofaunal community composition in the eutrophied, brackish benthic environments, in the Baltic Sea sub-basin the Baltic Proper, respond to environmental change is understudied, both at local and seascape scale. This thesis aimed to study and understand the effects of environmental variation on the diversity and biogeographic patterns of Baltic Sea sediment bacterial and meiofaunal communities. A further aim was to understand the links between the different community levels by studying the interaction between meiofaunal- and macrofaunal communities in relation to environmental variation. Community diversity was analysed along a latitudinal transect of national environmental monitoring stations in the Baltic Proper using a framework of metapopulation and metacommunity theory. The analyses were based on environmental genomics, with high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics

    and statistics. The total community genome was analysed using phylogenetic marker gene fragments as a proxy for taxonomic diversity, to investigate diversity, community structure and dynamics. Salinity and oxygen were found to be the main abiotic environmental drivers of benthic community composition and alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. Furthermore, macrofauna-meiofauna interactions were significantly more complex in higher salinity environments. Results also showed that both enhanced environmental gradients and dispersal following a major inflow of saline and oxygenated water from the Atlantic Ocean, influenced the composition of sediment bacterial communities at the seascape scale of the Baltic Sea, as shown by a reduced beta-diversity and increased alpha-diversity, and the development of a significant distance-decay of community similarity. This study also identified strong metapopulation dynamics of the benthic sediment bacterial communities with many satellite and a few core taxa. The outcomes from this study contribute to the understanding of how environmental variation and environmental change relate to changes in Baltic Sea benthic community diversity and composition, and important factors and processes governing community dynamics.

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    Processes and factors governing benthic community dynamics—environmental change in the Baltic Sea
  • 405.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males are influenced by the social environment2017Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. E47-E47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 406.
    Srebrenikovic, Amir
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Geografi på gott och ont: En studie om kriminella och polisens användning av geografiska förutsättningar2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen behandlar hur kriminella personer och polisen använder sig av geografiska förutsättningar i sina respektive verksamheter. Hur de först kartlägger objekt i sin omgivning för att sedan välja hur de ska agera. Kriminella personer och polisen undersöks för att visa hur aktörer, på olika sida om lagen, möter liknande geografiska förutsättningar fast upplever dem på olika sätt. Avslutningsvis återges deras inställning till att först kartlägga objekt i sin omgivning innan de agerar. Undersökningen skildrar hur aktörer subjektivt upplever objektiva föremål i sin omgivning på olika sätt, beroende på deras avsikter. 

    Kriminella personer planerar ett brott genom att först kartlägga sin omgivning. Det leder till att de sedan kan avgöra hur de ska agera på brottsplatsen. De beger sig till brottsplatsen en tid innan brottet ska utföras. På brottsplatsen undersöker de människors dagliga rutiner och hur objekt som exempelvis byggnader är placerade, för att kunna underlätta deras brott.  De kriminella har angett vilken tid på dygnet ett brott är som mest gynnsamt för dem. Om de inte kan utföra ett brott under en särskild tid ökar risken för att gripas. Objekt i en omgivning kan skapa tillfällen och försvåra för kriminella att genomföra brott. Deras erfarenhet bidrar till att hitta tillfällen som lämpar sig för brott i en omgivning. Svårigheter anser de vara andra människor som befinner sig på en brottsplats och väderförhållanden.

    I polisens arbete kartläggs objekt i omgivningen utförligt, eftersom de inte vill riskera att skada andra poliser, misstänkta eller allmänheten, när de ska agera i arbetet. På en brottsplats försöker de säkra bevismaterial beroende på brottsplatsens förutsättningar. Polisen vill göra ett gripande på säkrast möjliga sätt, i annat fall kan en polisaktion komma att avbrytas. Det kan handla om att gripa en misstänkt under en särskild tid på dygnet. Under ett spaningsarbete ska enskilda poliser själva kartlägga sin omgivning och avgöra hur en förflyttning ska ske. Polisspanare måste ständigt förnya och omvärdera sin omgivning. Både polisen och kriminella anser att de inte kan utföra respektive arbete utan att först ta hänsyn åt de objekt som finns i en omgivning. De resonerar om varandras agerande och uppfattar liknande objekt i omgivningen. Dessa upplever de sedan på olika sätt, till följd av deras avsikter i arbetet.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 407.
    Stepanova, A.
    et al.
    Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita University, Akita, Japan.
    Quintana Krupinski, N. B.
    Lund University.
    Hyttinen, O.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotilainen, A.
    Geological Survey of Finland, Marine Geology, Espoo, Finland.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Late Weichselian to Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as reflected in ostracod assemblages2019Ingår i: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 761-778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents the first description and analysis of ostracod records from three sites cored in different parts of the Baltic Sea during the IODP Expedition 347, Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment. Our data present the first high-resolution ostracod records from the Late Weichselian and Holocene sediments collected across the Baltic Sea Basin. Using published data on modern ostracod species ecology of the Baltic Sea, we were able to provide ostracod-based palaeoreconstructions of the history of the region. The stratigraphical framework for the sites is based on radiocarbon-based age models. The three studied sites reveal different ostracod assemblage successions that reflect environmental changes in the study area. Site M0060, located in the Kattegat area, contains the oldest ostracod assemblages that document a marine environment with very high sedimentation rates during the most recent deglaciation. Between ~13 000 and 7500 cal. a BP a modern-like near-shore environment developed. Site M0059 in the southwestern Baltic Sea, Little Belt area, contains assemblages reflecting the transition from a freshwater lake to the brackish Littorina Sea between ~7500 and 7300 cal. a BP. Site M0063 is the deepest location in the central Baltic, Landsort Deep, and yielded very limited ostracod data, but comparison with our organic carbon data allowed us to distinguish the Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea intervals. The ostracod record correlates well with the organic carbon record with alternation between periods of hypoxia and periods of low oxygen that still supported ostracods.

  • 408.
    Strand, Emelie
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Söderström, Hedvig
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Trafikreducerande åtgärder i Stockholms stad: Hur Stockholms stad arbetar med att minska trafiken för att nå miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic is a major source of carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution. Travelling will always be needed in cities, but it needs to be sustainable. A shift from private cars to more efficient forms of transportation is one of the most important strategies to create a sustainable transportation system.

    Some of the worst air quality in Sweden is found in Stockholm and the levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide fails to reach the national environmental objective Clean air. This case study examines the work done by the city of Stockholm to achieve sustainable traffic. The aim is to identify deficiencies and obstacles to achieving the goal of Clean air. Air quality data, the planning documents used by the city of Stockholm, and interviews have been analyzed using a broad theory on public management and sustainable traffic.

    The results show a great variety in how the traffic-related goals are set and that overarching visions are not translated into direct action. More coordinated measures are needed to achieve synergies. Finally, five primary obstacles to achieving the goal Clean air have been identified.

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    Trafikreducerande åtgärder i Stockholms stad
  • 409. Strömquist, L
    et al.
    Yanda, P
    Msemwa, P
    Lindberg, Clas
    Simonsson-Forsberg, L
    Utilizing landscape information to analyze and predict environmental change: The extended baseline perspective - Two Tanzanian examples1999Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 436-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the need for a revival and renewal of landscape analysis in order to identify, evaluate and predict environmental change in environmental impact assessment (EIA) and development perspectives. An initial focus on the landscape, rather than on individual systems or processes, makes it possible to widen the scope of study, to assess change in different temporal and spatial perspectives and thereafter to converge on key issues of relevance for specific areas or development projects. This approach can be seen as a process rather than a method, which calls for intradisciplinary competence in data collection and evaluation as well as an interdisciplinary assessment capability. A combination of such scientific competence, local knowledge, and experiences of the local environment is used to widen the assessment perspectives and the prediction competence. The approach is illustrated by its application in two Tanzanian studies. The Southern Highland study emerged from two feasibility environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of proposed hydropower projects whilst the Babati study was initiated as a result of previous sectorial research on land management, which had to be analyzed in broader perspectives. In both cases, a need to define environmental baselines to assess land use and project related environmental change had been defined by different donor agencies. One conclusion from our study is, however, that there is no such thing as an environmental baseline, rather a baseline that has to be extended in different temporal and spatial perspectives to fully understand and predict environmental and related social change. This study can therefore be seen as a contribution to a new understanding of environmental change that is required for strategic environmental impact assessments and long-term natural resource-use planning.

  • 410.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Forest Agency, Umeå; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University.
    Beland-Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Rist, Lucy
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden2019Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, nr 13, s. 3547-3574Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

  • 411.
    Sukovich, Ninél
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Backman, Jennifer
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kan musselextrakt (Mytilus edulis) inducera födosök hos omnivoren ruda, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenbruket har ökat markant under de senaste tre decennierna och idag går mer fisk till foderproduktion för fiskodlingar än vad som konsumeras direkt av människan. Detta är problematiskt då många fiskbestånd är utarmade, samtidigt ökar efterfrågan på fisk. Många populära matfiskar är rovfiskar som huvudsakligen matas med fiskbaserat foder. Ett flertal studier har emellertid visat att flera fiskarter potentiellt kan födas upp på blåmusslor (Mytilus edulis) istället för fiskbaserat foder. Foder som huvudsakligen baseras på musslor kan därför i framtiden möjligen bidra till att minska överexploatering av fisk. Denna studie undersökte om musselextrakt kan inducera ett födosök hos omnivoren ruda (Carassius carassius), som idag odlas och används som matfisk framförallt i Kina. I så fall kan det indikera att ruda möjligen kan vänjas vid musslor, trots att det inte ingår i fiskens naturliga föda. Resultaten i studien visade att ett födosök inducerades hos ruda gentemot extrakt av vanligt karpfoder, kontrollsubstansen, men inte gentemot musselextrakt.

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    fulltext
  • 412.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Process and Contextual Factors Supporting Action-Oriented Learning: A Thematic Synthesis of Empirical Literature in Natural Resource Management2019Ingår i: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 731-750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a long-term focus on learning in natural resource management (NRM), it is still debated how learning supports sustainable real-world NRM practices. We offer a qualitative in-depth synthesis of selected scientific empirical literature (N = 53), which explores factors affecting action-oriented learning. We inductively identify eight key process-based and contextual factors discussed in this literature. Three patterns emerge from our results. First, the literature discusses both facilitated participation and self-organized collaboration as dialogical spaces, which bridge interests and support constructive conflict management. Second, the literature suggests practice-based dialogs as those best able to facilitate action and puts a strong emphasis on experimentation. Finally, not emphasized in existing reviews and syntheses, we found multiple evidence about certain contextual factors affecting learning, including social-ecological crises, complexity, and power structures. Our review also points at important knowledge gaps, which can be used to advance the current research agenda about learning and NRM.

  • 413.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Macura, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Learning for social-ecological change: a qualitative review of outcomes across empirical literature in natural resource management2018Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, nr 7, s. 1085-1112Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered as a promising mechanism to cope with rapid environmental change. The implications of learning for natural resource management (NRM) have not been explored in-depth and the evidence on the topic is scattered across multiple sources. We provide a qualitative review of types of learning outcomes and consider their manifestations in NRM across selected empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, we found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported. We observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM. Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.

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  • 414.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Cios, Stanislaw
    Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Warsaw, Poland.
    Fishing For Smelt, Osmerus Eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758): A traditional food fish – possible cuisinein post-modern Sweden?2016Ingår i: Slovak Ethnology, ISSN 1335-1303, E-ISSN 1339-9357, Vol. 2, nr 64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importanceuntil recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used tomake glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenthcentury, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in thetwentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marinefish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however,certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption wellinto the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smeltis only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouringcountries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploitedcommercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurantshave shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regionaland seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not onlyculinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can betransformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to developcommercially in Sweden also.

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    Smelt
  • 415.
    Svensson, Evelina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Conflicting interests in natural resource management: - A case study on mining in northern Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the leading mining country in Europe and the Swedish government intends to retain this position by fostering innovation, investments and cooperation. However, mining is an extractive industry with massive consequences on the surrounding environment and the people living there. In resource abundant northern Sweden mineral extraction is a contested subject, not least in respect to the traditional land use by the Sami population. This study intends to increase the understanding of the current mining trial process in Sweden, the effects on sustainable regional development and the implications for local communities. To do so, this study aims to identify which aspects that are brought forward during the trial for exploitation concession and how different interests are evaluated. For the purpose of this study, the bureaucratic mining trial process is examined and 15 mining cases studied in detail considering the exploitation concession phase. The material indicates that conflicts over the bureaucratic process is based both in what aspects that should be included in the assessment, how these aspects are evaluated and at what stage in the formal process various aspects should be brought up. Guided by the concepts of extractivism and subnational resource curse, the main finding identified is that the mining trial process is state-centred. This is displayed in the limited influence of local actors on the decision and in the use of national interest as a policy tool to evaluate conflicting land use claims. These characteristics can in turn increase the risk of a subnational resource curse in northern Sweden. 

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    SVENSSON, Evelina
  • 416. Söderström, Sara
    Institutional Interplay in Governing the Baltic Sea Environment: The Role of IMO, EU, HELCOM and Classification Societies as Quasi-governmental OrganizationsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 417.
    Söderström, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Regional Environmental Governance and Avenues for the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Baltic Sea Area2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the avenues for the ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region. This region is one of the most contaminated water bodies in the world, although the first Regional Seas Convention was created here and theregion has a long history of cooperation and environmental protection. The current environmental governance arrangements are examined with specific focuson governance structures, cross-sectoral integration and ecological boundaries.The ecosystem approach to management as both a tool and vision of holistic management of natural resources is traced through the evolution of environmental governance, as well as its manifestation in contemporary environmental policies in the region. It is found that the major EU directives, as well as HELCOM polices, promote the ecosystem approach and that its presence has increased inrecent years; it is now the major guiding principle in European marine governance. However, the governance structures impede implementation indifferent ways. The environmental problem areas in the region all require different governance arrangements, thus obstructing a holistic approach. The environmental problems per se also affect each other, necessitating far-reaching sectoral integration and cross-border cooperation, which at present is the major obstacle regarding implementation. The contemporary trends combining solid regionalisation through HELCOM with increased Europeanisation and macro regionalisation by different EU initiatives offer some promise, but the cross sectoral impediments must be resolved if the ecosystem approach is to become apractical approach and not just a policy principle.

  • 418.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. Linköping University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Germany; Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional Interplay in the Baltic Sea Region2017Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 619-631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 419.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kern, Kristine
    eibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS) & University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    ‘Environmental Governance’ and ‘Ecosystem Management’: Avenues for Synergies between Two Approaches2016Ingår i: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 420.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015Ingår i: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, s. 163-181Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 421.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Small-scale fishers as allies or opponents?: Unlocking looming tensions and potential exclusions in Poland’s marine spatial planning2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 637-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland's MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin, this paper explores tensions in the country's looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland's MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland's small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 422.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning2018Ingår i: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, E-ISSN 2399-6552, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 58-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 423.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The “Dark Side” of Marine Spatial Planning: A study of domination, empowerment and freedom through theories of discourse and power2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to the marine spatial planning (MSP) literature by elaborating a robust theoretical account of power for a more rigorous and balanced critical analysis of MSP. Conceived as a problem-solving regime, MSP has emerged as a radical approach to govern the use and protection of marine resources. However, critics are questioning the radicalness of MSP, particularly its ability to address issues around knowledge, stakeholder and land-sea integration, as well as power asymmetry, distributive justice and equity. Nonetheless, critics largely conceive power in MSP as restricting agency. Even so, insidious mechanisms of power remain under-examined, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This thesis brings concepts from discourse and power theories together (drawing on Foucault, Laclau and Mouffe, and Haugaard) to conceptualize various mechanisms of power in MSP. The framework is then brought into dialogue with planning issues in Estonia and Poland. Empirical data are drawn from semi-structured interviews, legal judgments, planning and policy documents, as well as position papers and media statements, which are produced by planners, officials, developers, fishers and coastal residents. The following findings and conclusions are reached. First, MSP’ing (verb form) restricts agency because (a) in planning encounters, powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to reach sectoral rather than collective goals; (b) in setting the agenda, various biases are mobilized in favor of vested interests; and (c) the fantasmatic power of planning conjoin with the planner’s cognitive limitation to naturalize and sustain subjugation. Second, MSP is a laudable system. It provides stakeholders with the dispositional power to get things done in concert, which entails a normatively felicitous move from the risks of open commons-type conflicts and chaos to structuring and predictability. Third, when planning is rigidly done within the confines of legality and programmatic norms, “free” subjects of planning may be transformed into immovable subjects of resistance, who may develop contestatory strategies that have transformatory potentials. Fourth, to both facilitate equitable planning processes and outcomes, and ensure efficiency and stability, not only must the planner be reflective of the norms and ideologies that shape her actions and/or inactions, but the state as the ultimate governing authority in MSP must also take measures to minimize asymmetries in the distribution of social resources. The thesis makes a call for scholars to contribute towards planning praxis through analyzing who the weakest actors are in each MSP setting, what their context-specific needs are, and what empowerment may entail for them.

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    The “Dark Side” of Marine Spatial Planning: A study of domination, empowerment and freedom through theories of discourse and power
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    presentationsbild
  • 424.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Howarth, David
    University of Essex, UK.
    Griggs, Steven
    De Montfort University, UK.
    The Politics of Estonia's Offshore Wind Energy Programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning2019Ingår i: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 157-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing recognition that marine spatial planning is an inherently political process marked by a clash of discourses, power and conflicts of interest. Yet, there are very few attempts to make sense of and explain the political practices of marine spatial planning protests in different contexts, especially the way that planners and developers create the conditions for the articulation of objections, and then develop new strategies to negotiate and mediate community resistance. Using poststructuralist discourse theory, the article analyses the politics of a proposed offshore wind energy project in Estonia within the context of the country’s marine spatial planning processes. First, through the lens of politicization, it explores the strategies of political mobilization and the rival discourses of expertise and sustainability through which residents and municipal actors have contested the offshore wind energy project. Secondly, through the lens of depoliticization, it explains the discursive and legalistic strategies employed by developers, planners and an Administrative Court to displace – spatially and temporally – the core issues of contestation, thus legitimizing the offshore wind energy plan. We argue that the spaces created by the preplanning conjuncture offered the most conducive conditions for residents to voice concerns about the proposed project in a dialogical fashion, whereas the marine spatial planning and post-planning phases became mired in a therapeutic-style consultation, set alongside rigid and unreflexive interpretations and applications of legality. We conclude by setting out the limits of the Estonian marine spatial planning as a process for resolving conflicts, while offering an alternative model of handling such public controversies, which we call pragmatic adversarialism.

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    tafon et al. 2018
  • 425.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon2019Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 41-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.

  • 426.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 754-768Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a radical approach to achieving sustainable development objectives at sea. While critics challenge its avowed radicalness, often through highlighting dominative processes, more insidious mechanisms of restricted agency remain under-elaborated, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This paper offers a more robust and balanced reading of MSP/power. First, drawing on Haugaard, we read MSP as providing actors with dispositional power to act in concert, thus entailing a move from the risks of ‘resource rush’ to structuring, which facilitates predictability and promotes agency. However, MSP’ing may also restrict agency when (1) powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to pursue sectoral goals; (2) planning fantasies and the planner’s cognitive limitation sustain dominative power-relations; and (3) in setting the boundaries of MSP, bias is mobilized in favor of vested interests. We thus deploy Foucault’s notion of freedom, to analyze the relationship between ‘steering’ and resistance subjectivities, and his concept of parrhesias to consider to what extent, an ethico-political planner may contribute towards more equitable processes and outcomes. We conclude that besides the planner, the state as the ultimate authority in MSP must intervene substantively to minimize differentials in the distribution of actors’social resources.

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    fulltext
  • 427.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    (Non-) Alternative energy transitions: Examining neoliberal rationality in official nuclear energy discourses of Russia and Poland2018Ingår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 41, s. 128-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Neoliberal trends are a part of the sociopolitical contexts that shape present-day energy transitions. Economic arguments extensively used in nuclear energy discourses regarding the Nuclear Renaissance period may indicate that neoliberal trends have penetrated discussions about energy transitions. This article examines the presence of neoliberal rationality in the official nuclear energy discourses coming from Russia and Poland. These countries are interesting in respect to their relatively recent changes towards a market economy. Neoliberal rationality is defined in the article as the combination of market rationality, limited role of state, political consensus, governance structures and securitization, following Foucault and Brown. Discourse analysis of the energy policies and speeches of politicians that contain statements about nuclear energy development is carried out. The analysis confirms the significant presence of these themes in nuclear energy discourses as well as discourses reflecting the specificities of the two countries. The combination of the defining features of neoliberal rationality in official nuclear energy discourses seem to leave limited space for challenging nuclear energy development and discussing alternative energy transitions.

  • 428. Thompson, Luke R.
    et al.
    Sanders, Jon G.
    McDonald, Daniel
    Amir, Amnon
    Ladau, Joshua
    Locey, Kenneth J.
    Prill, Robert J.
    Tripathi, Anupriya
    Gibbons, Sean M.
    Ackermann, Gail
    Navas-Molina, Jose A.
    Janssen, Stefan
    Kopylova, Evguenia
    Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki
    González, Antonio
    Morton, James T.
    Mirarab, Siavash
    Zech Xu, Zhenjiang
    Jiang, Lingjing
    Haroon, Mohamed F.
    Kanbar, Jad
    Zhu, Qiyun
    Jin Song, Se
    Kosciolek, Tomasz
    Bokulich, Nicholas A.
    Lefler, Joshua
    Brislawn, Colin J.
    Humphrey, Gregory
    Owens, Sarah M.
    Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad
    Berg-Lyons, Donna
    McKenzie, Valerie
    Fierer, Noah
    Fuhrman, Jed A.
    Clauset, Aaron
    Stevens, Rick L.
    Shade, Ashley
    Pollard, Katherine S.
    Goodwin, Kelly D.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Gilbert, Jack A.
    Knight, Rob
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zhao, Hongxia
    A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity2017Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, s. 457-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.

  • 429.
    Thorslund, Mårten
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Periurbana jordbrukare i norra Mälardalen och deras uppfattning om begreppen hållbar utveckling och hållbart jordbruk2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhällen lever merparten av befolkningen utan egen djup kunskap om eller praktisk erfarenhet av jordbruk. Det påverkar våra uppfattningar om oss själva och vår plats och roll i samhället.

    Dagens jordbruk och samhällsutveckling att tätt sammanflätade på gott och ont. De både samverkar och motverkas av respektives effekter i form av dolda kostnader.

    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på hur hållbarhetsbegrepp uppfattas av de periurbana jordbrukarna mätt som kvalitativt skilda beskrivningskategorier med fenomenografisk metod.

    Studien baserar sig på fem semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med periurbana jordbrukare och identifierar deras uppfattningar om hållbarhetsbegreppet som studiens resultat.

    Studien omfattar förutom egen empiri också begreppen avståndsmoral (Almers 2009) och ekologisk förståelse (Carlsson 1999) genom tidigare forskning. Ytterligare en studie (Larsson 2016) som använts utgår från tre scenarier för hur jordbruk i Östersjöregionen kan bli mer hållbart. Frågeställningarna som valts är:

    1. Vad är jordbrukarnas uppfattningar om begreppet en hållbar utveckling?
    2. Vilka uppfattningar har de av begreppet ett hållbart jordbruk?
    3. Vad har jordbrukarna för tilltro till om hållbarhetsdefinitionen kan förverkligas? 

    I den empirin och med stöd av dessa studier, framläggs att och hur ekonomin dominerar över de sociala och ekologiska aspekterna inom hållbarhetsbegreppet och hur stora skillnader mellan ord och handling råder inom praxis i hållbarhetsfrågan. Låg förståelse för ekologi och moralfrågor inom hållbarhetsområdet minskar enligt studien sannolikheten för att vi ska kunna uppnå en hållbar utveckling.

    I diskussionen återknyts till frågeställning och syftet. Där diskuteras även det som framkommer i uppsatsens bakgrund och problembeskrivning exempelvis att samhällets utmaningar i hög grad sammanfaller med jordbrukets. Aktuell forskning liksom den egna empirin pekar på att pedagogiska, etiska och moraliska utmaning väntar våra samhällen. Slutsatsen blir att moral och etikfrågor kan stärka det teoretiska begreppet hållbar utveckling

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    fulltext
  • 430.
    Thureborn, Petter
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroorganismer är essentiella för fungerande ekosystemfunktioner i akvatiska miljöer och därmed en förutsättning för övrigt växt- och djurliv på vår planet. Trots deras ekologiska nyckelroll är kunskapen om mikroorganismernas funk­tion och komplexitet samt hur dessa är relaterade till miljön begränsad. På grund av eutrofiering och klimatförändringar har marina områden som lider av syrebrist ökat och en ytterligare utbredning av marina och bräckta områden med syrebrist är predicerad i framtiden. Stora områden av Östersjön kännetecknas av vertikala syregradienter med syresatt ytvatten och anoxiskt bottenvatten. I denna avhandling undersöktes därför med metagenomik hur mikrobiella ekosystems funktioner var utbredda längs den vertikala syregradienten i Östersjöns djupaste del, Landsortsdjupet. Dessutom jämfördes de mikrobiella samhällena från Lands­­­ortsdjupet med mikrobiella samhällen från andra marina miljöer för att utröna om den karakteristiska miljön i Landsortsdjupet återspeglade de mikro­biella samhällen som lever där. För att undersöka vilka mikroorganismer samt vilka mikrobiella ekosystemfunktioner som var aktiva i det anoxiska sedimentet i Lands­ortsdjupet användes metatranskriptomik. Resultaten visade en stark kor­re­lation mellan miljöparametrarna syrehalt, salinitet och temperatur och för­del­ningen av mikrobiell taxa och i synnerhet mikrobiell funktion längs Lands­orts­djupets transekt. De mikrobiella samhällena uppvisade en funktionell kapa­citet förenlig med en livsstrategi beroende av organiskt material som sjunker genom vattenkolonnen som en konsekvens av eutrofiering. Eutrofa förhållanden med hög halt av organiskt material var även återspeglad i metatranskriptomet från det anoxiska sedimentet, som indikerade aktiv mineralisering av organiskt kol genom anaerob heterotrof-autotrof synergism. Nya möjliga kopplingar mellan kväve- och svavelmetabolism identifierades i det anoxiska vattnet. Vidare visade resultat från metatranskriptom-analys att livsdugliga cyanobakterier var abun­danta i det mörka och anoxiska sedimentet, vilket även detta kan vara en konse­kvens av sjunkande organiskt material. Hög abundans och hög transkribering av integrongener kunde identifieras som ett karakteristiskt kännetecken hos de mikro­biella samhällena i Landsortsdjupet vilket skulle kunna förse dem med en me­kanism för anpassning till miljöförändringar. Sammanfattningsvis dokumen­terar denna avhandling tydligt vilken påverkan eutrofiering och syrebrist har på mikrobiella funktioner. Dessutom för den specifikt kunskapen om mikrobiella processer i anoxiska djupvattensediment framåt på både genom- och transkrip­tions­nivå. Mot bakgrund av en predicerad ökning av syrebristen i marina mil­jöer, bidrar denna avhandling med information som är viktig för att kunna förutse vilka effekter anoxiska förhållanden kan komma att få på ekosystemfunktioner i marina miljöer och i brackvattenmiljöer i synnerhet.

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  • 431.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Science for Life Laboratories / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikel-id e1593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 432.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    KTH.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University.
    A dark, anoxic mausoleum for DNA: perceived and actual community structure in the Landsort Deep sediment, the Baltic Sea2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous investigations of bacterial communities using sequence analysis of environmental DNA have revealed extensive diversity of microbial taxa in an array of different environmental habitats. Community analysis based solely on DNA, however, does not reveal whether the detected community members are actively contributing to community functioning, or whether they are dormant or remnants of dead cells. This dilemma is of particular concern when analyzing microbial community structure of sites with a high degree of deposited matter, such as marine sediments. For example, the Baltic Sea’s deepest point, the Landsort Deep, consists of anoxic sediments with a large deposition of allochthonous organic matter from the highly stratified 460 m water column above. Our previous metagenomics results indicated the presence of potential obligately aerobic and phototrophic microorganisms. To further elucidate which taxa may contribute to ecosystem function at this site, we here present three different datasets – rDNA amplicons, rDNA reads from a shotgun metagenome and expressed rRNA from a shotgun metatranscriptome. By comparing the three datasets and the ratios between rRNA and rDNA we seek to estimate the protein synthesis potential of the community members in order to provide an indication of what taxa may have cellular activity and metabolic potential. The variation in protein synthesis potential was large, both within and between taxa, in the sediment community. Many typically anaerobic taxa, e.g. from Deltaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota, showed a high protein synthesis potential, while typical aerobes like Flavobacteria showed a low protein synthesis potential. More surprisingly, some common Baltic Sea surface water bacteria also displayed a high protein synthesis potential, suggesting they have an active role in the anoxic sediment ecosystem at 460 m depth. Both filamentous and unicellular Cyanobacteria exhibited very high protein synthesis potential, which implies a more complex role of these bacteria in carbon cycling in the Baltic Sea than previously suggested. Moreover, Mycobacteria, that were abundant in Landsort Deep sediment metagenome compared with other marine sediment metagenomes, showed protein synthesis potentials consistent with a functional role in the sediment community. Our results provide a new window of insight into the complexities of the microbial community of Landsort Deep with implications for the understanding of other anoxic accumulation sediments.

  • 433.
    Thölberg, Anton
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Brusell, Fanny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Förekomst av växtarter i en fragmenterad skogsmiljö utifrån en öbiogeografisk teori2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien tar upp problematiken med fragmentering och dess påverkan på arters spridning och förekomst. Huvudsyftet med studien var att testa teorin om öbiogeografi genom att undersöka förekomsten av ett antal kärlväxter på olika åkerholmar med olika avstånd till närmaste spridningskälla i form av ett bryn i en närliggande skog. Vi har inventerat 40 stycken par av åkerholmar (öar) och skogsbryn (fastland) i ett jordbrukslandskap i Stockholms län. Inventeringsresultatet har analyserats med hjälp av univeriata linjära modeller-, och multiveriat ordination. Resultatet visar att teorin om öbiogeografi bara delvis kan förklara förekomstmönster för kärlväxter på åkerholmar. Vidare fann vi att spridningen av arter begränsas av åkerholmens storlek. Avstånd hade en effekt på artsammansättningen på åkerholmar. Vårt resultat visar på ett behov av att se till fragmentsstorlek samt grad av isolering som viktiga faktorer som styr möjligheten för att arter i framtiden ska kunna sprida sig till nya habitat.

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  • 434.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Linköping University.
    Models of science-policy interaction: Exploring approaches to Bisphenol A management in the EU2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485-486, nr 1, s. 23-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated science-policy interaction models and their limitations under conditions of uncertainty. In detail, it looked at the management of the suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). Despite growing evidence that BPA is hazardous to human and environmental health, the level of scientific uncertainty is still high and, as a result, there is significant disagreement on the actual extent and type of risk. Analysis of decision-making processes at different regulatory levels (EU, Sweden, and the Swedish municipality of Gothenburg) exposed chemicals risk management and associated science-policy interaction under uncertainty. The results of the study show that chemicals management and associated science-policy interaction follow the modern model of science-policy interaction, where science is assumed to 'speak truth to policy' and highlights existing limitations of this model under conditions of uncertainty. The study not only explores alternative models (precautionary, consensus, science-policy demarcation. and extended participation) but also shows their limitations. The study concludes that all models come with their particular underlying assumptions, strengths, and limitations. At the same time, by exposing serious limitations of the modern model, the study calls for a rethinking of the relationship between science, policy, and management.

  • 435.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Science-policy interaction in the governance of complex socio-ecological risks: The case of chemicals management in the Baltic Sea2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I examine knowledge production and science-policy interaction associated with the management of chemical substances in the Baltic Sea under conditions of uncertainty and complexity. The thesis is primarily based on a qualitative analysis of policy documents and reports produced by the European Union (EU), the Helsinki Commission, the Swedish Chemicals Agency, and Gothenburg municipality, as well as 30 semi-structured interviews with scientific experts, policy makers, and government officials with knowledge and working experience in the relevant policy arenas.

    I identify and examine key challenges of science-policy interaction associated with the management of chemical substances in the Baltic Sea, such as lack of data, uncertainty, and complexity (Article I). I further argue that the current model of science-policy interaction fails to adequately handle and account for these challenges (e.g. uncertainty in Article II).

    Scientists and policy makers have made substantial (and sometimes successful) efforts to understand and counteract negative environmental trends in the Baltic Sea. However, on the basis of this empirical analysis, I conclude that the uncertainties tied to the complex chemical risks in the Baltic Sea region are too large and multifaceted to be adequately addressed by the “modern science-policy model” underpinning most contemporary risk assessments. Linked to this analysis, I identify several possible ways to improve the situation, for example new tools and methods for handling uncertainty as well as alternative models for science-policy interaction.

    As a consequence, I explore the potential of alternative models of science-policy interaction, giving particular attention to the participatory model and the associated idea of post-normal science. The results highlight the substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wider public involvement in policies, but also reveal that there is a different situation in practice. The introduction of more radical approaches (such as post-normal science) to knowledge co-production and participation would require epistemological, institutional, and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future – at least for the case of chemical substances (Article III).

    Improvements (methodological, institutional and so on) in the current modern model of science-policy interaction are just as important as the development of alternative modes of science-policy interaction (Article IV). However, the general conclusion of this thesis is that there is a need to rethink current science-policy interaction and in the process “break through” the widespread institutional denial of irreducible uncertainties.

  • 436.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Coping with uncertainties in science-based advice informing environmental management of the Baltic Sea2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 29, s. 12-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing uncertainty is a main challenge for sustainable management of complex socioecological systems, such as marine ecosystems. Today, a growing number of scientific publications address decision-making practices under conditions of high uncertainty. However, very few studies have analyzed how science treats uncertainty before it reaches decision-makers, especially for various marine environmental issues. This study aims to fill these research gaps by identifying the main theoretical approaches to science-based uncertainty management proposed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, by scrutinizing advisory documents, current approaches and methods to assess and treat uncertainty in science-based advice are analyzed and compared for five significant environmental issues in the Baltic Sea (eutrophication, fisheries, invasive species, chemical pollution, and oil spills). Specifically, the study analyzes the types of uncertainties acknowledged, how strategies and practices present and address uncertainties, and whether new theoretical proposals identified in the scientific literature affect existing practices. The study's results reveal that current scientific practices do not adequately address uncertainty in advice formulation. First, no common guideline is in use, resulting in significant differences among studied environmental issues and a common lack of structure, clarity, established terminology, and transparency in the assessment and treatment of uncertainty. Furthermore, new theoretical developments connected with uncertainty appraisal (such as theoretical typologies) and new tools and methods for handling uncertainty (such as precautionary and participatory approaches) are hardly utilized in practice in the management of the Baltic ecosystem. Consequently, although theoretical approaches for coping with uncertainty in complex socio-ecological systems are ample, the challenge for the future is to implement these approaches more effectively in assessment and management frameworks. The study discusses possible improvements to current practices in environmental management of large-scale socio-ecological systems such as the Baltic Sea and other regional seas, acknowledging that these measures will not reduce all existing uncertainty but rather contribute to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties.

  • 437.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Participation and post-normal science in practice?: Reality check for hazardous chemicals management in the European marine environment2014Ingår i: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 63, s. 15-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the "polluter-oriented" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the "environment-oriented" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases.

  • 438.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hedren, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Utopian ideas about sustainability?: the case of chemical management in the EU2014Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1182, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 47-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines EU chemical management regimes with a focus on the treatment of uncertainty. Referring to current discourses on sustainability, the study criticizes existing practices and discusses alternative approaches to chemical management. In addition to highly discussed options for management under conditions of uncertainty (e.g., precautionary management and adaptive management), we argue that chemical management might also benefit from introducing the "sufficiency" concept into the production context. More generally, this would entail a shift in seeing quality of life as based on a sufficiency rather than an abundance of chemicals. The article concludes that, although these chemical management ideas might be very problematic, more integrated and holistic visions of future chemical and environmental policies might emerge from considering new sustainability ideas in various branches of the current economic system.

  • 439.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Rabilloud, Louise
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hazardous substances: a case study of environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea region2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context.

     

    The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.

    WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.

    WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.

    WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public.

     

    In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.

  • 440. Underwood, J N
    et al.
    Souter, Petra B
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ballment, E R
    Lutz, A H
    van Oppen, M J H
    Development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers from herbicide-bleached tissues of the brooding pocilloporid coral Seriatopora hystrix2006Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Notes, ISSN 1471-8278, E-ISSN 1471-8286, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 176-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report the isolation of 44 microsatellites from the brooding, pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora hystrix, developed from a partial genomic DNA library using a repeat enrichment protocol. A further eight previously published microsatellites were also tested; five of these were developed for S. hystrix, whereas three were isolated from corals of the closely related genus Pocillopora. Out of these, we incorporated nine and 10 primer pairs into two multiplex reactions that reliably amplified polymorphic microsatellites in populations from the west and the east coast of Australia, respectively. Number of alleles ranged from three to 22 per locus.

  • 441.
    Vafa, Amir
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Grimsberg, Maya
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Käppalaförbundet- Kommunikation och uppströmsarbete: En fallstudie2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Käppalaverket renar vatten från över en halv miljon människor i elva kommuner tillhörandes Stockholms län i Sverige. Avloppsreningsverket är certifierat för sitt miljöarbete och som en del av detta bedrivs ett aktivt uppströmsarbete, som består i att minska mängden miljöskadliga ämnen från olika källor innan de når avloppsvattnet. Uppströmsarbetet är en viktig del i att uppfylla kraven i EU:s vattendirektiv. Men ett av de större hindren för att implementera den kunskap som finns om uppströmsarbete är kommunikationen mellan de inblandade parterna, som i detta fall består av Käppalaförbundet och de elva medlemskommunerna. I denna fallstudie undersöks om återkoppling mellan Käppalaförbundet och medlemskommunerna existerar, och i så fall hur återkopplingen mellan dem ser ut. Vidare har eventuella faktorer som kan underlätta eller försvåra kommunikationen undersökts. Det empiriska materialet består av enkätsvar från de elva medlemskommunerna och en intervju med chefen för uppströmsarbetet samt en samhällskommunikatör på Käppalaförbundet. Resultatet tyder på att en symmetrisk tvåvägskommunikation, där återkoppling som möjliggör för alla parter att ge uttryck för sina tankar och bli lyssnade på, förekommer i hög utsträckning. Dock kan det ibland förekomma en envägskommunikation, vilket innebär att enbart en part får komma till tals. Faktorer som påverkar kommunikationen är bland annat det gemensamma språket, hur mötena är utformade samt att kommunikatörerna på kommunerna ofta byts ut.

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    Käppalaförbundet- Kommunikation och uppströmsarbete
  • 442.
    van Helmond, Niels A.G.M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.
    Lund University.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University.
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita University, Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka2017Ingår i: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 387, s. 45-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2–0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively little is known about bottom water redox conditions in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, however. Here we studied the geochemical composition of a sediment sequence from a currently seasonally hypoxic site in the Danish coastal zone, the Little Belt, retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 (Site M0059). The base of the studied sediment sequence consists of clays low in organic carbon (Corg), molybdenum (Mo) and iron sulfides (Fe-sulfides), and rich in iron oxides (Fe-oxides), indicative of a well-oxygenated, oligotrophic (glacial) meltwater lake. An erosional unconformity separates the glacial lake sediments from sediments that are rich in Corg. The absence of Mo, in combination with high Corg/S values, indicates that these sediments were deposited in a highly productive, well-oxygenated freshwater lake. The transition to modern brackish/marine conditions was very rapid, and subsequent continuous sequestration of Mo in the sediment and high ratios of reactive iron (FeHR) over total Fe (FeTOT) suggest (seasonal) hypoxia occurred over the last ~ 8 ka. Maxima in sediment Corg, Mo and FeHR/FeTOT ratios during the HTM and MCA suggest that the hypoxia intensified. Our results demonstrate that the Little Belt is naturally susceptible to the development of seasonal hypoxia. While periods of climatic warming led to increased deoxygenation of bottom waters, high nutrient availability in combination with density stratification were likely the main drivers of hypoxia in this part of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene.

  • 443. van Leeuwen, Judith
    et al.
    Kern, Kristine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. University of Potsdam.
    The External Dimension of European Union Marine Governance: Institutional Interplay between the EU and the International Maritime Organization2013Ingår i: Global Environmental Politics, ISSN 1526-3800, E-ISSN 1536-0091, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 69-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the emergence of a decentralized institutional complex, interplay management, and the institutional interplay between the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the EU in the issue area of environmental shipping policies. It shows that the synergistic relationship between both institutions has been driven primarily by commitment and compliance mechanisms. By influencing IMO decision-making and improving the implementation and effectiveness of IMO conventions, the EU has become a driving force in international environmental shipping policies, and its new initiatives may even enhance its leadership role within the IMO in the future. Despite the still-existing lack of cognitive leadership by the EU, the synergies between both institutions provide evidence for the EU's leadership capacities in global environmental politics.

  • 444.
    van Wirdum, Falkje
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Wienholz, D.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Moros, M.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
    Fanget, A. -S
    University of Perpignan, Perpignan, France.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, artikel-id 51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

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  • 445.
    Viktor, Watz
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The detrimental effect of alcohol on HIV treatment adherence: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The fight against HIV is addressed in both the Sustainable Development Goals and in the 90-90-90-goals set by the United Nations.Emerging evidence is suggesting a “neglected interface” between alcohol consumption and HIV. Earlier studies has sought out to quantify this relationship, but there are still uncertainties regarding the generalizability of the results and if this also applies to different types of drinking intensities.

    Methods: This study applied a systematic search for articles published between 1990-2017 in Pubmed/Medline. 46 studies was included in the final analysis.

    Results: Alcohol was found to have a significant detrimental effect on treatment adherence on all drinking intensities. All but one analysis showed a significant amount of heterogeneity.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study goes in line with previous research but adds insight on the harm of moderate drinking. The result of this and earlier findings give a clear point of direction of alcohol consumption guidelines in people living with HIV. If global targets of viral suppression should be achieved, a more holistic approach where the prevention of non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases go hand in hand might actually be the only way forward.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    V. Watz. The detrimental effect of alcohol on HIV treatment adherence. 2017
  • 446.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny2015Ingår i: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 73, s. 30-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.

  • 447.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Kot-Wasik, Agata
    Gdańsk University of Technology.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): Persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour2012Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 178, nr 2, s. 282-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 ng/L and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminization of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analyzed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  • 448.
    Wahlqvist, Fanny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Vad är ett lyckat ledarskap för hållbar utveckling?: En studie om förändringsledning i näringslivet.2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling är ett begrepp som genom Brundtlandkommissionens rapport “Vår gemensamma framtid” och EU Kommissionens definition av Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har fått en större påverkan på näringslivet. Denna studie hade som syfte att undersöka hur ledare på företag som enligt svenska konsumenter anses vara “hållbara” driver sitt interna förändringsarbete med hållbar utveckling. Hållbarhetsansvariga från sex företag har deltagit i en kvalitativ intervjustudie med målet att ge mer kunskap om hur samtliga leder förändringsarbetet i sin verksamhet, samt vilken strategi som finns i förändringsledningsarbetet i organisationen. Resultatet anger att styrgrupper, visioner samt kortsiktiga och långsiktiga mål är bra insatser och verktyg i ett framgångsrikt förändringsarbete. Internutbildning och kommunikation är viktigt för att öka kunskap och engagemang hos medarbetare i organisationen. Utmaningar med att driva förändring kan vara att få med sig medarbetare och leverantörer i arbetet. Tidsbrist, bevis på ekonomisk vinst och svårigheter att kvantifiera fördelar med hållbarhetsarbetet är aspekter som kan påverka hur väl förändringsarbetet prioriteras i verksamheten.  

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  • 449.
    Wallenborg, Angelique
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Excise taxation to protect our planet: a point of view from students in the global North: A case from Södertörn University, Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flying is a mode of travel used mainly by the wealthier part of the planets’ inhabitants, while it is the poor parts of the world that suffer the consequences from climate change the most. Coping with climate change is one of the largest challenges of the century, especially for low-income developing countries. Important stakeholders have realized that it’s a global responsibility to lower the anthropogenic impact on the climate. Political ecology will be used to place the problem with unequal distribution of consequences in a larger context, while environmental economics will be used to examine the flight tax implemented in Sweden on April 1st2018.

    Purpose: Toexamine student’s attitudes towards excise taxation as an incentive to reduce emissions from air traffic, and whether there was a difference in attitudes between students from different disciplines. Research question: What are Swedish students’ attitudes towards excise tax onflights to reduce emissions? Is there adifference in attitude towards the flight tax depending on the students’ field of studies?

    Method: Quantitative approach with questionnaire responses as the main empirical data material for analysis.

    Conclusion: A majority of students participating were positive towards the newly implemented flight tax. Students from an environmental discipline were positive to a greater extent than other students.

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  • 450.
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Molander, Fia
    Stockholm University.
    Gallardo, Gloria
    Uppsala universitet.
    Villasante, Sebastian
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University.
    Destructive gear use in a tropical fishery: Institutional factors influencing the willingness- and capacity to change2016Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 72, s. 199-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to empirically assess institutional aspects shaping fishers’ behavior leading to unsustainable resource use, by using the example of destructive drag-net fishing in Zanzibar, Tanzania. A broad institutional approach was used to specifically assess institutional factors influencing the fishers’ reasons for the current use of destructive drag-nets as well as their willingness- and economic capacity to change to less destructive gears. Different regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive and economic factors (tradition, group-belonging, social acceptance, common practice, identity of drag-net users and weak economic capacity) were identified as critical elements influencing the current use of destructive gears, as well as obstructing changes to other gears. Hence, the importance of addressing all of these factors, matching to the different contexts, rather than focusing on fast-moving regulative measures, is emphasized to increase chances of management success. More promising approaches would be resource allocations to more sustainable fishing gears, well-managed gear exchange programs, as well as alterations of slow-moving normative and cultural factors, e.g. awareness raising on the advantages of more sustainable fishing gears, their traditional and cultural values, information on the actual income they generate, as well as education and an exchange of traditional knowledge on how to use them.

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